one dollar and eighty-seven cents that
was all and sixty cents of it was in
pennies pennies saved one and two at a
time by...
One dollar and eighty-seven
cents. That was all. And sixty
cents of it was in pennies.
Pennies saved one and two at a
time...
Rules in
Capitalization
and Punctuation
Capitalization
RULE NO. 1
Capitalize the first
word of a quoted
sentence.
• He said, "Treat her as you
would your own daughter.“
• "Look out!" she screamed.
"You almost ran into my child."
RULE NO. 2
Capitalize a proper
noun.
• Golden Gate Bridge
• Dr. Jose P. Rizal
• Pasig Catholic College
RULE NO. 3
Capitalize a person's title when
it precedes the name. Do not
capitalize when the title is
acting as a descript...
• Chairperson Petrov
• Ms. Petrov, the chairperson of
the company, will address us at
noon.
RULE NO. 4
Capitalize the person's title
when it follows the name on
the address or signature line.
• Sincerely,
Ms. Haines, Chairperson
• Yours truly,
Dr. Rolando P. Castro, Dean
RULE NO. 5
Capitalize the titles of high-
ranking government officials
when used before their
names. Do not capitalize the...
• The president will address
Congress.
• President Noynoy Aquino
delivered his SONA last week.
RULE NO. 6
Capitalize any title when
used as a direct address.
• Will you take my temperature,
Doctor?
• Do you have a court hearing,
Attorney?
RULE NO. 7
Capitalize points of the compass
only when they refer to
specific regions.
• Go south three blocks and then
turn left.
• We live in the southeast
section of town.
RULE NO. 8
Always capitalize the first and last words of
titles of publications regardless of their
parts of speech. Capit...
• The Day of the Jackal
• What Color Is Your Parachute?
• A Tale of Two Cities
RULE NO. 9
Capitalize federal or state when used
as part of an official agency name or
in government documents where
these...
• That is a federal offense.
• The Federal Bureau of Investigation
has been subject to much scrutiny
and criticism lately....
RULE NO. 10
Capitalize the first word of a
salutation and the first word of
a complimentary close.
• Dear Ms. Pedroza:
• My dear Mr. Sanchez:
• Very truly yours,
RULE NO. 11
After a sentence ending with a
colon, do not capitalize the
first word if it begins a list.
• These are my favorite foods:
chocolate cake, spaghetti and
adobo.
• These are my skills:
programming, driving and multi-...
RULE NO. 12
Do not capitalize names of
seasons.
• I love autumn colors and
spring flowers.
• Philippines has summer and
rainy seasons.
Top Ten
Rules in
Punctuation
10. COMMA (,)
• Use commas to separate independent clauses
in a sentence
Example:
1. The game was over, but the crowd refu...
10. COMMA
• Use commas after introductory words,
phrases, or clauses that come before the main
clause
Examples:
1. While I...
10. COMMA
• Use a pair of commas to separate an aside
from the main body of the sentence.
Example:
1. John and Inga, the c...
10. COMMA
• Use commas to set off all geographical
names, items in dates (except the month and
day), addresses (except the...
10. COMMA
• Use a comma to shift between the main
discourse and a quotation.
Example:
1. John said without emotion, “I’ll ...
9. Period (.)
• The primary use of a period is to end a
sentence.
Example:
1. Business English is very important for your
...
9. Period (.)
• Its second important use is for abbreviations.
Examples:
1. Jesus Christ was born c. 4-6AD
2. Mr. Jose was...
8. Question Mark (?)
• It goes at the end of a sentence which is a
question.
Examples:
1. What can you do for the company?...
7. Exclamation Point (!)
• This is used in ending extreme emotions
expressed in a sentence.
Example:
1. Ouch!
2. Fire! Fir...
6. Quotation marks (“”)
• are used to quote another person’s words
exactly, whether they be spoken, or written
Examples:
1...
6. Quotation marks (“”)
• used to denote irony or sarcasm, or to note
something unusual about it
Example:
1. The great mar...
5. Colon (:)
• used after a complete statement in order to
introduce one or more directly related ideas, such
as a series ...
5. Colon (:)
• used to separate chapter and verse from the
bible or to separate hours, minutes, and
seconds
Example:
1. Jo...
4. Semicolon (;)
• Use a semicolon to join related independent
clauses in compound sentences
Example:
1. Jim worked hard t...
4. Semicolon (;)
• used to separate items in a series if the
elements of the series already include
commas
Example:
1. Mem...
3. Apostrophe ( ’)
• to form possessives of nouns
Example:
1. the boy’s hat
2. three day’s journey
3. Apostrophe ( ’)
• to show the omission of letters
Example:
1. He’ll go = He will go
2. could’ve = could have
3. Apostrophe ( ’)
• to form plurals
Example:
1. Mind your p’s and q’s.
2. Parentheses ( )
• occasionally and sparingly used for extra,
nonessential material included in a sentence
Example:
1. B...
1. Hyphen or dash (-)
• Use a hyphen to join two or more words
serving as a single adjective before a noun
Example:
1. cho...
1. Hyphen or dash (-)
• Use a hyphen with compound numbers
Example:
1. Forty-five
2. Sixty-two
1. Hyphen or dash (-)
• Use a hyphen with the prefixes ex- (meaning
former), self-, all-; with the suffix -elect;
between ...
1. Hyphen or dash (-)
• Use the dash to emphasize a point or to set off an
explanatory comment; but don’t overuse dashes, ...
1. Hyphen or dash (-)
• used for an appositive phrase that already
includes commas
Example:
1. The boys–Jim, John, and Jef...
Thank
you !
Rules in Capitalization and Punctuation
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Rules in Capitalization and Punctuation

  1. 1. one dollar and eighty-seven cents that was all and sixty cents of it was in pennies pennies saved one and two at a time by bulldozing the grocer and the vegetable man and the butcher until ones cheeks burned with the silent imputation of parsimony that such close dealing implied three times della counted it one dollar and eighty-seven cents and the next day would be christmas
  2. 2. One dollar and eighty-seven cents. That was all. And sixty cents of it was in pennies. Pennies saved one and two at a time by bulldozing the grocer and the vegetable man and the butcher until one's cheeks burned with the silent imputation of parsimony that such close dealing implied. Three times Della counted it. One dollar and eighty- seven cents. And the next day would be Christmas.
  3. 3. Rules in Capitalization and Punctuation
  4. 4. Capitalization
  5. 5. RULE NO. 1 Capitalize the first word of a quoted sentence.
  6. 6. • He said, "Treat her as you would your own daughter.“ • "Look out!" she screamed. "You almost ran into my child."
  7. 7. RULE NO. 2 Capitalize a proper noun.
  8. 8. • Golden Gate Bridge • Dr. Jose P. Rizal • Pasig Catholic College
  9. 9. RULE NO. 3 Capitalize a person's title when it precedes the name. Do not capitalize when the title is acting as a description following the name.
  10. 10. • Chairperson Petrov • Ms. Petrov, the chairperson of the company, will address us at noon.
  11. 11. RULE NO. 4 Capitalize the person's title when it follows the name on the address or signature line.
  12. 12. • Sincerely, Ms. Haines, Chairperson • Yours truly, Dr. Rolando P. Castro, Dean
  13. 13. RULE NO. 5 Capitalize the titles of high- ranking government officials when used before their names. Do not capitalize the civil title if it is used instead of the name.
  14. 14. • The president will address Congress. • President Noynoy Aquino delivered his SONA last week.
  15. 15. RULE NO. 6 Capitalize any title when used as a direct address.
  16. 16. • Will you take my temperature, Doctor? • Do you have a court hearing, Attorney?
  17. 17. RULE NO. 7 Capitalize points of the compass only when they refer to specific regions.
  18. 18. • Go south three blocks and then turn left. • We live in the southeast section of town.
  19. 19. RULE NO. 8 Always capitalize the first and last words of titles of publications regardless of their parts of speech. Capitalize other words within titles, including the short verb forms Is, Are, and Be. Do not capitalize little words within titles such as a, an, the, but, as, if, and, or, nor, or prepositions, regardless of their length.
  20. 20. • The Day of the Jackal • What Color Is Your Parachute? • A Tale of Two Cities
  21. 21. RULE NO. 9 Capitalize federal or state when used as part of an official agency name or in government documents where these terms represent an official name. If they are being used as general terms, you may use lowercase letters.
  22. 22. • That is a federal offense. • The Federal Bureau of Investigation has been subject to much scrutiny and criticism lately. • We will visit three states during our summer vacation.
  23. 23. RULE NO. 10 Capitalize the first word of a salutation and the first word of a complimentary close.
  24. 24. • Dear Ms. Pedroza: • My dear Mr. Sanchez: • Very truly yours,
  25. 25. RULE NO. 11 After a sentence ending with a colon, do not capitalize the first word if it begins a list.
  26. 26. • These are my favorite foods: chocolate cake, spaghetti and adobo. • These are my skills: programming, driving and multi- tasking.
  27. 27. RULE NO. 12 Do not capitalize names of seasons.
  28. 28. • I love autumn colors and spring flowers. • Philippines has summer and rainy seasons.
  29. 29. Top Ten Rules in Punctuation
  30. 30. 10. COMMA (,) • Use commas to separate independent clauses in a sentence Example: 1. The game was over, but the crowd refused to leave. 2. Yesterday was her brother’s birthday, so she took him out to dinner.
  31. 31. 10. COMMA • Use commas after introductory words, phrases, or clauses that come before the main clause Examples: 1. While I was eating, the cat scratched at the door. 2. If you are ill, you ought to see a doctor.
  32. 32. 10. COMMA • Use a pair of commas to separate an aside from the main body of the sentence. Example: 1. John and Inga, the couple from next door, are coming for dinner tonight.
  33. 33. 10. COMMA • Use commas to set off all geographical names, items in dates (except the month and day), addresses (except the street number and name), and titles in names. Example: 1. Birmingham, Alabama, got its name from Birmingham, England. 2. July 22, 2011, was a momentous day in his life.
  34. 34. 10. COMMA • Use a comma to shift between the main discourse and a quotation. Example: 1. John said without emotion, “I’ll see you tomorrow.” 2. “I was able,” she answered, “to complete the assignment.”
  35. 35. 9. Period (.) • The primary use of a period is to end a sentence. Example: 1. Business English is very important for your professional growth.
  36. 36. 9. Period (.) • Its second important use is for abbreviations. Examples: 1. Jesus Christ was born c. 4-6AD 2. Mr. Jose was happy to see his wife.
  37. 37. 8. Question Mark (?) • It goes at the end of a sentence which is a question. Examples: 1. What can you do for the company? 2. How can you be an asset?
  38. 38. 7. Exclamation Point (!) • This is used in ending extreme emotions expressed in a sentence. Example: 1. Ouch! 2. Fire! Fire!
  39. 39. 6. Quotation marks (“”) • are used to quote another person’s words exactly, whether they be spoken, or written Examples: 1. John said, “We are going shopping.” 2. As D. H. Nachas explains, “The gestures used for greeting others differ greatly from one culture to another.”
  40. 40. 6. Quotation marks (“”) • used to denote irony or sarcasm, or to note something unusual about it Example: 1. The great march of “progress” has left millions impoverished and hungry.
  41. 41. 5. Colon (:) • used after a complete statement in order to introduce one or more directly related ideas, such as a series of directions, a list, or a quotation or other comment illustrating or explaining the statement Example: 1. The daily newspaper contains four sections: news, sports, entertainment, and classified ads.
  42. 42. 5. Colon (:) • used to separate chapter and verse from the bible or to separate hours, minutes, and seconds Example: 1. John 1:21 2. 09:25:12
  43. 43. 4. Semicolon (;) • Use a semicolon to join related independent clauses in compound sentences Example: 1. Jim worked hard to earn his degree; consequently, he was certain to achieve a distinction. 2. Jane overslept by three hours; she was going to be late for work again.
  44. 44. 4. Semicolon (;) • used to separate items in a series if the elements of the series already include commas Example: 1. Members of the band include Harold Rostein, clarinetist; Tony Aluppo, tuba player; and Lee Jefferson, trumpeter.
  45. 45. 3. Apostrophe ( ’) • to form possessives of nouns Example: 1. the boy’s hat 2. three day’s journey
  46. 46. 3. Apostrophe ( ’) • to show the omission of letters Example: 1. He’ll go = He will go 2. could’ve = could have
  47. 47. 3. Apostrophe ( ’) • to form plurals Example: 1. Mind your p’s and q’s.
  48. 48. 2. Parentheses ( ) • occasionally and sparingly used for extra, nonessential material included in a sentence Example: 1. Before arriving at the station, the old train (someone said it was a relic of frontier days) caught fire.
  49. 49. 1. Hyphen or dash (-) • Use a hyphen to join two or more words serving as a single adjective before a noun Example: 1. chocolate-covered peanuts 2. Two-storey house
  50. 50. 1. Hyphen or dash (-) • Use a hyphen with compound numbers Example: 1. Forty-five 2. Sixty-two
  51. 51. 1. Hyphen or dash (-) • Use a hyphen with the prefixes ex- (meaning former), self-, all-; with the suffix -elect; between a prefix and a capitalized word; and with figures or letters Example: 1. ex-husband 2. T-shirt
  52. 52. 1. Hyphen or dash (-) • Use the dash to emphasize a point or to set off an explanatory comment; but don’t overuse dashes, or they will lose their impact; typically represented on a computer by two hyphens with no spaces before, after, or between the hyphens Example: 1. To some of you, my proposals may seem radical -- even revolutionary.
  53. 53. 1. Hyphen or dash (-) • used for an appositive phrase that already includes commas Example: 1. The boys–Jim, John, and Jeff–left the party early.
  54. 54. Thank you !

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