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Lesson 9.1 Nutrition/Digestions2 reasons we need to intake anddigest food:Need structural materialsNeed Energy for life ...
Structural needs:•Need to rebuild cells, etc. thatare breaking down
Types of materials needed:•97% body is composed ofcarbon, hydrogen, oxygen, andnitrogen•3% composed ofcalcium, phosphorus,...
Energy needs:•Oxidation = is the process where asubstance is combined with oxygen•Food you eat is oxidized andbroken down ...
ATP:•ATP = adenosine triphosphate•Has 3 phosphate groups•When energy is needed onephosphate bond is broken andenergy that ...
ATP continued:•Results in ATP becoming ADP.•ADP can be recycled to ATP againby adding a phosphate group.
Molecules important toyour body:
Molecules important to your body:1. Carbohydrates:•60% daily caloric intake•Main source of energy for ATP•Molecules are 1:...
:Carbohydrates continued•Includes: •Simple sugars •Starches – long chains of simple sugars •Glycogen – animal starch •Cell...
:Carbohydrates continuedEat whole grains as a source ofcarbs to get vitamins, minerals, andnutrients that your body needs
Molecules important to your body:1. Carbohydrates:2. Proteins:Building blocks of the cell and itspartsMade of smaller un...
Proteins continued:Composed of Amino acidsAmino acid structure:R = functionalgroup thatchanges fromamino acidto amino a...
Proteins continued:•Should be 10% of daily caloric intake•Found in leanmeats, milk, cheese, eggs, soybeans, legumes•Best i...
Nine essential amino acidsFYI DON’T NEED TO COPY!     Phenylalanine, valine,    threonine, tryptophan,    isoleucine, meth...
Copy - Basically:   when you eat yourprotein food source yourbody breaks the proteindown into amino acids andthen uses the...
Molecules important to your body:1. Carbohydrates:2. Proteins:3. LIPIDS (FATS, OILS)Should be less than 25% of dailycalor...
Lipids continued:Why we need:Stored energy sourceUsed for building materialsespecially cell membraneTransport fat solub...
Types of lipids:Fatty acids – most basictype, carbon chain withHydrogen
Types of lipids:Fatty acids – most basic type, carbon chain with HTriglycerides – largermolecules three fatty acidswith ...
Lipids continued:      Saturated vs. UnsaturatedSaturated fats have more hydrogenatoms attached than unsaturatedfats.Sat...
Lipids continued:Hydrogenation – process of addinghydrogen atoms to an unsaturatedfat to saturate it ex. margarineExtra fa...
Lipids continued:Lipoproteins – transfer fats in thebody3 categories of lipoproteins:1. Very low density (VLDLS)2. Low den...
Biology Lesson9.1
Biology Lesson9.1
Biology Lesson9.1
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Biology Lesson9.1

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Transcript of "Biology Lesson9.1"

  1. 1. Lesson 9.1 Nutrition/Digestions2 reasons we need to intake anddigest food:Need structural materialsNeed Energy for life processes
  2. 2. Structural needs:•Need to rebuild cells, etc. thatare breaking down
  3. 3. Types of materials needed:•97% body is composed ofcarbon, hydrogen, oxygen, andnitrogen•3% composed ofcalcium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, sulfur and chlorine
  4. 4. Energy needs:•Oxidation = is the process where asubstance is combined with oxygen•Food you eat is oxidized andbroken down into smaller units•Then energy is released•Energy is captured in a moleculeknown as ATP
  5. 5. ATP:•ATP = adenosine triphosphate•Has 3 phosphate groups•When energy is needed onephosphate bond is broken andenergy that can be used by cell isreleased.
  6. 6. ATP continued:•Results in ATP becoming ADP.•ADP can be recycled to ATP againby adding a phosphate group.
  7. 7. Molecules important toyour body:
  8. 8. Molecules important to your body:1. Carbohydrates:•60% daily caloric intake•Main source of energy for ATP•Molecules are 1:2:1 C:H:0example glucose is C6H12O6
  9. 9. :Carbohydrates continued•Includes: •Simple sugars •Starches – long chains of simple sugars •Glycogen – animal starch •Cellulose – plants use in cell wall; good source of dietary fiber
  10. 10. :Carbohydrates continuedEat whole grains as a source ofcarbs to get vitamins, minerals, andnutrients that your body needs
  11. 11. Molecules important to your body:1. Carbohydrates:2. Proteins:Building blocks of the cell and itspartsMade of smaller units calledamino acids22 different amino acids thatmake up all proteins
  12. 12. Proteins continued:Composed of Amino acidsAmino acid structure:R = functionalgroup thatchanges fromamino acidto amino acidmaking them different; rest same
  13. 13. Proteins continued:•Should be 10% of daily caloric intake•Found in leanmeats, milk, cheese, eggs, soybeans, legumes•Best if eaten in three meals•Need essential amino acids = onesthe body can’t make & U must get
  14. 14. Nine essential amino acidsFYI DON’T NEED TO COPY! Phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, methionine, histidine, leucine, and lysine
  15. 15. Copy - Basically: when you eat yourprotein food source yourbody breaks the proteindown into amino acids andthen uses them to rebuildthings
  16. 16. Molecules important to your body:1. Carbohydrates:2. Proteins:3. LIPIDS (FATS, OILS)Should be less than 25% of dailycaloric intakeShould avoid saturated andhydrogenated oils
  17. 17. Lipids continued:Why we need:Stored energy sourceUsed for building materialsespecially cell membraneTransport fat soluble vitaminsMake up some hormones likecholesterol
  18. 18. Types of lipids:Fatty acids – most basictype, carbon chain withHydrogen
  19. 19. Types of lipids:Fatty acids – most basic type, carbon chain with HTriglycerides – largermolecules three fatty acidswith one glycerol
  20. 20. Lipids continued: Saturated vs. UnsaturatedSaturated fats have more hydrogenatoms attached than unsaturatedfats.Saturated are solid at Room TempEx. ButterUnsaturated are liquid at RoomTemp ex. canola oil - are healthier
  21. 21. Lipids continued:Hydrogenation – process of addinghydrogen atoms to an unsaturatedfat to saturate it ex. margarineExtra fat in the body is stored inadipose cells under the skin andaround body organs.
  22. 22. Lipids continued:Lipoproteins – transfer fats in thebody3 categories of lipoproteins:1. Very low density (VLDLS)2. Low density (LDL’s) high in cholesterol (bad)3. High density (HDL’s) high in proteins (good)
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