Biology Lessons 4.1and4.2
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Biology Lessons 4.1and4.2

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Biology Lessons 4.1and4.2 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 4 Lessons 1 and 2Buds – part of the stem wheregrowth occurs on a dormant twig
  • 2. Two types of buds:1. Terminal – at the end of the branch and allows for growth in length
  • 3. Two types of buds:1. Terminal2. Lateral – on the sides of the twig and holds the leaf petiole and developing leaf.
  • 4. Primary growth is growth in lengthand comes from the apical meristemof the roots and shoot at the terminalbud.Secondary growth is growth in width.
  • 5. Primary growth is growth in length and comes from the apical meristem of the roots andshoot/terminal bud.There are two types of tree branching:1. Excurrent branching – trees grow talland straight from a large central shaft,have strong terminal buds
  • 6. There are two types of tree branching:1. Excurrent branching – trees grow tall and straight from a large central shaft, have strong terminal buds2.Deliquescent branching – trees grow outward from several main branches and have strong lateral buds.
  • 7. Two main sections of a dicot stem:1. Bark• Outer section• protects• Made of cork cells on outside• Inner layer is the phloem made of hollow tubular cells stacked end to end where food passes through, where cells meet is the sieve plate
  • 8. Two main sections of a dicot stem:1. Bark• Outer section of the stem• Provides protection• Made of outer layer called cork• Inner layer is the phloem made of hollow tubular cells stacked end to end where food passes through, where they meet is the sieve plant•In a younger tree instead of the cork there is the epidermis and the cortex which is replaced by cork Sieve plate
  • 9. Two main sections of a dicot stem:1. Bark2. Wood Inner section Provides strength and support Transports minerals and water Long tubular cells makes up the xylem of the wood become clogged over time adding support
  • 10. Two main sections of a dicot stem:1. Bark2. Wood Inner section Provides strength and support Transports minerals and water Long tubular cells make up the xylem of the wood which can become clogged over time  Two types of wood: a. Heartwood – the older inner wood used only for support, it is darker in color and is the clogged xylem
  • 11. Two main sections of a dicot stem:1. Bark2. Wood  Two types of wood: a. Heartwood – the older inner wood used only for support, it is darker in color and is the clogged xylem b. Sap wood – is the newer functioning xylem tissue
  • 12. Two main sections of a dicot stem:1. Bark2. Wood  Two types of wood: a. Heartwood – the older inner wood used only for support, it is darker in color and is the clogged xylem b. Sap wood – is the newer functioning xylem tissueNote: Younger trees have a third sectionto a stem called the pith located in thecenter of the stem and is used for waterstorage. It disappears as the tree getsolder.
  • 13. Annual Rings:New wood is formed from the vascularcambium tissueGrowth in width in secondary growth ina treeGrowth is seasonalThis seasonal growth leaves a distinctpattern in the wood called annual rings
  • 14. Annual Rings:New wood is formed from the vascular cambium tissueGrowth in width in secondary growth in a treeGrowth is seasonalThis seasonal growth leaves a distinct pattern in the wood called annual ringsSpring wood – the ring that islighter in color than the Summer/Fallgrowth which is darker and smaller
  • 15. Annual Rings:You can age a tree by its annual ringsThe annual rings is what gives wood itsgrain which streaks when it is stained