crest Parapet definition

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crest Parapet definition

  1. 1. The 1911 Classic Encyclopaedia1PARAPET (Ital. parapetto, Fr. parapet, from Mara, imperative of Ital. parare, to cover,defend, and petto, breast, Lat. pectus; the German word is Brustwehr), a dwarf wallalong the edge of a roof, or round a lead flat, terrace walk, &c., to prevent persons fromfalling over, and as a protection to the defenders in case of a siege. Parapets are eitherplain, embattled, perforated or panelled. The last two are found in all styles except theRomanesque. Plain parapets are simply portions of the wall generally overhanging alittle, with acoping at the top and corbel table below. Embattled parapets are sometimespanelled, but oftener pierced for the discharge of arrows, &c. Perforated parapets arepierced in various devices - as circles, trefoils, quatrefoils and other designs - so thatthe light is seen through. Panelled parapets are those ornamented by a series ofpanels, either oblong or square, and more or less enriched, but are not perforated.These are common in the Decorated and Perpendicular periods.CREST (Lat. crista, a plume or tuft), the "comb" on an animals head, and so anyfeathery tuft or excrescence, the "cone" of a helmet (by transference, the helmet itself),and the top or summit of anything. In heraldry a crest is a device, originally borne asa cognizance on a knights helmet, placed on wreath above helmet and shield inarmorial bearings, and used separately on a seal or on articles of property.Cresting, in architecture, is an ornamental finish in the wall or ridge of a building, whichis common on the continent of Europe. An example occurs at Exeter cathedral, theridge of which is ornamented with a range of small fleurs-de-lis in lead. Merriam Webster Dictionary2 Illustration of PARAPET1 http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Parapet2 http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/parapet
  2. 2. GLOSSARY OF TERMS3 FOR INTERPRETING TENNESSEE’S CIVIL WAR ERA MILITARY SITESBanquetteThe inside step at the base of a parapet wall that allowed a soldier to stand, load andfire over the crest of the parapet while being sheltered.Military CrestThe military crest of a ridge is a position that allows troops to see all the ground in frontof them. The topographical crest of a ridge is the highest point on the ridge and allowsfor a favorable position for distant observation but would not allow troops to see theforeground and fire upon an enemy. Therefore, on a convex slope, the military crest isbelow the topographical crest.ParapetThe wall of the rampart that troops stood behind to defend the fortified position. In fieldworks, the height of the parapet was recommended at about 7 feet, the thickness of theparapet varied according to the kind of fire it was intended to resist. If the parapet wasout of the range of enemy artillery (about 800 yards), then it was constructed to resistonly musketry or rifle fire, a thickness of 2½ feet. To withstand artillery fire the thicknessof the wall was 6 to 10 feet.RampartA broad wall or embankment forming the main body of a fortification and consisting of aterreplein and a parapet.WorksThe term works was commonly used by Civil War era military personal in reference toany type of earthen field works or field fortificationsField FortificationField fortification was the art of engineering and strengthening a position for temporaryuse with available materials. Military engineers developed field works along the sameprincipals as permanent fortifications, but were given greater latitude in their applicationin the field. U.S. military4 History , L series, No.13, May 15, 1943Crest. - The summit or highest line of a ridge. The actual or topographical crest.Military crest.-The line nearest the crest of a ridge or hill from which all or nearlyall of the ground toward the enemy and within range may be seen and reached byfire.3 www.artcirclelibrary.info/Reference/civilwar/Glossary.pdf4 http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/cgsc/carl/wwIIspec/number13.pdf
  3. 3. A Dictionary of Military Architecture Fortification and Fieldworks from the Iron Age to the EighteenthCentury By Stephen Francis Wyley5Parapet:(1) The top of a wall of either a fortification or fieldwork, either plain or battlemented.Used to provide protection to the defenders behind the wall.(2) A breastwork or wall used to protect the defenders on the ramparts of a fortification,either plain or provided with embrasuresCrest:The apex of the glacis, either formed by the parapet of the covered way, or where theglacis meets the top of the counterscarp. Also known as a ridge.Field work:A temporary work constructed by an army in the field, used to cover an attack on afortification, or as protection against another enemy army, especially a relieving force.Rampart:An embankment of earth which was used for the purpose of defence, excavated fromthe ditch, and either raised on the inside or outside of the ditch. A number of differenttypes of ramparts have been employed; generally they surrounded a fortification andwere usually topped by a parapet. Dump or Glacis rampart; was the simplest method ofconstructing a rampart, by excavating a ditch and casting the soil inwards to form a`dump. Often reinforced by a wall or palisade along the top. Revetted earthen rampart:the first of this type was made by piling the earth excavated from the ditch behind awooden palisade, giving the rampart a steep vertical face; the second of this type werethe earthen ramparts of the 17th and 18th century fortresses which were revetted withstone, masonry, concrete or faggots, the ramparts were erected to offset the effect ofartillery by absorbing the impact of the cannon balls. The revetment was used to holdthe earth in place. Timber laced rampart; the rampart was reinforced by filling thespaces between the upright logs with horizontal ones, and the gaps were faced with drystone wall, adding to the ramparts strength. Turf rampart: was a rampart made ofuniform bricks of turf stacked to form a vertical wall which was invulnerable to both fireand battering ram. (O.Fr. rempar, to defend).5 http://www.angelfire.com/wy/svenskildbiter/madict.html

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