Hbo handout 2
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Hbo handout 2

on

  • 1,689 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,689
Views on SlideShare
1,577
Embed Views
112

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
36
Comments
0

2 Embeds 112

https://tasks.crowdflower.com 106
https://crowdflower.com 6

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft Word

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Hbo handout 2 Hbo handout 2 Document Transcript

  • “Different Strokes for Different Folks” What is Motivation? Motivation is the process of arousing and sustaining interest in an activity in order to achieve a goal. Motivating is…the activity performed by an individual to inspire, encourage and impel another individual to take a required action. What is Motivation? is also the creation of a desire on the part of the individual to perform an activity to satisfy a need. Need - Refers to basic things necessary to keep a human being alive. HUMAN NEED Is a state of felt deprivation of some basic satisfaction. NEED and WANTS NEED  To be want of  Ought to have  Be unable to do without  To be necessary  Something that has to be a necessity  Requirements  The lack of useful or desired thing.         To require To wish to see Speak to or use (a person) Something desired The condition of being without something desired Lack To feel that one would like to have WANT Motivation  Intrinsic motivation comes from within the student or from factors inherent in the task being performed. comes from the sheer of joy of performing an act.  It releases human energy that can be focused into improvement and innovation of a system.  Extrinsic motivation comes from sources external to the student and the task. It can come through praise, recognition, or a system of rewards. comes from the desire for reward, or fear of punishment.  It restricts the release of energy from intrinsic motivation by judging, policing and destroying the individual. Law of Motivation “A person must want to ………. They must be ready to ……… and there must be some reason to ……............................. “ Theories of Motivation  McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory  Alderfer’s ERG Theory  Herzberg’s Two factor or hygiene and motivation theory  McClelland’s - The Need Achievement Theory  Weiner’s Attribution Theory Theory X and Theory Y  Douglas McGregor (1906-1964)  Articulated basic principles of human relations theory  The Human Side of Enterprise (1960, 1985) To understand human behavior, one must discover the theoretical assumptions upon which behavior is based
  •  Especially interested in the behavior of managers toward workers “Every managerial act rests on assumptions, generalizations, and hypotheses--that is to say, on theory . . . Theory and practice are inseparable.”  Two Objectives:  Predict and control behavior  Tap Unrealized potential  Theory X - Classical Theory  Theory Y - Human Relations Theory  FOCUS: Manager’s assumptions about HUMAN NATURE  Theory X - Classical Theory  Three Assumptions  The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it.  Most people must be coerced, controlled, directed, and threatened with punishment  The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition, wants security.  Neither explains nor describes human nature  Theory Y - Human Relations Theory  Assumptions  Physical and mental effort in work is similar to play / rest.  External control and the threat of punishment are not the only strategies  Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement  The average human being learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept but to seek responsibility  The capacity to exercise a high degree of imagination, ingenuity, and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely distributed in the population  Intellectual potentialities of the average human being are underutilized  A more positive perspective of human nature  The KEY to control and quality production is commitment to organizational objectives  Participative Management  Two Central Features  Cost-reduction sharing for organizational members - sharing the economic gains from improvements in organizational performance  Effective participation - a formal means of providing opportunities to every member of the organization to contribute ideas for improving organizational effectiveness.  Must be implemented appropriately  Wastes time and undermines managerial power?  Magic formula for every organizational problem?  CONCERN for RELATIONSHIPS in the organization.  As the need to increase commitment grows, so does the need to develop strong, communication-based relationships among organizational members, particularly between supervisor and subordinate. Hierarchy of Human Needs Abraham H. Maslow - Asserts that higher order needs emerge as lower order –order needs are fully satisfied.  1908–1970  American Professor of Psychology
  • MASLOW’S Hierarchy of NEEDS •Truth •Justice •Wisdom •Meaning •Self-respect •Achievement •Attention •Recognition •Reputation •Need for friends •Need for belonging •Need to give and receive love •Job Security •Tenure •Permanent Status •Insurance coverage •Police protection •Food & medicines •Clothing •Shelter •Health Care Services •Sex Needs Satisfaction - Why do we have to satisfy their needs? - They behave in order to satisfy their needs Behavior Internal needs Outcome Needs Satisfaction ERG Theory Clayton P. Alderfer Relatedness Needs Existence Needs Growth Needs Satisfaction / Progression Satisfaction / Regression Satisfaction / Strengthening • • • Existence: o Physiological and safety needs Relatedness: o Social and external esteem needs Growth: o Self-actualization and internal esteem needs
  • Hierarchy of Needs Theory Motivation-Hygiene Theory Self-Actualization Work fulfilment Esteem Needs Advance recognition and status Social needs Supervision and relationships Security/Safety needs Company policy, job security and working Condition Physiological needs Salary and personal life Two Factor Theory Frederick Herzberg Employee Dissatisfied and unmotivated Hygiene Factors Employees not Dissatisfied Motivation Factors but unmotivated Employees Satisfied and motivated THEORY HIERARCHY OF NEEDS MOTIVATION & HYGIENE MEANING is based on the concept of human needs and their satisfaction. is based on the use of motivators which include achievement, recognition and opportunity for growth. BASIS OF THEORY Maslow's theory is based on the hierarchy of human needs. He identified five sets of human needs (on priority basis) and their satisfaction in motivating employees. refers to hygiene factors and motivating factors in his theory. Hygiene factors are dissatisfiers while motivating factors motivate subordinates. Hierarchical arrangement of needs is not given. NATURE OF THEORY Maslow's theory is rather simple and Hertzberg's theory is more prescriptive. It descriptive. The theory is based long experience suggests the motivating factors which can be about human needs. used effectively. This theory is based on actual information collected by Hertzberg by interviewing 200 engineers and accountants. THEORY HIERARCHY OF NEEDS MOTIVATION & HYGIENE
  • APPLICABILITY Maslow's theory is most popular and widely OF THEORY cited theory of motivation and has wide applicability. It is mostly applicable to poor and developing countries where money is still a big motivating factor. Herzberg's theory is an extension of Maslow's theory of motivation. Its applicability is narrow. It is applicable to rich and developed countries where money is less important motivating factor. DESCRIPTIVE Maslow's theory or model is descriptive in OF nature. PRESCRIPTIVE Herzberg's theory or model is prescriptive in nature. MOTIVATORS According to Maslow's model, any need can act in the dual factor model of Hertzberg, hygiene as motivator provided it is not satisfied or factors (lower level needs) do not act as relatively less satisfied. motivators. Only the higher order needs (achievement, recognition, challenging work) act as motivators. The Need Achievement Theory – David McClelland’s  Theory of motivation explained based on relation to help individuals improve and increase their need for competence and judging skills.  He believes that some individuals have higher inner need to achieve than others . McClelland’s Three Patterns of Motivation • Achievement Motivation • Affiliation Motivation • Power Motive Hierarchy of Needs Theory Need Achievement Theory Self-Actualization Need for Achievement Esteem Needs Need for Power Social needs Need for Affiliation Security/Safety needs Need for Survival Physiological needs • • • Attribution Theory o Bernard Weiner explains the emotional and motivational entailments of success and failure . He believes that when achievement is aroused, people tend to attribute performance to one of the following; o Ability o Effort o Luck
  • • • o Task difficulty Success - is attributed to high ability or high effort Failure - is seed as resulting from low ability low effort. Weiner’s Attibution Theory Success or Failure attributed to External Factors • • • • • • Difficulty Luck Internal Factors Ability Effort Implications for Management Organization o If Maslow's theory holds, o there are some important implications for Management Organization. o There are opportunities to motivate employees through : Management style, Job design, Company events, and Compensation packages, Physiological needs: • Provide lunch breaks, • Rest breaks, • Wages that are sufficient to purchase the essentials of life. Safety Needs: • Provide a safe working environment, • Retirement benefits, and • Job security Social Needs: • Create a sense of community via team-based projects and social events. Esteem Needs: • Recognize achievements to make employees feel appreciated and valued. • Offer job titles that convey the importance of the position. Self-Actualization: • Provide employees a challenge and the opportunity to reach their full career potential. • • • • • • Physiological Needs Safety and Security Needs Love and Social Needs Esteem and Status Needs Self-actualization or Self-fulfillment Needs “…a satisfied need is no longer a motivator!...” • “…as one need is satisfied, another need emerges…”
  • • • o Task difficulty Success - is attributed to high ability or high effort Failure - is seed as resulting from low ability low effort. Weiner’s Attibution Theory Success or Failure attributed to External Factors • • • • • • Difficulty Luck Internal Factors Ability Effort Implications for Management Organization o If Maslow's theory holds, o there are some important implications for Management Organization. o There are opportunities to motivate employees through : Management style, Job design, Company events, and Compensation packages, Physiological needs: • Provide lunch breaks, • Rest breaks, • Wages that are sufficient to purchase the essentials of life. Safety Needs: • Provide a safe working environment, • Retirement benefits, and • Job security Social Needs: • Create a sense of community via team-based projects and social events. Esteem Needs: • Recognize achievements to make employees feel appreciated and valued. • Offer job titles that convey the importance of the position. Self-Actualization: • Provide employees a challenge and the opportunity to reach their full career potential. • • • • • • Physiological Needs Safety and Security Needs Love and Social Needs Esteem and Status Needs Self-actualization or Self-fulfillment Needs “…a satisfied need is no longer a motivator!...” • “…as one need is satisfied, another need emerges…”