Manuel Acuṅa Roxas Fifth PresidentFirst President of the IndependentThird Republic of the Philippines1946 - 1948“If war should come, I am certain ofone thing–probably the only thing ofwhich I can be certain–and it is this:That America and the Philippines willbe found on the same side, andAmerican and Filipino soldiers willagain fight side by side in the sametrenches or in the air or at sea in thedefense of justice, freedom and otherprinciples which we both loved andcherished.” (May 28, 1946 – April 15, 1948)He was inaugurated on July 4,1946, the day the U.S. Nacionalista (1919–1945)government granted political Liberal Party (1945–1948)independence to its colony.
Theproclamation of Philippine independence written by Pres. Harry Truman was read by Paul McNutt. This was followed by the signing of the Treaty of General Relations, an agreement on peace and amity between the US and the Philippines.
Manuel Roxas’ Prioritieswere: ○Industrialization of the Philippines ○Preservation of close cooperation and special relations with the US ○Maintenance of the rule of law and order
Programs and Policies under the Roxas AdministrationTydings Rehabilitation ActBell Trade ActParity RightsMilitary Bases AgreementAdopted Pro-American Policy
Problems and Issues during the Roxas Administration1. Issue of collaboration2. Graft and corruption in the government, as evidenced by the ―Surplus of War Property Scandal‖, ―Chinese Immigration Quota Scandal‖, ―School Supplies Scandal”3. The failure to put an end to the communist insurgency and Huk Movement4. High unemployment rate
Elpidio Rivera QuirinoSixth PresidentSecond President of the Third Republic1948 - 1953“While I recognize the United States as agreat builder in this country, I have neversurrendered the sovereignty, much less thedignity and future of our country.” — Elpidio Quirino Significant EventTwo Asian heads of state visited Philippines–President Chiang Kai-shek of Nationalist China(Formosa) in July 1949 and President AchmedSukarno of Indonesia in January 1951.On May 26-30, 1950, upon Quirinos invitation sevenfree Asian nations held the Baguio Conference of1950 to discuss common problems of Asian peaceand security. (November 16, 1890 – FebruaryKorean War and over 7,450 Filipino soldiers weresent to Korea under the designation of the Philippine 29, 1956)Expeditionary Forces to Korea or PEFTOK
Two main objectives ofQuirino Administration:• Economic reconstruction of the nation through industrialization• Restoration of the faith and confidence of the people in the government
Programs and Policies PACSA (President’s Action1. The creation of Committee on Social Amelioration) to alleviate the economic plight of the masses;2. Establishment of the ACCFA (Agricultural Credit Cooperatives Financing Administration) to help farmers avail of low- interest loans from the government.3. Establishment of Rural banks and Labor Management Advisory Board, as well as the Presidential Advisory Body4. Excelled in foreign relations
Problems and Issues Encountered:1. Unabated rampage of graft and corruption in his government2. Wasteful spending of the peoples money in extravagant junkets abroad;3. Failure of government to check the Huk menace which made travel in the provinces unsafe4. Economic distress of the times, aggravated by rising unemployment rate, soaring prices of commodities, and unfavorable balance of trade5. Frauds and terrorism committed by the Liberal Party moguls in the 1947, 1949 and 1951 elections.
Ramon del Fierro MagsaysaySeventh PresidentThird President of the Third Republic1953 - 1957―The office of the President is the highest in theland. It can be the humblest also, if we regard it— as we must — in the light of basicdemocratic principles. The first of theseprinciples is the declaration of the Constitutionthat "sovereignty resides in the people and allgovernment authority emanates from them."This simply means that all of us in public officeare but servants of the people.”He is known as president of the masses. He was sworn into office wearing the Barong Tagalog, a first by a Philippine president. (August 31, 1907 - March 17, 1957) During his term, he made Malacañáng Palace He was killed in a plane crash before literally a "house of the people", opening its the end of his term. gates to the public.
Programs/Policies/Achievemen ts of NARRA1. Agraraian reform – creation (National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration)2. Breaking the backbone of the HUK Movement3. Restoration of people’s confidence on the government4. Establishment of SEATO (South East Asia Treaty Organization) in 18 September 19545. Negotiated with the Japanese government regarding the reparations agreement that was signed in Manila (Japan would pay war reparations of $300,000,000 for 25 years)6. Imposed high moral standard for public officials
Problems and Issues1. Impending projects2. Lack of enough funds3. Graft and corruption
Carlos P. Garcia He was among the top ten in the bar examination. Rather than practice law right away, he first served the country by being a teacher for two years at Bohol Provincial High School. He became famous for his poetry in Bohol, where he earned the nickname "Prince of Visayan Poets" and the "Bard from Bohol".
Filipino First Policy ○ This is the law that was passed by the Garcia administration, to give local businessmen more priority over foreign investors. Austerity Program ○ The Austerity Program was implemented by Garcia in order to curt the rampant graft and corruption within the country. The program centered on wise spending, industry, thrift, trustworthiness, integrity and honesty.
Bohlen–Serrano Agreement ○ The Bohlen-Serrano Agreement was the law that shortened the original 99 year lease of US bases here in the Philippines to 25 years, the agreement was renewable for periods only up to 5 years. Republic Cultural Awards ○ The Garcia administration also put emphasis on cultural revival, due to the colonization of many countries he felt that the revival of the Filipino culture was needed. The award was given to Filipino artists, scientist, historians and writers.
Garcia was criticized by foreign countries, especially the United States for his anti-foreign policies. Corruption in the government by his appointed cabinet members marred his administration