Hybrid Cars: How have they
improved since introduction?
by- Ronak Thakare
Introduction
• Definitions
• Classification
• Electric vs. Internal Combustion
• Timeline for Hybrid technology developmen...
HYBRID VEHICLE
• A hybrid vehicle is one that uses two different
methods to propel the vehicle.
• A hybrid electric vehicl...
What is a hybrid?
• Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) include both a
combustion engine as well as an electric
motor.
• If we...
Global-Warming: Still An Issue.
• Hybrids are not zero-emission vehicles.
• Will cut down emissions of global-warming
poll...
Why hybrids?
• Regenerative braking actually makes city driving
more economical than on the highway.
• Fuel efficiency is ...
CLASSIFICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC
VEHICLES
• The types of hybrid-electric vehicles include:
– Series
– Parallel
– Series-...
CLASSIFICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLESCLASSIFICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLES
FIGURE 39-3 A drawing of the
power ...
CLASSIFICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLESCLASSIFICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLES
FIGURE 39-5 The power flowin a typi...
CLASSIFICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLESCLASSIFICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLES
FIGURE 39-7 A series-parallel hybri...
Electric Motor
• Lots of torque
• Zero emissions
• Tax breaks
• No transmission needed
• Starts more efficiently
– Can tur...
Gasoline
• Higher energy density than batteries
– 1,000 pounds of batteries = 1 gallon (7 pounds) of
gas
• Cheaper initial...
Cost Per Mile
Electric vs. Gas
Timeline
• 1839: First electric vehicle
• 1886: Electric powered taxicab in England
• 1890-1910: Significant improvements ...
Timeline
• 1900: Pieper introduced hybrid
• 1905: Gas-Electric car
• 1970’s: Arab oil embargo; hybrid VW Taxi
• 1979: hybr...
Timeline
• 1997: Toyota Prius available in Japan
• 1999: Honda Insight released in US (70 mpg)
• 2000: Toyota Prius availa...
The Batteries Behind It All
• Early Prius and Insight
NiMH D Cells
– Stick Arrangement
((http://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/...
Prismatic Ni-MH
• 15% pack volume reduction
• 25% pack weight reduction
• Less battery module per pack number
http://www.p...
Metal Case Prismatic Ni-MH
• Improvement
– 14% less volume
– 40% higher cooling
((http://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/...
ECU
• Electronic Control Unit
• Regulates temperature
and state of charge
• Ensures safe and
reliable driving
http://www.p...
Study: Battery Usage and Thermal
Performance of Prius and Insight
• Honda Insight vs. Toyota Prius
Battery Energy and
Battery Temperatures
Hybrid Cars Today
Light-Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles
OEM Model Body Style Power Type Fuel Date Introduced/Announced
Produ...
Planned for Production
Ford Fusion Sedan Full Hybrid Gasoline Apr-03 2006
General Motors Silverado/Sierra & Tahoe/Yukon Tr...
Recent Concepts - Production
Plans Unknown
Honda ASM Minivan IMA1 hybrid Gasoline Oct-03 Unknown
Ford Focus C-MAX Sedan Hy...
Future of Hybrid
• Hybrid buses
– ~1,000 in use
– Seattle
– California
• Tax Break Increase
Future of Hybrid CarsFuture of Hybrid Cars
Toyota VoltaToyota Volta
3.3 liter V6 gas engine
Toyota Hybrid Sports CarToyota...
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  1. 1. Hybrid Cars: How have they improved since introduction? by- Ronak Thakare
  2. 2. Introduction • Definitions • Classification • Electric vs. Internal Combustion • Timeline for Hybrid technology development • The Batteries • Study: Insight vs. Prius • The Future
  3. 3. HYBRID VEHICLE • A hybrid vehicle is one that uses two different methods to propel the vehicle. • A hybrid electric vehicle, abbreviated HEV uses both an internal combustion engine and an electric motor to propel the vehicle. • Most hybrid vehicles use a highvoltage battery pack and a combination electric motor and generator to help or assist a gasoline engine.
  4. 4. What is a hybrid? • Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) include both a combustion engine as well as an electric motor. • If we had better batteries, we would not need hybrids at all. • Hybrids can be implemented in many kinds of vehicles.
  5. 5. Global-Warming: Still An Issue. • Hybrids are not zero-emission vehicles. • Will cut down emissions of global-warming pollutants by a third to a half. • Later models may cut these emissions down by even more.
  6. 6. Why hybrids? • Regenerative braking actually makes city driving more economical than on the highway. • Fuel efficiency is greatly increased (twice). • Emissions are greatly decreased. • Dependency on fossils fuels can be decreased. • Hybrids can be run on alternative fuels as well. • New materials can be implemented.
  7. 7. CLASSIFICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLES • The types of hybrid-electric vehicles include: – Series – Parallel – Series-parallel designs
  8. 8. CLASSIFICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLESCLASSIFICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLES FIGURE 39-3 A drawing of the power flow in a typical series hybrid vehicle.
  9. 9. CLASSIFICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLESCLASSIFICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLES FIGURE 39-5 The power flowin a typical parallel hybrid vehicle.
  10. 10. CLASSIFICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLESCLASSIFICATIONS OF HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLES FIGURE 39-7 A series-parallel hybrid design allows the vehicle to operate in electric motor mode only or in combination with the internal combustion engine.
  11. 11. Electric Motor • Lots of torque • Zero emissions • Tax breaks • No transmission needed • Starts more efficiently – Can turn off motor when you stop
  12. 12. Gasoline • Higher energy density than batteries – 1,000 pounds of batteries = 1 gallon (7 pounds) of gas • Cheaper initial cost for car – Hybrids are $3500-5000 more • Reliable, more history
  13. 13. Cost Per Mile Electric vs. Gas
  14. 14. Timeline • 1839: First electric vehicle • 1886: Electric powered taxicab in England • 1890-1910: Significant improvements in battery technology (lead-acid, nickel-iron) • 1898: Ferdinand Porsche built a hybrid
  15. 15. Timeline • 1900: Pieper introduced hybrid • 1905: Gas-Electric car • 1970’s: Arab oil embargo; hybrid VW Taxi • 1979: hybrid car built with lawnmower engine • 1991: US Advanced Battery Consortium launched major program to produce “super” battery
  16. 16. Timeline • 1997: Toyota Prius available in Japan • 1999: Honda Insight released in US (70 mpg) • 2000: Toyota Prius available in US • 2002: Honda Civic Hybrid introduced • 2004: Toyota Prius II introduced; Ford Escape Hybrid introduced
  17. 17. The Batteries Behind It All • Early Prius and Insight NiMH D Cells – Stick Arrangement ((http://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_maru.htmlhttp://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_maru.html))
  18. 18. Prismatic Ni-MH • 15% pack volume reduction • 25% pack weight reduction • Less battery module per pack number http://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_kaku.html
  19. 19. Metal Case Prismatic Ni-MH • Improvement – 14% less volume – 40% higher cooling ((http://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_kinnzoku.htmlhttp://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_kinnzoku.html))
  20. 20. ECU • Electronic Control Unit • Regulates temperature and state of charge • Ensures safe and reliable driving http://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_bms.html
  21. 21. Study: Battery Usage and Thermal Performance of Prius and Insight • Honda Insight vs. Toyota Prius
  22. 22. Battery Energy and Battery Temperatures
  23. 23. Hybrid Cars Today Light-Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles OEM Model Body Style Power Type Fuel Date Introduced/Announced Production Date Currently in Production DaimlerChrysler Ram Pickup Contractor Special Truck Mild Hybrid Diesel Nov-00 2004 (Limited) Ford Escape SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan-01 2004 General Motors Silverado/Sierra Truck Mild Hybrid Gasoline Jan-01 2004 (Limited) Honda Accord Sedan IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Jan-04 2005 Honda Insight Coupe IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Dec-99 2000 Honda Civic Sedan IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Jan-00 2002 Lexus RX400h SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan-03 2005 Toyota Prius Sedan Parallel Hybrid Gasoline Jun-00 2000 Toyota Highlander SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan-04 2005 Suzuki Twin Mini Hybrid Gasoline Nov-02 2003 (Japan) Toyota Estima Minivan Parallel Hybrid Gasoline Jun-01 In Japan Only Toyota Crown Sedan Mild Hybrid Gasoline Aug-01 In Japan Only Toyota Alphard Minivan Hybrid Gasoline Jul-03 In Japan Only
  24. 24. Planned for Production Ford Fusion Sedan Full Hybrid Gasoline Apr-03 2006 General Motors Silverado/Sierra & Tahoe/Yukon Truck & SUV Strong Hybrid Gasoline Nov-03 2007 General Motors Equinox SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan-03 2006 General Motors Malibu Sedan BAS2 Hybrid Gasoline Jan-03 2007 General Motors Graphyte SUV Full Hybrid Gasoline Jan-05 2006 Hyundai Click Sedan Hybrid Gasoline Nov-03 2005/06 (Korea) Mercury Mariner SUV Full Hybrid Gasoline Apr-04 2005 (limited) 2006 (full) Nissan Altima Sedan Hybrid Gasoline Jun-04 2006 Saturn Vue SUV BAS2 Hybrid Gasoline Jan-03 2006 Toyota Camry Sedan Unknown Gasoline Unknown Unknown Toyota Sienna Minivan Hybrid Gasoline 2003 2007
  25. 25. Recent Concepts - Production Plans Unknown Honda ASM Minivan IMA1 hybrid Gasoline Oct-03 Unknown Ford Focus C-MAX Sedan Hydrogen ICE Hydrogen Jul-04 Unknown Daewoo S3X SUV Unknown Unknown Oct-04 Unknown Opal Astra Sedan Unknown Diesel Jan-04 Unknown Mercury Meta One Unknown Hybrid Diesel Jan-04 Unknown Mercury Milan Unknown Unknown Unknown Jan-04 Unknown 1 Integrated motor assist. 2 Belt alternator starter. (Source: Collected by Robb Barnitt and Leslie Eudy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, from various sources) Table from http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy05osti/37777.pdf
  26. 26. Future of Hybrid • Hybrid buses – ~1,000 in use – Seattle – California • Tax Break Increase
  27. 27. Future of Hybrid CarsFuture of Hybrid Cars Toyota VoltaToyota Volta 3.3 liter V6 gas engine Toyota Hybrid Sports CarToyota Hybrid Sports Car 408 horsepower 30 miles per gallon
  28. 28. Thank you

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