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Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Common MySQL
Scalability Mistakes
Ronald Bradford
OTN LAD Tour
South America
2...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
9
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
My website seems to
freeze or responds
randomly?
PROBLEM
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
The default MyISAM
storage engine uses
exclusive table locks for
DML.
CAUSE
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Optimize blocking query
performance
Use a transactional engine
with MVCC and r...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
End user report that selects all
customer, order, order lines and
order histor...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
MySQL is unique in that it offers
different mechanisms for storing
and retriev...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
MySQL PROCESSLIST
Blocked have State = Locked
Blocker - Same table, larger Tim...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Optimize Blocker
Indexes
Limit query
Summary table
Change storage engine
HOW
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
8
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Why is my database so
large?
PROBLEM
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Don’t store large static
objects in the database
SOLUTION
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
80% of data is email content/
attachments
60% of data is PDF documents
30% of ...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Maximize memory usage
for important data
Reduce database recovery
time
WHY
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Compress large text data
90% saving on XML data
Store static data in files
Avo...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
HOW
Table Size per schema
# Schema Table Usage
SELECT table_schema,table_name,...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
7
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
I can't access my website?
PROBLEM
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
TRUE STORY
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Question:
TRUE STORY
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Question:
How do you know when your server
is down or not accessible?
TRUE STO...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Question:
How do you know when your server
is down or not accessible?
Answer:
...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Question:
How do you know when your server
is down or not accessible?
Answer:
...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
SOLUTION
Integrated monitoring
including graphical
interface, real time
analys...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Monitoring/Alerting
Graphical
Historical
Necessary
Generally missing/incomplet...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Dashboard
The state of NOW
Sampling at 1s/3s/5s
e.g. 0.1% of throughput
HOW
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Instrumentation
Important to business viability
e.g. orders per minute
page lo...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
6
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
My replication slave can't
keep up?
PROBLEM
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Know the weakest link(s)
of MySQL replication and
don't exceed that,
or cheat....
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
If replication can't catchup,
slaves are useless.
Backup & recovery may
also s...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Master
DML Statement
Write Data/Redo Log
Write Binary Log
Return OK to client
...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Slave
Detect master log change
Retrieve binary log entry
Write relay log (IO_T...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Replication workarounds
Restrict queries executed
--ignore
Different storage e...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Advanced workarounds
RAID 0 (large number of slaves)
Pre fetch thread
EXPERT T...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
5
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
My server has crashed with
a hard drive failure
PROBLEM
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Question:
Have you ever performed a database recovery?
Answer:
No, why?
TRUE S...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Consultant:
Do you know that your daily backups only
recover the data up to th...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Have a DR Plan
Documented
Tested
Timed
Verified - End to End
SOLUTION
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Do you pass the MySQL backup/
recovery quiz?
http://rb42.com/mysql-backup-quiz...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
1. Do you have MySQL backups in place?
2. Do you backup ALL your MySQL data?
3...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
4
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Why is my database
executing 1,200 qps
for 50 users?
PROBLEM
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Determine what queries
are running and why they
are running?
SOLUTION
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Excessive SQL statements
Duplicate
Redundant
Cachable
Row at a time (RAT)
CAUSE
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Reducing SQL load both
improves performance now
and provides greater
capacity ...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
EXAMPLE
http://ronaldbradford.com/blog/optimizing-sql-performance-the-art-of-e...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
EXAMPLE
http://ronaldbradford.com/blog/optimizing-sql-performance-the-art-of-e...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
EXAMPLE
http://ronaldbradford.com/blog/optimizing-sql-performance-the-art-of-e...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Capture & Analyze
DML is easy
SELECT is harder
HOW
http://www.slideshare.net/r...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
MySQL Binary Log (Archive Redo)
mysqlbinlog
mk-query-digest
One Liner
HOW
http...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
HOW
55463 update sessions
25574 insert into sessions
12820 update items
11636 ...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Process List
General Log
tcpdump
Application
HOW
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Capturing, Analyzing and Optimizing
your SQL
http://www.slideshare.net/ronaldb...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
/* Comment your queries */
The more products you have, the
more developers you...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
3
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
The database is slow.
My webpage takes five
seconds to load.
PROBLEM
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Evaluate the time taken in
the database and all
stages in between
SOLUTION
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Client example showed a webpage
taking 5 seconds to load. The html
component w...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Performance is important
to end user
Performance is perception
WHY
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Firebug - http://getfirebug.com/
Httpwatch - http://httpwatch.com/
Page speed ...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
http://www.stevesouders.com/
http://developer.yahoo.com/
performance/rules.htm...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
2
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
I want to add new H/W.
How do I change my
application to support this?
PROBLEM
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Develop a seamless
integration that requires no
code changes, no downtime
and ...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Integrated monitoring and
instrumentation
Deployed from Day 1
HOW
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Seamless automated server
deployment
Version Control
Build & Release
Runtime c...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
API
One code path for business
functionality
Implied business documentation
En...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Different levels of data availability
Read & Write
Read Only
No Access
Cached
...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Different principles for scalability
Read Scalability
Write Scalability
Cachin...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Successful MySQL Scalability
1. Integrated monitoring & instrumentation
2. Sea...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
1
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
My website is slow?
PROBLEM
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Seek professional advice.
Hire for example Ronald Bradford.
20+ years of syste...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
R
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
Monitoring. Before, during and after NOW.
You may not be able to predict the f...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
3 levels of real time data access.
Read/Write, Read and no access
3 aspects of...
Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10
http://ronaldbradford.com
me@ronaldbradford.com
CONTACT
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Transcript of "MySQL Scalability Mistakes - OTN"

  1. 1. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes Ronald Bradford OTN LAD Tour South America 2010.10 www.RonaldBradford.com Ronald Bradford http://ronaldbradford.com
  2. 2. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 9
  3. 3. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 My website seems to freeze or responds randomly? PROBLEM
  4. 4. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 The default MyISAM storage engine uses exclusive table locks for DML. CAUSE
  5. 5. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Optimize blocking query performance Use a transactional engine with MVCC and row based locking to address the LOCKING issue SOLUTION
  6. 6. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 End user report that selects all customer, order, order lines and order history data and performs poor joins. This takes shared read locks blocking future write locks then future reads. EXAMPLE
  7. 7. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 MySQL is unique in that it offers different mechanisms for storing and retrieving data, each with strengths and weaknesses. The DEFAULT is not always the best. WHY
  8. 8. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 MySQL PROCESSLIST Blocked have State = Locked Blocker - Same table, larger Time HOW mysql> SHOW PROCESSLIST; +----+------+-----------+-------+---------+------+------------+--------------- | Id | User | Host | db | Command | Time | State | Info +----+------+-----------+-------+---------+------+------------+--------------- | 13 | app1 | localhost | odtug | Query | 144 | User sleep | UPDATE emp ... | 14 | app1 | localhost | odtug | Query | 116 | Locked | select c from emp | 15 | app1 | localhost | odtug | Query | 89 | Locked | select c from emp
  9. 9. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Optimize Blocker Indexes Limit query Summary table Change storage engine HOW
  10. 10. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 8
  11. 11. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Why is my database so large? PROBLEM
  12. 12. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Don’t store large static objects in the database SOLUTION
  13. 13. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 80% of data is email content/ attachments 60% of data is PDF documents 30% of data is uncompressed large XML objects EXAMPLE
  14. 14. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Maximize memory usage for important data Reduce database recovery time WHY
  15. 15. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Compress large text data 90% saving on XML data Store static data in files Avoids DB handling overhead HOW
  16. 16. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 HOW Table Size per schema # Schema Table Usage SELECT table_schema,table_name,engine,row_format, table_rows, avg_row_length, (data_length+index_length)/1024/1024 as total_mb, (data_length)/1024/1024 as data_mb, (index_length)/1024/1024 as index_mb, CURDATE() AS today FROM information_schema.tables WHERE table_schema = DATABASE() ORDER BY 7 DESC; http://ronaldbradford.com/mysql-dba/
  17. 17. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 7
  18. 18. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 I can't access my website? PROBLEM
  19. 19. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 TRUE STORY
  20. 20. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Question: TRUE STORY
  21. 21. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Question: How do you know when your server is down or not accessible? TRUE STORY
  22. 22. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Question: How do you know when your server is down or not accessible? Answer: TRUE STORY
  23. 23. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Question: How do you know when your server is down or not accessible? Answer: The users will let us know. TRUE STORY
  24. 24. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 SOLUTION Integrated monitoring including graphical interface, real time analysis and notification
  25. 25. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Monitoring/Alerting Graphical Historical Necessary Generally missing/incomplete Useless for real-time analysis HOW
  26. 26. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Dashboard The state of NOW Sampling at 1s/3s/5s e.g. 0.1% of throughput HOW
  27. 27. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Instrumentation Important to business viability e.g. orders per minute page load time Seamless implementation i.e. no code changes to view real-time extensible HOW
  28. 28. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 6
  29. 29. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 My replication slave can't keep up? PROBLEM
  30. 30. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Know the weakest link(s) of MySQL replication and don't exceed that, or cheat. SOLUTION
  31. 31. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 If replication can't catchup, slaves are useless. Backup & recovery may also suffer. WHY
  32. 32. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Master DML Statement Write Data/Redo Log Write Binary Log Return OK to client HOW
  33. 33. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Slave Detect master log change Retrieve binary log entry Write relay log (IO_THREAD) Read relay log Apply DML (SQL_THREAD) Write Data/redo log HOW
  34. 34. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Replication workarounds Restrict queries executed --ignore Different storage engines Different index structures HOW
  35. 35. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Advanced workarounds RAID 0 (large number of slaves) Pre fetch thread EXPERT TIP
  36. 36. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 5
  37. 37. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 My server has crashed with a hard drive failure PROBLEM
  38. 38. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Question: Have you ever performed a database recovery? Answer: No, why? TRUE STORY
  39. 39. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Consultant: Do you know that your daily backups only recover the data up to that time, e.g. 1am. You know you have lost all your sales and changes since then. Customer: No, I didn’t know that. TRUE STORY
  40. 40. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Have a DR Plan Documented Tested Timed Verified - End to End SOLUTION
  41. 41. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Do you pass the MySQL backup/ recovery quiz? http://rb42.com/mysql-backup-quiz HOW
  42. 42. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 1. Do you have MySQL backups in place? 2. Do you backup ALL your MySQL data? 3. Do you have consistent MySQL backups? 4. Do you have backups that include both static snapshot and point in time transactions? 5. Do you review your backup logs EVERY SINGLE day or have tested backup monitoring in place? 6. Do you perform a test recovery of your static backup? 7. Do you perform a test recovery to point in time? 8. Do you time your backup and recovery process and review over time? 9. Do you have off-site copies of your backups? 10. Do you backup your primary binary logs? QUIZ http://rb42.com/mysql-backup-quiz
  43. 43. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 4
  44. 44. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Why is my database executing 1,200 qps for 50 users? PROBLEM
  45. 45. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Determine what queries are running and why they are running? SOLUTION
  46. 46. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Excessive SQL statements Duplicate Redundant Cachable Row at a time (RAT) CAUSE
  47. 47. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Reducing SQL load both improves performance now and provides greater capacity as you scale WHY
  48. 48. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 EXAMPLE http://ronaldbradford.com/blog/optimizing-sql-performance-the-art-of-elimination-2010-07-08/ SELECT * FROM activities_theme WHERE theme_parent_id=0 SELECT * FROM activities_theme WHERE theme_parent_id=1 SELECT * FROM activities_theme WHERE theme_parent_id=2 SELECT * FROM activities_theme WHERE theme_parent_id=11 SELECT * FROM activities_theme WHERE theme_parent_id=16 SELECT * FROM activities_theme WHERE theme_parent_id in (0,1,2,11,16) CAT RAT
  49. 49. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 EXAMPLE http://ronaldbradford.com/blog/optimizing-sql-performance-the-art-of-elimination-2010-07-08/ 5 Query SELECT * FROM `artist` 5 Query SELECT * FROM `artist` 5 Query SELECT * FROM `artist` 5 Query SELECT * FROM `artist` 5 Query SELECT * FROM `artist` 5 Query SELECT * FROM `artist` WHERE (ArtistID = 196 ) 5 Query SELECT * FROM `artist` WHERE (ArtistID = 2188 ) 5 Query SELECT * FROM `artist` 5 Query SELECT * FROM `artist` 5 Query SELECT * FROM `artist` Duplicate Unnecessary Only 2 queries necessary or 1 CAT
  50. 50. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 EXAMPLE http://ronaldbradford.com/blog/optimizing-sql-performance-the-art-of-elimination-2010-07-08/ SELECT pages_id, pages_livestats_code, pages_title, pages_parent, pages_exhibid, pages_theme, pages_accession_num FROM pages WHERE pages_id = 0 5 minutes 6000 executions 0 is out of bounds Unnecessary
  51. 51. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Capture & Analyze DML is easy SELECT is harder HOW http://www.slideshare.net/ronaldbradford/capturing-analyzing-and-optimizing-mysql
  52. 52. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 MySQL Binary Log (Archive Redo) mysqlbinlog mk-query-digest One Liner HOW http://ronaldbradford.com/blog/mysql-dml-stats-per-table-2009-09-09/
  53. 53. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 HOW 55463 update sessions 25574 insert into sessions 12820 update items 11636 insert into item_categories 7532 update users 5168 delete from item_categories 4076 update extended_item_infos 3701 insert into sphinx_new_items 3701 insert into mini_items 2190 update sweet_bars 1922 update chat_users 1662 update item_shipping_infos 1265 update search_terms 1260 insert into images 931 delete from item_shipping_infos 825 update booths 713 update booth_stats 574 update topics 540 update offers 81k of 141k Top 2 queries = 57%
  54. 54. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Process List General Log tcpdump Application HOW
  55. 55. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Capturing, Analyzing and Optimizing your SQL http://www.slideshare.net/ronaldbradford/capturing-analyzing-and- optimizing-mysql HOW
  56. 56. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 /* Comment your queries */ The more products you have, the more developers you have, the more time you spend in code identification before you can even determine a resolution EXPERT TIP
  57. 57. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 3
  58. 58. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 The database is slow. My webpage takes five seconds to load. PROBLEM
  59. 59. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Evaluate the time taken in the database and all stages in between SOLUTION
  60. 60. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Client example showed a webpage taking 5 seconds to load. The html component was taking only 400 ms. Any MySQL performance improvement will only tune 8% of the total time. EXAMPLE
  61. 61. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Performance is important to end user Performance is perception WHY
  62. 62. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Firebug - http://getfirebug.com/ Httpwatch - http://httpwatch.com/ Page speed - http://code.google.com/speed/page-speed/ YSlow - http://developer.yahoo.com/yslow/ wget/curl Application code instrumentation HOW
  63. 63. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 http://www.stevesouders.com/ http://developer.yahoo.com/ performance/rules.html EXPERT TIP
  64. 64. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 2
  65. 65. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 I want to add new H/W. How do I change my application to support this? PROBLEM
  66. 66. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Develop a seamless integration that requires no code changes, no downtime and very little additional physical resources. SOLUTION
  67. 67. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Integrated monitoring and instrumentation Deployed from Day 1 HOW
  68. 68. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Seamless automated server deployment Version Control Build & Release Runtime config management Automated discovery HOW
  69. 69. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 API One code path for business functionality Implied business documentation Enforced data exchange standard Testability HOW
  70. 70. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Different levels of data availability Read & Write Read Only No Access Cached HOW
  71. 71. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Different principles for scalability Read Scalability Write Scalability Caching HOW
  72. 72. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Successful MySQL Scalability 1. Integrated monitoring & instrumentation 2. Seamless automated server deployment 3. Disaster is inevitable 4. Application Programming Interface 5. Support different levels of data availability 6. Support different scalability principles REFERENCE http://ronaldbradford.com/blog/successful-mysql-scalability-presentation-2010-09-17/
  73. 73. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 1
  74. 74. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 My website is slow? PROBLEM
  75. 75. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Seek professional advice. Hire for example Ronald Bradford. 20+ years of system architecture, database design and performance tuning. Employment as Consultant for Oracle Corporation (96-99) Employment as Senior Consultant for MySQL Inc (06-08) SOLUTION
  76. 76. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 R
  77. 77. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 Monitoring. Before, during and after NOW. You may not be able to predict the future but you can preempt the future. Choose the best product and features for you needs. The best SQL statement is the one you never have to execute. RECAP
  78. 78. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 3 levels of real time data access. Read/Write, Read and no access 3 aspects of scalability. Read, Write and Caching Operate below 90% capacity. That 10% is your insurance. RECAP
  79. 79. Common MySQL Scalability Mistakes - 2010.10 http://ronaldbradford.com me@ronaldbradford.com CONTACT
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