Chapter 7 Lesson 7.1 Skeletal system206 bones make up theskeletal systemFunctions 1. Supports and protects 2. Makes red and white blood cells 3. Stores minerals like calcium and phosphorus 4. Aid in movement, muscles attach to bones
MUSCULAR SYSTEMFUNCTION - MOVEMENTMORE THAN 650 MUSCLES INTHE BODYTwo categories: VOLUNTARYAND INVOLUNTARYMUSCLES ALSORESPONSIBLE FOR THE HEARTBEATING AND YOU BREATHING
SKELETAL SYSTEMTwo broad divisions: 1. Axial skeleton•trunk of the body•Includes a. vertebral column b. skull c. thoracic cage (ribs, sternum, and vertebrae), d. hyoid bone (in the neck)
SKELETAL SYSTEMTwo broad divisions: 1. Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton – 2.the appendages and their girdles(where they attach to the axialskeleton).
Axial skeletonSkull – Cranial bones dividedinto two main parts: 1. CRANIUM LARGEST PART OF THE SKULL IS MADEOF THE CRANIAL BONES HAS 8 BONES THAT ARE JOINEDINCLUDES BONES OF THE BACK OFHEAD, SIDE, AND TOP
Axial skeletonSkull – Cranial bones divided into two main parts: 1. CRANIUM 2. FACIAL14 BONESFACE AND JAW
Sutures - in adults where the bonesof cranium are joined tightlytogether which will absorb shock.Frontanels – tough membrane inbabies/children where the bones ofcranium are connected which allowsa baby’s brain to grow.
MaxillaMakes up central portion of faceWhere upper teeth are attached Maxilla
Mandible•Lower jaw•Lower teeth attach•Moves•Held to skull byligaments•Ligaments are Mandibleconnective tissuethat hold bones tobones
Palate – roof of mouth formedby palatine bones andmaxillary bones Palatine bone Maxilla
Sinuses – air-filled pockets(hollow spaces in the bone)located within the bones ofthe face and around the nasalcavity.Function:SoundresonationMakes skull
Hyoid bone – in the upperneck and where muscleslike tongue attach.
Smallest bones of body in the ear andinclude: Malleus (hammer) Incus (anvil) Stapes(stirrup) Function: to amplify the sound
Vertebral ColumnFunction: to protect thespinal cord and supportthe body.Composed of 26 vertebraeor individual bones.
Types of Vertebrae:•7 cervical (head attaches)•12 thoracic (ribs attach)•5 lumbar (support weight)•5 fused sacral – five fusedvertebrae• 4 fused coccyx also called thetailbone
C1: To blood supply to the head, pituitary gland, scalp, bones of the face, brain inner and middle ear,sympathetic nervous system, eyes, earsC2: To eyes, optic nerves, auditory nerves, sinuses, mastoid bones, tongue, forehead, heart C3: To cheeks, outer ear, face, bones, teeth, trifacial nerve, lungs C4: To nose, lips, mouth, Eustachian tube, mucus membranes, lungsC5: To vocal cords, neck glands, pharynx C6: To neck muscles, shoulders, tonsils C7: Tothyroid gland, bursa in the shoulders, elbows T1: To arms from the elbows down, including hands, arms, wrists and fingers; esophagus and trachea,heartT2: To heart, including its valves and covering coronary arteries; lungs bronchial tubesT3: To lungs, bronchial tubes, pleura, chest, breast, heart T4: To gallbladder, common duct, heart, lungs, bronchial tubesT5: To liver, solar plexus, circulation (general), heart, esophagus, stomach T6: To stomach, esophagus, peritoneum, liver, duodenumT7: To kidneys, appendix, testes, ovaries, uterus, adrenal cortex, spleen, pancreas, large intestine T8: To spleen, stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, adrenal cortex, small intestine, pyloric valveT9: To adrenal cortex, pancreas, spleen, gallbladder, ovaries, uterus, small intestineT10: To kidneys, appendix, testes, ovaries, uterus, adrenal cortex, spleen, pancreas, large intestine T11: To kidneys, ureters, large intestine, urinary bladder, adrenal medulla, adrenal cortex, uterus,ovaries, ileocecal valveT12: To small intestine, lymph circulation, large intestine, urinary bladder, uterus, kdneys, ileocecal valveL1: To large intesine, inguinal rings, uterusL2: To appendix, abdomen, upper leg, urinary bladder L3: To sex organs, uterus, bladder, knee, prostate, large intestine L4: To prostate gland, muscles of the lower back, sciatic nerve L5: To lower legs, ankles, feet, prostate Sacrum: To hip bones, buttocks, rectum, sex organs, genitalia, urinary bladder, ureter, prostateSacral Plexus: Forms the sciatic as well as other nerves that go to muscles, joints and other structures ofthe legs, knees, ankles, feet and toesCoccyx: To rectum, anus
Spinal curvature:Spine is “S” shaped with 4curvatures: cervical – convex (forward) thoracic – concave (back) lumbar – convex (forward) sacral – concave (back)Curved spine acts as a shockabsorber, and for strength and
Vertebral column is made upof vertebrae stacked uponeach other.
•Between thevertebrae are theintervertebral discmade up of cartilage.•Cartilage – tough,rubbery connectivetissue.•Disk act as shockabsorbers.
Atlas and axis – first twocervical vertebrae thatsupport head and allowfor sideways movement.
Abnormalities of the curvature ofthe spine:Scoliosis – abnormal sidewayscurve of the spine.Kyphosis – (hunchback) abnormalcurve of the thoracic vertebraeLordosis – (swayback) abnormalcurve of the lumbar vertebrae
Thoracic cage:Function: protects organs suchas the heart and lungsIncludes: ribs and sternum
RibsAttach to the thoracicvertebrae in back andmost attach to thesternum in the front bycostal cartilageThere are 12 pairs forboth male and female,but one of best areas forregenerating
Types of Ribs:•True ribs – first sevenpairs that connect tosternum directly by costalcartilage.•False ribs – last five pairthat indirectly attach byjoining the cartilage of the7th rib or don’t attach to thesternum at all.
Types of Ribs:•True ribs•False ribe•Floating ribs – lasttwo pairs of false ribsthat do not attach tosternum directly orindirectly.