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MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN
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MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN

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  • 1. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes Ronald Bradford OTN LAD Tour South America 2010.10 www.RonaldBradford.com Ronald Bradford http://ronaldbradford.com
  • 2. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 9
  • 3. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 My website seems to freeze or responds randomly? PROBLEM
  • 4. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 The default MyISAM storage engine uses exclusive table locks for DML. CAUSE
  • 5. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Optimize blocking query performance Use a transactional engine with MVCC and row based locking to address the LOCKING issue SOLUTION
  • 6. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 End user report that selects all customer, order, order lines and order history data and performs poor joins. This takes shared read locks blocking future write locks then future reads. EXAMPLE
  • 7. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 MySQL is unique in that it offers different mechanisms for storing and retrieving data, each with strengths and weaknesses. The DEFAULT is not always the best. WHY
  • 8. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 MySQL PROCESSLIST Blocked have State = Locked Blocker - Same table, larger Time HOW mysql> SHOW PROCESSLIST; +----+------+-----------+-------+---------+------+------------+--------------- | Id | User | Host | db | Command | Time | State | Info +----+------+-----------+-------+---------+------+------------+--------------- | 13 | app1 | localhost | odtug | Query | 144 | User sleep | UPDATE emp ... | 14 | app1 | localhost | odtug | Query | 116 | Locked | select c from emp | 15 | app1 | localhost | odtug | Query | 89 | Locked | select c from emp
  • 9. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Optimize Blocker Indexes Limit query Summary table Change storage engine HOW
  • 10. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 8
  • 11. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Why is my database so large? PROBLEM
  • 12. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Don’t store large static objects in the database SOLUTION
  • 13. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 80% of data is email content/ attachments 60% of data is PDF documents 30% of data is uncompressed large XML objects EXAMPLE
  • 14. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Maximize memory usage for important data Reduce database recovery time WHY
  • 15. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Compress large text data 90% saving on XML data Store static data in files Avoids DB handling overhead HOW
  • 16. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 HOW Table Size per schema # Schema Table Usage SELECT table_schema,table_name,engine,row_format, table_rows, avg_row_length, (data_length+index_length)/1024/1024 as total_mb, (data_length)/1024/1024 as data_mb, (index_length)/1024/1024 as index_mb, CURDATE() AS today FROM information_schema.tables WHERE table_schema = DATABASE() ORDER BY 7 DESC; http://ronaldbradford.com/mysql-dba/
  • 17. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 7
  • 18. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 I can't access my website? PROBLEM
  • 19. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 TRUE STORY
  • 20. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Question: TRUE STORY
  • 21. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Question: How do you know when your server is down or not accessible? TRUE STORY
  • 22. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Question: How do you know when your server is down or not accessible? Answer: TRUE STORY
  • 23. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Question: How do you know when your server is down or not accessible? Answer: The users will let us know. TRUE STORY
  • 24. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 SOLUTION Integrated monitoring including graphical interface, real time analysis and notification
  • 25. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Monitoring/Alerting Graphical Historical Necessary Generally missing/incomplete Useless for real-time analysis HOW
  • 26. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Dashboard The state of NOW Sampling at 1s/3s/5s e.g. 0.1% of throughput HOW
  • 27. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Instrumentation Important to business viability e.g. orders per minute page load time Seamless implementation i.e. no code changes to view real-time extensible HOW
  • 28. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 6
  • 29. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 My replication slave can't keep up? PROBLEM
  • 30. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Know the weakest link(s) of MySQL replication and don't exceed that, or cheat. SOLUTION
  • 31. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 If replication can't catchup, slaves are useless. Backup & recovery may also suffer. WHY
  • 32. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Master DML Statement Write Data/Redo Log Write Binary Log Return OK to client HOW
  • 33. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Slave Detect master log change Retrieve binary log entry Write relay log (IO_THREAD) Read relay log Apply DML (SQL_THREAD) Write Data/redo log HOW
  • 34. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Replication workarounds Restrict queries executed --ignore Different storage engines Different index structures HOW
  • 35. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Advanced workarounds RAID 0 (large number of slaves) Pre fetch thread EXPERT TIP
  • 36. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 5
  • 37. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 My server has crashed with a hard drive failure PROBLEM
  • 38. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Question: Have you ever performed a database recovery? Answer: No, why? TRUE STORY
  • 39. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Consultant: Do you know that your daily backups only recover the data up to that time, e.g. 1am. You know you have lost all your sales and changes since then. Customer: No, I didn’t know that. TRUE STORY
  • 40. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Have a DR Plan Documented Tested Timed Verified - End to End SOLUTION
  • 41. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Do you pass the MySQL backup/ recovery quiz? http://rb42.com/mysql-backup-quiz HOW
  • 42. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 1. Do you have MySQL backups in place? 2. Do you backup ALL your MySQL data? 3. Do you have consistent MySQL backups? 4. Do you have backups that include both static snapshot and point in time transactions? 5. Do you review your backup logs EVERY SINGLE day or have tested backup monitoring in place? 6. Do you perform a test recovery of your static backup? 7. Do you perform a test recovery to point in time? 8. Do you time your backup and recovery process and review over time? 9. Do you have off-site copies of your backups? 10. Do you backup your primary binary logs? QUIZ http://rb42.com/mysql-backup-quiz
  • 43. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 4
  • 44. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Why is my database executing 1,200 qps for 50 users? PROBLEM
  • 45. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Determine what queries are running and why they are running? SOLUTION
  • 46. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Excessive SQL statements Duplicate Redundant Cachable Row at a time (RAT) CAUSE
  • 47. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Reducing SQL load both improves performance now and provides greater capacity as you scale WHY
  • 48. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 EXAMPLE http://ronaldbradford.com/blog/optimizing-sql-performance-the-art-of-elimination-2010-07-08/ SELECT * FROM activities_theme WHERE theme_parent_id=0 SELECT * FROM activities_theme WHERE theme_parent_id=1 SELECT * FROM activities_theme WHERE theme_parent_id=2 SELECT * FROM activities_theme WHERE theme_parent_id=11 SELECT * FROM activities_theme WHERE theme_parent_id=16 SELECT * FROM activities_theme WHERE theme_parent_id in (0,1,2,11,16) CAT RAT
  • 49. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 EXAMPLE http://ronaldbradford.com/blog/optimizing-sql-performance-the-art-of-elimination-2010-07-08/ 5 Query SELECT * FROM `artist` 5 Query SELECT * FROM `artist` 5 Query SELECT * FROM `artist` 5 Query SELECT * FROM `artist` 5 Query SELECT * FROM `artist` 5 Query SELECT * FROM `artist` WHERE (ArtistID = 196 ) 5 Query SELECT * FROM `artist` WHERE (ArtistID = 2188 ) 5 Query SELECT * FROM `artist` 5 Query SELECT * FROM `artist` 5 Query SELECT * FROM `artist` Duplicate Unnecessary Only 2 queries necessary or 1 CAT
  • 50. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 EXAMPLE http://ronaldbradford.com/blog/optimizing-sql-performance-the-art-of-elimination-2010-07-08/ SELECT pages_id, pages_livestats_code, pages_title, pages_parent, pages_exhibid, pages_theme, pages_accession_num FROM pages WHERE pages_id = 0 5 minutes 6000 executions 0 is out of bounds Unnecessary
  • 51. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Capture & Analyze DML is easy SELECT is harder HOW http://www.slideshare.net/ronaldbradford/capturing-analyzing-and-optimizing-mysql
  • 52. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 MySQL Binary Log (Archive Redo) mysqlbinlog mk-query-digest One Liner HOW http://ronaldbradford.com/blog/mysql-dml-stats-per-table-2009-09-09/
  • 53. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 HOW 55463 update sessions 25574 insert into sessions 12820 update items 11636 insert into item_categories 7532 update users 5168 delete from item_categories 4076 update extended_item_infos 3701 insert into sphinx_new_items 3701 insert into mini_items 2190 update sweet_bars 1922 update chat_users 1662 update item_shipping_infos 1265 update search_terms 1260 insert into images 931 delete from item_shipping_infos 825 update booths 713 update booth_stats 574 update topics 540 update offers 81k of 141k Top 2 queries = 57%
  • 54. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Process List General Log tcpdump Application HOW
  • 55. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Capturing, Analyzing and Optimizing your SQL http://www.slideshare.net/ronaldbradford/capturing-analyzing-and- optimizing-mysql HOW
  • 56. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 /* Comment your queries */ The more products you have, the more developers you have, the more time you spend in code identification before you can even determine a resolution EXPERT TIP
  • 57. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 3
  • 58. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 The database is slow. My webpage takes five seconds to load. PROBLEM
  • 59. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Evaluate the time taken in the database and all stages in between SOLUTION
  • 60. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Client example showed a webpage taking 5 seconds to load. The html component was taking only 400 ms. Any MySQL performance improvement will only tune 8% of the total time. EXAMPLE
  • 61. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Performance is important to end user Performance is perception WHY
  • 62. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Firebug - http://getfirebug.com/ Httpwatch - http://httpwatch.com/ Page speed - http://code.google.com/speed/page-speed/ YSlow - http://developer.yahoo.com/yslow/ wget/curl Application code instrumentation HOW
  • 63. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 http://www.stevesouders.com/ http://developer.yahoo.com/ performance/rules.html EXPERT TIP
  • 64. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 2
  • 65. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 I want to add new H/W. How do I change my application to support this? PROBLEM
  • 66. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Develop a seamless integration that requires no code changes, no downtime and very little additional physical resources. SOLUTION
  • 67. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Integrated monitoring and instrumentation Deployed from Day 1 HOW
  • 68. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Seamless automated server deployment Version Control Build & Release Runtime config management Automated discovery HOW
  • 69. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 API One code path for business functionality Implied business documentation Enforced data exchange standard Testability HOW
  • 70. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Different levels of data availability Read & Write Read Only No Access Cached HOW
  • 71. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Different principles for scalability Read Scalability Write Scalability Caching HOW
  • 72. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Successful MySQL Scalability 1. Integrated monitoring & instrumentation 2. Seamless automated server deployment 3. Disaster is inevitable 4. Application Programming Interface 5. Support different levels of data availability 6. Support different scalability principles REFERENCE http://ronaldbradford.com/blog/successful-mysql-scalability-presentation-2010-09-17/
  • 73. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 1
  • 74. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 My website is slow? PROBLEM
  • 75. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Seek professional advice. Hire for example Ronald Bradford. 20+ years of system architecture, database design and performance tuning. Employment as Consultant for Oracle Corporation (96-99) Employment as Senior Consultant for MySQL Inc (06-08) SOLUTION
  • 76. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 R
  • 77. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Monitoring. Before, during and after NOW. You may not be able to predict the future but you can preempt the future. Choose the best product and features for you needs. The best SQL statement is the one you never have to execute. RECAP
  • 78. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 3 levels of real time data access. Read/Write, Read and no access 3 aspects of scalability. Read, Write and Caching Operate below 90% capacity. That 10% is your insurance. RECAP
  • 79. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 http://ronaldbradford.com me@ronaldbradford.com CONTACT

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