MICRO AIR VEHICLES (MAV)
WITH FLAPPING WINGS
BY -RONAK THAKAREGUIDED BY – Prof. AMRUTA DURAGKAR
What are Micro Air Vehicles?
• A Micro Air Vehicle (MAV), or micro aerial
vehicle, is a class of unmanned vehicles (UAV).
• DARPA(Defense Advanced Research Project
Agency) defines- less than 6 inch(15cm) and 4
• Remote observation of hazardous environments.
• Military capability and Fully-functional.
• Lift for flight is made with rotary wings and
• High image resolution.
• Safe & simple to operate.
• Easy to repair.
• Rapid electronic connectivity.
Based on the missions, an MAV require:
SHAPE OF MAVs
• Fixed wing aircraft- Names
STAR”, “Flyswatter”, “MITE”, “Batplane”,
• Rotary wing aircraft- “Micro Craft
iSTAR”, “Gyrosaucer”,“Helirocket”, and
• Flapping wing air craft-
“Entomopher” and “Microbat”.
Micro Craft iSTAR
• Kelvin’s circulation theorem, the net circulation
around the insect body is zero.
• Equal & opposite circulation causes lift.
• Ordinary insects, this build-up of high lift coefficient is
• One species of insects, Encarsia Formosa, which avoid
any delay in built up of maximum lift.
1] Air comes straight at the wing
•Air comes straight at the wings, bends around it and then
behind the wing.leaves straight
•There is no net action on the air so there can be no lift.
2] Air passing over the wing
•Fig. shows the streamlines, as is the action.
•The air passes over the wing and is bent down.
•As Newton’s laws suggests, the wing must change
something of the air to get lift.
•Changes in the air’s momentum will result in forces on the wing.
•To generate lift, a wing must divert air down .
MATERIALS USED FOR
• Balsa wood
• Foam polystyrene
• Foam with a single layer of epoxy fiberglass
• Carbon Fiber
• Composite (Kevlar or Fiberglass)
• Less size& weight.
• Low power requirements.
• High reusability.
• Speed 10-15 m/sec, not detected by most Radars.
• High stability and control.
• High lift and slow landing speed.
• Can be individually controlled.
• Wide range of new missions.
• Low image quality due to blurring.
• Small range of communication.
• Very difficult to design flapping wing mechanism.
• Very difficult to control MAVs in bad weather.
• Very expensive to design MAVs.
• Lithium batteries are expensive, compared to the
common alkaline batteries.
• Use lighter materials, for the frame of MAV,the
controllers, the gyroscope for stabilizing.
• Developing small power sources.
• Designs to achieve high flight speeds better
stability in air.
• The overall aim will be to minimize the size and
weight, to increase the speed, and to maximize the
battery life for MAV.
• Time of MAVs have arrived. Micro Air Vehicles
are the new technology by which a variety of
operations are done.
• Flapping mechanism have more lift compared
to fixed wing mechanism.
• Also it can increase the lift without increasing
the vehicle speed.
• Simple flapping, does not generate sufficient
Mohd. Shariff Ammoo, Md. Nizam Dahalan,”Micro Air Vehicle: Technology Review
and Design Study, Department of Aeronautic & Automotive”, Faculty of Mechanical
Engineering, University Technology, Malaysia.
Mr. T. Spoerry1, Dr K.C. Wong, “Design and Development Of A Micro Air Vehicle:
Project Bidule” School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering
University of Sydney NSW 2006.
Peter G. Ifju, Scott- Ettinger, David Jenkins, and Luis Martinez, “Composite materials
for micro air vehicles”, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanics and Engineering Science
Department University of Florida, Gainesville.