Anatomy and Physiology 6 joints

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Anatomy and Physiology 6 joints

  1. 1. Joints/ArticulationsWhere two or more bones come together Anthrology = study of joints
  2. 2. Three types of JointsA. Fibrous joint or Synarthrosis –immovable to slightly moveable • Two adjacent edges separated with a small amount of fibrous tissue or a thin layer of cartilage Examples 1. Skull – joints called sutures
  3. 3. Three types of JointsA. Fibrous joint or Synarthrosis – immovable to slightly moveable • Two adjacent edges separate with a small amount of fibrous tissue or a thin layer of cartilage Examples 1. Skull – joints called sutures 2. Gomphosis – tooth joins its bony socket
  4. 4. Three types of JointsA. Fibrous joint or Synarthrosis – immovable to slightly moveable • Two adjacent edges separate with a small amount of fibrous tissue or a thin layer of cartilage Examples 1. Skull – joints called sutures 2. Gomphosis – tooth joins its bony socket 3. Syndesmosis – joint of ulna and radius where slightly movable.
  5. 5. Three types of JointsA. Fibrous joint or SynarthrosisB. Cartilaginous joints or AmphiarthrosisTwo adjacent bones are separated by asubstantial amount of fibrocartilage or hyalinewhich gives them mobilitySlightly movable Examples1. Vertebrae with disk cartilage
  6. 6. Three types of JointsA. Fibrous joint or SynarthrosisB. Cartilaginous joints or AmphiarthrosisTwo adjacent bones are separated by a substantial amount of fibrocartilage or hyaline whichgives them mobility ExamplesVertebrae with disk cartilage2. Pubic symphysis – pubic portions of pelvicbone
  7. 7. Three types of JointsA. Fibrous joint or SynarthrosisB. Cartilaginous joints or AmphiarthrosisTwo adjacent bones are separated by a substantial amount of fibrocartilage or hyaline whichgives them mobility Examples1. Vertebrae with disk cartilage2. Pubic symphysis – pubic portions of pelvic bone3. Sacroiliac joint – where sacrum joins theillium
  8. 8. c. Synovial joints or Diarthrosis Freely movable There are 6 kinds of synovial joints Characteristic – ends of bones covered with articular cartilage
  9. 9. c. Synovial joints or Diathrosis  Freely movable  There are 6 kinds of synovial joints  Characteristic – ends of bones covered with articular cartilage Anatomy of the Synovial JointJoint is surrounded by an outer joint capsulecalled the fibrous capsule which is anextension of the periosteum which formsligaments.
  10. 10. Anatomy of the Synovial JointJoint is surrounded by an outer joint capsule called the fibrous capsule which is anextension of the periosteum which forms ligamentsBursa = articular capsule extends way beyondthe joint and is filled with fluid to cushionBursitis = inflammation of the bursa
  11. 11. Anatomy of the Synovial JointSynovial Membrane – inner membrane that produces the synovial fluid which is a slipper liquid to reduce friction
  12. 12. Six major types of synovial joints:1. Ball and socket joint:Has most freedom of movementcan move in all directions andalso rotateExample – hip and shoulder
  13. 13. Six major types of synovial joints:1. Ball and socket joint2. Hinge joint The convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another Permits movement in one plane only Ex. Elbow, phalanges, knee
  14. 14. Six major types of synovial joints:1. Ball and socket joint2. Hinge joint3.Saddle joint Both bones have articulating concave and convex regions One bone fits the complementary surface of the other Variety of movement in two planes, all but rotation Examples: Carpal and Metacarpel of thumb More motion than hinge, less ball/socket
  15. 15. Six major types of synovial joints:1. Ball and socket joint2. Hinge joint3. Saddle joint4. Ellipsoid Ovoid condyle of one bone fits into the elliptical cavity of another Movement forward and backwards, left and right, but no rotation Ex. Metacarpals to phalanges, mandible to temporal bone
  16. 16. Six major types of synovial joints:1. Ball and socket joint2. Hinge joint3. Saddle joint4. Ellipsoid5. Pivot The cylindrical surface of one bone rotates within a ring of bone and fibrous tissue of a ligament Permits rotational movement only Ex. Atlas and axis of neck and radius and ulna
  17. 17. Six major types of synovial joints:1. Ball and socket joint2. Hinge joint3. Saddle joint4. Ellipsoid5. Pivot6. Gliding The articulating surfaces are flat or nearly curved. Allows bones to move a little bit in all directions by sliding over each other. Ex. Wrist, ankle, vertebra
  18. 18. gliding
  19. 19. Anatomical terms:Anatomical position – the body isassumed to be standing, the feet together,the arms to the side, and the head andeyes and palms of the hands facingforwards.Anterior = frontPosterior = back
  20. 20. Motion and terms of motion:Midline – imaginary line that runs downcenter of the bodyMidsagital plane – runs through the bodyat the midlineLateral – way from the midlineMedial – toward the midline
  21. 21. anteriorposterior
  22. 22. Terms of Movement of joints:Extension – straighten joint –increasing the angle between the twobonesFlexion – decreasing the anglebetween the two bones
  23. 23. Extension and Flexion
  24. 24. Movement of jointsPlantar flexion –movement of the ankleso that you can stand on your toes.Dorsiflexion – movement of the ankle todecrease the angle between your footand tibia.
  25. 25. Terms of Movement of jointsAbduction - moving body partaway from the midline of the bodyAdduction – moving the body parttoward the midline of the body
  26. 26. Terms of Movement of joints :Circumduction – circular rotation of a balland socket joint
  27. 27. :Terms of Movement of jointsRotation – movement in which a bodypart moves about an axisMedial rotation – rotation towards themidlineLateral rotation – rotation away fromthe midline
  28. 28. Movement of joints :Pronation - rotating the palm of the handbackward or opposite the anatomicalpositionSupination – rotating the palm of the handforward or into anatomical position
  29. 29. pronation supination
  30. 30. Movement of joints:Inversion – rotation of the sole of the footinwardEversion- rotation of the sole of the footoutward

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