Chapter 6 Lesson 1Levels of OrganizationCells tissues organs organ systemsAND FINALLY THE ORGANISM
Lesson 6.1Cells – smallest living unitTissue – group of cells that functiontogether to do a jobOrgan – group of tissues that functiontogether to do a jobOrgan system – group of organs thatfunction together to do a job
Body CavitiesThere are 4 main body cavities:1. Cranial cavity – contains the brain2. Thoracic cavity – chest area includes heart, lungs,windpipe, esopha gus
Body Cavities There are 4 main body cavities:1. Cranial cavity2. Thoracic cavity3. Abdominal cavity – stomach, spleen, kidne y, intestines4. Spinal cavity – holds the spinal cord
11 Organ Systems:1. Circulatory system:Organs includeheart, arteries, veins, and capillariesTransports substances throughoutthe body
2. Immune system:Defends the body againstbacteria, viruses, and other invadersMost important part are white bloodcells made in bone marrowAlso includes spleen and tonsilsSubdivision of immune system is thelymphatic system which filters lymphfrom blood through lymph nodes
3. Respiratory system:Functions to supply body with oxygenand rid of carbon dioxideIncludes nose, nasalpassages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes and lungs
4. Digestive system:Functions to digest or mechanicallyand chemically break down the foodinto usable molecules that are absorbedinto the blood streamIncludes mouth, esophagus, stomach,small and large intestines, rectum, andanus
5. Excretory system:Functions to rid the body of metabolicwasteIncludes sweat glands,kidneys, urethra,bladder
6. Nervous system:Functions to coordinate activities inthe body through electrochemicalmeansIncludes senseorgans, nerves, brain, and the spinalcord
7. Endocrine system:Functions to coordinate activities inthe body through chemical meansChemicals used are called hormonesIncludes endocrine glands such aspituitary gland, thalamus, thyroid,parathyroid, etc.
8. Integumentary System:Functions to provide communicationbetween body and outsideenvironment, protects the body fromthe world around usIncludes the largest organ of the bodythe skin
9. Skeletal System:Functions to support and protect thebody, produces red and white bloodcells, stores minerals such as calciumIncludes the 206 bones
10. Muscular System:Functions to provide movementTwo types of muscle include voluntaryand involuntary Voluntary - have conscious control Involuntary – unconscious control
11. Reproductive System:Functions to continue the human raceHeavily regulated by the endocrinesystemIncludes many organs such as theovaries, uterus, etc.
Note: Odds and EndsRemember:Arteries pump blood away from theheart.Veins pump the blood to the heart.Arteries and veins end in capillaries.
Note: Odds and EndsRemember:Kidneys filter the blood removingexcess water and metabolic waste.
Diaphragm – muscle that separatesthe thoracic and abdominalcavities. When it contracts andrelaxes it forces air in and out oflungs.
Mouth is where digestion beginsand food is prepared.Esophagus – muscular tube tostomach, pushes food along bywave-like contractions calledperistalsis.Stomach – stores foodSmall intestine – most digestionand absorption
Large intestine – water reclaimedRectum – undigested food stored
Lesson 6.2 TissuesThere are 4 types of tissues:1. Epithelial – skin and lines organs and body parts
Lesson 6.2 TissuesThere are 4 types of tissues:1. Epithelial – skin and lines organs and body parts2. Connective – holds things together, includes bone, tendons, ligaments, blood, fat
Lesson 6.2 TissuesThere are 4 types of tissues:1. Epithelial – skin and lines organs and body parts2. Connective – holds things together, includes bone, tendons, ligaments, blood, fat3. Muscle – movement Three types 2. smooth 1. cardiac of muscle tissue 3. striated
Lesson 6.2 TissuesThere are 4 types of tissues:1. Epithelial – skin and lines organs and body parts2. Connective – holds things together, includes bone, tendons, ligaments, blood, fat3. Muscle – movement4. Nerve – controls organs and coordinates functions
Lesson 6.2 Tissues4 types of tissue fluids: (66% iswater)1. Blood = major body fluid2. Cerebrospinal fluid = bathes brainand spinal chord
Lesson 6.2 Tissues4 types of tissue fluids:1. Blood = major body fluid2. Cerebrospinal fluid = bathes brain and spinal chord3. Interstitial fluid = surrounds the cellsin the tissue and is picked up by thelymphatic system to filter out invaders4. Lymph fluid = interstitial fluid pickedup by lymphatic system
Lesson 6.2 TissuesMembranes are thin coveringsthat line.4 types of membranes in the body:1. Serous – line enclosed body cavitiesthat don’t open to outside2. Mucous – line cavities that open to theoutside
Lesson 6.2 TissuesMembranes are thin coverings that line.4 types of membranes in the body:1. Serous – line enclosed body cavities that don’t open to outside2. Mucous – line cavities that open to the outside3. Cutaneous – skin4. Synovial – line the synovial joints(like knee)
Lesson 6.2 TissuesMatrix – substance betweenthe cellsNote: Tissues are made of individualcells and the matrix these cells producewhich is found between the cells.Examples of tissues with matrix: cartilage, bone, and blood (plasma)
Lesson 6.2 TissuesMatrix – substance between the cellsNote: Tissues are made of individual cells and the matrix these cells produce which is found betweenthe cells.Ex. Bone is a connective tissue made ofbone cells such as osteoblast andosteocytes that lay down a matrix ofminerals such as calcium and proteinfibers called collagen.
Lesson 6.2 TissuesVestigial organs are organs that wedo not understand their functions.Evolutionist once claimed these wereorgans no longer needed.Ex. Parathyroid, appendixThe list of vestigial organsin humans has shrunkfrom 180 in 1890 to0 in 1999.
Two vestigial organs and their knownfunctions:Appendix – known immune systemfunctionParathyroid – calcium regulation inblood and bones