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Lesson6.1 and 6.2
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Lesson6.1 and 6.2

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  • 1. Chapter 6 Lesson 1Levels of OrganizationCells tissues organs organ systemsAND FINALLY THE ORGANISM
  • 2. Lesson 6.1Cells – smallest living unitTissue – group of cells that functiontogether to do a jobOrgan – group of tissues that functiontogether to do a jobOrgan system – group of organs thatfunction together to do a job
  • 3. Body CavitiesThere are 4 main body cavities:1. Cranial cavity – contains the brain2. Thoracic cavity – chest area includes heart, lungs,windpipe, esopha gus
  • 4. Body Cavities There are 4 main body cavities:1. Cranial cavity2. Thoracic cavity3. Abdominal cavity – stomach, spleen, kidne y, intestines4. Spinal cavity – holds the spinal cord
  • 5. There are 11 Organ Systems in the Human Body
  • 6. 11 Organ Systems:1. Circulatory system:Organs includeheart, arteries, veins, and capillariesTransports substances throughoutthe body
  • 7. 2. Immune system:Defends the body againstbacteria, viruses, and other invadersMost important part are white bloodcells made in bone marrowAlso includes spleen and tonsilsSubdivision of immune system is thelymphatic system which filters lymphfrom blood through lymph nodes
  • 8. 3. Respiratory system:Functions to supply body with oxygenand rid of carbon dioxideIncludes nose, nasalpassages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes and lungs
  • 9. 4. Digestive system:Functions to digest or mechanicallyand chemically break down the foodinto usable molecules that are absorbedinto the blood streamIncludes mouth, esophagus, stomach,small and large intestines, rectum, andanus
  • 10. 5. Excretory system:Functions to rid the body of metabolicwasteIncludes sweat glands,kidneys, urethra,bladder
  • 11. 6. Nervous system:Functions to coordinate activities inthe body through electrochemicalmeansIncludes senseorgans, nerves, brain, and the spinalcord
  • 12. 7. Endocrine system:Functions to coordinate activities inthe body through chemical meansChemicals used are called hormonesIncludes endocrine glands such aspituitary gland, thalamus, thyroid,parathyroid, etc.
  • 13. 8. Integumentary System:Functions to provide communicationbetween body and outsideenvironment, protects the body fromthe world around usIncludes the largest organ of the bodythe skin
  • 14. 9. Skeletal System:Functions to support and protect thebody, produces red and white bloodcells, stores minerals such as calciumIncludes the 206 bones
  • 15. 10. Muscular System:Functions to provide movementTwo types of muscle include voluntaryand involuntary Voluntary - have conscious control Involuntary – unconscious control
  • 16. 11. Reproductive System:Functions to continue the human raceHeavily regulated by the endocrinesystemIncludes many organs such as theovaries, uterus, etc.
  • 17. Note: Odds and EndsRemember:Arteries pump blood away from theheart.Veins pump the blood to the heart.Arteries and veins end in capillaries.
  • 18. Note: Odds and EndsRemember:Kidneys filter the blood removingexcess water and metabolic waste.
  • 19. Diaphragm – muscle that separatesthe thoracic and abdominalcavities. When it contracts andrelaxes it forces air in and out oflungs.
  • 20. Mouth is where digestion beginsand food is prepared.Esophagus – muscular tube tostomach, pushes food along bywave-like contractions calledperistalsis.Stomach – stores foodSmall intestine – most digestionand absorption
  • 21. Large intestine – water reclaimedRectum – undigested food stored
  • 22. Lesson 6.2 TissuesThere are 4 types of tissues:1. Epithelial – skin and lines organs and body parts
  • 23. Lesson 6.2 TissuesThere are 4 types of tissues:1. Epithelial – skin and lines organs and body parts2. Connective – holds things together, includes bone, tendons, ligaments, blood, fat
  • 24. Lesson 6.2 TissuesThere are 4 types of tissues:1. Epithelial – skin and lines organs and body parts2. Connective – holds things together, includes bone, tendons, ligaments, blood, fat3. Muscle – movement Three types 2. smooth 1. cardiac of muscle tissue 3. striated
  • 25. Lesson 6.2 TissuesThere are 4 types of tissues:1. Epithelial – skin and lines organs and body parts2. Connective – holds things together, includes bone, tendons, ligaments, blood, fat3. Muscle – movement4. Nerve – controls organs and coordinates functions
  • 26. Lesson 6.2 Tissues4 types of tissue fluids: (66% iswater)1. Blood = major body fluid2. Cerebrospinal fluid = bathes brainand spinal chord
  • 27. Lesson 6.2 Tissues4 types of tissue fluids:1. Blood = major body fluid2. Cerebrospinal fluid = bathes brain and spinal chord3. Interstitial fluid = surrounds the cellsin the tissue and is picked up by thelymphatic system to filter out invaders4. Lymph fluid = interstitial fluid pickedup by lymphatic system
  • 28. Lesson 6.2 TissuesMembranes are thin coveringsthat line.4 types of membranes in the body:1. Serous – line enclosed body cavitiesthat don’t open to outside2. Mucous – line cavities that open to theoutside
  • 29. Lesson 6.2 TissuesMembranes are thin coverings that line.4 types of membranes in the body:1. Serous – line enclosed body cavities that don’t open to outside2. Mucous – line cavities that open to the outside3. Cutaneous – skin4. Synovial – line the synovial joints(like knee)
  • 30. Lesson 6.2 TissuesMatrix – substance betweenthe cellsNote: Tissues are made of individualcells and the matrix these cells producewhich is found between the cells.Examples of tissues with matrix: cartilage, bone, and blood (plasma)
  • 31. Lesson 6.2 TissuesMatrix – substance between the cellsNote: Tissues are made of individual cells and the matrix these cells produce which is found betweenthe cells.Ex. Bone is a connective tissue made ofbone cells such as osteoblast andosteocytes that lay down a matrix ofminerals such as calcium and proteinfibers called collagen.
  • 32. Bone Tissue Bone cellmatrix Osteon
  • 33. Lesson 6.2 TissuesVestigial organs are organs that wedo not understand their functions.Evolutionist once claimed these wereorgans no longer needed.Ex. Parathyroid, appendixThe list of vestigial organsin humans has shrunkfrom 180 in 1890 to0 in 1999.
  • 34. Two vestigial organs and their knownfunctions:Appendix – known immune systemfunctionParathyroid – calcium regulation inblood and bones