Biology Lesson 9.3


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Biology Lesson 9.3

  1. 1. Lesson 9.3 Nutrition & Caloric IntakeNutritionist – scientist whostudy nutrients in food andhave grouped foods withsimilar nutrients.
  2. 2. Balanced diet – dietcontaining all the nutrientsnecessary for good health.
  3. 3. Food guide pyramid is aguide of groupings for abalanced diet.
  4. 4. Grouping #1 Food pyramid: Breads, cereals, and grains Foundation Are your carbohydrates 6-11 servings a day or 6 oz. Whole grain breads, brown rice, or enriched pastas
  5. 5. Grouping #2 Food pyramid: Vegetables Dark green & yellow provide carotenoids convert to Vit. A Tomatoes & green peppers = Vit. C Magnesium and B-complex 3 - 5 servings a day or 2.5 cups
  6. 6. Grouping #3 Food pyramid: Fruits Apricots & cantaloupes – Vit A. Citrus fruits vit. C Fiber 2 - 4 servings a day or 2 cups
  7. 7. Grouping #4 Food pyramid: Milk/Milk Products Calcium, protein, fat-soluble vitamins such as Vit. D Under age 25 should include at least 3 servings/ a day or 3 cups Low fat or skim
  8. 8. Grouping #5 Food pyramid: Meats/Protein Foods Lean meat, fish, seafood, poultry, eggs, nuts, legumes Best to eat in three meals 3 servings/ a day or 5.5 oz
  9. 9. Grouping #6 Food pyramid: Fats, oils, and sweets Americans eat too much Should be limited in diet Overage can lead to obesity and heart disease Eat unsaturated oils Eat sweets and fried foods in moderation/use sparingly
  10. 10. High-calorie foods producea lot of energy (fats and oils)Low-calorie foods producelittle energy(carbs and protein)
  11. 11. The energy value of food ismeasured in units of heatenergy.Calorie = amount of heatneeded to raise temp. of 1liter water 1 degree Celsius
  12. 12. Calorimeter = device usedto measure the energycontent of foods.
  13. 13. Metabolism = sum of allbody activities related tothe use of food and oxygen.Basal metabolism = lowestmetabolism, when you areat rest (BMR)
  14. 14. Respiration Calorimeter isused with BMR to determinetotal Calories a personneeds per day.
  15. 15. How many Calories/day?These are only averages.Depends on activity level andage.Some triathletes and ultra-endurance athletes 6000 caloriesper day or more just to maintaintheir weight!
  16. 16. How many Calories/day?The average maintenancelevel for women in the UnitedStates is 2000-2200 caloriesper day.The average for men is2700-2900 per day.
  17. 17. When Calorie intake exceedsCaloric expenditure (usage)the extra is stored as fat inthe adipose cells.Obese is when you weigh 20%more than you should due toexcessive fat.
  18. 18. Weight loss:Stay away from fad diets.Reduce Caloric intake to 1500 –1800 Calories/dayEat high carbs/low fat dietEXERCISE!!
  19. 19. Artificial food additives/preservatives:Preservatives – prevent food fromspoilingColoring agents – added forpleasing colorLow-calorie sweeteners – sweeten
  20. 20. Artificial food additives/preservatives :Vitamins and mineralsAcids/bases – give desired pHFlavor enhancers – MSG bring outflavor in food
  21. 21. High-dose Rodent tests used to determine safety offood additives andpreservativesRats feed/injected with highdoses over lifetime and thenautopsied for tumors