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A and P Mod. #2 Tissues
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A and P Mod. #2 Tissues

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  • 1. Module #2 HistologyHistology – the study oftissuesFour tissue types: Epithelial Connective Muscle Nerve
  • 2. Epithelial Tissuehttp://lima.osu.edu/biology/images/anatomy/Stratified%20squamous%20epithelium%20400X.jpg
  • 3. General Features of Epithelial Tissue•Cells are closely packed with littleextracellular material (between cells)•Are in continuous sheets•Single or multiple layered
  • 4. General Features of Epithelial Tissue•Epithelia is avascular meaning“without blood vessels”.•Nutrients and wastes are exchangedby diffusion with the adjacentconnective tissue.
  • 5. General Features of Epithelial Tissue•have a free surface which isexposed to a body cavity, lining of aninternal organ, or the exterior of thebody, and• a basal surface which isattached to the basementmembrane.
  • 6. basalsurface
  • 7. General Features of Epithelial Tissue•Subject to wear, tear and injury, sohas a high capacity for renewal (highmitotic rate).•Functions include protection,filtration, lubrication, secretion,digestion, absorption, transportation,excretion, sensory reception, andreproduction.
  • 8. General Features of Epithelial Tissue•Epithelial tissue sits on a basementmembrane located between it andthe tissue underneath. Epithelial tissue Connective tissuehttp://www.ouhsc.edu/histology/Glass%20slides/13_04.jpg
  • 9. Epithelial Tissue con’tThere are two kinds epithelial tissuebased on function: (1) lining or covering epithelium –covers the skin and outside of someinternal organs, forms the innerlining of body cavities, blood vessels,and internal organs.
  • 10. Epithelial Tissue con’tThere are two kinds epithelial tissue (function): (2) glandular epithelium -consists of cells that secretesubstances. (ex. Thyroid/sweat/oilglands)
  • 11. Epithelial tissue can be dividedinto categories based on……>the shape of the cells and> the number of layers of cells.
  • 12. SHAPES of epithelium:1. Squamous-flat cells-thin which allows substances to passthrough (diffuse) them.-have limited cell structures due to size
  • 13. 2. Cuboidalcube shapedImportant in secretion andabsorptionHave more cell structures thansquamousUses active transport to secrete andabsorb substances
  • 14. 3. Columnar cells are tall and cylindrical Have the most cell structures Most complex Most secretion ability
  • 15. 4. Transitional•cells can readily change shapefrom squamous to columnar•change shape due to stretching, ofbody parts. (ex. Found in bladder)
  • 16. Arrangement of Layers1. Simple epitheliuma single layer of cellsfound in areas where diffusion,osmosis, filtration, secretionand absorption occur.Can be squamous, columnar,or cuboidalEx. lungs
  • 17. Arrangement of Layers2. Stratified epithelium contains two or more layers of cells protects underlying tissues found where there is wear and tearEx. Skin Named by the free surface.
  • 18. Arrangement of Layers3. Pseudostratified epitheliumcontains a single layer of a mixtureof cell typeshas a stratified appearancebut is a single layerAll cells touch basementmembrane
  • 19. Glandular EpitheliumColumnar epithelium that containsspecial cells capable of synthesizing andsecreting certain substances such asenzymes, hormones, milk, mucus, sweat,wax and saliva
  • 20. Glandular EpitheliumGoblet cells :Special columnar cells that theirfunction is to secret mucin whichmixes with water to form mucous -intestines
  • 21. Gobletcell
  • 22. Glandular EpitheliumThere are two types ofglands:1. Exocrine glands• secrete their products to the target by ducts• most glands in the body are exocrine glands (sweat/salivary)
  • 23. Exocrine Gland
  • 24. Exocrine glands come in manyarrangements/types:
  • 25. Glandular EpitheliumThere are two types of glands:1. Exocrine glandsTypes of exocrine glands based on how they secrete:a. Merocrine glands – by exocytosis (without losing cellular material) into the duct. Example sweat glands.
  • 26. Merocrine gland directly secretes into duct. http://www.med.umich.edu/histology/fieldTrip/sweatGland.jpg
  • 27. Glandular EpitheliumThere are two types of glands:1. Exocrine glandsTypes of exocrine glands based on how they secrete: a. Merocrine glandsb. Apocrine glands - a portionof the plasma membrane containingthe secretion and some cytoplasmbuds off the cell and enters the duct. Ex. Mammary glands
  • 28. Apocrine Gland
  • 29. There are two types of glands:1. Exocrine glandsTypes of exocrine glands based on how they secrete: a. Merocrine glands b. Apocrine glands c.holocrine gland - the entire cell containing its secretion disintegrates in the duct.Ex. Oil glands
  • 30. Glandular EpitheliumThere are two types of glands:1. Exocrine glands2. Endocrine glandno ductssecrete hormones by exocytosis intointerstitial fluids that surround cellsand blood stream picks them up.Ex. Thyroid gland
  • 31. Endocrine Glands
  • 32. Epithelial Tissue – Functions and locations Handout Type Function Location Simple Squamous Diffusion Blood vessels, lungs Simple Cuboidal Diffusion and secretion Kidneys Simple Columnar Mucous producing Stomach and intestinesStratified Squamous Protection, secreting Skin, lining mouth Stratified Cuboidal Protection, secreting Protect Salivary glands - rareStratified Columnar Protection, secreting Pharynx, larynx, uterus - rareStratified Transitional Stretches, changes shape Urinary bladder
  • 33. Why does skin flake off? Cells attop of skin are so far from nutrients thatthey are dead.Keratin – protein that fills deadepidermal cells at top layerKeratinized membrane – top layerof skin cells that are dead and filled withkeratin.
  • 34. Where quiz stops
  • 35. CONNECTIVE TISSUEFUNCTION: insulate, supportand bind (infrastructure)
  • 36. CONNECTIVE TISSUE continuedCHARACTERISTICS:Greater space between cells(extracellular space) compared toepithelial tissuecells secrete extracellularmaterial or MATRIX which fillsspace between cells
  • 37. CONNECTIVE TISSUE continuedCHARACTERISTICS:Matrix is thematerial between thecell which containsground substance(non-collagenous partof matrix) andcollagen protein
  • 38. CONNECTIVE TISSUE continuedCHARACTERISTICS:Connective Tissue isclassified according to thetype of extracellularmatrix it produces
  • 39. CONNECTIVE TISSUETYPES:1. connective tissue proper2. cartilage3. bone4. blood
  • 40. TYPE 1: Connective Tissue ProperGuess how many kinds ofconnective tissue proper there are? 4
  • 41. TYPE 1: Connective Tissue ProperFour types of Connective TissueProper:A. Loose connective tissue Extracellular matrix is not strong Is used for light binding and flexibility Also called areolar connective tissue
  • 42. TYPE 1: Connective Tissue ProperFour types of Connective Tissue Proper:A. Loose connective tissue Found between the skin and the muscles holding the skin to muscles Has fibroblasts which make tissue’s ground substance, protein fibers, collagen fibers  Mature fibroblast are called fibrocytes
  • 43. Loose Connective Tissue Proper fibroblast
  • 44. Four types of Connective Tissue Proper:A. Loose connective tissueB.Dense irregular connective tissuePart of the skinCollagen fibers moredensely packed than looseconnective tissue
  • 45. B. dense irregular connective tissue continuedDenser packing give tissuemore strengthIrregular because fibers run every which way
  • 46. Dense irregular connective tissue proper
  • 47. Four types of Connective Tissue Proper: A. Loose connective tissue B. Dense irregular connective tissueC. Dense regular connectivetissue proper Collagen fibers run in one direction giving more strength called tensile strength Found in tendons which hold muscle to bones and ligaments that hold bone to
  • 48. c. Dense regular connective tissue properTendons andligaments take a longtime to heal wheninjured because ofdense amount of
  • 49. Dense regular connective tissue proper
  • 50. Four types of Connective Tissue Proper: A. Loose connective tissue B. Dense irregular connective tissue C. Dense regular connective tissue proper D. Adipose tissue Fatty tissue it has fat cells in it as well as connective tissue cells
  • 51. D. Adipose tissue Function is to store energy, insulate, and to hold organs in place Example – kidneys are protected and held in place by adipose tissue
  • 52. CONNECTIVE TISSUETYPES:1. connective tissue proper2. Cartilage Supporting connective tissue with tensile strength and supporting fibers of collagen in the ground substance
  • 53. CONNECTIVE TISSUETYPES:1. connective tissue proper2. Cartilage• Firmer than connective tissue proper• Has no blood supply• Thin matrix• Found in nose, ear, larynx• Often replaced by bone
  • 54. CONNECTIVE TISSUETYPES:1. connective tissue proper2. CartilageChondroblasts – immaturecartilage cells that producethe matrix fibers.
  • 55. CONNECTIVE TISSUETYPES:1. connective tissue proper2. CartilageChondrocytes – maturechondroblast that becometrapped in matrix and livein hollow spaces calledlacuna in the cartilagetissue.
  • 56. Lacuna (histology),a small spacecontaining anosteocyte in boneor chondrocyte incartilage
  • 57. CONNECTIVE TISSUETYPES:1. connective tissue proper2. Cartilage3 types of cartilage:A. Hyaline cartilage occurs at end of bones, external ear, fetal skeleton, nose, ribs and vertebrae Weakest and most common
  • 58. CONNECTIVE TISSUETYPES:1. connective tissue proper2. Cartilage3 types of cartilage:B. Elastic cartilage found in epiglottis and external ear contains elastic fibers great flexibility and is able to withstand repeated bending
  • 59. CONNECTIVE TISSUETYPES:1. connective tissue proper2. Cartilage3 types of cartilage:C. Fibrous cartilage Strongest Dense collagen fibers with limited ground substance Found in disk between vertebrae and skull Where bears great amount of weight Has fibrous appearance
  • 60. CONNECTIVE TISSUE - Cartilage
  • 61. CONNECTIVE TISSUETYPES:1. connective tissue proper2. Cartilage3. Bone: Hardest connective tissue Consist of cells, collagen fibers, and mineralized (calcium and phosphate) ground substance
  • 62. CONNECTIVE TISSUETYPES:1. connective tissue proper2. Cartilage3. Bone: Ground substance becomes hard or calcified through a process known as calcification
  • 63. CONNECTIVE TISSUETYPES:1. connective tissue proper2. Cartilage3. Bone: Has a rich blood supply Properly known as osseous tissue
  • 64. CONNECTIVE TISSUETYPES:1. connective tissue proper2. Cartilage3. BoneTypes of bone cells: A. Osteoblasts- make components of bone
  • 65. CONNECTIVE TISSUETYPES:1. connective tissue proper2. Cartilage3. BoneTypes of bone cells: B. Osteocytes – mature osteoblasts found in lacuna
  • 66. CONNECTIVE TISSUETYPES:1. connective tissue proper2. Cartilage3. BoneTypes of bone cells: C. Osteoclasts – reasorb bone and remodel it
  • 67. CONNECTIVE TISSUETYPES:1. connective tissue proper2. Cartilage3. Bone4. Blood transports Also known as vascular tissue Two types of cells – red and white
  • 68. CONNECTIVE TISSUETYPES:1. connective tissue proper2. Cartilage3. Bone4. Blood Ground substance = proteins in blood Has fluid part – blood plasma Has clotting fibers
  • 69. QUIZ
  • 70. New Topic: MembranesMembrane = layers oftissueThere are three categories ofmembranes:
  • 71. New Topic: MembranesThere are three categories of membranes:1. Mucous found in linings of organsystems that open to the outside
  • 72. New Topic: MembranesThere are three categories of membranes:1. MucousEx. Respiratory system,reproductive system, digestivesystemTraps foreign material
  • 73. New Topic: MembranesThere are three categories of membranes:2. Serous line the body cavities that do notopen directly to the outsidethey cover the organs located inthose cavities
  • 74. New Topic: MembranesThere are three categories of membranes:2. Serous are covered by a thin layer ofserous fluid that lubricates and issecreted by the epithelium
  • 75. New Topic: MembranesThere are three categories of membranes:2. SerousSerous fluid lubricates themembrane and reduces frictionand abrasion when organs moveagainst each other or the cavitywall.
  • 76. New Topic: MembranesThere are three categories of membranes:3. Synovial membranes connective tissue membranes thatline the cavities of the freelymovable joints such as the shoulder,elbow, and knee.
  • 77. New Topic: MembranesThere are three categories of membranes:3. Synovial membranessecrete synovial fluid into the jointcavity, and this lubricates cartilageon the ends of the bones so thatthey can move freely and withoutfriction.
  • 78. New Topic: tissue repairRemember: Tissues are made up ofcells.Two types of cells that make up tissuebased on function:1. Stromal cells – provide structure andsupport to tissue; usually connectivetissue
  • 79. New Topic: tissue repairRemember: Tissues are made up of cells.Two types of cells that make up tissue based on function:1. Stromal cells – provide structure and support to tissue2.Parenchymal cells – cells that actually perform the function of the tissue
  • 80. Organ Parenchymakidney nephron alveoli, respiratory bronchiole, alveolarlungs duct and terminal bronchiole white pulp and redspleen pulpbrain neuronliver hepatocyte
  • 81. New Topic: tissue repairCategories of cells based on ability toreproduce or regenerate:1. Labile cells cells that multiply constantly throughout life Most of cells in body ex. Parenchymal epithelial cells replace themselves quickly
  • 82. New Topic: tissue repairCategories of cells based on ability to reproduce or regenerate:2. Stable cells only multiply when receive external stimulus to do so ex. Bone parenchymal cells when a bone is broken can reproduce and repair the broken bone
  • 83. New Topic: tissue repairCategories of cells based on ability to reproduce or regenerate:3. Permanent cells do not have the ability to multiply  Nervous system parenchymal cells (neurons) are permanent; can’t be replaced.
  • 84. New Topic: tissue repairSo, if cells are parenchymal permanentand die they will be replaced by labilestromal cells..This is why brain damage or heartdamage is said to be irreversible.