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  • 1. Seedless Vascular Plants TUMBUHAN BERPEMBULUH TIDAK BERBIJI (PAKU) Pteridophyta SULISETIJONO
  • 2. Sulisetijono
  • 3. Sulisetijono
  • 4. 4 Division - Psilophyta Sulisetijono
  • 5. P. Psilotophyta: Psilotum – Whisk Fern Sulisetijono
  • 6. Major Taxonomic Groups • Psilophyta  Whisk Ferns - Free-living sporophyte and gametophyte - No leaves or roots - Only one known genus survives today, but they were much more diverse in the past - NOTE despite the name, they are not true ferns Sulisetijono
  • 7. Sulisetijono
  • 8. Sulisetijono
  • 9. Batang dikotom Sporangium Sulisetijono
  • 10. 10 Whisk Ferns • Have a photosynthetic, aerial forked stem • Looks like a small, green twiggy bush • Have TRUE stems, but NO leaves or roots • Only two living genera Stems with spore cases Sulisetijono
  • 11. 11 Whisk Ferns • Have rootlike stems structures called Rhizomes to anchor (can’t absorb water) • May asexually reproduce from rhizomes • Sexually reproduce by spores made in Sporangia (spore cases on the stems) Sporangia Sulisetijono
  • 12. Sulisetijono
  • 13. Phylum Lycophyta • grow on tropical trees as epiphytes • they are NOT parasites • the sporophytes have upright stems with many small leaves plus ground-hugging stems that produce branching roots • in the club mosses – the sporophylls are clustered into club- shaped cones = strobili  homosporous • spike mosses and quillworts - heterosporous Isoetes gunnii, a quillwort Diphasiastrum tristachyum, a club moss Strobili (clusters of sporophyllis) Sulisetijono
  • 14. Sulisetijono
  • 15. P. Lycophyta: Lycopodium – Ground Pine Sulisetijono
  • 16. 16 Club Moss • Commonly called ground pines • Bushy, tree like branches above, but unbranched at the base • Have deep growing root like Rhizomes • Live in moist woods and clearings • Small leaves with single unbranched vein Leaves Sulisetijono
  • 17. Young Club moss Shoot system Vascular system Sulisetijono
  • 18. 18 Club Moss • Sporophylls (spore cases) are found in the axils of leaves • Form cone shaped structures called Strobili • May be homosporous (make one type of spore) or heterosporous (make 2 types of spores) Sulisetijono
  • 19. 19 Club Moss Spores • Genus Lycopodium is homosporous • Contain chemicals that explode & burn quickly • Yellowish powdery spores used in fireworks and explosives Spore Burning Lycopodium powderSulisetijono
  • 20. Sulisetijono
  • 21. 21 Club Moss Sporophylls Strobili Sporophylls Sulisetijono
  • 22. 22 Other Uses for Club Moss • Sometimes boiled in water to produce a medicinal tea or an eye wash • Ground pines, green all winter, are used in Christmas decorations • Ancestors of modern club mosses helped form coal during the carboniferous period Sulisetijono
  • 23. Phylum Pterophyta • whisk ferns  dichotomously branching stems but no roots  stems have scale-like outgrowths that lack vascular tissue  stems may have evolved as reduced leaves  homosporous with spores that give rise to bisexual gametophytes that grow underground  considered to be living fossils due to their resemblance to fossils of ancient vascular plants • horsetails  named for the brushy appearance of the stems  arthrophytes – “jointed plants”  rings of small leaves or branches can emerge from each joint  stem is the main photosynthetic organ • ferns  ferns have megaphylls  sporophylls typically have horizontal stems that give rise to large leaves called fronds divided into leaflets  frond grows as the fiddlehead  almost all species are homosporous  gametophyte shrivels and dies after the young sporophyte detaches itself  the sporangia are stalked with spring-like devices that disperse the spores Sulisetijono
  • 24. Major Taxonomic Groups • Lycophyta  Club Mosses - Free-living sporophyte and gametophytes - True roots, stems, and leaves - 300MYA, these were the dominant flora with large, expansive swamp-forests of lycopods. Sulisetijono
  • 25. Sulisetijono
  • 26. Sulisetijono
  • 27. Sulisetijono
  • 28. Sulisetijono
  • 29. P. Lycophyta: Selaginella – Spike Moss Sulisetijono
  • 30. Sulisetijono
  • 31. Sulisetijono
  • 32. Sulisetijono
  • 33. Sulisetijono
  • 34. Sulisetijono
  • 35. Sulisetijono
  • 36. Sulisetijono
  • 37. Sulisetijono
  • 38. Sulisetijono
  • 39. P. Lycophyta: Isoetes - Quillwort Sulisetijono
  • 40. Figure 29.14 Isoetes (a quillwort) in the phylum Lycophyta. Represented today by a single genus Live in marshy areas Sulisetijono
  • 41. Sulisetijono
  • 42. Phylum Equisetophyta: Equisetum – Horse Tail Sulisetijono
  • 43. 43 Division - Sphenophyta Sulisetijono
  • 44. Major Taxonomic Groups • Sphenophyta  Horsetails - Free-living sporophyte and gametophyte - Circular, ribbed stems with whorled leaves - Again, much more diverse in the past Sulisetijono
  • 45. Sulisetijono
  • 46. Sulisetijono
  • 47. Sulisetijono
  • 48. 48 Horsetails • Only one living (extant) species - Equisteum • Also called scouring rushes • Hollow, jointed Stems contain silica & were once used to scrub pots • Photosynthetic aerial stem • Underground Rhizomes Sulisetijono
  • 49. 49 Horsetails • Reproduce by spores at the tips of branches • In prehistoric times, grew as tall as trees • Found in wetlands • Stems with sunken stomata to save water • Some spores have elaters, cells that act as moisture- sensitive springs, assisting spore dispersal Stem with a whorl (at each node) of branches and dark-tipped leaves Sulisetijono
  • 50. 50 Uses for Horsetails • Use to fight plant fungi • Used in some mouthwashes to cure mouth ulcers • Used as diuretics to eliminate excess water (weight loss products) • Toxic to animals (sheep, cattle, horses) Sulisetijono
  • 51. Sulisetijono
  • 52. Sulisetijono
  • 53. Sulisetijono
  • 54. Equiseteum cross section Sulisetijono
  • 55. Sulisetijono