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A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
A and P Notes217 228
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A and P Notes217 228

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  • 1. The Brain – Module #8•Weighs about 3 pounds•Composed of bundles ofneurons•Processes information•Need lots of oxygen and glucose•Needs ATP to run sodium-potassium pump
  • 2. Hypoxia – the condition inwhich inadequate oxygen isavailable to tissue.Hypoglycemia – conditionwhere blood glucose levelsdrop symptom -can’t thinkclearly
  • 3. Stroke – most commonbrain injury/disorderTwo types of strokes
  • 4. Two types of strokes:1. Ischemic stroke – blood clot blocks blood flow
  • 5. Two types of strokes:1. Ischemic stroke – blood clot blocks blood flow2. Hemorrhagic stroke – blood vessels burst – most fatal
  • 6. The brain requires:OxygenGlucoseVitamin A, B complex, C & EFolic acidFatty acids for myelin
  • 7. Brain Anatomy: White matterNeurons of brain wrapped inmyelin make it look whiteIs found in the inside area ofthe brain
  • 8. Brain Anatomy:White matter Gray matterneurons of brain that arenot wrapped in myelin makeslook grayFound on the outside areaof the brain (cerebral cortex)
  • 9. Brain Anatomy:Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) - instrument that willgive you images of the brain
  • 10. Brain Anatomy: Four major divisions:1. Brain stem cerebrum diencephalon2. Diencephalon brain stem cerebellum3. Cerebellum4. Cerebrum
  • 11. Brain Anatomy:Four major divisions:1. Brain stem located between cerebrum and spinal cord
  • 12. Brain Anatomy:Four major divisions: 1. Brain stem3 parts to brain stem: A. medulla oblongata • section closest to spinal cord • regulates vital functions (i.e. breathing, blood pressure) • where decussation occurs • can be fatal if injured
  • 13. Decussation = crossing overVasomotor area – area ofmedulla that controls thedilation and constriction ofblood vessels to regulate bloodpressure.
  • 14. Brain Anatomy:Four major divisions: 1. Brain stem 3 parts to brain stem: A. medulla oblongaB. Ponslinks cerebrum & cerebellumassist in regulating breathingcoordinates eye movement
  • 15. Brain Anatomy:Four major divisions: 1. Brain stem 3 parts to brain stem: A. medulla oblonga B. Pons3. Midbrain• located above the pons• coordinates eye movements and pupil dilation• hearing center• contains reticular formation
  • 16. Brain Anatomy:Four major divisions: 1. Brain stem2. DiencephalonLocated between midbrain andcerebrumIncludes the thalamus andhypothalamusis part of the limbic system
  • 17. 2. Diencephalon Limbic SystemStructures involved in emotions andmotivations related to survivalinclude fear, anger, and emotionsrelated to reproduction and eatingIncludes amygdala, hippocampus,thalamus and hypothalamus
  • 18. 2. Diencephalon ThalamusActs as a relay or switch boardsending impulses to right place inbrainInvolved in pain & temperatureOrigin of fear and anger
  • 19. 2. Diencephalon HypothalamusRelay between thalamus andcerebrumControls hormones throughpituitary glandInvolved in emotions and modesControls hunger, body weight,body temperature, water balance
  • 20. 2. Diencephalon Reticular Formation:•Regulates sleep and awake cyclesand level of alertness of cerebrum•Located in brain stem &diencephalon• If damaged may lead to anirreversible coma
  • 21. Brain Anatomy:Four major divisions: 1. Brain stem 2. Diencephalon3. Cerebellum second largest brain region Latin for little brain Has right and left hemispheres Composed of white and gray matter
  • 22. Brain Anatomy:Four major divisions: 1. Brain stem 2. Diencephalon 3. Cerebellum tightly packed, convoluted mostly unconscious thought
  • 23. 3. CerebellumFunctions:A. Regulates and coordinatecomplex voluntary muscularmovement (often once trained bycerebrum).
  • 24. 3. CerebellumFunctions:B. Equilibrium – maintainsproper muscle tone to keepyou up right.C. Muscle preset – it presetsthe muscles for the amount ofstrength you might need
  • 25. 3. CerebellumFunctions:D. Dampening – keeps upperlimbs from swinging wildlywhen you run or walk.E. Muscle tone - continuousand passive partialcontraction of the muscles
  • 26. Brain Anatomy:Four major divisions: 1. Brain stem 2. Diencephalon 3. Cerebellum4. CerebrumoLargest part of brainoDivided into two hemispheres oRight – creative, big picture oLeft – logical, mathematical
  • 27. Brain Anatomy:Four major divisions: 1. Brain stem 2. Diencephalon 3. Cerebellum 4. CerebrumoRight side of braincontrols the leftside of the bodyoLeft side of thebrain controls theright side of the body
  • 28. 4. CerebrumoLongitudinal fissure - divides twohalves of cerebrum
  • 29. 4. CerebrumoTwo sides connected by thecorpus callosum the largestcommissure.oCommissure –connection ofnerve fibersbetween 2hemispheres
  • 30. 4. Cerebrumoconsist of both gray matter andwhite matteroGray matter on the outsidecalled cerebral cortex and whitematter on the inside
  • 31. 4. Cerebrumois convoluted or folded to getmore in a tight space.oFolds are called gyrioGrooves are called sulci
  • 32. 4. CerebrumoCarries on higher –level brainfunctions such as: Thought Voluntary movement Language Reasoning Perception
  • 33. 4. CerebrumFour lobes of the cerebrum:
  • 34. 4. CerebrumFour lobes of the cerebrum:A. Temporal lobe:•separated by lateral fissure• sense of hearing, smell andtaste•Place of memory (hippocampus)and abstract thought
  • 35. 4. CerebrumFour lobes of the cerebrum: A. Temporal lobe:B. Frontal lobe:• site of personality, judgment,long term memory, attention, selfcontrol and some skeletal musclecontrol.•Boundary is the lateral fissure andcentral sulcus.
  • 36. 4. CerebrumFour lobes of the cerebrum: A. Temporal lobe B. Frontal lobeC. Occipital lobe:• visual center contains theprimary visual cortex•Is hard to differentiate, nofissures or sulcus to divide it
  • 37. 4. CerebrumFour lobes of the cerebrum: A. Temporal lobe B. Frontal lobe C. Occipital lobe:D. Parietal lobes:• analyzes sensory information,knowledge of numbers and theirrelations, spatial perception andmanipulation of objects (mapreading)
  • 38. 4. CerebrumFunctional areas in the cerebrum:A. Primary somatic sensory area orcortex •Receives sensory info from all over the body •Located on the central gyrus •Mapped in 1950’s through shock therapy •Localizes where sensation came from
  • 39. 4. CerebrumFunctional areas in the cerebrum:A. Primary somatic sensory area or cortexB.Somatic Sensory Association Area•Determines nature of thesensation and puts it in propercontext
  • 40. 4. CerebrumFunctional areas in the cerebrum:A. Primary somatic sensory area or cortex.B. Somatic Sensory Association Area C. Visual cortex Located in the occipital lobe Receives action potentials from the optic nerve Interprets basic shape, size and color Passes info to visual association area
  • 41. 4. CerebrumFunctional areas in the cerebrum:A. Primary somatic sensory area or cortex.B. Somatic Sensory Association AreaC. Visual cortex D. Visual Association Area  Compares the basic image from the visual cortex to historic past for recognition  Always is developing (how baby recognizes mom)
  • 42. 4. CerebrumFunctional areas in the cerebrum:A. Primary somatic sensory area or cortex.B. Somatic Sensory Association AreaC. Visual cortexD. Visual Association Area E. Primary Auditory Area  located on temporal lobe  Responds to basic sound determining volume and pitch  Passes signal to auditory association area
  • 43. Functional areas in the cerebrum:A. Primary somatic sensory area or cortex.B. Somatic Sensory Association AreaC. Visual cortexD. Visual Association AreaE. Primary Auditory Area F. Auditory Association Area • Puts sound in historic context • If speech sends to Wernicke’s area
  • 44. 4. CerebrumFunctional areas in the cerebrum:A. Primary somatic sensory area or cortex.B. Somatic Sensory Association AreaC. Visual cortexD. Visual Association AreaE. Primary Auditory AreaF. Auditory Association AreaG. Broca’s (front) and Wernicke’s Area - center of motor speech and speech comprehensionH. Insular cortex - interprets tasteI. Olfactory bulb – interprets smell
  • 45. Insular cortex
  • 46. 4. CerebrumFunctional areas in the cerebrum:G. Broca’s and Wernicke’s AreaH. Insular cortexI. Olfactory bulbJ. Primary Motor Area/cortexo Located on precentral gyruso Controls basic skeletal muscle movement
  • 47. 4. CerebrumFunctional areas in the cerebrum:G. Broca’s and Wernicke’s AreaH. Insular cortexI. Olfactory bulbJ. Primary Motor Area/cortexK. Premotor areaoWorks out motor sequences beforehand for fine motor skills for the primary motor cortex
  • 48. 4. CerebrumFunctional areas in the cerebrum:I. Olfactory bulbJ. Primary motor area/cortexK. Premotor areaL. Prefrontal areao Largest part of cerebrumo Center for ability to reason and motivation (personality)o Lobotomy – procedure to control violent behavior

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