Grammatical systems (joana, jose, daniel)Document Transcript
Herrán, Joana English Grammar IIMata, José Prof. Fernández – Prof. Cheme ArriagaSegatta, Daniel 2011 Grammatical Systems in LanguageAccording to the theoretic lines of Systemic Functional Linguistics, many systems ofchoices are applied in Language so as to create semantic distinctions among the elementsof the Lexis. Other systems are used in order to differentiate the components of Grammar.One of these distinctions makes use of the Grammatical Choice system, which is formedby the three basic elements of a clause: Subject, Finite and Predicate.The Subject is the “doer” of the action expressed in the verb, i.e., the participant thatperforms –or receives– this action. A Finite is a verb that becomes completely inflectedaccording to five aspects: Person, Number, Tense, Mood and Voice. Finally, the Predicatecharacterises the Subject.The possible combinations of these elements generate three patterns of grammatical orderin English, and therefore, three types of clauses:• Declarative clauses (statements), where the order of the elements is organised asfollows: SUBJECT + FINITE VERB + PREDICATE He looks just like an angel. It is a fine position. I have a golden bedroom. The swallow came back to the Prince. I am covered with fine gold.• Interrogative clauses (questions), where the elements are ordered in a slightly differentmanner: FINITE VERB + SUBJECT + PREDICATE Will you come away with me? Why can’t you be like the Happy Prince? Have you any commisions for Egypt? Will you let me kiss your hand? Is he not solid gold?
Herrán, Joana English Grammar IIMata, José Prof. Fernández – Prof. Cheme ArriagaSegatta, Daniel 2011
Herrán, Joana English Grammar IIMata, José Prof. Fernández – Prof. Cheme ArriagaSegatta, Daniel 2011• Imperative clauses (commands), where we find neither a Subject nor a Finite. Theseclauses only feature a Non-Finite verb and the Predicate –which is optional if the verb isintransitive–. NON-FINITE + PREDICATE Pluck out one of them. Take it to him.When we organise and arrange the grammatical roles that words play in our message, weobtain the realisation of Grammatical Choices through the Structures formed. Then, theStructures are the ones to realise these Choices. But in order to obtain words from theseStructures, it becomes necessary to organise those grammatical elements, and finally turnthem into sounds or letters. Semantics Meaning-making Levels Meanings CONTENT Lexico-Grammar LANGUAGE Turning Meanings into Wordings AS A (Words and Structures) SEMIOTIC SYSTEM Phonology / Graphology REALISATION Sounds or Letters (express the Meanings created in the two levels above)* All of the examples used in this work have been extracted from “The Happy Prince”, by Oscar Wilde.