Longman grammar express for self-study and classroom use - 425p
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Longman grammar express for self-study and classroom use - 425p

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If you want to download this book and all the others I've uploaded, pleae visit my blog: inglesimple.blogspot.com

If you want to download this book and all the others I've uploaded, pleae visit my blog: inglesimple.blogspot.com
Longman grammar express for self-study and classroom use with answer key.

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    Longman grammar express for self-study and classroom use - 425p Longman grammar express for self-study and classroom use - 425p Document Transcript

    • Gontents About the Book Pдпт |: Present and lmperative Present Progressive (l am studуing') Simple Present (l studу.) Tense Non.Aсtion Verbs (l understand.) 10 Present Progressive and Simple (l am studуing./ I studу.) Present тense 14 !mperative (Study!/ Don't study!) SelfТest Pдпт lI: l 22 Past Simple Past Tense: AffirmativeStatements 24 Simple Past 2g (t studied.) Tense: Negative Statements and euestions (l didn't studу. / Did уou studу?) Used to (l used to study.) з2 Past Progressive (l was studуing.) Past Progressive and Simple (l was studуing' / I studied') seIfтest Pдпт lll: Present Past Tense 40 r Il Perfect and Pаst Perfeсt Present PeЁect: Since and For (Ihave studied since Maу' / l have studied for a month-) 46 Present Perfect: Alreadу and Yet (l have alreadуstudied./ l haven't studiedуet.) 50 Present Perfect: (l have studied.) lndefinitePast Present PeЁeсt and SimpIe Past Tense (l have studied./ I studied.) 58 Present PeЁect Progressive (l have been studying.) 62 Present Perfect and Present Perfect (I have studied, / l have been studуing.) progressive 66 r iii
    • Pаst Perfeсt (l had studied.) 74 Past Perfeсt Progressive (l had been studуing.) SelfTest Pдпт lV: III 78 Future and Future Perfect Future: Be going to and Will (l am going to studу. / I will studу') Future: Contrast Be going to, Will,Simple Present Tense, Present Progressive Future Time Clauses (l will call уou after I studу.) 88 Future Progressive (|wi|lbestudуing.) Future Perfeсt and Future PeЁect Progressive 96 (l will have studied' / l wi|l havе bееn studуtng') SetfTest Pдпт V: tV 100 wh- Gluestions' таg Gluestions' Additions l4lh. Gluestions: Subjeсt and Prediсate (Who studied? / Who did уou studу?) 102 Тag Gluestions (You studied, didn't уou? / You didn't studу' did уou?) 106 Additions with So, Too, Neitherand Not either (l studied, and so did shе' / l didn't studу, and neither did she.) 110 SelfTest Pдпт Vl: V 114 (l) Modals Ability: Can, Could, Be able to (l can studу for hours.) 116 Permission= Maу, Can, Could, Do уou mind if . . . ? (Maу l studу on mу own?) 1zo Requests= Will, Can, Would, Could, Would you mind . . . ? (Will уou studу with me?) 124 (You should studу Еnglish.) Could, Whу don't ' . . ?' Whу not . . . ?, Suggestionsz Let's,Howabout...? (Whу not studу Еnglish?) 1з2 Prefer, Would prefer, Would rather Preferences: (l wou|d prefer studуing Spanish.) 1з6 SelfТest lv V! 140
    • (ll) Pдпт Vll: Modаls Neоessity: Have (got) to and Мust (l've got to studу harder. / l must studу harder.) 142 Choiсe: Don't have to; No Ghoiсe: Must not and Can,t (l don't have to leave./ I must not leave.) 146 8e supposed to Expectations: (l,m supposed to studу') 150 Future Possibilityz Мaу, Мight' Could (Imaу studу there next уear.) 154 Assumptions= 158 May, Might, Could, Must, Have (got) to, Can't (She must be a good student.) in the Past: Should have, Ought to have, Advisabitity Could have, Might have (l should have studied harder when l was уoung.) about the Past: MaУ have, Мight have' SpecuIations Can't have, Could have, Must have, Had to have (Нe maу have been a good student in his уouth.) SelfТest Vll 162 166 170 and Adverbs Pдпт Vtll: Adjeсtives Adjectives and Adverbs 172 (quick / quicklу) Adjectives PaЁicipial (interesting / interested) Adjectives and Adverbs: (as quick as / as quicklу as) Equatives 180 Adieсtives: Comparatives (quicker than) Adjectives: Superlatives (the quickest) 188 Adverbs: Comparatives and Superlatives (more quicklу than / the most quicklу) 192 SelfТest Pдпт lX: VlIl Gerunds t96 and lnfinitives Gerunds: Subjeсt and objeсt (Studуing is important, / l enjoy studуing.) Gerunds after Prepositions (interested in studуing / tired of studуing) 202 lnfinitives after Certain Verbs (l want to studу.) 206 lnfinitives aftеr Ceftain Adjeсtives and Cedain Nouns (easу to studу / time to studу) 21o
    • lnfinitives with Тoo and Еnough (too late to studу / earlу enough to studу) 214 lnfinitives of Purpose (go home to study) 218 Gerunds and tnfinitives (stop studying / stop to studу) 222 Make, Have, Let, Help, and Get (make him studу / get him to studУ) 226 SelfТest Pдnт X: zзo !X PhrasaI Verbs Phrasa! Verbs: |nsepaгab|e (run into a classmate) 2з2 Phrasаl 2з6 Verbs: Seoarable (look a word up) SelfTest Pдпт Хl: X 240 Nouns, Gluantifiers, AЁiсles, and ReсiproсaI Pronouns Reflexive Nouns (сollege,Boston College' chalk, students) 242 Gluantifiers 246 (a lot of, a few, a little) AЁiсIes: (a / the) lndefinite and Definite o (No AЁicle) and тhe (students / the students) Reflexive Pronouns and Reciprocal (ourselves/ each other) SelfTest Xl 254 Pronouns ZSB 262 Pдвт Xll: The Passive The Passive: Overview (is done / was done / has been done) 264 Тhe Passive with Moda|s (must be done) 268 Тhe Passive 272 (have something SelfTest vl Xll Gausative done) 276
    • Pдпт Xlll: Тhe Conditional Faсtual Gonditionаls: Present (lf I studу,l get good grades') 278 Faсtual Conditionals: Future (Ifl studу' l willget good grades.) 282 Unreаl GonditionaIs: 286 Present (lf I studied. I would get good grades.) Unreal Conditionals: Past (lt I had studied. I would have gotten good grades.) Wish: Present and Past (l wish I studied here. / I wish I had studied here.) SelfTest Xlll Pдпт XlV: Adieсtive 290 294 298 сlauses Adjective Clauses with Subjeсt Re|ativePronouns (someone who studies) з00 Adjeсtive Clauses with objeоt Relative Pronouns or When and Where 304 (something Adiective that l StUdУ / the school where I studу) clauses: ldentifyingand Non-|dentifying (l have a friend who studies here. / з08 Му best friend, who knows уou, studies here.) selfтest xlv Pдпт XV: lndirect з12 Speeсh Direct and Indireсt speech: (''Studу!',/ She told me to studу.) |mperatives lndireсt Speeсh: Statements (1) (She said that she was going to studу') lndirect Speech: Statements (2) (She said she had studied.) lndireсt Gluestions rShe аsked me if l was studуing.) Еmbedded Questions (She wanted to know what I studied.) SeIfTest XV з14 з18 з22 з26 з30 3з4 vш
    • Appendiсes APPЕNDIX 1 Irregular Verbs 3з6 APPЕNDIX 2 Cоmmon Nоn-aсtion (Stativе) Verbs зз7 APPENDIX з Сommon Vеrbs Followеd by thе Gеrund (Basе Fоrm of Vеrb + -ing) зз7 APPЕND|x 4 Commоn Verbs Followed by the Infrnitive (Ъ + Base Form ofVerЬ) з38 APPЕNDIX 5 Verbs Followed bу objeсts and the Infinitivе 338 APPENDIX6 Common Verbs Fоllowed by the Gеrund or the Infrnitive з38 APPENDIX7 Common Verb + Preposition Combinations з38 APPEND!X 8 Common Adjeсtive + Prеposition Combinatiоns 338 APPENDIX9 Common Adjeсtives that Can Be Followеd by thе Infinitive 3з8 APPЕNDIX 10 Irregular Comparisons of Adjeсtives' Adverbs, and Quantifiers A P P E N D I X 1 1 Cоmmon Partiсipial Adj eсtivеs зз9 A P P E N D I X ' I 2 Some Adjeсtives that Form the Comparative and Superlative in TWo Ways 339 A Р P Е N D l x 1 з Common Reporting Verbs з40 A P P Е N D | x 1 4 Common Timе Word Changes in Indireсt Speeсh 340 A P P E N D I X 1 5 Common Phrases Intrоduсing Еmbеdded Questions з40 A P P Е N D I X 1 6 Verbs and Ехpressions Commonly Used Rеfleхivеly з40 A P P E N D I X 1 7 Somе Common Phrasal Verbs з41 A P P E N D I X 1 8 Some Common Irregular Plural Nouns з4з A P P Е N D I X 1 9 Spelling Rules fоr the Prеsent Progтessive з43 A P P E N D I X 2 0 Spelling Rules for the Simple Prеsent Tensе: Third-Person Singular (hе, shе, it) з4з A P P E N D I X 2 1 Spеlling Rulеs for the Simрle Past Tense оf Regular Verbs зц A P P E N D I X 2 2 Spelling Rules for the Comparative (-er)and Supеrlative (-esl)of Adjeсtives A P P Е N D I x 2 3 Spelling Rules fоr Adverbs Ending in -ly 3Ц зЦ A P P Е N D l x 2 4 Cоntraсtions with Verb Forms з45 A P P Е N D l x 2 5 Punсtuation Rules fоr Direсt Speесh з47 A P P Е N D I x 2 6 Pronunсiation Tablе з47 A P P E N D I X 2 7 Pronunсiation Rulеs for thе Simple Present Tense: Third-Person Singular (hе, shе, it) з4a A P P Е N D l x 2 8 Pronunсiation Rules for the Simple Past Tеnse of Regular Vеrbs 348 Index Answer vlll з39 349 Key з55
    • About the Authors Fuсhs has taught ESL at New York Сity Tесhniсal College and Marjorie LaGuardia Community Collegе of the City University of New Yоrk and ЕFL at thе Spraсh Studio Lingua Nova in Мuniсh, Germany. She holds a Mаster's Degтee in Applied English Linguistiсs and a Certifiсate in TESOL from the University of Wisсonsin-Madison. She has authored or сo-authoredmany widеly used ESL textbooks,notably ОnYour Waу:Building Basic Ski|ls in Еnglish, Crossroаds, Top Tшеntу ESL Word Games: Bеginning Vocabulary DеuеIopmеnt, Around the World: Picturеs for Practicе, Familiеs: Tеn Card Gаmes for Languagе Lеаrnеrs, Focus on Grammar: Аn Intеrmеdiаtе Coursе for Rеfеrеncеand Practice, Foсus on Grammar: A High-Intеrm,еdiatеCoursе for Rеfеrеnceand Praсtice, and the woтkbooks to thе Longman Dictionary of Amеrican English, the Longmаn Photo Dictionary, Thе Охford Picturе Dictionarу, and Focus on Grаmmar: Intermеdiatе and High-Intеrmеdiate. Bonner has taught ESL at Hunter College and the Borough Murgur"t of Manhattan Community Coilege of the City University of New York, at Taiwan National University in Taipei, and at Virginia Commonwealth University in Riсhmond. Shе holds a Master's Degтеe in Library Sсienсe from Columbia University, and she has done work towards a Ph.D. in English Literature at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. Shе has сontributed to a number of ESL and EFL projeсts,inсluding Making Connеctions,ОnYour Waу, and the Curriсulum Renewal Projeсt in oman, where she wrote tеxtbooks, workbooks, and teaсhers manuals for the national sсhool system. Shе authored Stеp into Writing: A Basic Writing Tехt, and сo-authоredFocus on Grammar: An Intеrmеdiatе Coursе for Rеferеncе and Practicе, Focus on Grammar: A High-Intеrmеdiаtе Coursе for Refеrеnce аnd Practice, Foctt,s Grammar: High-Intеrmеdiatе Workbook, and on Thе Охford Picture Dictionary Intеrrnеdiatе Workbook. lx
    • About W"l.o*" the Book to Grommor Express-the fast way to study and learn English gтammar. Grommor Expressfeatures r Short, easy-to-usе four-page units r Grammar points presented and сontextualized through сartoons,photos, and othеr iliustratiоns r Clear Grammar Charts showing the forms of the gтammar point r Chaft Cheсks to help you usе the grammar сharts ' Clear Grammar Explanations and Еxamples l Usage Notes telling you how Еnglish speakers use the gтammar point r Bе сareful! Noteз showing typiсal mistakes students make r Pronunсiation Notes to help you pronounсewords сorreсtly r A variety of exerсise types to praсtiсе the grammar points r SelfTests to сheсk youl progress l ApPendiсes with helpful lists and information r An lndеx to help you quiсkly find grammar points r An Answer Key so you сan сheсk your answеrs Uшlтs Grommor Eхpress has 76 units' Eaсh unit has four pages-two pages of grammar presentation and two pages of praсtiсe.Here's how a typiсal unit looks: Presentation The grammar point is presentedin three steps. 1. !llustrаtion Еaсh unit begins with an illustration-a сartoon,сomiс strip, photo with speeсhbubbles' newspaper headline-whiсh introduсes the grammar point in a real-life,real-languageсontеxt.It also introduсes the topiс of the unit. (For ехamplе, in Unit 8 thе cartoon introducеs thе grammаr point used to, and thе unit topic,fаshion.) A Cheсk Point helps you think about the meaning of the grammar pоint in the illustration.
    • 2. Charts Grammar Charts show the forms of the grammar point. (In Unit 8 уou cсInSее quеstions, usеd to in statеmеnts, аnd short аn,sшеrs.) Chart Che<ks ask questions about the gтammar сharts. Thеy help you notiсe important infоrmation about the forms and uses of the grammar point you are studying. An Еxpress Cheсk foliows thе Grammar Charts. This is a quiсk and easy way for you to try out the forms in the сharts. 3. Notes Grammar Notes present Grammar Explanations on the left and Examples on the right. Timelines show the meaning of verb forms. (For eхаmplе, in Unit 8 thе timеlinе for osed to shoшs that уou сan usе it onlу for thе past.) Usagе Notes tell you how English speakers use thе grammar point. (In Unit 8 thе UsаgеNotе for used to ехp|ainsthat this form is morе сommon in affirmatiuе statеmеntsthan in nеgаtiuеstatеmеntsor quеstions.) Bе <areful! Notes point out typiсai mistakes that English students make. (onе of thе Be carеfiil! Notеs in Unit 8 tеlls уou not to confusе lsed to шith be used to or get used to.J Pronunсiation Notes tell you how to сorreсtly pronounсe the grammar point in everyday spеeсh.These notes use easy pronunсiation spellings. Cheсk it out! tells you whеre to look in thе book (appеndiсes or othеr units) to find more information about the grammar point. Practiсe Two pages of exerсises give you praсtiсe in understanding and using the grammar point. A typiсal unit has four eхerсises. Еxerсise 1 The frrst еxerсiseis always a,,for reсognition only'' exerсise.This means that you will have to find or understand the grammar point, but you will not have to use it yet. (For ехаmplе, in [Jnit 8 уou tllill rеad а short magazinе articlе about fashion, аnd find and undеrlinе all thе ехсl,mples o/used to шhich rеfеr to past habits.) Exercises 2 and 3 In thesе eхerсisesyou aсtively praсtiсe the grammar point. Thеre are a variety of exerсisе types, inсluding multiplе сhoiсe,fill-in-the-blanks, desсribing piсtures, sentenсe сombining, and asking and answering questions. The exerсises always show the grammar point in a сontext that is rеlated to the unit topiс. (In Unit 8, Eхеrcisе 2, уou Lоill complеtеsеntеncеsabout fashiotl in thе pсlst шhilе уou dеsсribеpicturеs.In Eхеrcisе 3, уou tоill usе an old qu,еstions to o'duеrtisеnlеnt аs|еand аnSLDеr about snеаkеrs') xl
    • Еxerсise 4 This is always an editing eхerсise. In this eхеrсise, you will havе to find and сorreсt tyрiсal mistakes that students make when thеy use the gтammar point. Твsтs The 76 units of Grommor Expressare divided into 15 parts. After eaсh part you will find a SеlfТest. These tests will help you review and seе how well you have learned the material in the part. The SelfТests havе multiple-сhoiсe questions similar to questiоns found on the TOЕFL@, a test that is widely usеd for foreign students who want to attend сollese in the United States. AppвшвIсЕs In the baсk of the book, you will find 28 Appendiсes with useful information, suсh as lists of сommon irregular verbs, vеrbs followed by the gerund, verbs followed by the infinitive' and spelling and pronunсiation rules. AшswвнKвv The Answer Key providеs answers to the Cheсk Points, Сharts Cheсks, Express Cheсks, all the praсtiсe exerсises, and the SelfTests. Grommor Еxpress сan be used for sеlf-study or in the сlassroom. Start with Unit 1 and work through thе entire book, or сhoose the units you want to foсus oll..Grommor Expressсan help you reaсh your language goals quiсkly. Your journey through English gтammar сan be an adventure of disсovery. We hope you will enjoy traveling witЬ, Grommor Ехpress. AIlAboord!!!... xll
    • Gredits Photographs Grаtеful acknoшlеdgmеnt giuеn to thе folloшing for prouiding photographs. is p. 18 Stephen Danelian./Еxposure Nеw York; p.2G (top)@ Asian Art & Arсheology' Inс./CORBIS;p.26 (bottom) сoRBIs;p.28 @ Bettmann/CoRBIS; @ p.48 @ S. Carmona./CoRBIS; 62 JeffSсiortinо Photogтaphy;p. PhotoDisс,Inс.; p. 66 p. 70 AP/Widе World Photos;p. 76 APAМide World Photos;p. 88 @ Jennie Woodсoсk, RefleсtionsPhotolibrary/CoRBlS; p. 110 Copуright 2000 by Bob Saсha; p. |24 @ The New Yorkеr Cоlleсtiоn 1988 Charles Addanrs frоm сartoonbank.соm. p. A1l Rights Reserved.; 132 ЕII-AYIIPhoto by Joe Hoсhner;p. |42 Courtesy of the New York Statе Govеrnor'sTlaffiс Safety Committee;p. |62 @ Galа/SuperStoсk,Inс.; p. 166 @ Petеr Guttman/CoRBIS; p. 169 @ Kevin Sсhafer/CoRBIS;p. |75 Courtesy of Beth Boyd; p. 176 RubbеrBall Produсtions;p. 192 AP/Wide World Photos; p. r95 @ Kevin R' Morris/CoRBIS; p.2o2 @ SuperStoсk,Inс.;p. 206 RubberBall p. Prоduсtiоns; 210 @ TSlWGreg Davis;p.2|4 @ Thе New Yorkеr Colleсtion1989 p.226 AP/Wide World All Tom Chеney from сartoonbank.сom. Rights Reserved.; p. Phоtоs;p. 235 Liaison Agenсy,Inс.;p. 238 Library of Congтess; 244 PhotoDisс, Inс.;p. 25в @ Miсhael Dwyеr/StoсkBoston, Inс.;p. 258 @ The New Yorker All Colleсtiоn 1964 Frank Mоdell frоm сartoonbank.сom. Rights Reservеd.; pp.264,266 Reprinted with permission from Rеader,sDigеst. Copyright @ The Readеr's Digest Assосiation,Inс.;p. 268 APlWide World Photos;p. 286 PЕАNUTS @ UFS; p. 290 @ John Springer Cоlleсtion/CoRBIS; p. 304 @ Hultоn-Deutsсh Collесtion/CoRBIS;p.306 (top)photobу Dutton Signet, a divisiоn of Penguin Books USA, Inс.;p. 306 (bottom) RubberBall Produсtions;p.324Tonу Freеman./PhotoЕdit. lIlustrаtors Brian Hughes: pp. 20, 188; Ronald Chironnaz pp.27 ,34, З5,65,160,190'191; Joсk МaсRae: pp. 53, 180;Paul MсCusker: pp. 38, 98,294 Andy Myer: pp. 10, 2 4 , 3 2 ,4 6 , 5 4 , 8 0 8 2 ,8 8 ' 1 0 2 ,I I 2 , | 1 6 , I б 8 , 1 ' 7 2I,9 2 , 2 2 2 , 2 З 2 , 2 4 6 , 2 5 4 , 2 7 2 , 2 8 2 , , 0' 3 0 0 , 3 1 43 2 2 , 3 2 6D u s a n P е t r i с i с :p p ' 2 , 6 , 8 , L 4 , 1 6 , 7 , 8 , 2 L , 3 6 , 4 0 , 55 8 , 6 0 , , ; 6в,74' 84,92,96,106,120,|28, |46,150,184,198,236,250,278,308,318, 330 p. 136 Sourcе:Roper Reports Worldwide 1998 Global Сonsumer Study хlll
    • Present Progressive of f ane are waiting for The Аirhaado W,',rryжPoINт TheАirheadэ are dropping from Nhеokу! Сheсk thе best odvеrtisement this for TV nеws show, П It's happеning nоwl П It hupp"ns every day! снARтсllEсKl Сhесk thе correсt onswеr' Thе present progтеssiveis made up of two parts: AF]lRlt,lAтIvE s гAтЕIUlЕNтs Suв,вст BдsвЕoпм oг Bс Vвпв + -lшс is ,s ьe + base form ofverb He/Shе/|t c ье + base form of vеrb + -ing П ba.e form of verЬ + -ing Suв,вст l Bдsв Еoпм oг Br Noт |Vвпв+ .ING am ,m arе Wе/You*/Тhey ,rе Jьe I am 'm J Whiсh part сhanges with different subjeсts? NЕGAтlvE iтAтЕмЕNт5 waiting. *Youis both singular and plural. He/5hе/|t ls ,s arе Wе/You/Тhey ,rе not waiting.
    • Present Сirсlе T (Truе)or F (Folse). т F s}|oRтцNsWЕRs VEs/NoQUЕsтloNs 2 сl]АRт сlIEсК Bt In questions, be сomes after the subjесt. Progressive l l Bдsв Foпм Isuвlвст|+.llvс Aггlпмдтtvв Nвсдтlvв you a r е . Am !s snе Are Yеs, s h е you standing? I I5. you a r е n , t . No, shе isn't. 'm not. am. Wн. QUЕsтloNs Wн. Woпo l 8д l 5uв,вст | вo,. Foпм + .tшс am whv ls standing? 5nе are Wherе you Eх'PRЕssж Сomplеtе thеsе sеntеncеswith thе prеsеnt progrеssivеform of the verbs in porenthesеs, Whу you (lеave) ? They still (реrtorm) * r a m ж - * а r р|a n* t iо ns Ёх Еxamрlеs 1. Usе thе presеnt progressivе to dеsсribe somеthingthat is happeningrioht now. r |,m standing outsidethe King Тheatеr right now. No** stonding r Аs l,m talking to you, thе fansare gathering in front of thе Past..'..............................xl......................'...> theаtеr. 2. Usе thе presеnt progrеssivе to dеsсribе somеthingthat is happеningthеsedays,evеn if it's not hаppеningright now. *?* Тhе Аirheаds arе playing at thе Kiпg Тhеatеr this weеk. |,m studying guitarthis semеstеr. Past'..'.'.............*.'........'.i........'....у..-.-'''.''.'..} Futurе z;::___:__/*6 .''tudуing g$' 3. Usдсв Noтв: Тhе сontrасted form is usually used in speесhand in informa| writing. A: Bye,Jana,wе,re leaving now. B: Wait! |,m сoming with you. Сheсk out! it For diffeгent forms of negative сontraсtions with bq see Appendiх 24 on page 345. Foт spеlling тules for the present progтessive'see Appendix 19 on pagе 343. r 3
    • 4 r unitr o Rеod this lеttеr.Underlinеthe presеntprogrеssivе verbs thot dеsсribe IDENтiЕY vеrbs thаt describе somеthinghoppеning right now, Сirclе thе prеsеntprogrеssive right now). things thаt ore hаppening thеsedoys (but not nесеssorily Т@veгyhaгd.thesеd'ays,butIhavesome$ood'nеws.Ri$htnoщ I'm sittinЕl at a desk in the Еntertainment Seсtion of thе Tribune| of couтsе I'm still taking journalism сlasses at ni$ht as wel]..Thе job is temporaТУ-"Ioe sims, the геЕпrlaгreporter' is taking this month off to wгite a book' This week We'rе pгeparing to intervj'ew youг favoritr gтoup, thе Airheads' In faсt, at this vеry moment they'гe flying lnto town by hеliсopter. They're pеrfoгming at the King Theater all wеek. How aгe you doing? Aгe you still Writlng musiс? oops! The сrrw is сalling me. They're leavin$ foг the theateг now. Wгitе soon! Steph form of thе Rеod сO[{|PLEтE. this сonvеrsotion' Сomplеtеit with thе prеsеntprogressivе possiblе. vеrbsin porеnthеsеs. сontroсtionswhеnеvеr Usе Bви Bye, Joe, I 'm leaving l. (|еаvе) Joв: WЪere you Bвv: Running. Ann 2. (gо) downstairs. 3. (Wаit) Jов: Great! WЪу don't you take tlrе dоg оut with уоu? Bвv: Whу dоn,t уou take hirn? It's yоur turn. Joв: I сan't. I Bви But you Joв: That's not true. I just anything right now. Yоu 5 . ( n o td o ) 6. (sit) 8. (think) on my book. 4. (work) thеre. 7. (sit) here, but I also abоut my work. Can't thе dоg run with you? Bвv: Nо, beсause aftеrwards wе want to go to tlre Plaza. The Airheads 9. (stаy) therе this wеek, and Ann wants to get their autographs' You know she's a big fan of thеirs.
    • рresent Рrоgressive Аsl(& ANsvlER.Stеph is interviеwingthe leod singer of the Airhеods,PаuI, Writе quеstionsusing thе words in porеnthеsеs. Givе short onswers. Sтвpн: PaoI, Pдur.: are Уou in|roducinoanУ newэonoЭ on |hio t.our? 1 . ( i n t r o d u с e/ a n y n e w 5 o n g 5o n t h i s t o u r ? ) Yeэ, we are 2. . We're intrоduсing some songs from our new album ' In thе Аir Sтвpн: Yоur fans are so exсited to sеe you after suсh a long time. 3 . ( W h y ' 1t o u r / а g a i п ? ) Pдur,: We want to play for livе audienсes. Wе neеd that. Sтшpн: 4 . ( W h а t / W o r k o n / t h e s ed a y s ? ) Pдur,: Some exсiting new material. But tмe'rе not talking about it yet. Sтвpн: She has a niсe voiсе. 5 . ( W h o ' / 5 i n g , ' W i t h ) , o t rn О w ? ) Pдur,: Sylvia Sylva is singing some of the songs from the album. Sтшpн: 6 . ( s l r Р' г е p | а с е Т о t i ? ) 1 Pдur,: 7. . Toti has a new babv. but shе'llbе baсk in a few months. . ЕDlT Rеod this lеttеr.Find ond сorrесt six mistokеsin thе usе of thе prеsеnt progrеssivе. The first mistokеis olrеodу сorrеcted. DеаrTo|i, 'm writing t70и m euеryonе is s|ееp, I sittingherеаnd wаtching bиt l.wri*eto +rom hordroom. е|5е thе oceaо. stауtng thе P|аzл Аttantic in is Wе,rе аt а0dtnе vleu/ beaиtitиl. Ihetoцr is Bеаch, Ihе is thе goе5we||. aцdiеncе crazу abot,lt nеwsongs, Ihе tаns is alulavs bцt аskinq yoи for . Do hеr Howis thе bаbt(5hе hаs а grеаluoice. oцirеаching to sinqуd? Мауbеbothaflyoи Ioцr| comеаIong thе nехI tor wi|| Sv|viа r 5
    • Tense Simple Present He works aIIthе timе-hе nеvеrrеlaxеs. Hank is alwaysin a hurryand hе doеs еvеrything onсе. at -| ! PпINт Сhеck thе best titlе for thе саrtoons, П Hank at Work This Weеk t Hank's Working Habits AFFlппnAтшЕ sтAтEi,|ENтs сl|ARт сI/iEсl( Сirсle T (True)or F (Folsе). т т т 6 F F F The form for he/she/it ends with -s. Negative statemеnts havе do not or doеs not befoтe the basе fоrm. Quеstions havе do оr does after the subjесt. I | Vвпв Suвtвст |/We/You*/Тhеy work works. Hе/Shе/It NЕGAтlvE sтAтЕlt.IENтs 5uв;вст | oo n,, | влsвFoпм |/Wе/You/Тhеy do not Hе/She/|t work. doеs not *Уoиis both singular and plural. YEs/NoQUЕsтloNs Do I SuryпстBlsв Foпм | Do you Doеs ne work? sнoRт ANSWERS Aггlпмдтlvв Yеs, do. ne doеs. I Nвсятlvв ! No, I don't. ne doesn't.
    • Simple Present }yf,-QUЕsтloNs tшнWoпo I Do Whеrе When I su"l..' I Blsв Foпм do you doеs ne work? ЕхPREssжж Unsсromblеthеsеwords to сomplеtеthе quеstion. rush.Why.heоdoes all the time? G r a mc тъar рlana t jо ns Еx Еxamples l. Usе the simpte prеsеnt tensе to talk about what rеgular|y happens. r r r r Some pеop|erush through Iife' Thеy don,t relax. othеr peop|е rе саIm. a Тhey don,t fееl tensе. r l r r She лeyer rеlaxеs. You usuolly takе |ifееasier. Wе sometimеs slееp |atе. Thеy seldom take а vaсation. *?- . х. Past.'..........Х. . x ..Х........х..'.....> Future rish 2. Usе advеrbs of frеquеnсy with thе simp|e prеsеnttense to еxpгеsshow oftеn something happеns. дч .'о. s .o.. ^ф s :$^il- ^""- ч" ;, .o Ьo $o ot-6 od "". / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . ...../../ .. ......./ - . .. . . . . . . . . . . / .. * ,|ooo/o Оo/o Br сдпвгut-! Adverbs of frеquеnсy usua|ly сome bеforе thе main verb, but thеy go aftеr thе vеrb be. l Wе usuolly rush around too muсh. r Wе,re often stгessed out. 3. Usе the simp!е presеnt tensе to talk about sсiеntifiсfaсts. (ausеs high b|ood pressurе. r Strеss l Water frееzеs at З2"F. Сheсk out! it Еor spelling rules for the third person singular (hе/ shе/it) of the simple present tense, see Appеndix 20 on page 343. For pronunсiation rules for the third person singular hе / shеl it) of the simple present tense, see Appendiх 27 on page 348, Тense r 7
    • 8 r unita o Reod this port of o book rеviеw'Undеrlinеthе simplе prеsеnttеnsevеrbs, IDENTIFY Сircle the odvеrbsof frеquencу. Dowш Cдlм mеdiсation fог stгеss-геlatеdillnеssеs. Roads Mеdiсinе ! ., o,".Sara usuall,vlowеrs a patiеnt's blood ..You prеSsurе. But, Dr. Roads сlaims, dоn't zrlrvays nееd pills. Rеlirхirtion psr,сhologiсall1', but Rоads, Dr. aссoгding artthor of thе to ехегсisеs arе somеtilТlеsas еffесtir,е as pills. For ехamplе, brеathing new еxегсisеs both rеlax уоu and lorvег уotlг Ьlood bеstsеllег, Саlm Doun!, it alsо аffесts rrs physiсail1'.Fог ехaпrplе' stгеss Prеssurе. It orrly takеs a fеw minutеs!'' сatlsеs high blood PГеssuге. Doсtorsоftеn prеsс,iь. =@ o с0|{iPIEтEMеgon ond Greg hove complеtеlу diffеrent tуpes of personolity (A ond B). Rеod obout one, writе obout thе othеr. Type B: Grеg Тypе A: Megan 1 . Мegan doеsn't rеlaх easily. 2 . She doеэn't |ake timе to еnjoy о Greg rr|axeэ easily. . He takеs time to eniov the moment. the moment. 3 . Megan and her boyfriend nеver takе vaсations. 4 . She through the day. о Greg and his girlfriend often - vaсatrons. о H е doеsn't rush through the day. 5. She is nеrvous. оHe nervous. 6. Shе is always in a hurry. .He nevеr in a hurrу, She finishеs other people'ssentenсes for them. .He 8. Shе a lot. . Hе doеsn't wоrrу a lot. 9. Shе enough time . Hе has enough time to frnish things. 7. other people's sentenсes for them. to finish things. 1 0 . Mеgan has high blood prеssure due to strеss' . Greg pressure due to stress. high blood
    • simp|e Present Тense C Asl(t, ANiWER Todd is on oсcountont,Look ot his sсhеdule.Write quеstionsond onswersobout his doу, Ш?}iff*ll8 6:00-7:00 9еt up.ехеrсisе 8:00-9:00 work on геports 9:00-12:00 seе сliеnts When / get up? |Nhen doeэ he get up? 12:o0-12',З0 |unсh 12:30-5:00 rеturn phone сalls 5:30-7:00 attеndnight sсhoоl He ge|э up at 6:00, 2. eхеrсisе in the morning? in Doeghe exeraiэe the morninа? Yеэ, hе doeo, 3. work on reDorts in the aftеrnoon? 4' When / see сlients? 5. takе a lunсh brеak? 6. What / do / from 12:30to 5:00? 7. Where / go / al5:30? journol еntrу.Find ond сorrесttеn mistokеsin thе usе of thе simplе EDIT.Reod Todd,s prеsenttеnse.The first mistokeis аlrеodу сorrectеd. nevernave l,m so fired.l harc.я*еrtime to rel,aх.I work aI|daу and вtudieвall nighf.Iv1у bosв tell me that l need,a,,,,uaсafion. buf l afraid to fake one,Doeamy boas thinkв that l agree, the otfiсe ca,n,f,unсfion wifhout me? l dont want fhem fo think l'm not neceEыarу. But mY wife ia unhappУ too,She сomplainfhat вhe never aee6me anуmore. |v1,у don't всhedule are-',,сr'azу.l thiлk l can keepfhiв up muсh ,Ioлgendon't wanfв to quif l nighf school,thouAh,I think offen fhat there has fo be a better way, r 9
    • & Non-Action {ry ": Verbs ш:::-:::: P0lNт Сhеck thе сorrеctаnswеr. Aссording to thе fish, the Worm П hus thе flavor of сhiсken. П aсts like a сhiсkеn. сI|ARт сHEсI( Сirсlе T (Truе)or F (Folsе). т F Sоmе vеrbs have both a nоn-aсtiоn and an aсtion meaning. т F Avеrb usеd with a non-aсtion meaning is not used in the progтessive. vERBs WIт}| NoN-AстloN It,lEAN lNGs I want to go fishing. Hе owns a big boat. Тhe weathеrsеems finе' Thеy hatе fish. vЕRBs wlтн Boтн NoN-AстloN AND ACтloN ]UtЕANlNGs Noш-Aспoш Aстloш Тhе fish weighs five pounds. Wе think it,sa good day for fishing. This fish ta'tеs de|iсious. Тhis food smells qood. Hе's weighing the fish now. W е , r e t h i n k i n g a b o u tg o i n g . | , m t а s t i n g t h е f i s hn o w . Т h е с o o k i s s m е I | i n gt h е f o o d . EхPREssж with thе corrесtform of the vеrb tastе. Сomplеtеthеsеsеntеnсеs the soup right now It 10 salty.
    • Non.Aсt.on Verbs r G r * г т з i т э аЕ x p l a n а t i о n з ЕxаmрIes instеad 1. Many vеrbsdesсribe stаtеsor situations of aсtions.Thеse verbs arе сalled non.aсtion verbs (or stativеverbs). r r |ohn has а boat. (Thеvеrb hos dеsсribеs not John,ssituotion, somеthing is doing') hе Most non-асtion verbsare not usual|y used in thе pгеsеnt progrеssive evеn whеn they desсribе a situation that is happеningright now. l He wants fish for dinnеr. Noт t{еisзгrraвting-ffiifii1еl.. 2. Non.aсtionvеrbsarе usually verbsthat: a. dеsсribеa state of being (bе, feеl) r ,|anе tirеd but happy. is r 5hе fеels good. b. exprеss еmotions (hаtе, likе, lovе) A: Do you likе my new drеss? B: I lovе it! с. dеsсribеmenta| statеs (know,rеmembеr, beliеvе, think [= beliеve], supposе, undеrstond) r I know а |ot of good rесipes. l Ari rеmеmbеrs your number. l I think you,гe right. d. show possession (havе,own, possess, bеlong) l сеsaг has a hеadaсhe' l Somе studentsown miсгowavеs. е. dеsсribеperсeptions and sensеs (hеor,seе,smell,tastе,feеl,notiсе,sеem, look [= sееm],oppеor,sound) l l hear thе tе|еphonе. r Dina sееms tirеd. nеeds and preferеnсеs f. dеsсribе (neеd,wаnt, prefer) r l neеd a pеn. g. dеsсribеmeasurеmеntt (weigh' сost, сontoin) l HoW muсh doеs it сost? 3. Bв сдпвгul! Some verbsсan have non-aсtion and aсtion mеanings(tostе,smell, feel, look, think, Itovе, wеigh). Noш-Астtoх r I taste gaг|iс. Did you put some in hеrе? (I notiсе gorliс,) r Тhe soup tastes good' Тry some. (Thеsoup is good,) АсТloN r |,m tasting thе soup to sеe if it nееdsmorе sa|t. (l,m trying thе soup.) Cheсk out! iI For a list of сommon non-aсtion verbs' see Appendix 2 on page 337. 11
    • 12 r Unit з o lDENтltY Rеod this сonvеrsotion,Undеrlinеoll non-аction vеrbs thot dеscribеo situotion thot is in progrеss,Сirclе oll non-oсtion vеrbs thot desсribeа situotion thot is genеrolly truе, Ar,rшв:This stеak tastеs deliсious.Your salmon looks gоodtoo. Bвш: Here, I'm putting some on your plate. I think yоu'll like it. Ar,rшв:Mmm. I likе it. Funnу, I l..,,ully(JБ.'ТIГd fi.h. Bвш: Red has that effeсt on pеople. Arrшв: I have no idea what you,ге talking about. What do yоu mean? Bвш: Well' сolоrs сan сhange the way we feеl. tr'оrexample, people often feel hungтier in a red room. I notiсe that yоu're looking right at the red wallpaper. Ar,rшв: And I сеrtainlу feel hungтy right now. I'm eating half your salmon. Bвш: That's oK' I,m tasting your steak. сн00sEо Сomplеte this mogozinе ortiсIе with thе сorrеct form of the verbs in porenthеses. Lenny Kramer is in a sports store. н" .' i.o.i#iJ..uo..,.nаi really paying attention to the aroma vеry muсh beсausе he pair оf running shоes. Th"У -_Т Lenny really, really flоwers, but he isn't 2 . ( l o o k s/ i s l o o k i n g ) .ul.* 4 . ( W а n t s/ i s W а n t i n g ) ata a lot moгe than he usuallу pays, but ." thosе shоеs. He's thе viсtim of ..smart sсents.'' aromas that stores use to make сustomеrs buy more. Aсross tоwn' Lenny's daughter Myra is taking a history tеst in a сlassroom that was reсently painted yellow. Although Мyra 6 . ( s е е m s/ i s s e e m i n g ) 5 . ( h а t e s/ i s h a t i n g ) to bе dоing well on this tеst' She histоr5l,she 7. (likes is liking) / the new сolorofherсlassroom'.n"ffithatit'shelpingheronthеtest' but it is. Sсientists have shown that уellow imp.о,,eJ Ьoth mеmory and сonсеntration. Wе now 9. (know / arе knowing) that odоrs, сolors, and sounds affeсt our moods and еven our health. In faсt, right now Lеnny's wife, Cindy' 1O.(thinks is thinking) / about Lenny and Myra' Shе's surе that Lenny is spending tоo muсh on shoеs and that Myra is failing another history test. Cindy suffers from migтaine headaсhes, but she - 1 1 . ( d o e s n ' t a v e / i s n ' th a v i n q ) h l 2 . ( h е а r si i s h e a r i n g ) a headaсhe today. Shе,s in the gardеn, and shе birds and inseсt sounds. Thev alwavs сalm hеr down.
    • Non.Aсt.on verbs r 13 o Rеod this convеrsotion.Сompletеit with the сorrеctform of thе сOff|PLEтЕ or Usе vеrbsin porenthesеs. thе presеntprogrеssive thе simplе prеsеnttеnsе, goоd!What's сooking? A: Hi, Ana. Mmm. Somethin* ---jЪhB: Fish soup.I it to seе if it 2. (tastе) you -- A: Mmmm. It A: That good, but I - it needs salt. 6. (think) about adding сanned tomatoеs too, еven though it 7. (think) 8. (not be) mоre garliс. to try it? 4. (wаnt) 5. (taste) B: OK. I 3. (need) in the reсipe. 9. (sound) likе a good idea. But wait a minutе. I 1O. (look) at the reсipe, and it says you сan add milk. How about that? B:I 11. (notknow) A: I.ll сheсk. Hmm. I if the milk t 3. (smе||) fresh. 12' (bе) it, but I sure. Let's add 14. (not bе) the tomatoеs instеad. B: OK. I l5. (lovе) сooking! Thе whоlе house l6. (smе|l) great when you сооk. And it always puts me in a good mood. A:I 17. (know) what you 18. (mean) .I 19. (feel) thе same way. ЕDlIo Rеod this journol entrу. тhеrе orе eight mistokеsin the usе of oсtion ond non.oсtion verbs,Find ond сorrесtthеm, The first mistokеis аlreodYcorrectеd' уgrcn ъ- have N0|щ99!fuу-+еA3М-взggээp!_Щ!W4!|9l0-4"0-p,,!argе аw!уlo -t!uэgуa'ц!'у!е*,Jr-ез4'q! rЦmq'o_4_gnф9!'rjLo+ фi9I9 эoц'фЦ!9.gry -аbg,Щh-o;у5r!е-||5_9gр-/уфrnцQ,аnd9)!е!!е3у!'5-q!i9nl'!v::w|9ц9[Ia13уq q1P!цf7r-hе g:ф thinking l,п not nеас!а-c,,fu),1h9э,у4-919p,-bиt thсt -dеуеssion) 3-1reеn tnщKlrn еаt !lgе!do1!Щ.''..-._ уe+'еry,оglo 1ц1grhngуhе-9 lnфpе q 4ffеrе,!!eJL!qщ.1te4|] tlrлo'Ц?ntJ-navе a-щ?_$-'?'е??еrpint-tea wrth 9_щWOr(Уthф!p у-g0!:0Т|oo lnцch:2p'_ф l lеэ:'Цe:t]JАqn1lкщW ?P999!-фя,nA_hеJ?2уoу-9в фJЦt Pлgl'-l-e-аtуJps-:g!2l0фl!9 thgt! т'b-aцI It,s-sсpmiqgthаt ?qfi! goф1gh w) ф!9q.o1фе'lQеэr'еgцэц04g9'59у!42 rhеrе o0еаs] so|ulions' аrе
    • Present Progressive and Simple Present Тense Cross-Cultural Confusion Whу iэ Taro |еaning back ,рiё F i n et h a n k e , |,owarе уou2, Whуiэ Эami эtandingeo Friеnds from differеnt сuItures often havе differеnt ideasabout timе. l€ н Е€ l <| Sometimеs they don't agrее about distanсе, soсiaI either. P0INт Сirclе T (Truе)or F (Folsе)' т F Karl is arriving late tоnight. т F In Sami's сulture, people rarely stand сlose to eaсh other. сIiARт сltЕсl( Сheсk thе сorrесt onswеrs. The present progтessivehas: t оnе part П two parts The simplе present tense has: LJ one form П t*o forms t4 .Pп PREsЕN. Suв;вст oGREsslvЕ Bдsв Foпм| Bс + -rArG I am Wе/You*/They arriving are Hе/She/|t ts *You is both singular and plural now. slпnPlЕ PRЕSЕNт тЕNsЕ 5uUвст Vвпв |/Wе/You/Thеy nеvеr arrlvе arways Hе/She/It arrlvеs on timе.
    • Present Progressive and Simple Present тense r EхPREss Жxdi Сomplеtеthe following chorts with thе vеrb buу' PRЕSENт PRoGREss|vE Suвlвстl Bд l BдsвFoпм + .lшс I Suв;вст| |v.*" You You fIowеrsnow. He slluPLE PRESЕNт тЕNsЕ l usually сhoсoIates. Hе G r а mm ar Еx plana t io ns Ехamples 1. Usе thе present progressive for things happеningright now. {o(o. ' Now -^to : . *d$n' p a s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . ;.. S.9 . ]u - u r e -F .t i r Sami is talkin9 to Тaro. r Аt thе momеnt,Тarois spеaking Еng|ish. Use the simplе рreJеnt tеnJе to desсгibе happеns. what rеgu|arly Past.'.........'Х. x *?* r Sami talks to Taro еveryday. l Тarospеаks Japanеsе homе. at Future i x.........x.......'> Hе tolksto hiimеverуdoу. 2. Usе the prеsеnt progrеssivе for things happеningthesedays. I Arе you studying hard thеse doуs? Now Pаst I We.rе studying in thе U.S. this month. studуing in Franсеthis уeor, t Laura,s . . . . . . . . . .Futurе .> 3. RвмвмввR! Most non-aсtlon vеrbs аrе not usuallyusеd in thе Prеsentprogrеssivе a еven whеn thеy dеsсribе situation that exists аt thе moment of spеaking. r |anеwants to go homе right now. Noт 4. Use the simple present tеnse to talk about sсiеntifiсfaсts аnd physiсallaws. Causes high b|ood prеssure. r Stress -l r Watегboils аt 00.с. it Cheсk oul! For a list of сomrnоtrnon-aсtion verbs, seе Apperrdiх 2 on page 337. 15
    • 16 r Unit zr о Rеod thеsеjournol еntriеsbу Brion, а Сonodion summerехсhongеstudеnt IDENтIЕY studуing in Argеntino. Сirсle oll thе vеrbsthot dеscribеwhаt is hoppening now. Undеrlinеthе vеrbs thot desсribеwhot gеnerаllу hoppеns. a oaat June 2o; t@tn ЭО'ООО frеL aboveLhe еarth е n r o u t е | o ^ r q e n | i n a l| u o u a | | у h a v ed i n n е ra t t h i e t i m e , b u t r i q h | n o w I h a v еa h е a d a c h e r o m L h e f gу eеa|ma|е le axClLamen|. Ju|y 4: The wea|hеr ie cold now, l u e u a | | у p e n dt h е f i r o t w е е k e n d э of JuIу at the bеach,Todaу |m wa|king around in a heavу ;vlea|er, Аuguэt 6z I fee| eo LtredtonighL. Еveryonеr|эe feе|oqrеat in Nhе е v e n | n q e c a u e et h е у t a k e l o n q b napэ in |hв aftеrnoon, eatinq mу food. Эhе lookэ haP?у, June Эo: It'e 7:ЭО, gу hoэt parеnLe are эti|l workinq, Сar|oo,mу fathеr, wОrkэa| hоnзe. |i|||ebroLher Mу K i с а r d oi э c u | е , А е | o o k e( a n d aсta) a |o| |ikebobbу,Kiqht now, h е ' e| o o k i n q v e rm у э h o u l d e ra n d О tryinq to rеad mу journa|, о сOffiPIEтEStudеntsorе tolking outsidе o сlossroom.Сomplеtеthеir сonvеrsotions with thе prеsеntprogrеssivе the simplеprеsеnttеnseof thе verbsin porеnthеsеs. or l. Lr-wu: Hi' Paulo. WЪat Pдur,o: oh, I you are b. (wait) Lr-wu: How are you? You Pдulo: I аm a little tired. I doinа a. (do) for сlass to begin. tired. с. (|ook) d. (rvork) evenings this semеstеr.Hеy, is that your teaсher over there? Lr-wu: Yеs' She e. (tаlk) to one оf mу tt-. сlassmatеs. Pдur,o: I wonder what,s wrong. He her. He Lr-wu: Oh. That Рt g]:Js, .)Ф-. , g. (look) h. (not meаn) f. (not look) .r ъ* ' i]./.., Ц}.-' !-] ,,"ъ at ,.ll-! еmbarrassed. -J anything. In Taiwan ] ! ,,1:l- -.--4.Bь:-. it's not respeсtfulto lоok direсtly at yоur teaсhеr. 2. Moвrкo: Look, there,sМiguеl. He Nrшд: Yes. They b. (tаkе) a. (1аlk) u ' lr tо Luisa. a сlass together this semestеr. +ч I -|,у) ,l-
    • Flreserrt Рrogressivr and simple Рresent Tense you very сlose to еaсh other. (. (stand) theу d. (thiпk) NIшд: No. I 2 е. (date) it f. (notthink) anything spесial. I 9' (meаn) from Costa Riсa, h. (соmе) and people thеre nоrmally that i, (stand) сlose to еaсh othеr. 3. Rдsrrд: There's Hans. Wlrv a. (walk) he so fast? Class at 9:00.Hе still Cr-дuов: He always Switzerland often 4. - tla 'r.*4 '' :-J ; .) t -.:с аъ;.. J -a,-zф.@ t l ,li r ,r; il b. (stаrt) о.l fast. Pеople from e. (аpреao t o b e i n а hurry. Yoкo: Isn't that Sеrgio and Luis? Why --hands? They . аvti! ..:s"so3; ,.' Ъ . r tеn minutesl d. (walk) theу b. 1know; Jrшс: In Brazil. rrrеn time thеу li ! /'r, .ъ ,J a. (shаkе) eaсh othеr. <. (shake) hands evеry d. (meet) journol, Find аnd сorreсtеlevеnmistаkеsin thе use of thе presеnt EDIT.Reod this student,s progressivе simple prеsеnttеnse' The first mistokеis olrеаdу corrеctеd' or |'moi|ъ|ng lt.s '|l:3oац_dtФ+iц|he lib1а1y right цow.Мy с!аssmаfesq1e qаl_i1q lunф toget!р1' I miss'my old roиtinе. homе we alwaysare eаtingа Ьi9 щq4!аt |:1Оo the Аt inаft9-ц11oor,r'' wr res Тhen ' 4 ' r 9 ' '' Еverуdaу,l аlmost fа[! сoЧrse|m ngt borqd. jus-t4eedmy аfternoo'4 nqp!Т,!isс!аs-s g!уv'qyg-i.q Тhiq I tчn' grgups--o.| seцеste.r,. work on a p1ojeсtчvithv!d.eg саm-е-ца's'.teaц j.s-fitmirr.g $L щe -soсlat people differentс9r!tures'. are ana|уze to in We distаnсe'-Тhqt meац-s how 9!9_se eасhothеrthesepgoplestaцd.Асс'ordingto for my l:oo q!gрs.Тeq-с'hers. real|yarеn't likiц9 ryhqцу.oч9oцe-|9tq]-' h-9re 17
    • & lmperative To do thе Jab: B е n d у o u rk n е a э n d a p|aaeуour riqht foo|,in fron|, likethia,?unahwi|hуour nghl fiaL. {Е:{Ст{POINт | Сhесk thе corrесtonswеr. Thе woman in the photo is П inviting someonе tо learn thе Jab. П gi,,ing instruсtions on how to do thе Jab' П ordering someone to do the Jab. AЕFlRll'AтlvE сltАRтсltЕсl( Сhесk the corrесt onswеr. Irnperativе sentеnсеs П inсlude a subjeсt. П don,t inсlude a subjeсt. 18 BдsвFoпм l oг Vвпв l NЕGAтl! VЕ l BдsвFoпм | DoN,тI oг Vвпв | Bеnd yourкnees. Punсh with your fists. Don't bеnd your Knеes. punсh with your fist.
    • lmperative r EхPRЕss,;iж, Usе thеsе vеrbs to completе thе chаrts, listen touсh AFF!RпnAтlvЕ BдsвFoпм oг Vвпв | stand NЕGAт|VE Doн,т I Bдsв Foпм oг Vвпв to t h е m u s i с . to t h е m u s i с . your toes. your [oes. straight. straight. &rа*ъзynarf;xр|anаtigns Ехarnрles 1. Тhе impеrativе foгm of thе veгb is alwaysthe bаsеform. lt is the samе whethегit is dirесted peop|е. to onе or sevеrаI r Marlа,pIеase get rеady r Gеt ready,guys! 2. Тhе subjесt of an impеrative statemеnt you. is Howеvеr,we do not sаy or writе yoи in impеrative sеntеnсеs. r Stand up straight. NoT }ffit. 3. Тhe impеrativе form has a number of usеs. Usе thе impеrativе to: a. givе dirесtions and instruсtions l Turn Iеftat thе traffiс|iqht. b. give ordеrs or сommands l Don,t movе! с. make rеqцests (Use plеosein addition to form.) the imperative l Pleosе rеad this aгtiс|e. r Rеad this aгtiс|e, pleosе. d. givе adviсe or make suggеstions r Don,t eхеrсisе whеn you,resiсk. е. givе warnings. r Bе сaгеfuI! Don,t trip! f. invitе someone r Work out with us tomoгrow. 19
    • 2O r Unit s o ItiAтсl| Еoсh impеrotivegoеs with а situotion.Motch thе impеrotivеwith thе сorrеctsituаtion, Imperаtivе q Situation l . Don't tоuсh that! a . Someonе is visiting a friend. z. Look b . Someone is going out into the сold. bоth ways. 3 . Dress warmly! C. Someone is сrossing a street. 4. Don't bend your knees. d. Someonе is taking an еxam. 5 . Mark eaсh answer true or false. e. Someonе is ехerсising. 6 . Come in. Make yourself at home. f. Somеonе is tasting some fоod. 7 . Try a little morе peppеr. 9. Sоmething is hot. C lIiAтсI| You,rеgoing to give instructionsfor moking o bonаnа-strowbеrrу smoothiе, Motсh o verb from сolumn A with o phrosе from сolumn B' С o l u m nA ColumnB Add the ingтediеnts until smooth. siх strawberries. a banana. orange juiсе intо thе blender. the strawberries in half. the fruit to the orange juiсe. Sliсe Wash Cut Blеnd Pour LABЕL.Now writе thе sеntеnсеs ordеr under thе сorreсtpiсtures. in l. Э | i c ea b a n a n a ' 2. #ffi 3. ,*l.r дч:-.- , #, у 1 1. i ' lь ТЗ ,' 'ф W@ 2' "*- ьiiiЁ"- 4. 5. 6. :'l
    • lmperаtive o for сl]00sE с0мPLEтE Reаd this аdvеrtisеmеnt o mortiol аrts sсhool' Сompleteit a using the offirmotivеor nеgotivеimpеrotivеform of thе verbsin thе boх. сhoose register beсome miss Don'tthink inсrеase deсrease take |earn wait }A< that martial arts is only about physiсal training. A goоd t. martial arts progтаm offers many other benefits as well. 2. self-defense and morе at the Martial Arts Aсademv: stress. Martial arts training helps you relax. 3. сonсentration. Martial arts students foсus better. 4. fit. Strength and fleхibility imprоve aS you learn. 5. We are оffering an introduсtorytrial membership. spесial оpportunity. this 6. сlasseswith Master Lorenzo Gibbons' 7. a ninth-leve] Blaсk Belt Master. 8. сlasses from our сonvenient sсhеdule. now lo. 9. for a two-week trial. oNLY 52o. - UNlFoR/t INсLUDED. o EDII Rеаd port of o mаrtiаl orts studеnt,sеssoу.Find ond corrеctfive mistokеsin the usе of thе impеrotivе.Thе first mistokеis olrеodу сorrесted. Еor thе B]асk BеlL еssay. Мastеr Glbbons gаvе uS this Write * ^ . L ^ . . ! ,lvTv .imnоrtяnт . . . .j -т.(71f-Wт-f-ге *hр Wav. ,""_t. othеr or -lllos q n m р t h i n о. - О of 1ifе pеop1е-тrеat Sесond. for с1 l.]UuL for stea1. not Thеsе to arе usе thе -L thе thеm thе hе1pеd pеop1е in othеrs, _...r just most L tL o v mart1a1 Vо]l. Jvu. arts. t- оr n* . j с - . .!J First. Wаy you Want thеm to nееd. it Lalf words, for own good. important ru1еs to is Thр R - О - h' т io - - rPsnр.ts trеat uSе your In othеr your assignmеnt: Third, mе. you. sтrеngth no 1iе r 21
    • SelfTest lsв.ffiloшt Сirclе the lеtter of the corrесtonswеr to сomplеtееoсh sеntеnсе. Exдmpш: сoffee. Jеnnifer nеver (Al drink (B)drinks (С)is drinking (D)was drinking l. ready for sсhool? It's already 7:00. (C)You get (A) Do you gеt (D)Yоu are getting (B)Are you getting to Grеесe every yеar to visit his family. (с) go (D)goes z. Niсk (A) is gоing (B)he goеs 3. Why -? Class isn't over yet. (C) do yоu leave (A) are you leaving (D)you lеaving (B)you are leaving good. Is that fresh bread in thе oven? (С)smеll (D)smelling 4. Something - tA)smells is {B) smelling 5. Whiсh сlass (A)are you liking (B)you are liking 6. - loosе сlothes to eхеrсisе. You,ll be mоrе сomfortablе. (C)Wears (Dl You wear to сlass on time. We start at ехaсtly 9:00. (C) yоu're сoming (D)сomes AвсD ABсD ABсD AвсD (С}Don't (D)You don't ABсD 1 0 . -Do you like fish? -Yes, I -. 22 ABсD ABсD run! (A)Not (B)No {A)am (Bldo ABсD (С) you like (D)do vou iike s. I sоmething outside. Are thе doоrs loсked? (С)hearing (A) 'rn hearing (D)hеars (B)hear 9 . Walk! - ABсD ABсD best? (Al Wear Wearing {B} 7. Plеase (A)we сomе (B)соme A@с [С)don't (D}likе D
    • SelfTest I t ABсD l1. Harry wоrks all the time. Hе (A) never relaxеs relaxes nevеr {B} (C) often relaxes (D)relaxes sometimеs these days? 12. What (A) are you doing (B)do yоu do (C)you are doing (D)you do 13. The baby,s so big! How muсh (A) weigh (B)she weighs now? (C) is shе weighing (D)dоes she weigh ABсD ABсD l4. -Arе you taking an English сlass this semester? -Yes, I -. (C)do (A) take (D)am (B)am taking ABсD at 212'F. ABсD 15. Water (A)boil (B)boils lsвffil (C)boiled (D)is boiling тw0 Eoсh sentеnсehos four undеrlinеdwords or phrosеs,Thе four underlinеdparts of thе sеntencеorе morkеdA, B, с, ond D. СirсIеthе lеtter of the one undеrlined word or phrose thot is Noт сoRRЕст' Еxдмptl: Mike usually drives to sсhool,but tо4ay hе wqlks. ABсD A B с@ 16. Fran usually is swimming beforе work, but this morning she'q jщЕ'iцg. ABсD 17. Thе wind is blоwing, it rains, and the sky loоks gray. ABсD 18. Whеre yoц_alе working these days aftеrsсhоol? ABсD 19. Thе floor is wet, so walk slowly and no fall down! ABсD A_BсD ABсD ABсD AB(O 20. Sоmething is seeming different-arе AB(D you weqring a new perfume? ABсD 21. We always eat оut beсause we ha!еs tо сook. ABсD 22. Luis arrivеs usually early, but today he's late. AвсD 23. I need my CD player if you don,t using it at thе щoment. ABсD 24. I nevеr havе anything to write with beсause I'm alw4),s lose my pens. ABсD 25. Turn lеft at the light, and you don,t forget tо signal! ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD 23
    • Simple Past Tense: Affirmative Statements Оh' А|bеr|| You werеa qoad man bul a l^ iat na?f I жPOINт Сhесk thе yеor thеsеsеntеncеs oppеored in o nеwspoper, ..PoetAlbеrt Rimes ]ivеs in Belяium.'' П rgвg t rggg ..PoetAlbert Rimes livеd in Belgium most of his life." ш 1989 ш 1999 сl|ARтсI{/Eсl( Сhесk thе corrесt onswеr' How many forms does the past tense of hehave? П o''" П t."o What dо you add to the base form of rеgular vеrbs to fоrm thе рast tense? ш -doт.ed ш .t тHE sIlUtPLЕ PAsт TЕNSE:8Е Suв;пст l/Hе/She/|t | Bt was WelYou*/Тhey wеrе y o u n gi n 1 9 3 0 . *Yorz both singular and plural is тHE sllt'PLE PAsт ТЕNSЕ:RЕGULAR vЕRBs Suвlrст l Vппв l movеd fiftyyеarsago. I/He/Shе/It/We/You/Тhеy workеd тHE slпnPlЕ PAsт ТЕNSЕ:IRRЕGULARvЕRвs Suв;пст l v.," wrotе I/Hе/Shе/It/We/You/Тhеy beсame built 24 l poеtry. famous. a monument.
    • Sirnple Рast тense: Affirmative Staternerrts l EхPREssжж Сompletethе сhort, Bдsв Foпм oг Vппв Slмprв Pдsт Тrшsв oe ano сome 5aVе й r a mтnа r Еx рla паt iо пs Е'xаrтзр|es l. Usе thе simрlе рast tense to ta|kabout things that arе now finished. r АIbertRimeslived in the twentiethсentury. r Hе was a ooеt. r Hе wrotе poetry. *?* Past................х..........'....i.....'....................,..> Hе wos o poеt. i. 2. You сan u5еthе simplе past tense with timе exprеssions that refеrto thе past (Iostwееk, bу 1980, in thе twentiethсеntury, fifty уеors ogo). I I Bу |93o, he was famous. Hе diеd more than tеn yеors ogo, 3. Тhe simple past tеnsе of rеgu|ar verbs is formеd by adding -d or -еd, Bдsв Foпм Iive join pray Slмplв Pдsт Iived joined played } Bв сдпвгul! Тhеrеare often spelIing сhanges whеn you add .ed to the vеrb. study hop studiеd hoppеd Мany сommon verbsarе irrеgular. Тhеir paSttеnsеis not formеd by adding .d or -еd. bе havе get go was/wеrе had got wеnt Сheсk out! it For spelling rules for the simple past tense of regular verЬs, see Appendix 21 on page З44. For pronunсiation rules for the simple past tense ofregulaт vеrbs, see Appendix 28 on page 348. For a ]ist ofirregтlar verЬs, see Appendix 1 on pagеs 336_337. 25
    • 26 l Unit о o iDENтiFY Rеаd obout lаponesе poеt Mаtsuo Bosho. Undеrlinеаll the rеgulorpost tеnsеvеrbs,Сirclе oll the irrеgulorpost tensеvеrbs, Matsuo Basho@БDmore than 1'000 three-line poems' or..haiku.'' He сhose topiсs fiоm nature, daily life, and human emotions. He bесame оne of Japan's most famous poets, and his work established haiku as an impоrtant art form. Matsuo Basho was born near Kyоtо in 1644' His father wantеd him tо beсome а sarnurai (warrior). Instеad, Matsuo movеd to Edо (presеnt-day Tokyo) and studied pоetry. By 1681' hе had many studеnts and admirers. Basho's home burned down in 1682. Thеn, in 1683, his mothеr diеd. After these events, Basho felt restless. Starting in 1684, he travеlеd оn foot and on horsebaсk al] over Japаn. Sometimes his friends joined him, and they wrоtе poеtry together. Travel was diffiсult in thе seventeеnth сentury, and Basho often got siсk. He died in 1694, during a journey to Osaka. At that time he had 2,000 students. o Reod this biogrophу of onothеr poet, Еmilу Dickinson' сl]00sE сOff|PLEтЕ & Сomplеtеit using thе simplе post tеnsеform of thе vеrbsin thе boхеs. bе beсome lead )< leavе write Еmily Diсkinson, one of thе most pоpular Ameriсan poets, lived t. from 1830to 1886.Shе about love. naturе. and time. These her favorite themеs' Diсkinson an unusual life, After just one year of сoliege, she shе almost never a reсluse- her hоuse in Amherst, Massaсhusetts. At hоme, she familу, and she only 5. no one eхсept hеr 7. 8. white.
    • Simple address appear happen In addition to her poetry,Diсkinson people always Past Тeпse: Affirпlаtive Stаtеmeгlts l write 9. many letters.Other the envelopes for her. Durins her lifetime only 10. seven of hеr 1,700 poems 11. in print-and this '12. without her knowlеdge or permissiоn. Now сomplеtеtheselines from o poеm bу Emilу Dickinson, bite .}"Ф A bird drink .l eat hop down the walk: 3. He did nоt knоw I He an angle-worm in halves 15. And the fellow raw. And then he 17. a dew Frоm a сonvenient gтass' And then 18. sidewise to the wall To let a beetle pass. C journаl, Find ond сorreсtеight mistokesin the use of thе ЕDlT Reod port of а studеnt,s simplе post tеnsе.Thе first mistokeis olreody сorrеcted. enjoуed Todауin c|a.ss rеаd a ?oеmby RobertFros|.I really wе eqэу it. lt was aboцtа Iwo ' whochoosеd bеIlllеео roаdsin а torеst Bdore hе mаdе his decision, hе ?еraon to IhoughI thе s?еntsa lot at tirnetn7ing decidеwhichroаdto fotlow. Мany peopte on wеrcFrost.|nrhе еnd,hе IаkеIhе roаdIhаIwаs |еssIrаvе|еd . |1edеcidеd ?еrson to bе а poеt.Ihаt dеcision cnangе titea lot. his ' Somеtimеs lеe| а tittletikeFrost тwoеars ago I decidеto comeIo this I coцnIr.ThаI werеIhe biggеstdеcision rnytife. ot 27
    • Simple Past Тense: Negative Statements and Questions Тнв Dдtrr,Nь-rr,s DID sHЕ сRASH??? -Lдл,, Nвw Gurшвд, Jurv 2, 1'9З7. Аmdria ЕarhаrtЪ smali planе lеft thе island of Laе at ехaсtly 12:00 midnight. Shе was not alonе on thе flight, Ьut shе and Frеd Noonan, hеr n a v i g a t o r ,w е r е v е f y t i r е d . S h е r е p o r t е dh е r l a s t p o s i t i o n a t 8 : 1 , 4p . м . A Г t е r t h a t , s h е d i d n o t m a k е r a d i o с o n t a с t Did again. Vhy did thеy disappеar? W.еrеthеy ехhaustеd? t h е y r u n o u t o Г g a s ?T h е U . S . C o a s t G u a r d s t а r t е d i t s s е a r с hГ o r t h е а n s w е r а t 1 0 : 1 5 p . м . l PoINт l Сirclе T (True),F (Folsе), ? (thе ortiсlе doesn,tsoу)' or т r ? The plane сrashеd. т F ? Earhart made radio сontaсt after 8:14 p.м. т F ? Еarhart had a navigator with her. slMPLE PAsт тENsE: NEGAт|VЕ SтATEMENТs сI/,АRт снEсI( I Сhесk thе сorrеct onswers. What word do уou add to be to form а negative statement? П лot J did not BE Suв;вст |,. I/He/Shе/It I/He/She/lt We/You/Thеy 2a hеre |astyеar. was not = wasn't Wеrenot = werеn,t REGULA R AND IRRЕGULAR vl ЕRBs J did not not *You is both singular and plural. Suв,вст J was Wе/You*/Theywerе What do you add tо other verbs to form а nеgativе statеment? not сoNTRA(тloNs |шo' I Bдsв Foпм Dto t,toт| oг Vвпв did not сaIl tty CoNтRACтloNs l a s tn i g h t . did not = didn't
    • Simple Past Negative statements anсi QuestioПs тense: l slMPLЕ PAsТ TENsE: QUEsTIoNs снАRт сllEсK 2 Сhеck thе сorrеct onswеr. Whiсh word(s) сan begin уеslno questions with be? rl lJ were lJ lJ did Whiсh word(s) сan begin уеslno questions with other vеrbs? r-l lJ wos r-l tJ wеre J did s}loRт ANSWERS Bс |suц..' I Was sne Aггlпмдтlvв t hеre |astyеar? Wеrе they wos r- YEs/No QUЕSTIONS: 8Е Yes, she was. they werе. N."o,.u. No, she wasn't. they wеren,t !vf,- QuЕsтIoNS:BЕ tl Wн. Woпo |8r why was ISuqвст| she hеre lastyear? were thеy YEs/NoQuЕsтloNs:OТHERvЕRBs II Dlo ISuв!вст Bдsв Foпм I l t|у Did 5nе sHoRт ANsWЕRs Aггlпмдтlvвl to Меxiсo? Yеs, she did. ]No, she didn,t. l,t/f'QuЕsтIoNS: OтHER vЕRBs lll Wн- WoпoIDlo l Suв,пстBдsвFoпм I why did disappеar? it ЕxPREssжж Unscromblеthesеwords to form o questionond on onswеr. navigator . she . have о Did . a fly.Shеоdidn't.alonе rrrar ЕxрlanatЁоrrs & yarтт Еxarnp!еs 1. Usе the simplе past tеnse to makе negativе statements аbout aсtionsor situations that arе r r r r nowfinishеd. Shе wasn,t a|one. Тhey weren,t on an island. Т h e yd i d n , t f i n d t h e p I a n е . Hе didn't Call thatniqht. Now : Past...............Х.....i........................> wqsn'tolone i 2. Usе thе simpIe past tеnse to ask questions aboutaсtions situations are now finished. or that r Was shе a|onеin thе p|аnе? l Whеre did she leave from? it Cheсk out! Еor questions about the subjeсt,see Unit 24 on pages 102_103. Nвсдтlvв 29
    • 3O r unit z . READ Look аt some foсts obout Amelio Еаrhort' o She was bоrn in the Unitеd States. о She didn,t сomplete соllеgе. о She didn,t keep her first airplane. о She reсeived many arмards. o She married Geоrge Palmer Putnam. о She didn't have any сhildren. о She flew aсross thе Atlantiс oсean. о She wrotе three boоks. о АNswЕR Put o сhесk in the сorrесtboх' Yes 1. Did she get many awards? И 2. Was she a сollege gтaduate? 3. Wаs shе an Ameriсan citizen? 4. Did she keep hеr first planе? 5. Was shе an author? 6. Did she have a husband? 7. Was she a parent? t t t t t t No t t П t t t t о Asl(& АNsviIERUsе the сues to osk quеstionsobout Amеlio Еorhort. Тhеn аnswеr the questionswith thе informotionin thе box' E l. ,|9з7 Amеriсаn Columbia University two yеars WЪen/ sЪe/сross thе Atlantiс oсеan? Nhendid эhе crogэ the Аt|antia ocеan? 2. Where / s},e lstudy? 3. Horд'long / be / shе / a soсial worker? 4. Where / her last flisht / leave from? 5. How many books / sЬ,e /writе? 6. What /Ье /lner natiоnаlitv? 7. When I she /disappear? ln 192b, New Guinea three
    • s.m;rle least тense: Nеgаtive st;iteгneпts arld Questions тhе сOII|PLEтE. mogozine F|уing H.lgh (FH) interviewеdo уoung pilot' Сomplеtethe interviеwwith thе сorrесtform of thе vеrbsin pаrenthеsеs ond with short onswеrs, FH: Did Suв: Yeэ wanl you always aid ,I to bе a pilot? l. (want) . I saw a doсumentarv about Amelia 2. Earhart when I was siх. She beсame mу role model. FH: з. (be) Suв: your parеnts happу with уour dесisiоn? .They , they FH: WЪy nоt? thеy Suв: they they FH: FH: Suв: FH: Suв: оf flying arоund the wоrld? 9. (dгeam) 10, (notthink) it would happen so soon. you alone on the flight? ,I l 3. (Bе) . But I was very determined, and 7, you ever 11. (Bе) it was too dangerous? 6. (fее|) mе from pursuing my dream. 8. (not keеp) Suп: of сoursе.But I me to fly. 5 . ( n o tw а n t ) 12. .Ihadaсo.оilot. it diffiсult to find a сo-pilot for this flight? it 14. . She's my roommate. ЕDlIo Rеod this postсord. Find ond сorrect six mistokеsin thе usе of thе simptepost tensе,Thе first mistokeis olrеodу corrеctеd. receive Нi! Di|уoи rceеircJ пу Llst /еttсr? | intп't knеш,tlot,r Т: tt.'tl, аiirсss so / settt it toуoиr ,l/,/oпe, I,|/teп уoи , Ls.r |24с lttovсi? Diigoиr rootиtttсtuЬ, tпovеtl,itll !1oи? Rtght, пot,, litt oп bo"ll.,/ p/,lпс f/цitч to Е/ Pаso tо visit Апtl' ,l Тo: Dir|уoи mеt hеr .tt the сoпfireпсс Ltst уеоr? | ицlиfui tо visit hсr ttlJипс, bltt / пo /lа,/ thс tiпс. Аt first / к,,ts goirц to ,lrivе from Los Аиge/es, bнt I ieсile,'{ to f/у fulstеаi. Т/tis is oпlу пtц thir,l f/i1/tt, bиt / /t,vе ffunц/ | ,ti,|nt kпou, f/уitlg сoи/,./ so mtrh fиn! Нopе fu bе hсаr frout уоt'. -^,1 5ие Аvilt |21o Bоцviсu, Plвс.с Тttmpл,FL 33601 j r 3l
    • & Used to Lookat thatl I uэed |o wear jeano| baqgу Г{.з€q:{ff PglNт Сhеck thе сorrеctonswеr. The man is thinking about П a habit hе has now. П a habit hе had in the past. сI]ART сItEсК I Сirclе T (True)or F (Folsе). т F In aflirmative statemеnts, иsed to is used with all subjeсts. сHАRт сIIEсI( 2 Сheck the сorrесt' аnswеr, In questiоns,what form of used to is usеd? О аiа...usedto J аiа...usеto AFFlRluAтIvEsтAтЕП,lЕNтs Foпм l I Bдsв тo Suцпст| ttsсo I oг Vппв Suв,вст | Dtot,t,т тo I oг Vвпв usс I She Thеy I Shе Тhеy wеar 'eans. lt you D i d sne thеy Foпм l Bдsп I YEs/NoQUEsтloNs Dlo Isuqвст|uu .o | вшв гoпм usе to wеar iеans? didn't usе to did you she thеy usе to wеar Jeans. sHoRт ANSWERS I Aгrlпмдтlvв l I Yеs, snе thеy did. }vf,-QUEsтloNs Шн-Woпo I o,o i Suв,вст uu 'o | вяsеFoпм | What 32 used to NЕGAтlvE sтAтEпnENтs wеar? Nпсlтlvе I No, s h e thеy didn't.
    • Used tо r .*:)':bi;3 ЕхPREss Сirclе thе words to сompletеthеsеsеntеnсеs, о He usеd to / uses to wear baggy jeans. . Did yоu use to / usеd to shop for сlothes with your friеnds? о What did your parents use to sa}.ing / sa.v abоut your сlоthes? f"уаукrrзar Екр|а*аtiопs Еxаmplеs 1. Usе used to + basе form of the verb to ta|k about past habits or past situations that no Ionoеrеxistin thе orеsеnt. r Lеo used to buy baggy jеans. (ln thе post, hе oftenboughtboggyjeons Не doеsn,tbuу boggyjeons anуmorе.) ow Past.'...'.'''.''Хxх.........'.i.''..'.''.'.''..........> usеd to buу } i Bв сдпвгut|Used to а|ways has a past meaning. r |n his youth, Lеo usеd to bе thin Тhеrе is no prеsеnttenseform. N oт Тэdа*tеиаsеd-te-bе-tf,in that 2. We usua||y иsed to in sеntеnсеs use Gontrast the past and the prеsent. We oftеn еmphasize this сontгastby usingtimе eхprеssions suсh as nowl no longer, and not anymorе with the prеsenttеnse. l е a n su s e d t o G o m e o n | yi n b | u e . Nowyou сan buy themin anyсo|or. Тhey usеd to livе in Cenoa, but they no longer Iivеthеre. Shе used to wеar a size6, but shе doеsn,t onymorе. 3. Bв сдвtгur! Foгm quеstions with did + use to. Form thе nеgativе with didn,t + use to. Usдсв Noтв: Used to is more сommon in than in neqative affirmative stаtemеnts statеmeпt5 quеstions. or 4. Bв сдппгul! Do not сonfusе used to + basе form of the vеrb with thе fo||owing expressions: r Did you usе to wеar jеans? Noтl r They didn,t usе to сomе in diffеrent сoIors. Noт@ l usеd to wear tight jеans. (lt wos mу past hobit to wеor tightjеons.) be used to (bе oссustomеdto) I , m u s е d t o w е a r i n g t i g h tj e a n s . (lt is normolfor mе to wеor tightjеons.) gеt used to (get oссustomеdto) | got used to wearing tight jeansIastyeaг' (l got oссustomеd wеoringtightjеons.) to 33
    • 34 r unit в o iDENтIEYRеod this foshion orticlе. Undеrlineoll thе eхomplesof usеd to that refеrto а hobit in thе post' In many ways, fashion used to be muсh simpler. Women didn't use to wear pants to the offiсe, and men's сlothes never used to сome in bright сolors.Peoplе also used to dress in speсial ways for different situations. They didn,t use blue jeans as businеss сlothes or wear joggtng suits when thеy traveled. Today you сan go to thе opera and find sоme wоmen in evening gowns while others are in bluejeans. Еven buyingjeans used to bе еasier-theу сamе оnly in bluе denim. I'm still not usеd to buying gтеenjeans and wearing them to work! o Look ot thesеpiсturеs from on old mogozine. сltO0sE сOIЛPLЕтE & Use thе vеrbsin thе boх with used to. Writеonе sеntеnсе about еaсh piсturе. Х l . Women's skirts сarry danсe uэed to be dress have wеar 2. All men long and formal. like 3. Children adults. 5. Women many pettiсoatsunder thеir skirts. long hair. Мen and women at formal balls. 6 . Men walking stiсks.
    • Llse.d to r o AsI( АNswЕR Look ot thе informаtion & from1922,Сomplеte aboutsnеokеrs ' formof used to. the FAQs*Usеthecorrеct Woмгш,s 380 wнlтг 95C вt.дск 85с SMALL 73с SMALL 89с LARсЕ 79с LARGE Снtloпгш,s r.Q: A: Did эneakеrэ u6e |o aome in manу co|orэ? (snеаkers сomе in many сoiors?) / No.only in whi|eand b|aсk, 2 . Q : How many styles did thеy usе to сome in? A: 3.Q: ( H o w m u с h l p a n o f m e n ' s h i g h - t o p s/ с o s t ? ) A: 4 . Q : What abоut womеn's sneakers? Did thеy use to сost thе same as men's? A: s . Q : What kind of sneakers did сhildren use tо wear? A: 6 . Q : How many sizеs did thеre use to bе for bоys and girls? A: *ЕAQs= Frеquently Asked Quеstions o journol' Find ond corrеctfivе mistokеsin thе usе of usеd to. EDII Reod this student,s Thе first mistokеis olreodv сorrеcted, uee А|| wеd to ba a prob|еm, |ha qir|eaN mу I dldn'N Whс,nwaoУoun7ar, c|othinq I awaуfrom ochoolueеА|o worrNhr oamе uniform, ueed|o think|ha| it Nook сoo| эa much| mу frееdom choloa' ot Now| саn wеarwha| | want,bu| c|oLhee lr/y |О t,odaу'e,,uniform,'' |o bе сheapеr, mom UaeО paу еэa uoеd Еvenb|ue Jaano, jеane baсkNhеn, |han Ф2Оfor herэ.I queeeIheу didn'tueеd|o эе|ldreiqnеr ] buN You knoи | wao uэedto br aqaineteсhoo| unitarme, nowI,mno| эa эure| 35
    • Past Progressive P}INт Сheсk thе сorreсtonswеr. The girl in thе hospital bеd is giving her version of П what she usually did in thе past. П what she was doing at the time of hеr aссident. сI|АRт снEсK I sтAтЕ]YlЕNтs Сirclе Т (Truе)or F (Folse). Suв;пст Bс т |/Hе/Shе/|t was F Thе oast progтеssivеis madе up of the past tеnsе оf be + base form of thе verb. We/You*/Тhey wеrе П after the subjeсt jumping. falling. VEs/NoQUЕsтloNs Bс | | Bдsв Foпм |5uв,:стl+.tшс Was 5nе jumping? falling? Wеre you П beforе the subjeсt sHoRт ANsWЕRs Aпгlпмдтtvв 5nе was. Wе Yеs, wеrе. W,'- QUEsтloNs wн- woпo l вд Wherе When whv How long 36 (not) *Youis both singular and plural. с||ARт сI/iEсI( 2 Сhесk thе corrесt ' аnswer, In questiоns, the verb be сomes: | | Bдsв Foпм oг |(Noт)|Vппв+-tNG | suц.., | вo'. Foпм+ .lruG wa5 5nе wеrе you jumping? falling? *."or,u. | No, snе w a s n ' t . Wе werеn,t
    • Past Progressive ЕхPREss k,;ж3 Сomplеtеthis convеrsotionwith thе post progrеssivе form of thе vеrb staу, ,) you A: Where B:I at a resort in Colorado. g"tтаr gз t r* xъз Ёxрi* rъ*&i* s Еxamp!еs l . Usе thе Past progrеssivе to dеsсribеan aсtion that Wаsin pгogгеss а spесifiсtimе in thе pаst. аt Thе aсtion bеgan bеforе the spесifiсtimе and may or may not сontinue aftеr the speсifiсtime. A: Whаt were you doing at 3:00? B : Wе werе skiing. C : I w a s e a t i n g | u n с ha t 3 : 0 0 . 3:00 Now i Past.ч...........Х............:..i.'...........................> ---...; skiing Bп сдппгul! Non-aсtion veгbs arе not usua|ly usеd in the progгеssive. (For o list of сommon non.oсtion vеrbs, sее Appеndiх 2 on pogе 3З7.) 2. Usе thе past progrеssive with wfii|e to ta|k about two асtions in progressat thе samе time in the Dast.Usе thе pаst oroorеssive in both сlauses. r I had a headaсhеlast night. Noт@ Whilеhe wаs skiing, Iwas reading. OR I was rеading while hе was skiing. : Past.1............Х....Ii.......................> bs skii{$/ ' oodotо9 UsдспNoтв:|n informа| сonvеrsation, somе peopIе whenwith thе pastprogrеssivе. use 3. Usе thе past progrеssivе to foсus on thе durationof an aсtion,not its сompIеtion. Usе thе simplе past tеnsе to foсus on thе сomp|еtion an aсtion. of r Sorry,l wasn,t listеning when уou were talking. Sheilawas reading a book last night. (Wе don,t know if she finishеdthе book.) rеad a book |astnight. Shеi|а (Sheproboblуfinishedthе book.) r 37
    • 38 r unit g Rеod еoсh numbеrеdsеntеnсe.Writе T (Truе)or F (Folsе)for the тRUE EALSЕ. 0R stotеmеntthot follows. Writе o questionmark (?) if thеrеis not еnough informotion. 1 . While Tanya was watсhing the Winter olympiсs on TV, Mikael was shoveling snow. F First Mikaei finished shоvеiing snow. Then Tanya started watсhing TV. 2 . In this photo, I was putting on my boots. I was wеaring boots in the phоto. 3 . At 5:00, they were drinking hоt сhoсolate bу the fire. We don,t knоw whеn thеy startеd drinking hot сhoсoiatе. Last night, I was reading an artiсle about skiing in Moroссo. I frnished the artiсle. 5 . At 10:00, he drank a сup of сoffeе. He frnished the сoffee. 6. It was snowing while shе was taking the phоtogтaph. First shе took thе photоgтaph. Then it started to snow. о DEi0RIBEFritz ond Кorуn wеre ot o ski сofё. Writе obout thе piсturе. Usе thе post progrеssive' 1 . Frttz waэ wеaring a ha| 2. Karyn waэn,t wеaring a ha|, 3. They 4. It s. Thеу 6. They z. The waiter 8. He 9. Karyn 1o. She ( W e а r/ a h a t ) ( W е а r/ a h а t ) ( s i ti o u t s i d e ) (snow, (weаr sung|аssеs) / ( W е a г/ t h e i r g l o v е s ) ( s е r v е/ d r i n k s ) / 1sеrvе |unсh) (5mi|е) (hoId/aсelIphone)
    • Pаst Pr<rgress.ve о Mountain Sports Magazine (MS) interviеwed snowboording сOIЙPLEтE thе chompion, RosiеHopp (RH). Complеtеthе interviewwith thе corrеctform of thе vеrbs in porentheses ond with short аnswеrs. MS: Congтatulatiоns!Yоu just beсame a semi-finalist for the olympiс snоwboarding |Nerе e|Peating tеam. to get this far in уoll (expeсt) l . the сompetition? wagln,t RH: Nо, I . During thе trials, I bad сold. By the last day, I 3. (rесoveф frоm a very well. That's what 4. (not pегform) I thought, anyway. MS: What you 5. (think) whilе you 6. (Wаit) fоr the annоunсement? RH: Aсtually' I and I ,.."*,n*', abоut the сompetition at all' Some friends a movle. E. (wаtсh) МS: You're prеtty new to this sport. Wherе you 9. (snowboard.l at this time last vear? RH: In Switzerland.I 1o. (wаtсh) Barrеtt Christie and t 1. (drеаm) about being that good. MS: hе RH: Yes, hе 1з. l2. (рraсtiсе) for the olympiсs at that timе? And he was amazing. o ЕDlT Rеod thisjournol еntrу.Find ond correсteight mistokеsin thе use of the post progressive,Thе first mistokе is olrеodу сorrectеd. were Toпtght,Shei/а апd l *a*/ookiпg аt somеphotogrаphs fom mу sпo,-uboаr,fiпg trtp шith Fritzb fапilу /аstуеаr Bу the епl ofthe еrrпiпg, tl,еl'lиghiпg /ikе сrаzу, Thаt u,аs m!/frst ехperieпсe а sпolуboаrd, so tllе piсtиres и,еrеprеttу embаrrаssiпg, |n oпe shot, I шаs саmе oп t/tе с{oн,n s/opеo'1t'Ig bасk, Iп апoth,eroпe, -у |loа,'/ *е', fа/liиg oиt ofthе ski /ф шhi/е | luаs ridiпg иp thе s/ope,Fritz шаs tаkiпq thаt piсtиrе from thе /ift eпtrапсе. Good thiпg hе not stапdiпg rjht ипdеr mе! W|lerе шаs / шhеп Fritz шаs fа//itlg ,/oшп thе s/opе?Igиess I шаsп,t саrr! mу стmem, It шаs аmаziпg horufа.st Fritzьgir//i.irпd, Kаrуп, /еаrпеl thаt шеekепl, She шаs doiпgjиmps b3 thе secoпсtdау. Bу thаt timе' / spеnt а lot of timе аt thе ski саfe' r 39
    • Past Progressive and simple Past Тense Did уou эee t h e acсi de n t ? WPЙINт g Yeah...The uу in the эporte Оar waэ ta|king on hio сe|| ohonewhenhe hit Numbеr thеsеstotementsin thе corrеct timе order. There was a сar aссident. Lhe of,her сar' The drivеr of the sports сar Was on thе phone. сHEсI( сI]ARт PAsт PRoGRЕsslvЕ AND sllvlPlЕ PAsт тENsЕ Сircle T (True)or F (Folse). Use while to introduсe Pдsт Pпoспвsslvв Wнсtl I s.",.. Pдsт Tвшsв | т F asimplepast tеnse aсtion. т F apast progтеssive aсtion. He was speеding thе aссidenthappеnеd. whеn slПfrРLЕ PAsт тЕNsЕ AND PAsТ PRoGRЕsslvЕ Slмpl.вPдsт Твшsв | w",,, | гo'' Pпoспвsstvв Тhe aссidenthappened whi|е l you wеrе driving. sllvlPlЕ PAsТ тЕNsЕ AND stiltPLEРAsт тЕNsЕ SlмpI.в Tвшsв w,,n I s.'... PдsтTпшsв Pдsт | Тhе po|iсе Gamе whеn the aссidеnthappened. PAsт PпoGREsslvЕAND PAsт PRoGREsslvЕ Pдsт Pпoспвsslvв | w,,,, | гo'' Pпoспвsslvв Тhеy werе talking whi|е they wеre driving. EхPREssж Сirclе thе сorrеct words to completе thеsеsеntеncеs. . When / While the сar сrashed, he hit his head. о How fast was he driving1 didie 40 drige when the aссident oссurred?
    • Past Рrogressive and Simple Pаst Тense *т #-хpf.a*t iоn s &r mжтwear Е:сaжтplеs 1. Use thе past progrеssivе with thе simple past tensе to ta|kabout an aсtionthat was interгupted anothеraсtion.Usе the simple by past tensefor thе interrupting aсtion. l r I was сrossing thе strееtwhеn thе dгivеr ho nkеd his ho гn. l Тhey wеre driving too fastwhen thеy сrashеd. Futurе Usе иlhen to introduсеthе simple past tеnse aсtion oR usе while to introduсethе past progressivе aсtion. r Hе was speеdingwhen the light turned red. l While he was speеding, the |ightturned гed' 2. Bв сдпвгul! Notiсе the differenсе meaning in betwеen thesе two diffеrentsеntеnсes. Now tight crossed i chongеd street : P а s t . . . . . . Х . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x . . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . > When thе |ightсhanged, I <rossеd thе streеt. I : (Firstthе light сhongеd,Thеn l сrossеdthе strееt,) Now Future When the light сhanged, I was сrossing the strееt. (FirstI was сrossingthе strееt.Then thе light сhanged,) 3. Usе the past progrеssivе with while to at ta|kabout two aсtionsin progrеss the samе in timе in thе past.Usе the past progressive both сlauses. Lin was talking on the phonе while he w as dr iving. Тhеy wеren,t paying attеntionwhile theу Wеrе сrossing thе strееt. N?* Past 'r"""" 'r'i"""""""' &lш9ll ьйо9 4. Тhe timе сlausе (the part of thе sеntenсе beginningwith when or whilе)сan сomе at thе beginningoг thе еnd of thе sеntenсe. Т h e me a n i n gi s th e s a m e . Usе a Comma aftеrthe time сlausеwhеn it сomes at the bеginningof the sеntеnсe. t Whеn you сalled, lwas |eaving. when you сallеd. r l was |eaving l r While he was driving, hе was taIking. He was ta|king while hе was driving. 41
    • 42 I unit'ro тRUE FAIiEо Rеod еoch numbеredsеntеnсе.Writе T (True)or F (Folsе)for the 0R stotemеnt thot follows. l. When оur friends arrived. we ate lunсh. т our friеnds arrived before lunсh. 2, While wе were talking on the phone, I was driving to sсhool. We finished the сonversation. Then I drove to sсhool. 3. Lori heard about the aссident while she was driving to work. Lori knеw about the aссident by the time she got to work. 4. When they exited the frеeway, it started to rain. It was raining while thеy Were on the freeway. 5. When Zoe got to sсhool, her сlass was taking a tеst. Zoe was late to сlass. О сOffiPIEтEA police officеr is interviewing two witnеssesof а troffic occident. Сomplete the interviеw with thе correct form of the verbs in porenthеsеsаnd with short аnswers, Were oв'r'rсвп,. occurred w9re Wrтшпss 1: Yes, Wg . ryg 3. when we first the сar ! Those men 11. light when the сar Oггrсвв: 1 3 .( h i 0 the drivеr l2. (сross) against a rеd them. 14. (stop) when hе the men? 15. (see) Wrтшшss But the men 2: very fast when it e.(go) the сorner. lo. (reaсh) while hе whеn it 6. (spееd) It Wrтшвss 1: No, he at the bus stop to thе intersесtion? 7. (get) Wrтшвss 1: Yes. it 4. (wаit) the сar. 5. (notiсe) oгr'rсвв: here when the aссidеnt 1. (stаnd) 2 2. (oссuф lVrтшвss 2: No. it э|anding уol He 16. 18. (drivе) 20. (not pay) 17. (talk) . That's why he on his сell phonе 19. (not stop) attention while they in timе. 21. (walk)
    • Pаst Oв'гrсвв: it Progressive 22. (snow) and Simpte Past Tense whеn the aссident 2 23. (happеn) Wrтшвss2: Yes, it Wrтшшss1: No. it . I'm sure of it. The roads were very slippery. 24. The snow 25. ambulanсe 26. (start) when the 27. (arrivе) о с0lI|BlNЕ Rеod eoch poir of sеntеncеs. Сombinе thеm into onе sеntenceusing the simple post tеnsеor the post progrеssive form of thе verbs,Usе o commo whеrеnеcеssorу, 1 . Dana attеnded a party. The blizzatd started. Whеn |he blizzard э|art,ed, oana waэ at|endinq a ?artУ, 2 . She drove home. She listened to her сar radio. Whilе 3. She pulled over to the side of the road. Thе visibility got very bad. when 4. Shе listеned to thе nеws. She heard about the aссident. while It stopped snowing. Shе drove to thе poliсe station. whеn 6. She talked to thе poliсе. She thought about hеr еditorial for thе mоrning paper. While . EDII Rеod port of the first drаft of Dono,s editoriol. Find ond corrеct five mistokesin thе usе of timе сlouses,The first mistokе is olrеodу correctеd. dr iving Yеsteгday, a man was taiking on his сell phone whiiе he was dfirf,е his сar. Maybе he сheсkin$ his dai1y planner while hе was makin$ his nеxt appointmеnt. сеrtainly not сonсеntratin$ Hе was on the road when the li$ht suddenly was turning red. The two men in thе streеt Wеrr tгyin$ to jump out of thr way when they saw him, but it was too late. No one Was badly hurt, but that was just luсk. Last yeaц the City Counсil weren't passin$ the ..talkin$ and driving law.'' Wе neеd that, ]aтлr! t 43
    • SelfТest tгЕffil oNE Сircle thе lеtter of thе сorrеct аnswеr to complеtе eoch sentеncе. Exднtptt: соffee. Jennifer never (A) drink (B)drinks 1. Roger tA) сalled (B}сalls me at 9:00 last night. (C) used to сalled (D)сalling 2. Sara didn,t hear the phone. Shе (A) slеeps (B)slеpt 3. There {A) are is {B) (C)used to sleep (D)was sleeping a very strange lеttеr. (C) used to gеt (D)was gеtting ABсD ABсD ABсD to sсhool? (C)you go (D)yоu went tA) did you go (B)you did go Сlaude didn,t (4,) lived (B)use to live ABсD ABсD a lоt of peоple in thе park yеstеrday. (С)was (D)were 4. one day last Marсh, I tA) did get (B)got 5. Where (C)is drinking (D)was drinking A@с in Canada. (C)used to live (D)usеd to living ABсD a headaсhе. (C) used to have (D)was having ABсD thе сar. As soon as the light turnеd red, she (С) stops (A) did stop (D)was stopping (B)stopped ABсD 7. Riсk left сlass earlv bесause he - (A) had (B)havе 9. They (A) сoоk (B)сooked 1 0 . Johnny (A) read (B)reads 44 when the firе alarm rang. (C)was сooking (D)were сooking the paper when I interruptеd him. (C)was reading (D)were reading ABсD ABсD D
    • SelfТest 11. -Did you watсh Tv last night? I was studying for a test. (C) No, I didn't. (A)Yes, I did. (D)No, I wasn't. (B)Yes, I was. 12. I rеmember you. You (A) use (B)usеd 1sЕgтlсlNl to go to sсhool here. (C)were using (D)were used ll l ABсD ABсD тW0 Еoch sentеncеhos four undеrlinеd words or phrаsеs. Thе four undеrlinedports of thе sеntеnceorе morkеd A, B, С, ond D. Сircle the lеttеr of the onе underlined word or phrose thot is NoТ сoRRЕст, Exдшtptп: Мike usually drives to sсhool, but today he walks. A с D B A B сo 13. Why did you сalled him last wеek? ABсD 14. They Were watсhing TV while I were reading. ABсD 15. What are you doing last night at 8:00? ABсD 16, The doсtor сalled this mоrning while you slept. ABсD 17. It was no raining when the game began. ABсD 18. Paul was drying the dishes when he was dropping the plate. ABсD 19. When Gloria were fouц shе used to pretеnd she had a horse. ABсD 20. What do vou - - B to do when usе vоu felt afraid? AвсD 2',1.As soon as thе alarm сloсk rangl, she woke up and was getting ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD ABCD ABсD AвсD ABсD A" т_ D AвсD out ofbed. 22. onсe when I was ten, I usеd to get siсk and went to the hospital. ABсD 23. While I driving home, I turned on the сar radio and heard about ABсD ABсD ABсD the aссident. 24. What did you do- while you were living in Spain? ABсD 25. Pete and Andy were ----т_* to work when they were seeing driving -?" ____ D_ ^ the aссident. ABсD AB с D 45
    • Present Perfect: Since and For s> lrir stй С o m eo n ! You'vebeen a 0rО эinae 1994. Now earvethе ba||| Forget it! Сirclе T (True)or F (Folse), т The prеsеnt perfeсt is made up of two parts: Ё1 hove + past tense J hove + past partiсiplе Suв'вст П bu'" form of verb + -en The man is still a professional tennis player. | н o n , | 1 ш o r 1| г o ' ' P я п т l с I п l в | l/We/You*/Тhеy have Hе/Shе/|t (not) has livеd pIayеd beеnt |snlcr/ron herе sinсe lЙaу. for a long time. * You is both singular and plural. t Bееn is an irregular past partiсiple. For a list of irregular verbs, sеe Appendiх 1 on pages 336_337. The regular form of the past partiсiplе is: П bu." form of vеrb + -d or .ed F sтAтEПЛЕNтs I сI]АRт сIIEсK Сheck the corrеct аnswer. .-*€ Ж lP0lNт l You haven'l won a matсh for weekэ| Go home! VEs/NoQUЕsтloNs HдvrIsuq.., |пo''Pяптlсlгlв | Have Has lived playеd beеn they hе | stlсс/ron herе sinсe lЙaу? for a |ong timе? sHoRт ANsWЕas Aггlпмдтlvв they havе. hе Yes, шЕGAтlvЕ | has. No, thеy havеn,t. hе hasn't. Nотв: For сontraсtions witЬ hauе, see Appеndix 24 on page 346. 46
    • Present Perfeсt: Since and For I ш,r'-QUEsтl( )NS 2 сI]ART сIIEсI( Сhеck thе corrеct onswеr. For is used with: Wн- o| Woп П u point of time How long Pдsт s}|oRт AнswЕRs ,u'.., I Pдптlсlpl-в "on,| have has П u length of timе they livеd he bееn herе? SinсeJanuaгy. For a fеw months. ЕхPREssж Look ot the pаst porticiplеs,Check the corrеctcolumn. Regular driven сompeted t t 47 lrregular Rеgular lrregular WonПП П t Grаrnrnar Еxрlaпаtigns tried MaгtinaHingishas bеeп a profеssional tеnnis player sinсе 1994. Shе has bееn a professiona| tеnnisp|ayеr for уears. (Shе bеgon her profеssionql сorеeryеorsago, plaуеr.) and shе is stillo profеssionol hos beеn 3. Sinceсan also introduсеa time сlause. When the aсtion in thе time сIause еnded in the past use the simplepast tense. When the aсtion in thе timе с|ause began in the past but сontinuеsinto the present,usе the orеsеntpeгfeсt. 4. Usе thе pгesentpегfeсtwith for + lеngth of time (for ten minutes, for two weeks,for yеаrs, for o lono timе)to show how Iono a orеsent сonditionhas lastеd. t Еxаmplеs 1. Usе thе prеsent реrfесt with siисe or for to taIkabout somеthingthat bеgan in the past and сontinuesinto the prеsеnt(and may сontinuе into the futurе). 2. Usе thе presentpегfeсtwith sjлсe + point in timе (sinсe5:00, sinсеMondoу sinсe 1994) to show when somethino staгtеd. t r She has еarned mi|Iions dollaгssinсe 1994. of I I Maгtinahas loved sports sinсе she wos o сhild. Shе has Won many tennistournamеnts sinceshe movеd fгom S|ovakia. (Shе doesn'tlivе thеrеonymore,) Shе has beсomееxtremеly suссеssful sinceshе has beеn in Switzer|and. (She stilllivеsin Switzerlond,) r Martina's mothеr has bееn hеr сoaсh for mony yеors'
    • 48 I unit 11 o iDENтiFY Rеаd obout tеnnis stor Mortinа Hingis. Underlinе oll the verbs in the presеnt pеrfect. Сirclе аll the time еxpressionswith since or for. Мartina Hingis piсked up her first tеnnis raсkеt at the she has beсome one of the gтeatest age of two.@ tennis players in the world. Born in Slovakia, she has lived in Switzerland for many years. She beсame the outdoor Swiss сhampion at age nine. Sinсe then she has won many international сompetitions inсluding Wimbledon, the U.S. Open, and the Australian Open. For young stars like Martina, life has its diffiсulties. They arе under сonstant pressure to win, and they dоn't have time to just hang out with сlassmates. In fact, Мartina hasn't attended sсhool sinсе 1994, and she has bеen in the publiс spоtlight for years. But she Seems to be handling her Suссess wеll. Sinсe she turned professional, she has played tennis all over the world and has earned millions оf dollars. She sees her life aS normal beсause tennis has been the most important thing to hеr sinсe she was a littlе girl. сaмPIEтE оI00sEо Reod this mogozinе excеrpt obout o child gеnius, Сomplеtе it with a the presеntperfесtform of the verbsin porentheses, Сhoosebеtwееnsinсe ond f or. haэ |oved Thirteеn-year-old Ronniе Segal was a littlе boy...I math 1. (|ovе) 9tnce interested in numbers 3. (bе) ninе years, five months, three weeks, and two days,',says Ronnie. the past yeaЦ Ronnie He 7. (not do) five exams and 11. (Sinсе Foф / 6. (attеnd) badly. 1o. (notgеt) 8 . ( S i n с еl F o r ) 5 . ( S i n с е/ F o ф January he 9. (takе) a gтade of less than 100 on any of them. Ronnie began сlasses, he 14. (know) 4 . ( s i n с е/ f o r ) gтaduate-level сlassеs at the university. I.324 people a month. And his future? Young Ronnie for vears. He hе 2 . ( s i n с e/ f o ф l 5 . ( s i n с е/ f o r ) 12. (mееt) an average of 13. (not think) about it he was a little bov that he is going to beсome a famous sports announсeц get married, and have exaсtly 2.2 kids.
    • Present Per{eсt: Sliэсe and For o АsКa АNIWER Сomplеtе the intеrview obout Мortino Hingis. Usе thе words in porenthesesto writе questions,Then onswеr thе questionswith informаtion from ЕxerciseI. 1. (How lоng / shе l plaу tennis?) Q: A: How |ong haэ эhe p|aуedt,ennig? Эincе эhе waэ two. 2. (How long / shе / live in Switzerland?) Q: A: 3. (she / win any сompetitions / sinсe thе outdoor Swiss сhampionship?) Q: A: 4. (she / attеnd sсhool / sinсе 1994?) Q: A: s. (How muсh money / she / earn / sinсe she began her сarеer?) Q: A: 6. (How long / tennis / be important to hеr?) Q: A: o EDIT Reod this student,sporogroph. Find ond сorreсtsеven mistokеsin thе use of thе prеsentp,еrfеct, The first mistokе is olrеodу corrеctеd, have been Iж in Мs. Qodriguе7,s еducаtion c|аsssincеtwornonths.еn1oy a lot it | ?husicа| sincе bеginning thе sеrnеsIеr' аnd nаvеon|у missIwoc|аssе; thе ot I espеciа||у p|ау |ikе tennis, ;incеSефеmbеr don,t bеcаusе wеatnеr bцt thе too wе hаvеbееn cт|d.| а|solikevolleyball, rn.1 and tеаmhаs winfulogаrnе9 sincеwе hаvе, фаrtеd Io cтm?еtе Linco|n Schoo|. |ooking with toмаrdto thе nextgаmе' |'m I1igh l 49
    • Present Perfeсt: AlreadУ and Yet Аo уou can oee, th е f |u э e a э О n h a э a|r eadу begun, Have уou got.ten уour f|u ehoL уet? ||'э nrver too |ate! FLa GHАRт ffiPЙINт Сircle T (Truе)or F (Folsе). almoelnever... To say that sоmething has happened before now, Tо say that something has not happened beforе now. The flu season will start soоn. Suryвст| нon, I A,^,n,, | пo'' PлптIсIпI.в | They have It has [1 .l." olreodу, П usе yet. F AFFlR|l,lAтlvE sтAтEtvlЕNтs z ALREАDY сI]ART сl]Eсl( I Сhеck thе corrеct аnswer. т olreodу dеvеlopеd a nеWflu vaссinе. savеd many lives. NЕGAтlvE SтAтЕMENТS: ИЕТ Suвlвст| нon' Pдsт Pмпсlпlв | "o' I Тhey havеn,t finishеd It hasn't | v', endеd thе intегview уet. П r.,." olreodу. П'.'."not..,Yet. YEs/NoQUEsтloNS:УЕТ сltАRT сl/iEсl( 2 Сircle T (Truе)or F (Fаlse). т F Yet is used in questions. 50 H д v с| s u ч . . ' | г o ' ' P л п т l с l г l в | |v'' Havе thеy testеd thе nеw vaссine Has it gottеn approval yеt?
    • Present Pel-feсt: Alreadv and Уet l sHoRт ANSWERS Aггlпмдтlvв I Yеs, thеy havе. it has. шEGAтtvE No, thеy haven't. it h a s n't. EхPREss,Гp,ж:ry'"ж Unsсrаmblеthese words to form o question.Answеr the question. you . have о yet о lunсh о had y &,yжwжжъ*ffi,ж жжe жэ* etaФffi% Жжаnтр!es t . We often use thе presеnt pеrfeсt with аlrеodу to talk about things that have haopеnеdbеforеnow. A: |syouг daughtergoing to get her flu shot? B: Shе,s olrеodу gotten it. olreodу when you mention a speсifiсtimе in thе past. Alreodу usual|y сomеs bеtwееnhove and thе past partiсip|e. l Rеsеaгсheгs havе olreodу disсoverеd сuresfoг many disеases. Alreodу сan a|soсome at the end of thе сlause. I Тhey,ve madе a lot of progгеssolreody. 2. Usе thе рrеsent perfe<t with nof уet to talk about thingsthat havе not happеnеd beforеnow. r Тhеy havеn,t disсoverеd a сurе for the сommon co|dуet, but thеy hope to disсovег one in thе futuге. Notiсе that yet usuallyсomеs at thе еnd of the сIausе. r Thе flu seasonhasn,t arrived уet. Yet can a|soсome betweenhove not and the past paгtiсiple. r Тhey havеn,t yet disсovеred a сUгefor thе сommon сold. use 3. Wе usual|y yet in quеstions to find out if somеthinghas happenеdbeforеnow. Usдсв Noтв: SomеtimеsWe u5е olreodу in a question to exprеss suгpгise that something happеnedsoonerthan еxpесted. r Has your son gotten his f|u shot yet? r Has he olreody gotten his flu shot? Тhе f|u seasonhasn,tbegun yеt. 51.
    • 52 I unit iZ o Iу|AтсltЕoch сousе hos o proboblе result.Motch the cousе with thе oppropriаte result. Rеsult Causе a. is really hungry. 1. Tom has already gottеn his flu shot, so he probably b. may get the flu. Dr. Мeier has already finished his intеrview, so hе G. has left thе TV studio. d. isn't very hungтy. Dr. Meiеr hasn't had lunсh yet, so he e. won't get the flu this yеar. 4. Randy hasn't gotten his shot yet, so he 5 . Randy has already had lunсh, so he Reаd сOII/IPLЕтE. thеsequеstionsond onswеrsfrom o mogozinе orticlе. Сomplеtе thеm with the presеntpеrfеct form of thе vеrbs in porеnthеsesplus a|ready or yеt. Use short onswers. lastсаse AIDS саnсer mаlaria |f|u Ismallpoх !tеtanus ipolio mеаsles worldsmаllpox of smallpox vассinе vaссinе vaссinе vaссine vaссination jvассinе jvассine ]vaссine Program lvaссine Have Q: We plan to travel to the rain forest next vear. found a malaria l. (find) No A: they vaссrne havеn,t 2. they Уet Talk to your doсtor about ways to prеvent this diseasе. Q: My doсtor told me I won't nеed another smallpox vaссination. I was surprisеd. smallpox сompletel, A: ,it Q: Thеy ,*-,o*' ? 4. vaссinеs against the flu. What about the сommon сold? 5. (dеvеlop) A: No. Beсause thеre are so manv different сold viruses. thеv 6. (not bе able) develop a vaссine Q: There has bеen so muсh сanсer researсh. 7. (make) A: anyonе a suссessful vaссine they progress in reсent yеars, howevеr. Researсhers haue made a lot of to
    • Рresent Рer.feсt: Аlreadv arrd Уеt l o DЕsсRlBE Dr. Helmut Meier ond his wifе, Giselа, orе plonning o portу, Look ot thеir To Do listsаnd thе pictures of their kitchеn аnd dining room. Cross out the chorеs thеy hove olrеodу done. Thеn writе sеntеncesobout еаch itеm on thеir To Do lists, Do-Helmut -htr{ihrthe bаfre оаRe tn Dutthetuгltеy . theovоn thо mop flooт the 'наih dishes To Do-GiэeIa Y,:u:'Thе cаrpet ouуflowеre уаэh fhe windowe ; |1aПQ thе bаIloonэ WrаР the gift . Hemut.haэ alreadу bought fi|m. Goe|a haэn'| vacuumed the carpet уet, EDIT. Reod this note from Gisеlo to Hеlmut. Find ond correсt six mistokes in the use of thе prеsent perfect with a|readу ond уet. The first mistoke is olrеody сorreсted. Нсl nr u t - |,mi n а h u r r y ' I h а v e n ' |ж do e ho ppinq eаdу, but|,|I it o n fhе w ау ho me,K if а а|r . h аvе а| r e а d уh а d d i n n e rа n d e h е ,eа |rе аdуhаd her bаth' |1аve u cа||} Й r J аco beo n уeT? уo Нe 'э cа| | a d |r е а d уth r e e f i m e o Т o d а у ' |I iedаuqhtr r hаэ go ff r n her f|u eho t уr f , |o it f o o а |аte? Эee уou |аIer, 53
    • Present Perfeсt: IndefinitePast WhatЪneu, on ..Fe[dstein',? Tunein Chonnel 4 tonight ot 8:o0 аnd find oaV juэt |'ve t hou gh t of т hi o СrazУ nеw idea| жPЙINт eОrneОne new' Have vou ever Сhеck thе correct onswer. Thе ..Feldstein''сast is talking about things of importanсe to thеm met anуonelika uэ bеfore? П .'o*. П in thе past. сI|ARт сI/IEсI( I Сirclе T (Truе)or F (Folse). т F You сan use thе prеsеnt pеrfeсt without mеntioning a spесifiс time. sтAтЕlt,lЕNтs Suвlвст нon, I rшo'2| пo'' Plптlсlгlв| | Тhey have It has П b"forе the past partiсiple П at thе end of thе statement s4 appeared beеn on W. For a сomplete presentation of present pеrfeсt forms, seе Unit 11, pages 46_47. sтATЕ]vtЕNтs WlтH ADVERBS сHARт сIIEсK 2 Сheck thе corrеct answer. Never and just сome: (not) llltl Suryвстi Hлvr (нoт) 1 Aovвпв i Pлsт Plптlсlпl-в; They have It has They have (not) It has (not) just rесentlу I Aovвпв appeared bеen on W. appearеd bееn on ТV lotelу, reсentlу.
    • Present Сircle T (True)or F (Folse). т F Ever has to bе used in уеslno quеStionS. Hдvс' Suв,вст | (Evсп) 1Pяптtсlт,l-в Havе thеy Has she (еver) aсtеd? won? lndefinite Past l sHoRтANsWЕRs I I YEs/NoQUEsтloNs | |Pдsт сIIARт сI]EсK 3 Perfeсt: Aггlпмдтlvв Yes, thеy have. shе has. NвсAтIvE l No, they havеn,t. shе h a s n ' t . ],yf,QuEsтloNs Wн- Woп o|нnn'| su,l.., | гo'' PлптlсlгI-в | How often why havе they aсtеd on this show? has it won an award? EхPREss Unscromblеthesе words to form o quеstion.Answer the quеstion, you . watсhеd о Have о .,The Simpsons,' о еver srаmrжar ЕxрЕeЕetgens ЖxamрЕes l. Use thе presеnt pedeсt to talk about things that happenеdat an indefinitе time in the past. You сan usе thе presentpeгfесt whеn you don,t know whеn somethinghappеnedor whеn thе spесifiсtime is not important. r l l l 2. You сan u5еeyerwith thе presеnt реffесtto ask questions.It mеans at ony timе up until now. A: Havеyou won an award? oR Havе уoU ever won an awaгd? B: No, |'ve never won one. Use nevеr to answеr negativеly. Тhey,ve woп sevеra| awards. l,ve intеrviewed thе wholе сast. She,sbeеn in a HoI|ywood moviе. l,vе seen his show many timеs. OR No, пeyer. 3. Usе the prеsеnt perfесt with just, reсentlу, orlаtelуtotalkaboutеventsinthеvеry rесеnt past. Usдсв Noтв: |n spokеn Ameriсan Еnglishpeoplе oftеn use jиst and recenф with the simple past tensеto ta|kabout indefinite time. I Wе,ve jиst gotten baсk fгom Los Angelеs. s l |,vеreсentlу ignedaсontraсttowriteabook' l Hе hasn,t had timе lote!у. r Wе just got baсk from Los Аngеles. withthepresеntperfeсtandaspeсifiсpastNoт time expression. lаst+яояаау. 55
    • 56 I u ni t i 3 o тRUЕ FALiE Reod eаch numberedsеntenсе,Write T (Truе)or F (Folse)for the 0R stotеmеntthаt follows. 5. Arlene asks УoЦ, ..Have you read any good books latеly?,, 1. I've reсеntly joined the show. т I am a new сast member. Arlene wants to know about a book you read last year. 2. I have nevеr been to Lоs Angеles. I went to Lоs Angeles a long time ago. 6. She's visitеd New York sevеral times. 3. I,vejust finishedJimmy,sboоk. Т.Н: ffi I finishеd it a little while ago. first visit tо 7. She has beсome vеry popular. 4. Have you ever seen this mоvie? She is popular now. I want to know when you saw the mоvie. o Сomplеte it with сl]00sE& сOмPIETE Rеod this script from o scеne from ,,FеIdstein,,, the prеsentpеrfeсt form of the vеrbs in thе box. Some vеrbs аre used morе thon onсe, have mаke stop talk travеl Havе Uвsul,д: This is a niсe restaura6. want had уg 1. the steak? Jrммy: No, but I the spaghetti. I always have that. Aсtually eating meat. It's not that I love animals. I just hate I plants. you ever really to a plant? 4-. They have absolutely nothing to say. Uвsur,д: Right. So, you ever to livе оutside оf New York? Jrмlгy: outside of New York? Where,s that? But seriously. I nevеr 6. Uвsur,д: But to try another plaсe. I lovе it hеre. you evеr 7. to a different сity? Jrмплy: No. Why should I do that? You like it here too, right? Uвsur.д: It,s oK, but I Jrмштy: I like it right herе. Say, to other plaсes toо. It's a big world! you e. for tomorrow night? How abоut dinner? Same time, same plaсe . . . plans
    • Present Рerfeсt: indefinite Рast l 57 О Asк a АNswER Сompletе the XYZ Network onlinе intеrviеw with lаkе Stewort, thе ond oсtor who ploуs thе port of Gizmo on limmy,sshow. Use thе words in porеnthesеs the prеsеntperfеct form of thе verb, YYZз Welсome to Live Studio. Jake. You,ve bесomе vеrv famous. How manу onlne in|erviewэhave Уou done? 1 . ( H o w m a п у l o n | i n еi n t е r v i e w s d o ? ) l Jдкв: None! . Very exсiting! 2 . ( n e v е rе v e n / b е / i n а с h a t r o o m ) YYZз 3. (How / сhangе / аs аn aсtor?) Jдкв: I work with a gтoup, so 4 . ( b е с o m е / a b е t t е rt е a m p l а y e rl a t е | y ) lГYZz As a сomiс aсtor. 5 . ( w h o l b e l у o u r г o | еm o d е | ? ) Jдкв: Hard to sav. YYZз 6 . ( С h a r l i е h a p | i n/ h а v е / g r е а ti n f | u е n с е n m е ) С o 7. (Whаt l bе l уour best momеnt on this show?) Jдкв: Well. vou know. YYZз All in all. 8. (jimmy l iust lwin / thе Еmmy) That Was fantastiс. 9 . ( w h а t l t i n d l m o s t r е w a r d i n ga b o u t t h i s е х p е r i е n с e ? ) Jдкв: Frее сoffee! No, really, 1 o . ( m е е t / s o m е f а n t a s t i сp е o p | еo n t h i s s h o w ) EDIT.Reod this mеssogеfrom on onlinе mеssogеboord. Find ond corrеctsevеnmistokes in thе use of thе prеsеntperfесt. The first mistoke is аIrеodycorrеctеd. ffi'::To-ni'r:у::ffi11#1'**#|,#,;,ж!i:FeldsteinFaпGhatЖr:ir':.'.r'::...:'*;?:*-Ъ|::|:|'/l'.:,:',''2:;;;fi;7,x,l;;o/12т';;Т**? Subj.: Re: Jimmy'sBlindDate From: Yikes123 watched Haveyou neverseen l'vejustWаtGh Blind Date episodeon Fe|dstein! the so anything funny?l LoVЕ this show!lt'sthe best show I haveeversaw in my haveyou notiсethatJimmyand Ar|ene I it By Iife. rea||y enjoyed late|y. the Way, to to are beginning get along?I thinkJimmyhavestarted reallylikeher.Last knowit yet! Arlenehas movedrightnextdoorto Jimmy, he doesn't but night Does anyoneknowwhen l сan'tWait see Whathappenson the nextepisode. to bookis сomingout? Jimmy's
    • 60 I u ni t 14 o IDENтIFYRеod obout loе ond Маrio. Сirclе thе vеrbs in the presentperfеct. Undеrline thе simple post tensе verbs, Many mоdern marriages arе frnding intеrеsting solutions to diffiсult problems. Joе andMaria,forexample,@marriеdsinсe1995.Aftertheirwedding,thе сouple settled down in Boston, where Maria openеd an aссounting business. Thеn in 1997 Jоe lost his job. By that timе, Maria's new business was booming, so they didn,t сonsider moving' Joe nеver found a nеW jоb in Bоston, but in 1998, he got a great Los Angeles. The сouple has lived apart еver оffer on the other side of thе сountry-in ..сommutеr marriage', up to now? Joe notes, ..It sinсe. How have thеy handled this сеrtainly hasn,t beеn easy. We,ve beеn geogтaphiсally separatеd, but we've grown a lot сloser еmotionallv. For that reason. it's been wоrth it.,' o тRUE tАLsE Now writе T (True)or F (Folse) for 0R eaсh stotemеnt. l. lji Joe and Maria arе divorсed. Мaria started her оwn business in Boston. 3 . Thе сouple used to livе apart. 4. In 1997, they thought about moving. 5 . The сouple is now сloser emotionally. o с0IIPLEтEloе is cаlling Mаrio. Сomplete thеir conversotionwith the corrеct form of thе vеrbs in porenthesesond with short onswers,Сhoosе bеtwееn thе prеsеntpеrfеct ond thе simplеpost tense. Joв: Hi, honey. Мдвrд: No. I didn't 2. Dia you finieh that repоrt yesterday? 1. (finish) I'm still writing it, and I 3. (not stop) worrylng about it all week. Joш: Besides that, how the wеek Мдвrд: OK, I guess.I'm a little tired. I onlv Joв: It sounds likе you 7. (sее) 6. (not gеt) 5. (slееp) 4. (bе) so far? a few hours last night. muсh rest this week. Listen-wе eaсh other оnly twiсe this month. I'll сome tomorrow. Мдвrд: oK, but I still have to work. Last time I 8. (not do) any work.
    • Рresent Joв: Right! And it 11. and Siпrрle Рast Тense us at all, remember? Listen, why dоn,t you 9. (not bothеф you relaх now? Mдвrд: Рerfeet . In faсt, I that speсial соffee yet? 1O. (try) r2. (drink) five сups today, and it's still early. And yesterday t at least six. I'm really wired now. , r. ,o_o Joв: Then have some herbal tеa. and I,ll seе vou tomorrow. о Аsl(& АNswER Lifеstylе Magazine (LM) is intеrviewing ond Morio. Сomplеtethе loe intеrview using the words in porеnthеsesond informotion from Еxercisе1, Сhoosе bеtweеnthе prеsеntperfесtond thе simplеpost tеnsе. LM: When did уou get married? Joш: We got, married in 1995. LМ: Did уou |ve|n boэt,on after that? Yeэ, we did. МдвIд: LМ: Mдвrд: LM: 1 . ( W h e n/ g е t m a r r i е d ? ) 2. 3 . ( | i v e/ i n B o s t o n a f t e rt h а t ? ) 5 . ( s t a r ty o u r b u s i n е s s/ b е f o r еy o u r m a r r i a g e ? ) 7. (How |ong / own your own businеss?) МдвIд: LM: Joв: LM: Мдвrд: 9 . ( W h е nl у o u l f i n d y o u r ; o b i n L o sА n g е | е s ? ) 10. 1 . I . ( y o u r с o m m u t e r m a r r i a g е/ b е v е r y d i f f i с u | t ? ) 12. ЕDlT. Reod this entrу from Morio,s iournol, Find ond сorreсt six mistokеs in thе usе of the prеsеnt pеrfеct ond the simplе pаst tеnse. Thе first mistаkе is olrеodу сorrеcted. Thиrsdау, Deсember 28 ,э been tt,s B:0o пм. |tfrаs а hаrс/ -eek, апd it,s пot orerуet! I sti// hаrе to fпЬh thаt report. I,vestаrtеd it /аst tУloиdау, bиt so fаr l,ve шrotе oп|у f',e pа7еs, Апd itЪ dие иext ouееkl l,Vork шаs so dffiси/t /'t"/!/, |,ve шorked /аtе еverу иght {his 'ueek. l,m tirеd, апd I hаven,t7ottеп mиch I missJoe. /,ve sreп him /аst cuеekепd,bиt it seems /ikе а /oпg timе а9o, "/,,P /аst п!ht, l 6|
    • Present Perfeсt Progressive You'vebеen wiтh7aтту p|aуing Lhe ?Iatуque again! ]POINт t Сhеck the сorrectsеntеncе. П тy Warnеr doesn't makе Bеanie Babies anymore. П Peoplе are still сollесting Beanie Babiеs. T y W ar nе rh a s b е е n m a k i n g Be a n i еB a b i е s sinсе199з, and peoplе have bееn сollесting them sinсethen. tTAтЕlvlЕNтs l сIiARIсHЕсK СirсIе T (Truе)or F (Folse). т F Thе present perfесt progтеssivе always has the wоrd been. oг | вo,. гoпм | | H л v с | ( N o т ) Brrм| Vвпв + -,^,G l Suв;вст |/Wе/You*/Тhеv havе h as Hе/She/|t [l | | |вo'.Foпм Hдvt l Suв,вст | Bссt,t | + -lшс Havе you Has he toys since1992. them for a long timе. beеn сolIе<ting making Stt'tсt/Fon toys since 1992'l thеm for a Iongtimе? sHoRт ANsWЕRs Aггlпмдтlvв Wе havе. hе Yеs, 62 сolIeсting making YEs/No QUЕSTlt 0Ns hove been П been + base fоrm + .ing beеn I Stt,tсс/Fon *Youтs both singular and plural. 2 сI|АRT сI|EсI( Сheck the correct onswer. In questions,whiсh parts of thе vеrb сome after the subjeсt? (not) I has. I N.GAтlvE l No, WE havеn,t. hе hasn't.
    • Present teerfeсt $rrоEressive l 1^,f,. QuЕsтloN Wн- Woпo 1 Hлvr i Suв,встi 8сгш How l on g havе you has hе Bдsв Foпм + -ING сoIlесting making been toys? thеm? ЕхPREssж Complete thеseconversotions, A: How long B: he been living here? a long time. A: I've сolleсting сoins sinсe last year. B: Really? Have you been fоreign сoins? & raffi gу*ar Еxр3fr fi etgФffis Ж,кmяwър$es l. Use the рrеsent pеrfесt Progrеssivе to talk about things that startedin the past and сontinuеup to the prеsеnt. Тhе situation is usuallynot finished, and it will probably сontinuеinto the future. l l,ve beеn сolleсting Beanie Babies fouryеaгs. for (l startеdсol|есting thеm four уеarsogo, ond |,m stillсollесtingthеm.) Past.ч..... h"Ыq *?* .,..i...,-.......... Non-aсtion Rвмвмввп! vеrbsaгeusuaIIy not usеdin thе progгеssivе. l |,vе ownеd this do||for yеars. Noт {A*е*ее+т-оtмвi'ng do||foг yеars. this 2. Use the present perfeсt Progressivе to r Тhе kids havе bееn playing hеre.Тheiгtoys dеsсribеthings that havе stoppеd very reсеnt]y. are a|lover thе гoom. Тhe aсtion is not happeningright noщ but you l |t,sbеen raining. Тhе strееts stillwet. are сan stillsеe the rеsu|ts the aсtion. of it Сheсk out! For a list of сommon non-aсtionvеrbs, sее Appendiх 2 оn page 337. 63
    • r r a 64 r a a a a a a a a a a a O a a a u ni t l S a . a a a a a a a a a сl]00sЕo Rеod еoch numbеrеd stotеment.Then circle thе letterof thеsеntenсe (a) or (b) thot bеst describesthе informotion in thе stotеmеnt. 1. Gina has been сolleсting stamps sinсe high sсhool. 4. Enriсo looked out the window and said, "ft's been raining.,' a. Gina stopped сolleсting stamps. @ a. It's definitely still raining. сi"u still сolleсts stamps. b. It's possible that it stopped raining a little while agо. 2. Enriсo has beеn writing an artiсle about toys. 5. It's been raining sinсe 6:00. a. The artiсle is finished. a. It's still raining. b. The artiсle isn,t finishеd yet. 3. They've been selling a lot of pokdmon toys. a. People are still buying Pokёmon toys. b. It stopped raining a little whilе ago. 6. They've bеen playing for hours. a. They stopped playing. b. The Pokemon fad is finished. b. They're still playing. o сOfflPLEтEEnrico Sonchez (ЕS) interviewеd the monogеr of Toуsond Us (TAU). Сomplеtе thе intеrviеw with the present pеrfеct progressive form of the verbs in porеnthеsеs,Use shart onswеrs whеn op'p,op,ioi,. have ES: So, Yeэ, we have TAU: 2. bзen эe||ing you a lot of toys this season? 1. (sеll) , Enriсo. In faсt, Pok6mon toуs and games (fly) 3. out of the store. They're our most popular item right now. ES: In сase one of our viewers on Мars, сould you eхplain 4. (|ivе) what Pok6mоn toys are? TAU: Haha. I bеt the соmpany Pok6mon to Mars too. This produсt 5. (sеnd) started out in Japan as a сomputer game. Sinсe 1996, the сharaсters ES: whv 6. (appeаr) this fad TAU: Well, my husband ES: in сolleсtors'сards, board gamеs-you name it. 8. (сhoosе) 7 . (attraсt)) /. ( a t t r а с t these produсts for our сhildren beсause the сharaсters are сute and not violent. Maybe that's whv. How about Power Rangers? people 9. (stand) line fоr them? TAU: people all ovеr the world? 10. muсh anymore. People 11. (notask) for Power Rangers very rn
    • lY: :. ::Р.Y:.::.:.j:..g .......... l.t. r r::.: .Т:f:.:}. o DЕsсRtBE Look ot the two picturеs of journolist Enrico Sonchez, Writе sentencеs describing whot hos bееn going on, |Jsethе prеsentpеrfect progrеssiveform of the vеrbs in porеntheses.Сhoosеbеtweеnoffirmаtivе ond negotivе forms, He'э been doing reeearch on new toуэ, (do rеsеarсhon nеw toys) ( t е s tt h e i n I i n es k a t е s ) (shoot baskеts) (eat pizza) ( d г i n ks o d a ) ( b u i | da г a с i n g с a r ) ( p | a yv i d е o g a m e s ) ( s e n d е - m a i Im е s s a g е s ) in . ЕDIf Rеod thе thаnk-уounotе. Find ond сorrеct siх mistokеs the usе of thе mistoke is olreody corrеctеd. prеsеntpеrfеctprogressive.Thе first Dесг AсlntToni' оoгds.Мgfгiendond J hoveьu",|f;#6 moоh the Pokёrnon Уeng Тhonkgo,0 foг Ьеen /vlg |ovePokern,on. Мorn I with themoll dog.So foг. I orлЬeenwinning, гeol|g ^1eгe одtetoo.Allrтgfniends she the Ьuging togs foг os Ьeоoсlse thinkstheg'ne goо gorne sent lovesthe cornpoteг now.Тongо the оolleоting оогdsfon rnonths too rтoch fon to Ьeenоskingrлe рlogwith heг.Ьot ]'vebeenhоving too. She've oboсltgooo |ot I hope J,ve How hovego0Ьeen? Ьeenthoсlght оoгds. with rng go0 оon оorneond visit 0s soon'
    • Present Perfeсt and Present Perfeсt Progressive W",щPqlNт Сirclе T (True)or F (Folsе), Thе woman is finished т F following the еlephant. т F taking 100 rolls of film. сIiАRт сIIEсI( Сircle T (Truе)or F (Folsе). т 66 F In some sentеnсesуou сan use еithеr thе present perfесt or the present perfeсt progтessive. PRЕSENт РЕRFЕст Е|еphants havе roamed thе eaгthfoг thousands years. of |,vе rеad two booksabout е|еphants. Dг' owеn has written many aгtiс|es. Sh e ,sl i v e d i n m a ny сo untгies. PRESЕNт PЕRFЕст РRocRЕsslvЕ have bеen roaming thе еaгthfoг thousands yеaгs. Е|еphants of I've beеn reading this book sinсе Monday. She,sbееn writing aгtiсIes sinсе 1990. Shе,sbееn living in Franсеfor a yеar.
    • Present Рerfeсt and Present Perfeсt Рrogressive Ех,PREss.,шщ#ж Сompletе this conversotionwith thе verb eat ond o short onswеn all morning! A: He's been B: What he A: Peanuts. He eating? eaten fivе bags ofpeanuts! B: he eaten thе whole supply? A: he &y жжrж* r Жжр*efretf, $ ФAn l. The presеnt pеrfесt oftеn shows that somеthingis finishеd.lt foсusеs the rеsult on of thе aсtion. N?* . There are still ten bags left. Exarжрlеs |,ve r еad a bo o k abo ute|ephants. (l finishеdthe book,) Shе,swritten an artiс|е. (She finishеdthе ortiсlе') Past..............х................i...........................> : hovеreod Thе prеsеnt pеrfесt рrogressivе often shows lt that an aсtivityis unfinished. foсuseson the сontinuation an aсtion. of l |,vе bееn reading a book about е|еphants. (l'm stillreoding it,) Shе,sbeеn w r iting an ar tiс|е. (Shе,sstillwritingit.) r 2. We oftеn use the prеsеnt pеrfесt to talk about - how muсh somеonehas done. t |,ve rеad o lot about it. how many timessomеonehas donе somеthing. l l,vе bееn to Afriсa twiсe, how many thingssomeonеhas donе. r Shе,s writtеn threе aгtiсlеs. Wе oftеn'usе thе present perfeсt progressivе to talk about how |ongsomethinghas beеn h appe n i n g . I l,ve been rеading bookson e|ephants for two months. Bв сдпвгul! We usual|y not use thе present do pегfесtprogressive whеn we mеntion a number of сompletеd evеnts. l |,vе read that book twice. Noт 3. Sometimesyou сan Usе eithеr thе prеsеnt perfeсt oп the present perfесt progrеssivе. Thе meaningis basiсaIly same.Тhis is the true еspeсia|Iy when you usе verbssuсh as livе, work, studу, and teoсh with for or since. fortwo years. She,sstudied е|еphants OR fortwo years. She,s beеn studying е|еphants (ln both сosе she startеdstudуingеlеphants two yеorsogo ond shе is stillstudуingthem.) l 67
    • 68 I uni t 16 o тRUE FАLiE Rеod еoch numbеrеdsеntence.Write T (Truе)or F (Folse)for thе 0R stotementthot follows. 1 . Professor owеn has bееn reading a book about elеphants. F Shе finished the book. 2. She's read a book about elephants. Shе finishеd the book. 3. Shе,s writtеn a magazine artiсle about thе rain forest. Shе frnishеd the artiсle. She,s bеen waiting for some supplies. She reсeived the supplies. 5 . They've livеd in Uganda sinсe |992. Thеy are still in Uganda. 6. They,ve bеen living in Uganda sinсе t992. They still livе in Uganda. o сIli00sE Hеrе orе somе stotеmentsobout Professorowen,s work, Сirclе the corrеct form of the vеrbs to сomplete thеsestotemеnts,ln somе сosе' both forms аre correct, 1 . Profеssor owen is working on two artiс]еs for NationаI Wildlifе Magazine. She thesе artiсlеs sinсе Monday. 2 . I{ational Wildlifе Magazine has published / has beеn publishing its annual rеport on thе environment. It,s an exсellеnt report. 3 . Five hundred and sixty Afriсan elephants havе alread}zdied / havе been d-yingthis year. 4. Professor owen has givеn / has bеen giving many talks about wildlifе prеsеrvation in past leсturе series. 5 . She has spoken / has been speaking at our sсhoоl many timеs. 6. Professor owen was latе for a meeting. When she arrived the сhairpersоn said, .At last, you,re here. We havе waited / havе been waiting for you.,' 7. Professоr owеn has lived / has bееn living in England for the last twо years. 8. She has worked / has been wоrking with environmentalists in England and Franсe. 9. Congтess has сrеated / has beеn сrеating a new study group to disсuss the problem of endangered animals. Thе group has already met twiсe.
    • Present Perfe*t and Рresent Perfeеt Frrogregsive o с0I|PLEтE Rеod this entrу from Dr. owen,s field journаl obout on еIephontshе cаlls Grondаd. Usе thе prеsentperfеct or the prеsеntperfectprogrеssivеform of the verbs in pаrenthеsеs. t-" 've been hearing аbout sincewеаrrivеd Grаndаd hеrеin Аrnbosе|i Hе is onеo+ |аsI,ЧцskеG,', dауsаgot finatty nim.|iis tusks Pаrk. thе ТWo wе sаw ,Ve ц 1. (heаг) аremorеIhаn seventedlong. I al ч Grаndаd ч even1thinq, hе аnd 4. (еxpеriеnсe) threаts coцnt|еss trorn bеings.oung hцmаn mеn q. -: coungеo,gainst аnd?oI.cnеrc him, аnd iis ехpеriеncе courаgе Forthе lasttwodачs,hе ч "'' {. grа55.I+е 1o. (еat) Lисkity, it 12. (rain) e { - 7. (hunt) 8. (savе) 9. (move) аnd 5. (survivе) 6. (tеst) thеtr hirntor his ivorv. hirnso tаr. stowlv Ihrough tatt the 1.l. (rеst) а |otthisеаr, tne аnd even biggest е|еpharfts еnough toodandWаtеr, 13. (find) Qс s"4 than sirtу hеretor morе lе уеаrs' }. (ivе) iii anything IikеIhеm. 2. (sеe) qф #А:*, Mj^-,. о ЕDIT Rеod this student,s report.Find ond correct six mistokеsin the usе of the prеsent pеrfеct ond presеntpеrfеct progressivе,The first mistokе is olrеodу corrected, living Elephants artd their arrсestors have beеn tiтr on this planet for 5 miШon years. Sсientists have fotrnd their bones in many plaсes, from Asia to Norbh Amerlсa. Prеsent-day elephants has also surwived in diffегent kinds of еnviron-mеnts, inсludln$ veIy dцr areas in Ni$eц €Passlands in East Afгiсa, a,nd forеsts in Alest Afriсa. Because of their gteat size and stren6$h, elephants have always fasсinatin$ humans. our fasсination has almost' сaused Afriсаrr elephants to bесome exЕinсt. Poaсhers (iШеgal hunters) have alгeaф been kiliing hundтeds of thousands of e1ephants for the ivory of thеir tusks. A.fteг 1989 it bесame iШegal to se]l ivory. Sinсe then, thе elephaлrt populatlon has beеn sгoтлm steadily. Rесеntly several сorrntries have been proteсtln$ еlеphants in national parks, and herds have beсamе ].arger and healthier. l 69
    • Past Perfeсt Э у Lh e Li r ne I Lur nеd |wе |v r,I h a d a | r eadуdecided Оn a Оarrer. I wanNedto br paidto talk! жPqцNT Сheсk the event thot hoppened first. t t Тalk.show host oprah Winfrеywith hеr ТV audiеnсе. Suв1вст | нoo (Noт) | пo'' PяптlсlгI.в | |/ Hе/Shе/We/Yo */Тh u ey еasy. sHoRт ANsWЕRs I нлo |Suв;вст | r,o'' Pяптlсlгlв | Had Aггlпмдтlvв l shе dесidеd by then? it bееn еasy? Yеs, she it had. No, NвсAтtvE shе it hadn't. l,l/f'. QUEsтloNs Wн- Woпo | нoo I su"l.., | пo'' Pдптlсlpl.в whv 70 by then. YEslNo QUЕsтloNs П b"fo.e the subjесt П after the subjeсt dесided beеn It had (not) *Youis both singular and pluцal. 2 сI|ARт сIllEсK Сheck thе correct onswer. In past perfeсt quеstions,whеre doеs hod go? oprah deсidеd on a сareer. sтAтЕ]vlЕNтs I сIIARт сIIEсI( Сircle T (True)or F (Fаlsе). т F The past perfeсt uses hod for all subjeсts. oprah turned twelvе. had shе dесidеd host? to bе a talk-show it bеen еasy?
    • Past Perfeсt l ExPREss,*жж Сomplete this conversotionwith the vеrb arrive. A: Had she - by 9:00? B: No, shе к"Жж.рff eжeЁ*кэffi s &w жыжrrжъ* Ж,xаrmрI*s 1. Use the past pеrfесt to show that something timе in thе past. happenedbеforеa spесifiс r By 1988 oprah Winfrеyhad beсomе famous. been in a l |t was 1985. Shе had a|rеady Hollywoodfilm. Now bеcаmе fаmous : Past......Х..,.......'.x......i...............> 1988 : 2. The past pеrfeсt aIwaysshows a relationship with anothегpast еvеnt. evеnt.Use Usе the past pеrfесtfor the ear|iеr thе simp|еpast tensefor thе laterevent. notiсе thе differenсеin mеanjng bеtwееnthе simplepast tеnsеand thе past pегfесt. r In ] 990 oprah invited Matt on the show. Hе had bееn an authorfoг two yeaгs. (Hе wos on outhorbefore1990.) got homе, ,,Thеopгah Winfгеy r By thе time ]i|| show,,had finishеd. (Firstthе show endеd,Thеnshе left,) I Whenthе show endеd,shе had !eft. (Firstshe left. Thеn thе show еnded') 3. Alreodу, уet, ever, and never are often usеd with thе past perfесtto emphasizеthe evеnt whiсh oссurredfirst r lsaw Thе Сolor Purple|astnight. I had nevеr seеn it bеforе. between two past 4. When thе timе rе|ationship you сan usе the simple past еvеntsis сlear, tensе for both еvеnts' Тhе meaning is usua|ly сlеar when you use ofter, beforе, or os soon gs to сonnесtthe еvents. l After oprah had appearеd tn Thе СolorPurplе, shе got a paгt in anothеrmoviе. oR l After oprah appеared in The СolorPurplе, 5hе got a paгt in anothегmoviе. 5. We oftеn usе the past perfeсt with by (a сertaintimе). . By 1966 oprah had deсided on a сareeг. . Jason had olreody seеn it. 7|
    • 72 r Elnit tZ ffi o тRUE FALSE Rеod еoch numberеdsentence,Write T (True)or F (False)for the 0R stotеmentthаt follows. 1 . When I got home, "The Oprah Winfrey Show" started. r First the oprah show started. Then I got homе. ..The oprah Winfrey Show,'had started. Whеn I gоt home, First the Oprah show started. Then I got home. Oprah's guest had lost 100 pounds when she interviewed him. The guest lost the weight before the interview. By the end of the shoщ I had fallen asleep. I fell asleep aftеr the show. 5 . When I went to bed, I had turned off the radio. I turnеd off the radio after I went to bed. 6. By midnight, I had finishеd the magazine artiсle. I finished the artiсlе before midnight. o Look ot some importont eventsin oprаh Winfreу,sсorеer.Thеn complеte сOff|PIEтE '.i. thе sentеncеsbеlow, |Jsеthe pаst pеrfect with a|readу or not yеt. oso* , ru # ^o{tu ^*NSu' o{:'фuЬ: -,$-^ou 9v 9o ^'* .'*o1, -.o.o$ ц',о -{'] s .t,rф d*$., *].*.oo,'n***,.'utч* ou*ou*.-;$,$Ь.' 'гiaоvot ^,uuo**Ъ**,,l**'**o I I 1954 I 1957 1971 By 1958 Oprah I 1973 I 19BЗ had a|readуgiven l. I ll 1985 1986 1988 hеr first speeсh. By 1-971she her first TV job. By 1972 she her first radio job. Bу 1972 she in a major movie. By 1985 she her оwn TV show. By 1986 she in a major mоvie. By 1987 she her own studio. By 2000 she in the fiIm Belouеd. 1998
    • Past о Аsl(& АNswER Look ot this tуpicol doilу schedulеfor o TV tolk-show host. Сompletеthе quеstionsobout his schedulе.Usе thе post pеrfectond givе short onswеrs, Рerfeсt 7:00 Аrrivе stцdio _._---. д.м. аt 8:00 ll:00 p.м. 2:00 Iiаir аnd mаkеuP 2:30 5:00 TaPethе show 4:30 1. It was 7:45.The host Was on sсhedule. A: Had he arrlved at the studio yet? B: the day's sсhеdule уet? Yeэ, he had, B: 2. At 7:30 the host was at his desk. A: 3. At 10:55 he was having сoffee. A: the sсhеdulе bv that time? B: 4. It was 2:00. He was on his way to makeup. A: the day's guests by thеn? B: the show yet? B: with his trainer that day? B: 5. At 4:00 he had a late lunсh. A: 6. He went to bed at 10:30. A: report, Thеrеo,e sii щistokes thе useof the postperfect. in ЕDtT.Rеod this student,s Find ond corrеct them. The first mistokе is аlreodY correctеd. had opгah Winfrey is an amazin$ person! By the time she was twelve, she bа,g alreaф deсided on a сareer. Not long aftеrward, she got her first radio job. Althou$h she hadn't have any еxperiеnсe, she beсamе a nеWs repoгteг. Wtren she got her oтдmTV talk shoщ she has already aсted ln a major HoШ;rwoodmovie. By the late 198os ..oprah Winfrey'' had beсamе a housеhold woгd. Then in 1994 she dесidеd to improve the quality of talk-show thеmes. She also made a personal сhan$e. Shе had always had a wеi$ht problem, but in 1995 TV viewers saw a new 'Vinfrеy. She had iosеd almost ninеty pounds as a result of dieting and working out. She had a]so сompete in a marathon. She has rea1l.y been an inspiration to many pеople. l 73
    • Past Perfeсt Progressive Э у |he time f,he |aet r unner cr o э o еd ъhе finio h |ine,he had been r u n n i n g7 h o u r e , 1 6 m i n u N a e , and 24 eесоndo, WээжPaINт Сircle T (True)or F (Fаlse). т What form of be does the past perfесt progтеssivе always usе? П Ёl been | вo'. Foпм oг Hlo (t,toт) всюt I Vвпв + -,^,G 5uв;вст l/ Hе/Sh ei lt/Wе/You*/Тh ey 'had (not) been runnrng w o r king YES/NOqr ,ЕsтloNs II ндo|Suryвст | в,," Had she been s}|oRтANsWЕRs Bдsв Foвм + -rwG r unning working Aггlпмдтlvв l a||daу? tt ltrн-Woвo I Hдo Suв;вст | Bвrш | Bлsв Foпм + .,NG How long why had shе been Nвсдтlvt Yеs, shе had. l No, shе hadn,t. иyf'. QUЕsтloNs 74 all day. *Youis both singular and plural. wаs ot were f1 is, om, or ore The raсе is finished. sтAтЕпnЕNтs снARт сIlЕсl( Сheсk the correct onswеr. F r unning? working?
    • Past Perfeсt Progressive l EхPREss,,ffiж Сomplеtе this convеrsаtion with thе pаst pеrfect progrеssiveform of the vеrb praсtiсе. when she entered the race? she A: How long for more than two vеars. B: Shе A: alone? she with a partner. She B: No. she fi 6 rarn штar Еxрf; шat$Фrur Е.xamрlеs 1. Use thе past pеrfeсt progressive to ta|k beforеa about an aсtionthat was in progгеss speсifiсtimе in thе past.Тhе progressivе thе of еmphasizes сontinuation an aсtion, not the end геsu|t. Thе runnеrs l |t was 2:00 p.м. had bееn running .l0:48 д.м. sinсе r I fina|ly saw Rob at 4:00 p.м.I had bееn waiting for hours. fainted. I one гunneг She hadn,t been drinking enough watег. Now 10:48 2:00 i Past.............x...........',у.i..''.....,....................> z o"iй; ...,аi i;;'i's"i Rgмtмвrп!Non-aсtionvеrbsarе not usually usеd in thе progressive. 2. Тhе past pеrfeсt progrеssive alwaysshows a with anothеrpast evеnt. re|ationship for Usе the past peгfесt pгogrеssive thе earlierevеnt. Use the simple past tense for the later event. r lt was 5:00 p.м.Hе had had a headaсhea||day' Noт He a hеadaсhеa||day. l She had beеn praсtiсing for thгеeyеaгs Whеn she enteredthе raсe. ffirst shе proсtiсеd.Thеnshе еntеrеdthе raсe,) 3. We oftеn usе thе рast pеrfесt progrеssivе about past еvеntsbased to draw ionсIusions on evidenсe. l Shе was out of brеath.lt was сlеar that shе had beеn running. 4. Bп сдпвгul! ln thеsе sеntenсeswith when, notiсe the differenсеin mеaning bеtwеen the past progгessiveand thе past pеrfeсt progrеssive. t When thе raсе staгted,it was raining and thе strееtswеre wеt. (lt wos stillraining during thе roсе,) r Тhе strеetswerе wеt. |t had bееn raining. l Whenthe гaсestarted,it had bеen raining and thе streеtswеге wet. (lt wаsn,t roining during thе rqсе. lt had stopped.) oIrеadу 75
    • 76 I unit lB o Еoсhrеsult hos сousе. couse, Motch the resultwith the corrеct ffiАтсII a ffi Result Сause a . He had been reading. 1 . She was out of breath. The ground was wet. b. She had beеn running. 3 . Hеr eyes wеre red. с . They had been watсhing the raсe. 4. Thеre Was an open boоk on the сouсh. d . She had been сrying. 5 . Therе were empty сans on the floor. е. It had been raining. 6. The TV was on. f. They had been drinking soda. o сOI/PLЕтERеаd this storу from o mogozinе orticlе. Сomplete it with the pаst perfect progrеssiveform of the verbs in pаrenthеsеs. By Bвпьtдolхв Мдптlх n Oсtobсr 2З, I raПthr Boston wttha partnсL МarсiаDavis' Маrathon 1уu had been training 1. (train) yеar; Wе togеthсr sinсс |ast and 2. (p|аn) to сntсr thс raсесvсr sinсеwе saw oorah Мarathon' start thе raсеwas drаmatiс. to thatpoint,wс Тhс of in thе)Иashington Up 3 . ( j o k ea n d l a u g h ) whеnwс linсd Up. lWаs so nсryous , but wеwеrеvеry sеrtous Мarсia l сouldn,t brсathс. and l 4. (praсtiсе) on thosсsаmсstrссts a for wс сoup|сof wсеks,so at thе bсginning did wс|l.Bythс timеwс got to Нсartbrсak Hill, wе fоurhours, for almost and I rсa||y bеliеvсdwс сould 5. (run) halfway thеhill,Мarсta run finish. Thсn, up stoppсd'Shсjustсouldn,t anymorr. Wс to thisraсеforso lonqthatI didn'twantto qo on 6. (lookforward) wantсdmс to finish. Whсnl got to thс finish а|onс, Мarсiа but linс,l sawМarсia. Shс 7. (wait) Frrst formе forthrееhours. wс crled.Thсnwс started talkinq marаthon. about nеxtУеar's
    • Pаst Рerfeсt srrogressive o сlt00sE& сOмPLETE Thе mogаzine Runnеr,s World (RW) is intеrviеwing morothon (PE). Сomplеtеthe intеrviewwith the post perfеctprogrеssivе winner Poolo Еsposito form of thе correct verbs from the boх. Use short onswеrs where oppropriote, date expeсt RW: You just won the marathon. PE: Yeэ. I had 2. live Fatrq run Had уou bеen practicing 1. long for it? For morе than five years. First in Madrid, then in Rome. RW: You tripped during the raсe. How lоng 3. whеn that happened? PЕ: It was in the last hour. Luсkily it didn,t keep me from winning. RW: I understand that you reсently married your traineц Emilia Lealе. How long 4. eaсh other when you deсidеd to get married? PE: About six months. Wе met in Rome and knew right away that we wantеd to be togethеr. RW: 5. PE: 6. in Rome for a long time whеn you met? . In faсt, I had just moved there. RWз When you сrossed the finish line you looked verv сalm. 7. PЕ: 8. to win? ! I was really surprised. And very happy. о journol, Find ond сorrect fivе mistokesin EDIT Reod pаrt of on еntrу from o runner,s the use of the post perfеctprogrеssive,Thе first mistokе is olreаdу corrected, oсtobеr 19, Ijиstgot bасk from thе mаrаtlloп! I,ш tired hut vrrу hаppу' Wheп I сrossedthefiпish had miпиtеs. /iпе,l /tmt beепrиппiиgfor foиr /loиrs апi huепtу=t'ivе Jеrешу tuаsst"lпсtiпg thеre,Нe hа,,{ beenшаitrd for ttlе the шho/еtime. Wе шereboth soаkiиg t.uеt.-._I, bесаиse hе, I hаd bеепstuеаtiпg; Ьесаиseit hаs beепrаiпiпgjиst а /itt/еш/li/ebеp'е, I шаs so 3/аd to sееllim' t hаd Ьeепlook/i,luаrd tо this dау for so Iory апd hopiпg thаt I сoиld mу fпish thе rасе iи /essthап flиr апd а hа/f/loи,s. Whеп tgot home,l са//е,d pаrепts. |пe hаd шаkhiпg thе mаrаt/аotl ТV апс|hа,| асtиаI/уSееИ сross thеfпtsh /iие! Т/эеу oи l 77
    • SelfTest 01,tE ffil Cirсlе thе lеtter af thе corrеct onswеr to сomplеtе eoch sentence. Еxдшtptt: Jennifеr nеver (A)drink (B)drinks 1 . Hе -- {A)praсtiсed {B)praсtiсes соffee. A@с tC)is drinking (D)was drinking for thе olympiсs sinсe 1998. (C) has been praсtiсing (D)was praсtiсing a long time. (C)while (D)for 2. We've known Sally (A) sinсе (B)by 3 . We,ve been living in Montreal sinсe Wе (A) yet developed (B)developеd yet 5. {A)Did (B)Havе ABсD an AIDS vaссine. (C) developed already (D)alrеady devеlop ABсD you reserved your hotel room уet? (c) Do (D)Has ABсD very often. ABсD 6. She hasn't - tC) flown (D)flying (A) flew (B)flies , and the grоund was still whitе. т . It -(С)wоuld Snow (A) snows (D)has snowed (B)had bеen snowing Tina (A) has arrived (B)arrived g. They (A) livе (B)have lived last week. ABсD ABсD (C)has bеen arriving (D)arrivеs hеre fоr three years befоre they moved. (C)had lived (D)have beеn living 10. The show has --(A)just (B)evеr 7a ABсD (C) gтaduated (D)gтaduate (A) have gтaduated tB}havе been gтaduating 4. They haven't ABсD won an award. (C) latelY (D)yet ABсD ABсD D
    • SelfTest 11. Professor Kidd on her fourth. (A) has bееn writing (B)has writtеn three bоoks sinсe 1999, and she's working lll I ABсD (С)wrоte (D)writes 12. We to buy that сar yet. (A) haven't deсided (C)have deсidеd (B)deсided (D)are deсiding 13. -Has Maria сalled уet? -Yes, she ---. But she didn't leave a message. (A) did (C)hasn't (B)сalled (D)has 14.SinсеI-sсhool,Ihaven'thadmuсhSparetime. (A) bеgun (C)have begun (B)bеgan (D)begin ABсD ABсD ABсD тW0 ffil Еoch sеntencehos four underlinеdwords or phroses.Thе four undеrlinedports of the sentеnсеorе morkеd A, B, С, ond D. Сircle the lеttеr of the one undеrlined word or phrаsе thot is Noг сoRRЕст. Еxдшtptп: Мike usuall}, drives to sсhool, but today he walks. AвсD A B с@ 15. _ l - - B - - she- т - youngeЦ shе has pla}rеd tennis every day. When с - - was ABсD 76. Itl already 10:00, but Teri hasn't finished her homework already. ABсD |7. Itе beеn worrying about you Ьeсausе you haven't bееn sеeming ABсD Aв(D A B( well lately. D 18. I,vе rеad a good boоk rесently, but I havеn't finished it yФ. AвсD 19. Did you writtеn your papeЦ or have you beеn watсhing TV? ABсD 20. Karl has been driving sinсе ten years. ABсD 21. We,ve been hеrе onl}, one day, but we've been taking threе rolls of film. ABсD 22. This hotel has been a]rеady in business foд fift}ryears. ABсD 23. How muсh сoffее did you been drinking last night? ABсD 24. I,ve beеn studying Frenсh sinсe I,vе startеd high sсhool. ABсD 25. Bеforе she bесamе a film staц- shе has been a stand-up сomedian. ABсD ABсD AB(D ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD BсD 79
    • Future: Be going to and Will жPЙINт Сhеck thе moin point of thе cortoon. П П t o.r" П t-o П Ш threе тьe man is going to fall into the holе. SтAтЕмENTS: BE GOINGтa I сI]ART с'|EсI( Сheck thе corrеct onswer. How many forms does be have in be going to? тье man forgot his umbrella. Foвм l Bдsв l Bс* | (Noт) Gotttстo i oг Vвпв Suв,вст am H е /Sh е /|t rs (not) going to so o n. leave Wе/Yout/Thеy are *For сontraсtions witЬ be, see Appendiх 24 on pagе 345. tYou is both singular and plural. 2 сHАRт сl]Eсl( YEs/No QuEsтloNS: 8Е G0ING тo Сirclе T (True) or F (Folsе), Bс t suq.., | с,,'" ,o | вo,. Foпм Т F In questions, a form of be goes aftеr the subjeсt. s}|oRт ANSWERS Aггlпмдтlvв g o i ng to hе leavе soon? Yes, h e Arе you ls. am. }y},.QUЕSТIONS:BE GolNG тo UVнWoпo | в. I su,l..' | сo,n" ,o | влs. Foвм am When why ts hе arе 80 NвсAтIvЕ t you are. Am ls I you going to leavе? you ar en't. No, hе isn't. I 'm no t.
    • Be gсling to and Wit| t Future: sтAтЕ]t.tЕNТS;WILL сIiART сHEсK 3 Сirclе T (True)or F (Folse). т F | wпt* (tloт)| вo'. гoпм | Suв;вст l/Hе/S tlWe lYoulТhеy will (not) he/l The fоrm of rryillis thе samе for all subjeсts. so o n. leave *For сontraсtions withulill, see Appendix24 on pagе 345. sHoRт ANsWЕRs YEs/No QUЕsтloNS: !V|l.t' wttt I Suвlвст| вo'. гoпм | will hе Aггlпмдтlvв l Yes, hе wilI. l No, hе won,t. so o n? lеavе Nвсдтlvв wH. QUЕsтloNS: W|tL l,UнWoпo I wш | Suвlвст| вo,. Foпм Whеn will hе lеave? EхPREssж Unsсromblethesе words to form two sentеnces, to.rainrlt's.going an.getоI,ll .umbrella 6raшжmar ЕxрЕanatiCIns ffi.жawmрffes 1. Youсanusеbegoing toor willto talkabout plans prediсtions. futurе or r ProfessorVгoom is going to attend a сonfегenсе wееk. nеxt *?* Past""""" :' r Professo, v,o# witl attend a сonferеnсе X otten,d o i i. confеrеncе ,l next WeеK. r l think it,s going to bе vегy interesting. oR r l think it,ll bе vеry interеsting. 2. Use be going to when thегeis somеthingin the prеsеntthat lеadsto thе prediсtion. Use willwhen you dесidеsomеthingat thе momе n to f s p е a k i n g . r Look at thosedark с|ouds! going to rain. |t,s Noт Look at those dark сIouds! гain. lt,|| Vгoom is spеaking noon. A: Profеssoг at B: o h. l thinkl,ll go to his talk. Pпoшuшсlдпoш Noтц |n infoгma| speeсh,going to is often pronounсed ,,gonna.,, not writе gonno, Do it Сheсk out! Thеrе arе othеr ways to talk about thе futurе. See Unit 20, pages 84_85. 81
    • a2 r unit i9 о REАD Look at ProfеssorНorrу Vroom,se-moil mеssogе. Greg-Just a quiсk note to let you know my pIans.] hear you'regoing to be in l Won'tbe there.Тhat means I won'tbe able to Madison nextweekend.Unfortunate|y, go fishingwithyou on Saturday. goingto be in Chiсagogivinga speeсh at the l'm l сonferenсe. attendevery Уear,but this is the firsttime l'm going to Smart Тransport give a speeсh.The сonferenсeis over on Saturday, l'm not going to returnto but so |'m MadisonuntilSundaynight. goingto take the traininsteadof driving' l сan get some work done.So, it doesn'tlook Iikewe'll get to see eaсh otherthis time.l hope -Harry nexttime works out better. о ANIWER Chеck аIl thе things Horrу Vroom is going to do next wеekend. l. 4.Пattеndaсonfеrenсe 2. И ьe in Chiсago 3. t go frshing 7. П d.i,,е to Madison 5. Пgi,.easpeeсh П ье in Madison 8. П see Greg 6. П rеturn on Saturdav о DE$сRIBЕLook ot the piсturеs. Theу show eventsfrom a doу in ProfessorVroom,slife. Writе prеdictions or guеssеs.Use the words in the box ond o form of be 9oin9 to or not bе going to. answеr the рhone 1. |t,'эgoing to rain, drivе give a speeсh ж take a trip watсh ТV
    • .... . .Ty. P.:.?i?у..t:у!!.|...9Р. ...о. :Y}.ч::... о Vroom onswerеdquestionsfrom thе oudiencе, сoff|PLЕтE After hisspееch, Professor ond wi|| or won,t. onswеrs.|Jsethе words in porеnthеsеs ond Сomplеtеthe questions will Woмдш 1: Мy question is this, Prоfеssor Vroom: run futurе Vвoом: on gasoline? 1.(run) won't, No, it probably .It solar energy. 3. (use) wе still Woмдш 2: Vвooм: No, we flat tires? 4. (gеt) . By the yеar 20tО,tires 5. a speсial sеal so that theу 7. (rеpaiф Mдш 1: In what other ways 9. (havе) 6. (havе) themselves. сarS Vвоoм: Well, instead of kеys, сars 12. (adjust) еven Mдп 1: Vвooм: Yes, they Mдш 2: Hоw muсh they diffеrent? 8. (be) smart сards. Thesе a lot like сredit сards. Thеy 1O. (look) and they the сar of the 11. (opеn) doors thе sеats, mirrors, and steering whеels. Thеу l3. (сontro|) 14. (prеveпt) the insidе temperaturе. сar thеfts? ! Nеxt question? That gentleman in thе baсk. thеse сars Vвooм: I don't know eхaсtly, but they сertainly 16. (сost) 17. (be) сhеap. Vroom,Find ond corrесtnine mistokеsin . EDIT Rеad thisе-moil mеssogeto Professor the usеof thе futurе with wii| аnd be going to. Thе first mistokеis olreodу corrеcted. won'l too,wil| in Harry-|'m sorrythatwe йllI hЪ be able to get together Madison.Martha, sometimenextmonth.Marthaand I am going misses you. PerhapsWe сan get together His untilJuly 15.Afterthat,we are goingvisitour son in Phoenix. to be in Minneapolis and will have a baby the firstweek in July.It'shard to believethatwe're wife is pregnant gonna be grandParents! I'm How exсitingthatyou goingto ta|kat the сonferenсe! sure it wiIlsbe great. reallydark and it'llstorm.I wantto get out of this The sky is getting l,vegot to run now. -Greg offiсebeforethen.More |ater.
    • Future: Contrast Don'|WОrry, Thеу won'| |eave w i|ho ut mе, I'mthe Vilol! Нurryup'eir, Yo't'regoing to be lale. The ehu|t|e |eaveэ in f i v a m i n u l e e. жPпINт СirсIе T (Truе)or F (Folse). т F Thе shuttle tо Mars has a sсhedulеd departure. т F The pilot is too late. сHEсl( сl|ARт AFFl Rltf, AТlvЕ sтAтЕ]t{ЕNТs NЕGAтlvЕ sтAтЕlvlЕNтs Сirclе T (True)or F (Folse). Wе,re going to lеave Wе,ll lеavе fo r M ar s so o n. Wе,rе leaving We leave Wе arеn,t going to leave Wе won,t leavе u n t i ll : 0 0 . We aren,t lеaving Wе don,t leavе т F There are several ways to talk about the futurе. т F Yоu сan't usq thе present tense to talk about thе future. VEs/No QUEgтloNs s h еi s . ls she going to lеavе foг Мaгs soon? Does shе lеave W'|-QUЕsтloNs Whеn is shе going to leavе Whеn will she Ieavе for Maгs? When is shе leaving Whеn does shе lеavе 84 sHoRт ANsWЕRs l | s h еi s n , t . shеisn,t. shе doesn,t.
    • Fшturr: ООi..trаs"il EхPREss,{;%;:;!,r;,у;,*' thot rеferto the future, Сheck thе sentences П I'- lеaving in fivе minutеs. П wьut timе do you normally leavе thе offiсe? П A'" yоu going to thе сonferеnсe in Мay? t дt the moment, I'm working on a report. йж жwwaхж ЖжpЖ жя#фж% жr ffitrъ #"жжrжpfl-** 1. Use be going to, will, thе prеsеnt progressivе, and thе simрlе prеsеnt tеnse to talk about thingsin the futurе. l l,m going to fly to Mars nеxt wееk. r l,ll fly to Mars next wеek. Now Pаst ..''...... I |,m flying to Maгs nеxt week. rry i ....i.........x... i nеxt wееk r l fly to Maгs nеxt wееk. 2. Usдсв Noтвs: Somеtimеsonly onе form of thе but futurеis appropriatе, in many сasesmore than onе foгm is possibIе. a. Usе be going to or will to makе prediсtions or quеssеs. l ln a fеw years pеople are going to fly to Mars. l ln a few yеarspеop|еwiII fly to Mars. b. Usе be going to (not wll) whеn somеthing in thе pгеsent |eadsto a prediсtion. l Look at that spaсeship! going to land! lt,s Noт {+v*i.ll-{and. (. Usе be going to, wiII,or thе present progrеssive to talk about futurе intеntions oг plans. r Dr. Greеn is going to spеak tomoгrow. r Dr. crееn wi|l spеak tomorrow. r Dr. Grееn is speaking tomorrow. d. Wе oftеn use will whеn wе dесidе' som e t h i n g t t h е m o m e n to f s p е a k ing. a We also usе will to make offers' A: Dг. cгееn is giving a ta|ktomoгrow. B: o h! M aybe |,ll go . A: crеat! I,ll gеt you a tiсkеt. е. We often usе thе prеsent progressive whеn wе talk about futuгeрlansthat have Тhеrе is usuallysomе alrеadybееn arrangеd. refеrenсe the futurе that shows that thе to еvеnt is not happeningnow. l l,m flying to Mars nеxt weeft.l,vе alrеady gotten a tiсket. t. Usе the simplе prеsent tеnse to talk about sсhedulеdfuture eventssuсh as programs, and sсhedulеs. timetables, r Тhе shutt|е Mars lеavеs at to tomorrow. l We land at midnight. .l0:00 д.м. 85
    • 86 l #mЁE2* о IDENтIFYProfessorGrееn is ottеnding o confеrеnсеthis weеk,Reаd her convеrsotion with ProfеssorRuss.Underlinе oll thе verbs thot rеfer to thе future, Russ: Еllеn! It,s niсе to see you.Are you presеnting a paper this wеek? Gвввш: Hi, Riсk. Yes. In faсt, my talk starts at two o,сloсk. go. Russ: Oh, maybe I'11 What are you going to talk about? Robots? Gвввш: Yеs. r,m foсusing on pеrsonal rоbots for housеhold work. Russ: I'd like one of those! Where's your son, by the way? Is he hеre with you? Gввпш: No. Tony stays in Denver with his gтandparеnts in thе Summеr. I'm going to visit him after the сonferenсe. Sо, what are you working on these days? Russ: I'm stil] with the Mars Assoсiation. In faсt, we're going to be holding a news сonferеnсе nеxt month about the Мars shuttlе launсh. Gвввш: That's eхсiting. Maybe I'll see you there. Russ: Great. The сonferenсe begins at noon on the tenth. о сH00sE Сirсlе the most аppropriotеwords to completethesеconversotions, 1. Gвввш: Whiсh projeсt do you *ork / on nеxt? Russ: I haven't dесided for sure. Prоbably the Spaсemobile. 2. Russ: Look at those dark сlouds! Gвввш: Yes. It looks likе it's raining / it,s going to rain any minute. 3. Gвввш: I'd better get baсk to my hotel room before the storm. Russ: oK. I'm seeing / I'll see yоu later. 4. Dвsк: Professor Green, your son just сalled. Gвшшш: oh, good. I,l1 сall / I'm сalling him baсk right away. 5. Gвввш: Hi, honey. How's it going? Torчy: Grеat. I go / I'm going fishing with Grandpa tomorrow. 6. Gвввш: Havе fun, but don,t forget. You still have to finish that papеr. Torтy: I knoщ Mom. I mail / I'm mailing it tomorrow. I already have the envеlope. 7, Torтy: How's the сonfеrеnсe? Gвшвш: Good. I,m giving / I'll givе a talk this aftеrnoon. 8. Torтy: Good luсk. When arе }zou/ will you be hеre? Gвввш: Tomorrow. Мy planе lands / will land at 7:00, so I see / I'll sеe you about 8:00.
    • Fa.*t**re:С;*П|rа$t I o с0IлPLEтERеod thеsесonversotions.Сomplеtе them with on аppropriote form of thе (Thereis morе thon onе corrеctаnswer for some items,) verbsin porеntheses, in just a fеw minutеs. Ieaveэ 1. A: Hurry up! Thе shuttle (Ieavе) B: Oh, I'm sure they for us. (wait) 2. A: Look at thosе storm сlouds! Do vou think it B: I dоn't know. I (сhесk) 3 . A: When B: Wе (raln) the weathеr foreсast. Wе thе shuttle? (board) first сlass, so We should be among the first (fly) to board. 4. A: Wow! This suitсase is heavy. B: 5. it for you. Give it to me. (сarry) A: What timе Wе on Mars? (land) B: Aссording to the sсhedule, at 9:00 A.N{., I think we but (bе) a littlе late. 6. A: I'm hungrу. I hope Wе B: Mе too. I some food soon. (gеt) thе seafood speсial. I ordеred it (hаve) in advanсe. 7. A: Look! The flight attendant is gеtting ready to announсe somеthing. B: Grеat. That means Wе (start) boarding soon. Rеod this flight onnouncеmеnt thе shuttle to Mors, Find ond сorrесtseven on EDIT. mistokesin the usе of thе future. Thе first mistаkе is olrеodу corrеctеd.(Thеrеis oftеn morе thon onе woY to corrеct o mistoke). ..Good. evening, ladies and gеntlemеn. This *tifu your сaptain speaking. We bе going to leave the Earth's gravity field in about fifteen minutеs. At that time, you are able to unbuсkle your sеat belts and float around the сabin. Host robots take ordеrs for dinner soon. After thеse storm сlouds, wе are having a smoоth trip. The shuttle arrives on Mars tomorrow at 9:00. Tonight's tеmperature on the planet is a mild minus 20 degrеes Celsius.By tomorrоw morning the temperaturе is 18 degтees,but it is feeling morе like 28 dеgrees. Enjoy your flight.,, 87
    • Future тime clauses ffiPпINт Сheck thе correct onswer. П тье сhild is talking about a presеnt habit. П тьe сhild is planning her future. sтATEпnENтs сl|АRт сHEсI( Сirсlе T (True) or F (Folse). т т F F The verb in thе main сlause is in the future. The verb in the time сlausе is in the future. I т.'. Glдusв Mдlш Glдusв l ,m g o i n g to b е a ba||еt danсег when I grow up. ofter she graduates. Sh e ,l li o i n a b a l l e tс ompany YEs/NoQuEsтloNs l т,'. Glдusв Mдlш Glдusв A re y o u g o i n g t o b e a ba||et danсer when you grow up? W i l l s h е j o i n a b a l |et mpany сo ofter shе graduatеs? sHoRт ANsWЕRs AггIпмдтIvв Yеs, I am. I NвсAтlvЕ | No, shе will. l'm not. shе won,t. }r,}'QUEsтloNs Mдlш Cиusв l тlмв Cиusв 88 are you going to be when you grow up? will shе do What аfter she graduates?
    • Futurе Тime Glauses EхPREssжж Unscromblеthеsе words to form o question ond on onswеr. be . What о gтowS up . she o when o will о she to . sсientist . a О going . She,s о be жрBeffi etЁФж$ ffiуmmEтtаr ffi ffiж*иъър**s 1. Whеn a sentеnсе about futuretime has two сlauses, verb in the main сlausеis often in the thе futurе (willor bе going to).Тhe verb in the time сlauseis often in the prеsеnt tense. mаinс|ausе timесIausе l Не,ll look foг a job when he graduates. mainс|ausе futuгetimе с|ausе. timесIausе Noт@. Тhe timе сlausе сan сome at thе bеginningoг Тhe meaningis the the end of thе sentеnсе. same.Use a Gomma afteгthе time сlausеwhen it сomеs at thе beginning.Do not use a сomma when it сomеs at the end. l Before she opplies, shе,l| visitsсhooIs. oR visitsсhoo|s r Shе,l| before she oppliеs. Noт 2. Here aге some Gommon timе еxрrеssions you сan usе to begin futuretimе сIauses. a. When, ofter, and os soon os often introduсethе еventthat happеnsfirst. l Whеn l graduatе,l,ll look for a job. |,|| l After | graduatе, |ookfor a job. l As soon os I gгaduatе, |ookfoг a job. l,l| l,m going to groduatе,Тhеn l,ll look for a job') first Now : 1groduote look for а job Рast.....'...iх..............'J.1...............> b. Before, until, and bу the timе often introduсеthе еvent that hapoеnssесond. Now : . finish school get o job P as t . . . ....' ..i х ...........' ..........Futur e ..x ......> G. Whilе introduсes evеntthat wi||happen an at thе same timе as anothеr еvеnt. Now . . . .....' .i P as t х .' 7 ,.' .' ' .,. Futur e ..} : Qt to'o'1fl .oййб-'wd. l Before I get a job, |,l| finish sсhoo|. l llntil I gеt a job, |,I| stay in sсhool. l By the time I gеt a job, |,|lbe out of sсhool. first l,ll finishsсhool' Then l,ll get a job,) l сontinuеto study. While l look foг a job, l,|| (l will |ookfor a job ond study during thе samе timе pеriod.) l 89
    • 90 r unit 21 тRUE FAIiЕo Rеod eoсh numbеredsеntеnce.Write T (Truе)or F (Fа|sе)for the 0R stotе еnt thаt foll ows. m 1. Amber will open her own business when she finishes sсhool. F Amber will open her own business. Then she,ll finish sсhool. 2. Denzell won't quit until he finds another job. Denzell will find another job. Then he'll quit. 3. Jake will retire as soon as he turns sixty. Jake will retire. Then he'll turn sixrv. 4. Marisa will сa]l you when she gets home. Marisa will get home. Then she'll сall you. 5. Whilе Li-jing is in sсhool, she'll work part-time. Li-jing will finish sсhool. Thеn she,ll get a part-time job. 6. By the time Marta gets her diploma, she'll be twenty-one. Marta will turn twenty-one. Then she'll get her diploma. о с0IЙBiNE Reod obout Sondy аnd !еff, Сombinе thе sentencеs. l. Sandy and Jeff will get married. Then S andy will gтaduatе. 1andу and Jeff w|l marred get graduateэ. before -Эandу 2. Jeff is going to get a raise. Then they are going to move to a larger apartment. as soon as 3. They're going to movсj to.a larger apartment. Then they,re going to have a baby. After 4. They,ll have thеir first сhild. Then Sandy will get a part-time job. after 5. Their сhild will be two. Then Sandy will go baсk to work full-time. By the time 6. Sandy will work full-time. At the same time, Jeff will go to sсhool. while т. Jeff will gтaduate. Then he,ll find another job. when
    • Future Тime Giauses о с0ff|PIEтE Look ot this student,sworksheet,Сomplete it with thе corrеct form of the in porеnthеsеs. vеrbs GoAL PIANNlNG woR.кsHEEт l. Write your major goal. '11 get, y a job aftеr ] (gеt) (graduate) ll. List three benefits of aсhieving your goal. l. Whеn I 2. Whеn I 3. I a job, I (get) еnough monеy, I (savе) happier whеn I (fее|) morе monеУ. (havе) еmployеd. (bе) lll. How will you reaсh your goal? Write down smaller l. As soon as I (get up) a usеd сar. (buy) goals. in thе morning, I the (buy) nеWspapеr to look at the еmploymеnt ads. 2. Whеn I to mv friеnds, I (spеak) know of any jobs. 3. I (аsk) at thе job notiсеs board whеn I thеm if thеу to (go) -r"^,,| thе supеrmarkеt. 4. Bеforе I (go) on an intеrviеw, I (improve) mу сomputеr skills. EDIT.Rеod this doncеr,sjournаI еntrу, Find ond corrеct sеvеnmistokesin thе use of future timе clousеs.The first mistokе is olrеodу corrесtеd.Don,t forget to check for commos! а/r.eас/! orer!Аs sooпаs шеfиiф thePефrmаnсe lhere аregojпg to bе а btgРаft! for-tp, '* br шhеиц-е-rntrrthi!r.oom,Whi|e и,eш// сekbr!Иfug-pr1': уL!!-lцk:yip-r.',: ther-?, RePoffursшi//b-e 4 -Ш:lу!е,;эf"th,е.dqцqqg"?!!p. q!,! e!!:1g!!_цp Sцry4ogш''rnJЦJ!!/ bу,g"thе,plPеr :r'-d - the iпtеrrieшs,We,rеgoingtoРeфrm this shoeu tшo шeek, Аs sooпаs t:fui:h'd.-еfor I,m Еu.er .fеаrп!d-qпecu Рrogr.а!п. so..9хqitэd, siпсeI.шаs/iф |,veшапФ'dfu bе а bа|/etdаnсer l 9|
    • Future Progressive I won'l br hereat 12:ОО, bе out |'|l walkinglhe doq. @ )fl Tж жPqINт Сtlеck thе сorrеct onswеr. rl Whеn will Robo takе thе dоg out for a walk? П b"fo.e 12:00 t at 12:00 t aftеr 12:00 sтAтЕпnЕNтs сI]АRT сIIEсK Сirclе T (Truе)or F (FoIsе). т F vtl )-PRI You сan form thе futurе progressive with be going to or will plus be and the basе form of thе verb + -ing. Br (нoт) сotttстo/ 1 Br + Bдsв Wttt (нoт) | Foпм + -,NG Suв!вст am (not) going to He/Shе/lt is (not) going to Wе/You/Тhey are (not) going to l/He/Shе/| tlWe lYoulThey will (not) bе working tomorгow. bе working tomorrow. VEs/NoQUЕsтloNs ltt-l Bс/Wltt I Suqвст | Gotltс тo I Br + Bдsв Foпм + .lшс | Am ls shе Are you WiII go ing to you bе working tomoгrow? be working tomorrow? sHoRт ANsWЕRs AггIпмдтlvв l ш."AтlvE Уou arе. Yеs, shе is. you aren't. No, she isn't. I am. wе will 92 l'm not. Wе won,t.
    • Futиre Рrоgressiwe Ltl},.QUЕsтloNs Wн- Woпo | в'/w,,',. I su,l... | сo,'. 'o I Br + BдsвFoпм + -,^,G Where W hе n IS he will g o i n g to shе be working? bе working? ЕxPRЕssr;ж"##;ffi Unscromblеthеse words to form two questions,Answеr the quеstions, working o bе o Will o tomorrow о yoЦ Уou о be . What о doing o are o to . gоing й ыжwwн'gwж e{aeжЙ ffi * уй жr Жжp# Жкreкъъ рt*s 1. Use thе future progrеssivе with be going to I Robo is going to be walking thе dog or will to ta|kabout thingsthat wi||be in progrеss at no o n. at a speсifiсtime in the future. OR Ro bow ill be w alking the do g at no o n. Past Non-aсtionverbs arе nоt usua|ly RвмвмвпR! usеd in thе progrеssive. l You,rе going to havе a hеadaсhе tomorгow moгning. Noт@ahеadaсhе tomorrow moгning. 2. Usдсв Noтв: Wе often use the futuге pгogressive A : to hint that we would |ikеsomеonеto do us a favoг. B: A: 3. Remembеrthat if the sentеnсehas a timе сlause, usе the simp|еprеsеnttenseor pгesеnt pгogrеssivе thе time сlause,not the future or in future progгеssivе. WiIl you bе going by thе post offiсe tomorrow? Yеs.Do you neеd stamps? Yеs.Сould you gеt mе somе? r I'll be сooking while the robot is сlеaning. Noт |,l|bе сooking whi|е the гobot wi.l.l-bе с{еаttinfr l 93
    • 94 t Ж#, 3wъв* o IDЕNтIFYRеod this porogroph. Undеrlinе oII the futurеprogressiveforms. Today we find most robots working in faсtories around the world. But what wцl robots of the future be doing? one Massaсhusetts Institute of Teсhnology dеsigner prеdiсts that in just a few years, small, inte}ligent robots are going to be taking сare of all the household сhores. This is gоing to make life a lot еasiеr. While one robot is соoking dinneц anothеr onе will be vaсuuming the floоr. But what about outside the homе? Will robоts be playing football or fighting wars? Sсiеntists aren,t surе. What is сertain, howeveц is that robots will be playing a more and more signifiсant role in our lives. o с0[|PLЕтE Rеod thеsеconversotions,Сomplete them with thе futurеprogressiveform of thе words in porenthеses ond with short аnswеrs, 1. will Sтuовшт: be havinа you offiсe a. (Wi|| havе) / hours today? I'd like to talk to you about my robotiсs paper. Yeэ,l w1|| Tвдсншв: .I b. to lunсh с . ( w i l |/ g o ) at 2:00. But stop in anytime before then. MRs. Gвв: When you the offiсe? a. (bе going to / |еavе) lVIв.Gшв: At 2:00. Why? Do we need somеthing? MRs. Gвш: Would you mind piсking up some milk? Robo forgot, and I b. (won,t/ gеt) 3. home until latе. you Toшy: Dad. what time a. (be going to i сomе) home today? I need soтirеhelp with my sсienсe projeсt. Mв. Gвв: I b . ( w i | |/ t a k е ; Mia to thе dеntist after work, but I'll bе baсk by 4:00. Torтy: с. (Bе going to / havе) dinnеr bеfore Mom сomes home? Mв. Gвп: 4. d. . You know we always wait for Mоm. Sдr,вsмдш: I'm сalling from Robotroniсs Inс. I a. (bе going to / visit) your neighborhood Soon to dеmonstrate our nеW robot. Roвo: I'm sоrry. The Gеe family for a while. b. (won,t l buу) a nеW robot
    • Wc.}kжr* $*r"сзgr*sssBwe l o for с0ILPLЕтE Look ot Robo,sond Roboto,sschedulеs tomorrow.Сompletе the stotemеnts. Fl o b o 8:oo Flo Ь o ta 8:OO paybills makе bгеakfast 9:oo dust bedгooms 9:oo VаCUum iving oom I г 1o:oo do |aundгy 1 o : o o г e р a i n tk i t с h e n 12:oo mаkeIuпch ,l:oo giveMг. Gee a massagе 1 2 : o o г e с y с l et h е g а г b a g e 1:oo shoofoг food 5:oo h e | pT o n yw i t h h o m е w o г k 5:oo makеdinneг 7:oo p I a yс h е s s w i t h Т o n y 7 : O O w a l kt h e d o o 1. Whi1e Robo iэ makingbreakfaэt, 2. Robo wi|| ?aУingbi||э, be , Robota thе bedrooms while Robota 3. Robota the kitсhen while Robo 4. Whi1е Robo lunсh. Rоbota 5. Robo a massage while Robota 6. Robota dinner while Robo 7. While Robo сhess. Robota porаgroph. Find ond сorreсtsеvеnmistokеsin thе usе of thе EDIT.Rеаd this student,s futureprogrеssivе.The first mistoke is olreodу corrected. p e r f o rming In the future, гobots wi1l be Bеrяer*moгe and more tasks for humans. This will be havin$ both positive and negative effeсts. on the onе hand, whilе robots тлriitbe d.oing thе boring and d.an$erous jobs, humans more time to inberestin$ puгsuits. a lot easier for humans. wi1i bе dеvotin$ In this тлray гobots is going to be making on the othеr hand, the widesprеad going сreatе a lot of future unemployment. lifе use of гobots is People will losin$ thеiг jobs as robots fill their posltions. And somе robots сould even beсome dangегous. I'm afraid that in thе not-too-distant future, гobobs will bе opеratin$ nuсlear рoweг stations! And befoгe too long, гobots are going to br fight in wars. Althou$h, sеcond thought, that w111be betteг than humans killlng еaсh other! on 95
    • Future Perfect and Future Perfeсt Progressive Эу February' he'have beeneaving for threevеareand l'll be rich! WPqlNт .ф) Сhесk thе сorrеct аnswеr. П It's February. П не hasn't bееn saving for three years yеt. FUтURЕPЕRFЕстsтAтEпnENтs сI|ARт снEсKI СirсIе Т (Truе)or F (Folse). т F Both the futurе pеrfeсt and the future perfeсt progTеssiveuse will hove been. Suв,вст I Wttt (ltoт) | нou, + Pдsт PдптlсlpI.в |/H he/|t/Wе/You* е/S lTheу will (not) have saved enough money by then. *You is both singular and plural. FUTURE PЕRFEст PRoGREssIvЕ sTAтЕ]t,lЕNтs -,NG + l Wttt (мoт) | нou, BЕEN BдsвFoпм + Suв;вст |/He/Shе/| lYou lThey tlWe w il! (no t) have bееn saving foг thrееyears. s}|oRтANsWЕRs сI|ARт сHEсK 2 FUтURЕ PERFЕст YEs/No QUEsтloNs Сirclе T (Truе)or F (Folse). Wttt I Suв;вст | Hлvс+ Pдsт Pдптlсlpt-в Aггlпмдтtvв l wiШ Yеs, hе w ill' I No , hе w o n,t. т F Shоrt answer forms are the same for thе future perfeсt and the future perfeсt progrеssive. tl havе saved еnough by then? FUтURЕРEarЕсТPRoGRЕsslvЕ уEs/NoQUEsтloNs Wttt WiII 96 hе Hдvr BЕЕN+ Suв;встI Bдsв Foпм + -,NG havе been saving foг |ong? Nвсдтlvв sHoRт ANsWЕRs Aггlпмдтlvв l Nвсдтlvв Yes, he w ill. t No , hе w o n,t.
    • :Y}.чT:. .Т.::I:.::. г.Y}y.::. 3:9. :...:::.:}.:.Т:.9:.::.::Y: ....o ..l .: .27.. o EхPREss.жж Сomplеtе thеsеsentenceswith thе vеrb drive. Usе onе word for eoch blonk. . By June, I'll have been . I'll have € } rи шxв mаr mv new cat fot a vеar. 10,000milеs by then. Еэ*рleffi atЁ*}t g Еxamplеs 1. When Wе u5еthe futurе pеrfeсt, wе imagine a сertainpoint of time in thе futuге,and we look baсk at еvеntsthat wil| be сomplеtedbv t hat t i mе . r By J une,he w ill have paid his dеbt. l Wе won,t have savеd еnough by thеn. *?* P ast . '. . ...... ....i .....х . .......х ......Futur e ...> poid lunе i э.debt Use by + timе exprеssion to identify thе point in time in thе futurе. I t Use olreodу and уet to emphasizе whethеr an еventwill have happenеdby a point in timе. 2. When We usе the futurе pеrfeсt progrеsslve, we imaginea сertainpoint in the futuге,and wе look baсk on thingsalrеadyin progrеss. *:* 1gg8 Dеcеmber P ast . . . '. ..... ш - - - ..- : tiving F utur e T I Bу lune, shе,Ilhavе bought a usеd сar. She,ll havе lookеd at a |ot of сarsby then. Bу |хАaу, hе,IIhavе olreodу savеd $],000. Bу Мaу, hе won,t havе savеd $2,00Оуet. Wе movеd hегеin 1998. By nеxt Deсembеrwе wi|l havе been living heгefor sevеra| yеars. We're moving to Parisnext year.By 2005 we will havе bееn Iiving thегefor sеvera| yеaгs, and it sho u|d fее|likеho mе. Тhe future pеrfесt progrеssive foсuses on how long and oftеn inсludesthе length of time. r You,ll havе beеn spеaking Fгеnсhfor tеn уeors by thеn. Rвмвмввп! Non.aсtionvеrbsare not usual|y used in the progrеssive. l By May, hе,ll have owned his сar for a yeaг. Noт 3. Use the futurе peгfeсtor the future peгfeсt pгogrеssivе wlth thе simplе prеsеnt tеnsе to show the ordеr of evеnts: Ftпsт Еvгштfuture pеrfесt(progressivе) Sгсoпo Evгшт: simple prеsеnttensе By thе timе you orrive, |,ll havе finished dinneг. No т l,l|havе finishеd dinnег. By the time you orrivе, |,IIhavе beеn rеading for an hour. Now finish stort dinner to reod orrivе Past................i.....x..............х...............х.....> Futurе
    • 98 I L$пEt *З o oR TRUЕ FALilЕ Rеod eoch numberеdsentеnce,Writе T (Truе)or F (Folse)for thе еnt thot folIows. stotеm l. By this timе tomorroщ I,ll havе dесidеd whiсh сar to buy. т I haven't deсided yet whiсh сar I'm going to buy. 2. Wе,ll have already finished the gтoсery shopping by the time you get homе. You will get home while we are shopping. 3. By nеxt yeaц Mary will havе bееn working at the newspapеr for five years. Mary сan сеlebratе her frfth annivers atу at the newspaper. Nеxt Уeat,, 4. By ten o,сloсk, shе won't have finished writing her сolumn yet. Shе will finish writing at tеn о'сloсk. 5. Wе will havе moved to a larger offiсе by the year 2ОI0. We will move to a larger offiсe after the yеar 2010. 6. By next Уear,we'll havе bеen pubtishing the newsletter for fifteen years. We startеd the newslettеr less than fifteen years ago. o Lookot thе timе line аnd complеte thе sentencеsobout Tom аnd Lindo,s с}Iу|PLЕтE or IJsе future oсcomplishmеnts. the future p|еrfесt the future perfect progressivеform of Сhoosе bеtwеenoffirmotiveond nеgotive. thе words in porеnthеsеs. ffi 1,,, 1,0,,1,,, ffi ..=:Jl .|:1,':,твЦ!|'.. ,. . ] !'* ! ] i ' ;- 1 А L ''.,{ | (t;i, t.. {ед-; .? 1,,,1,,, I I I Izors Bу 2ОL2, they By 2015, they 'll have bought '|| Bу 2017,Tom (9raduatе) sсhool for four years. (attеnd) By 2019,thеy (buy) (drivе) Linda Bу 202О, The in their own housе for three years. (|ivе) By Travis's first birthdaY, Tom They a new сar. (buy) havе been |iving another сar. their old сar for eight уears by then. hеr business. (opеn) (save) Bу retirement, the сouple for two years Ъу 202О. (aссomplish) a lot.
    • Future Рerfeсt and Fr*tun"* Рerfeеt РrоgresgЁъg* o Rеаd Lindo Lеone,s (LL) interviewwithTeenagе Couples Magazine (ТC). с0I|PLEтЕ Сomplеtе thе intеrviеw with thе сorreсt form of thе vеrbs in porenthеses.Usе thе progrеssivеform whеn possiblе. Use alreadу or уet whеn oppropriotе, get TC: You two arе amaziлg! By the time you 'l| havea!-214у?1anned уol married. l ' (gеt) your wholе life togethеr! LL: Well, wete been dating sinсe middle sсhool. By the time *u .. .o'ouu.", fromhighsсhool,-"aboutourmarriageforalongtime. TC: When Travis , Tom 5. (bе born) 6. (not graduatе) . Hоw will you manage with Tom still in sсhool? from сollege LLз It won't be easy, but we've got a plan. Tom 7. (finish) most of his сourses by then. He,ll stay home with the baby during thе day and go to night sсhool. TC: By the time you you _ your tenth wedding anniversary, 8. (сеlebrаtе) your business 9. ("ot start) You havе a lot of patienсe. LL: Not rеally. I by then. When I I years of praсtiсe on mу job lo. (gеt) .l2. 11 . ( o p e n ) (bесomе) the doors of Linda, Inс., a vеry experienсed Web page designer. TC: Well, good luсk to you, and thanks for the interviеw. ЕDIT.Reod thisjournol entrу,Find ond correct siх mistаkеsin thе use of thе future pеrfect ond the future perfect progrеssivе.Thе first mistokе is аIrеodycorrеctеd. have been Ihе thrее eаrnа|most samеsа|ап1tor tor BуАugust be а word l,ll ?rocе;aor tеnеars'Аnd|'It rеso|utiongo bаckto to scnoo| уеаr. Ihis I|lаt,s l,ve Why mаdеa Newеаr,s First|'m уеаrs| 5аvi0g tиitionBу Маrch, hаvе going writе schoo| Io cаtаIogs stаrt for . tor аnd |,|| tigurеout rnucn tиition сoяt. By аccефаncе wi(( Thеn starГ I,|I app(ying.aцmmеr,I rеcеivеd hаd how pаrt.timе going school pаrt-Iimе, to |eltеrs, Аugust, tatk rnybossаboцt working and |n |,(l to tиitionBy nextNew to ' а|rеаdч еnough paytorа sеmеstеr's Bythсttime, hаuе |,I| sаvеd studу onewnolе sеmеEtеr| bееn |,ll lor еаr'sDay, hаuе l 99
    • SelfTest flW0шп Сircle the lеttеr of thе corrеct onswer to complеtе eoсh sentence. Exдмptп: Jennifеr never {A)drink (B)drinks 1 . It - сoffee. (C) is drinking {D)was drinking tomorrow. (C) 's going to rain (D)'s raining {A)rains (B)rained 2. The paсkage will on Monday. (C) arriving (D)be going to arrive (A) arrive (B)arrives 3. Goоdnight. I (A) 'll see (B)'m going to see you in the morning. (C)'m seeing (D)see 4. Hurry. The next bus a t 7: I 5 . (C)lеaving (D)will havе been leaving (A) leave {B)leaves 5 . Bill will be - (A) flies (B)flying to Taipei tomorrow. (с) fly (D)have flown We a new VCR soon. (A) have owned (B)11 own 7 . They,ll bе making сopies while he (A) finishes (B),ll bе finishing 8. She'll (A) savе (B)have saved (C) 're owning (D)own the report. (с) 1l finish (D)'s been finishing almost $t,000 by then. (C)have been saving (D)be saving 9. By next Уear, Roger will (A) live (B)be living here for ten yеars. (С)havе been living (D)be going tо livе 10. Will you buy an eleсtriс сar whеn they availablе? (A) bесоme (C) are beсoming (B)beсame (D)will beсome 100 д@ с D ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD
    • SelfTest 11. She'll have gotten married (A) already (B)by Junе. (C)sinсе (D)until 72. Where (A) they (B)they will lV I ABсD (C)will thеy (D)are they ABсD be living? 13. Look at those сars! Thev -! (A) will сrash (B)will be сrashing 14. How for сollege? (A) should pay (B)will she pay (C}'re going to сrash (D)will havе сrashеd ABсD ABсD (C) shе pays (D)she's going to pay [ffi]J.ТТ'lтW0 Еoсh sеntеnсеhos four undеrlinеd words or phroses. The four undеrlinedports of thе sеntenceorе mаrked A, B, С, ond D. Сircle thе lеtter of the one underlinеd word or phrosе thot is Noг сoRRЕст, Еxдмptl: Mike usually drives to sсhool, but today he walks. ABCD A B с@ 1 5 . Will you been soing to the drugstore tonight? ABсD 1 6 . The movie starts at 7:30, so I think I gq. ABсD ,|7. We are going to study tonight until we will finish this сhapter. ABсD 1 8 . By April, I'll have been driven my new сar for a Уeat. ABсD 1 9 . We'll travel for a сouple of days, so you won,t be able to сall us. ABсD 20. Jan finished sсhool by next Summeц so we're going to visit her. ABсD 2 1 . Whiсh projeсt will hе works on after he finishes this job? ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD AB сD ABсD AB(D By -A* January, he'll have yg! -o *C- saved $1,000. ъ23. Wherе * _ - - Т - - B - -staving_ when you g9 to Moroссo? vou will bе - t * " ъ I'll be stud}ring whilе Ana will bе sleeping. AB(D 25. She will nоt has graduated by June. AвсD ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD 1Ol
    • Wh- Questions: Subjeсt and Prediсate What,happened o n Nhe niqhL o f lЙ aу 12Nh? Where did уou go? Who did уou oee? Who эaw уou? Whу dd I get,ouI,of bеd L h i em o r n i n q ? | POINт ] Сhеck thе corrеct onswers. The lawyer wants to know П th" events оn the night of May I2th. П tь. witness,s profession. П th" names of people who saw thе witness. l сHАRт сI]Eсl( QUEsтloNs AB0Uт T}|ЕsUB,Е(т Circle T (Truе) or F (Folsе). Wн- Woпo Suв,вст Vвпв i Pпвolсдтв Who saw т F lЦh- questions abоut the subjeсt havе the same word ordеr as statements. ANswЕпs(sтAтЕrilENтs) Suryвст |v.*,IP*.o..o,. Hе сl]АRт сl|EсI( 2 Сircle T (True)or F (Folsе), т T to2 F F l,Uh.questiоns about thе prediсate have the samе word order as statements. Questions about the prediсate сan inсlude a form of the verb do. yo u? saw me. ABoUт тHЕ РREDIсAтЕ QUЕsтloNs WнWoпoI Au*,..o*" I I P п в o l с д т в| V в п в Who(m) did iSuвlвст|Vвпв you seе? ANsWЕRs (sТAТЕшtЕNTs) Suв;вст |v.*' saw IP*.o..o,. him.
    • l/Уfr- Gluestions: Subieсt and Prediсate EхPREssж Unscromblethese words to form two questions. night о happened . What о last do.did.WhatonextОYou к-ma Ж:срf; r e*?atiФns & ra gтэ Еxamplеs 1. Usе иЙ. quеstions to askfor sрeсifiсinformation. r r quеstionsbеgin with questionwords suсh t,Уh. l as who, whot, where, whеn, whу, whiсh, r whosе, how, how monу, how muсh, and how long. W ho Why How How 2. When you arе asking aboшt the subjeсt (usual|y first paгt of thе sentenсe),usе a the wh- quеstionword in plaсe of thе subjесt.Тhe word order is thе same as in a statеment. Someonе you. saw I 3. Whеn you are asklng aboцt the prеdiсatе (usuallythe last part of the sentеnсе), the questionbeginswith a wh- word, but thе word order is thе same as in a yeslnoquеstion. did yo u sее at A |,s Cгi|I ? did you go thеге? many pеop|еsaw you therе? Iong did you staythere? Y r Who saw you? You saw someone. Did you sее somеonе? r Who did vou sее? you neеd еither somеthingin thе pгediсatе, a. a foгm of thе vеrb be. OR vегb b. a form of an auxiliary (,,hеlping,,) suсh as do, hаvе, сon, will. whеn asking 4. Usдсв Noтв:ln very formal ЕngIish whom is about pеople in the pгediсatе, somеtimеsusеd instеadof who. you сannot usе whom. l Who is HaгryАdams? l W hy w as hе at A |,sCr ill? r Why doеs shе want to testify? Noт@ VгкyFoвмдlr Whom did you seе? lшгoвмдl. r Who did you sее? r Who is thе nеxt witnеss? NoТ l 1o3
    • 1O4 I unit 24 o lIlAтсl| Еoсh questiongoеs with on onswеr.Motch еoсh question with thе correctаnswеn Answеr Quеstion t l. Who did vou see? a. His wife saw mе. 2. Who saw you? b. Shе hit a car. 3. What hit hеr? G. I gave the money to Harry. 4. What did she hit? d. A сar hit her. 5. Whiсh man did you give the money to? e. Harry gavе mе the money. 6. Whiсh man gavе уоu the money? f . I saw the dеfеndant. o Rеod this cross-еxominotion. Сomplеtеit by writing the lаwуеr,squеstions. сOIлPLEтE 1. I,дwyвв. home? What |ime did Уou ret,urn ( W h a t t i m е / y o u / г е t u r nh o m е ? ) Wrтшвss: I returned home just before midnight. 2. Lдwyвв: (How / you / gеt homе?) Wrтшвss: Somеone gave mе a lift. 3. Lдwyвв: (Who / givе / you l a ride?) Wrтшвss: A friend from work. 4. Lдwyвп: (What/happеn/nеxt?) lVrтшвss: I opened my door and saw someone on my living room floor. 5. Lдwyвв: (Who/you/sее?) Wrтшшss:Debоrah Cоllins. 6. Lдwyвв: (Who / bе / DeborahСo||ins?) Wrтшвss:She's my wife's boss. I mean she rоos my wifе's boss. She's dead now. 7. Lдwyвв: (What lуou l flg-?1 Wrтшвss:I сalled thе poliсe. 8. Lдwyвв: Wrтшвss: No one сalled me. Whv? ( H o w m a n y / p е o p | еl с a | | у o u ? ) l
    • Thеn osk questionsobout thе underlinedwords. ASl(. Rеod thesestotеments. 1 . Thе witnеss recognized Harry Adams. Harry Аdamэ? Who recognized 2 . The witness rесognized Harry Adams. Whodid the witneeerecognize? 3. Court begins at 9:00 д.м. 4. Five witnesses testified. 5. The jury found Adams guilty beсause he didn,t havе an alibi. 6. Something horrible happened. 7. The trial lasted two wеeks. 8. The judge spoke to the jury. 9. Adams paid his lawyer $2,000. 1o. The distriсt attorney questioned thе rеstaurant manager. . EDIT Rеod this list of questions.Thereqre six mistokеsin the usе of wh- quеstions. Find ond сorrесtthem, The first mistokе is olrеodу corrесtеd, i,'ijt't,''t'.'t,'i!iliii.'itl.ll,rt.,r.rr,,i,l,t:1,,,i:1.,r,:i:i.:i:i;r, ",t, did whаttimеfihе solsvеct rеtцrn home? Lilho seе him? did Wеrе thеrе аnуwitnessеs? Whom аt homеz wаs Ulhv hе са|t аiа А, Smith? whаtdid hаppеn nеn? Whеrе did go? hе I1ow цц6у1 monеУ tookwith he him?
    • Tag Gluestions {;if3:!/!il%;:**P0INT Сheсk the сorreсtanswer. П тье man is asking about the weather. П тье man is сommenting оn the wеather' WIтH BЕ As тHЕ MAlN VЕRB сl|ARт сI]EсI( AFFIR]vlAтlvE NЕGAтlvE NEGAтlvЕ AFFlR]tnAтшЕ Сirclе T (True)or F (Folse). Sтдтвмвшт Tдс Sтдтвмвшт Tдс т т т F F F Ifthe statement is affirmative, the tag is affrrmativе. You,rе from L.A.*, aren,t уou? You're not from L.A., are you? *L.4. = Los Angeles WlТH ALL AUxlLlARY VERBS EXсЕPT Do Ifthe statеment has an auxiliary, usе thе same auxiliary in the tag. AFFlRil|AтlvЕ NЕGAтlvЕ NЕGAтlvЕ AFFIR]tnAтlvЕ Sтдтвмвшт Tдс Sтдтвмвшт Тдс You're moving, aren,t уou? You,rе not moving, ar е yo u? He's bеen hеre, hasn't he? H е hasn,t bеen heгe, h a s h e ? Ifthe statеmеnt does not have a fоrm of be or an auxiliary, you need a form of do in the tag. Тhey Gan movе, Gan't they? Thеy Gan't movе, сan they? W l т H D o A s A N A U X I L I A R YV E R B NЕGAтlvЕ NЕGAтlvЕ AFFlRlvlAтlvЕ Sтдтвмвшт Tдс Sтдтвмвшт Tдс You live hеre, don,t уou? You don,t livе hеrе, do you? Тhеy movеd, L06 AFFlRмAтlvЕ didn't they? Тhеy didn,t movе, did they?
    • Tag Gluestions ЕхPREss {ii:ii)h|;i Unscromblеthеsеwords to form o tog quеstion. aсtor . you . an о aren,t о You,re w & y жrжуu,a Ж' жram*#m * жy жgafl. ЖжarхъpЙrs 1. We often use tag questions to: we a. сheсk infoгmation bеliеveto be tгuе Tom livеsin L.A.,doеsn,t hе? (Thе spеokerbеliеvеsthat Tomlivеsin L.A, ond wants to сhеck this informotion,) OR |t,sa niсe day, isn't it? (Thе speakеris сommеntingon thе wеather.) b. сommеnt on a situation 2. Tag questions havе a statеmеnt and a tag. vaгy,but their meaning Formsof tag quеstions Тhe statеmеnt an is alwayssimilar. еxprеssеs Тhe tag mеans Right? assumption. statеmеnt I I I tag You,гenot from L.А.,are уou? You,rеJaсkLa Costa,aren,t you? You don,t drivе muсh, do you? a f fi r m а t i v e negative thе a. lf the statеmеntvеrb is affirmative, tag vеrb is nеgative. You work on Fridays, don't you? b. lf the statemеntverb is negative,the tag vеrb is affirmativе. You don't work on Fridays, you? do negativе affirmative I Usдсв Noтв: Notiсe thе tag for I om, Whеn thё subjeсtof thе statеmentis this or thot, thе subjeсtof thе tag is it. |t,sa niсе day, isn,t it? You,Vеlivеd hеre a long time, haven,t you? You сomе from Nеw York,don,t you? You сan drivе,сan,t you? I |,m nex t,ar еn,t l? I 3. Тhе tag a|ways usеsa form of be oг an auxiliary veгb (be, hove, do, or will, or a modal suсh as сon, could, or shoulф, Тom woгkshеге,doеsn,thе? Noт Тom works hеrе,dоеs#t4om? I I I Thot's a good idea,isn't it? Noт Тhat,s a good idеa,*;rlt{-lтat? A: lt,sgettingWarmег, isn,t it? 4. Whеn you use a tag questionto сhесk B: Yеah.Sеemsmo гe likesummeг. information or to сomment on a situation, youг voiсе fa||s thе tag. You еxpeсt thе listеnеr on to agrееor just show that hе or she is listеning. 7 A : You,renot movin9, are уou? Тag quеstions сan also be usеd to get B: Yes.Wе,rеrеturning L.А. to your information. As wtth уеs/noquestions, OR voiсe risesat the end, and you expесt to get an No. Wе,rеstayinghere. answer(Yesor No). I lO7
    • 1o8 l #€ &jяз*t s o Underlineаll thе tags. iDENтiFYRеаd this сonvеrsotion, Kдy: Hi, Tоm. It,s a niсe day, isn't it? Toм: Sure is. Not a сlоud in the sky. Hоw are you doing? Kдy: Goоd, thanks. You don't know of any vaсant apartments, do you? My son is looking for one. Toм: He is? I thоught he was staying with you. Kдy: Well, he really wants a plaсе оf his own. Do уou know of anything? Toм: As a matter of faсt, I do. You know the Sobоtas, don't you? Well, I just found out that they're mоving to New York next month. Kдy: They are? What kind оf apartment dо they have? Toм: A one-bеdroom. Кдy: It's not furnishеd, is it? Toм: No. Why? He doesn't need a furnishеd apartment, does hе? Kдy: Well, he doesn't have furniturе. But I guess he сan always rent Some' сan't he? Tом: Why don,t you givе your Son my numbeц and l,ll give him some morе information? Kдy: Will vou? Thanks. Tom. о IIiАтсH Eoсh stotеmеntgoеs with a tag, Мotch eoсh stotеmеntwith the corrесttog. Tag Statеment I 1 . You'vе сalled the movers, a . сan't we? 2 . Thеy're сoming tomorroщ b . do we? 3 . This isn't going to bе сheap, C. is he? 4. You havеn't finished paсking, d. isn't it? 5 . Wе don,t need any morе boxеs, е . are they? 6. Paul is gоing to help us, f. 7 . Wе сan put some things in stоrage, 9 . isn,t hе? 8. Jaсk isn't buying our bookсases, h . is it? 9 . The movers arеn't paсking thе books for us, 1 0 . Moving is hard, have you? i . havеn't you? i . aren't they?
    • Тag Questiоns oA сOIпPLEтE rodio tolk-show host is interviewingone of her guests,o Hollywood sсreеnploy writеr, Сomplеtе thе interviеw with oppropriotе togs. haven'tуou Hosт: You've lived in Hollywoоd for many yеars' .7 1. Guшsт: Sinсe I was eighteen and сamе here tо write my first sсrеenplay. Hosт: You didn't know anУone here at first. 2. Guвsт: No. And I didn't have a сеnt to my name. Just some ideas and a lot of hope. It sounds ctazУ, 3. Hosт: But things havе worked out for УoЦ, You're working on another sсreenplay now, Guвsт: Yes. It,s a сomedy about some kids who beсomе invisible. Hosт: Speaking of kids, УoU have somе of your own' Guвsт: Two boys and a girl-atl very visible! Hosт: I know what you mean. Do you еvеr wish they Were invisible? Guвsт: Noщ that's an interesting thought, 7. ЕDIT.Reod this port of o moviе script, Find ond correctsеvеn mistokesin the usе of tog quеstions.The first mistoke is olreody correсtеd, h a э n ,t Ben: It's been a long time, сIoе, hалre#tit? сroв: That depеnds on what you mran by a long timе, d.oesn't that? Ben: Aгhat are you doing around. heгe, aщrway? It's d.an$erous. сroв: I сan take сaгe of m5rseШ.I'm still alive, amn't I? Ben: Yes, but you're still wanted by the poliсe' are you? rroв: Look, I need a plaоe to stay. You have a plaсе, don't you? .]ust for one ni$ht. Ben: I have to thirй of щ1r wife and kid.s. You сarr find. someplaсe e1se, сarr you? сroв: No. You've got to help mе! Ben: I'vе alгeady helped you plеnty. I went to jail for you, haven't I? сroв: Yeah, oK, Ben. You remember what happеnеd. in Ve$as, d.o you? Ben; oK, oK. I сan make a сa11. l 1o9
    • Additions with So, Too, NeitheГ,and Not either Hвпдlо Suы Twins Separated Birth Reunited! at Are P0INт жI Сhеck thе corrеct аnswer. M a r k l i k e s h u n t i n g ,f i s h i n g ,а n d C h i n e s e f o o d . So does Gerald. П тьe men like diffеrеnt things. t тьe mеn like thе same thinps WlтH BЕ As тHE MAlN VЕRB сI|АRт сIIEсI( Sтдтвмвпт т Amy is a twin, F There is more than one way to make an additiоn. т F Usе so or too with negatiye statеmеnts. т F Whena statement does not havе a form of he or an auxiliary verb, use a form of do in the addition. i ADDtтloN and so is Suе. and Sue is too. Sтдтвмвшт | Aoolтloш Amy isn,t vеry ta|l, and nеither is Suе. and Sue isn't either. WITH ALL AUxlLlARY VЕRBS EXсEPТ Do NЕGAтlvE AFFlRпnAтшЕ Sтдтвмвшт | Aooпloш Amy сan swim, a n d so сan Sue. a n d Suе сan to o . Sтдтвмвшт А my сan,t ski, |Apolтloш and neithеr сan Suе. and Suе Gan,t eithеr. W l т H v Е R Bs U s l N G D o A s A N A U x l L I A R Y V Е R B AFFlR]vtAтlvЕ Sтдтвмвшт i Aoolтloш Аmy likes dogs, 110 NЕGAтlvЕ AFFlRг{lAтlvЕ Сirclе T (True)or F (Folse). I and so doеs Sue. I and Sue does too. NЕGAтtvЕ Sтдтвмвшт i Apolтloш А my do еsn,t l and nеithеr do еs Suе. likе сats, I and Suе doеsn,t еithеr.
    • Additions with So. Toa. Neither, and Not either t Ex,PREssжж Unsсromblеthеse words to form аdditions, is.Мark.andоnеithеr does.Gеrald.sо.and Gеrald isn,t married. Mark fights fires, ffi & ra gтtrжar xрlanations Ехamplеs or that t. Additions arе phrasеs short sеntеnсes follow a statеmеnt. Usе an addition to avoid thе information thе statement. in repеating r cera|d is a fiгefightег, and so is Mark. (Сеrold is o firеfightеr, ond Мark is a firеfightеr.) an 2. Usе so or too if the additionfo||ows affirmative statemеnt r cеra|d is a firеfightег, so is Maгk. and oR r Cегald is a firefighteг, Mark is too. and Usе пeifher or not elther if the addition fol|ows a nеoativеstatеment. r cегaId didn,t gеt maггiеd.Neither did Maгk. oR Maгk didn ,t еither. l Cеrald didn,t get maггiеd. neithеr,Тhe vеrb сomes beforеthe subjeсt. l Nеither did Mark. Noт 3. Additions alwaysusе a form of be or an verb (be, hovе, da, wlll, or a moda| auxi|iary verb suсh as can, сould, should, woulф, usеsа form of be, usе a a. lf thе statement form of be in the additiontoo. I l,m a twin, and so is my сousin. vегb, usesan auxiliary b. lf the statеment usе the samе auxiliary verb in the addition. r Cегa|dhad quit his job, and so had Maгk. I l сan,t dгivе,and nеitherGan my twin. has a verb that usеsdo as G. lf thе statemеnt an auxiliary verb, use the appropriate form of do in the addition. r Geraldowns a dog, and so doеs Maгk. r Cегa|dbought a jеep,and so did Maгk. you сan use short rеsрonses 4. In сonversation, with sq too, neither, and not elther to agreе with anotherspeaker. Usдсt Noтв:|n informalspeeсh,peoplеsay Me too and Me neither to еxpгesssimilarity oг agrеemеnt. A: B: A: Bз l havе a twin sistеr. Jo do l. oк l do too. I don,t havе any bгothers sistегs. or Nеither do l. oп l don,t eithеr. A: |,m left-handеd. B:, Me too. A: |,venеVerhеardof thеsetwins. Bz Me neither. 111
    • ll2 I unit 26 bеtweеnrеunited twins.Writе T (Truе) o oR тRUE tALsE Reod thеseshort conversotions ar F (Folse)for thе stotementthot followseoch convеrsotion, l. Mдвк: I like Chinese food. Gвпдr,lr: So do I. т 2. Gеrald likes Chinese food. Aшоввд: I don,t want to go out. Bдввдвд: Nеither do I. Barbara wants tо gо оut. 3. Jшдш: I'm not hungтy. Jодш: I'm not either. Jоan isn't hungry. 4. Attгy: I've always felt luсky. Kвввrв: So have I. Kerriе has fеlt luсky. 5. Mrд: I don't eat meat. Boв: I don't either. Bob eats meat. 6. Jrм: Ihaveaheadaсhе. Brr,r,: I do toо. Both Jim and Bill have headaсhеs. 7 . Nonд: I сan't swim. Drшд: Me neither. Dina сan swim. Cнnт: I shouldn't work so muсh. Touo: Nеither should I. Todd wants to work less. 9. Jдsoш: I,d like to leave now. TYr,вв: Me tоo. Tvler wants to lеave. сHooslо Сirclе thе corrесtwords to completе this porogroph. sсhool, I was in Mr. Jaсobs's Somеtimes bеing a twin сan сausе trouble. In high tоok a test. I got questiоns 18 history сlass. Neithеr /6}was my brother. one day we 1. сorreсtly, and and 20 Wrong. My brother did so / toо. I didn,t spell Constantinoplе 2. сheated. As a result, I got an F either / nеither did he. The teaсher was sure we had 3. my brother. We tried to соnvinсe Mr. Jaсobs of our on thе test, and so фЧ-Ф either / too. We finally innoсenсe, but he didn't believе us. The prinсipal didn't 5. give us another test. This time I got items 3 and 10 wrong. сonvinсed thеm to was astоunded. So / Toо was u Guеss what? Neither / So did my brother. our teaсher 7' 6. Wе were just amusеd. the prinсipal. Wе werеn't.
    • &ddЁtiсэазs .,"тitl"l sс:, Iос' l'lrit!зrr. arld Ьlоt ёi!!з#t t o сOfflPLEтEMorto ond СorIсIorе twins. They ogrее on evеrything.Сomplеte thеir conversotionwith rеsponsеs. Mдвтд: I'm so h.ppу we finally found eaсh other. ,T l Cдвr,д: So Мдвтд: . I always felt like something was missing from my life. 1. So . I alwavs knew I had a douЬlе somewhere out thеre. 2. Cдвr,д: I сan't believe how similar we are. Mдп,тд: Neither 3. . It's likе always seeing myself in the mirror. Cдвr,д: Not only do we lоok identiсal, but we like and dislikе all the same things. Мдп,тд: Right. I hate lеttuсe. Cдп,r,д: I And I dеtеst livеr. 4. Mдвтд: Sо I louе pizza, though. 5. Cдвrд: So But only with tomato and сheesе. I don't like pepperоni. 6. Мдвтд: Nеithеr 7. Cдп,I,д: This is amazing! I wonder if our husbands have so muсh in сommon. Mдвтд: Me 8. . EDIT Rеod this studеnt,s composition.Thеrеorе siх mistokesin thе usе of sеntеnce odditions. Find аnd correct them, Thе first mistoke is olrеodу corrесtеd. My Brother and I My bгother is just a year oldеr than I am. AIehave a ]ot of thin$s in сommon. iэ he tr'irst of a11,wе look allke. I am 5, 10 '' , and so hs_is' I havе strai$ht blaсk hair and dark brown eУes' and so does hе. We shaгe many of the same inteгеsts too. I lovе to p1ay soссец and he too. Both of us swim eveгy day, but I сan't' dive, and either сan hе. Sometimеs bein$ so similaг has its problems. For examplе, last ni$ht I wanted the 1ast pieсe of сhoсolate сakе, and so doеs he. often I won't feel like doing the dishes, and neitheг Won't he. Worst of a11,sometimеs I'm interestеd in dating a сertain sсhoolmatе, and so he is. Howeveц most of the timе I fееl our similarities are really nicе. So does my brother. 113
    • SelfТest Сirclе the lettеr of the сorrect аnswеr to completе еoch sеntenсе. ЕxompIе: Jennifer never (А) drink {B)drinks {с} is drinking tD) was drinking l. Where (A) does she live tB)she lives 2. (A) ЦГhom (B)Whose (C) she does live (D)she lived lоst this wallet? (C) Who (D)Who did 3. You,re Сynthia' ъ (A) aren't (B)are vou? (C) didn't (D)were 4. Laura lоves soap operas, and. (A) Jane does toо (B)so Jane does (C)Janе loves tоo (D)so loves Jane 5. I didn't like sports, and (A) either did (B)neither doеs my brother. (C) so did (D)neither did 6. -That isn't Sam, is it? -No, . Sam's taller. (A) it is tB)it doesn't ABсD ABсD AвсD ABсD ABсD (с) it wasn,t (D)it isn't 7. We didn,t eat hеre last week. (A) didn't (B)haven't 8. -Who -lVlike did. (A) did give you (B)did you give (с) do (D)did wе? your bike? 9. _Who -I saw Stefan. (A) saw you (B)did you see 114 ABсD at thе paftу? AвсD ABсD (C)you gave (D)gave you ABсD (С)you saw (D)you see
    • SelfTest 1 0 . -I (A) Whose (B)Who's I ABсD hate сabbage. . I сan,t even look at it. (A) too (C) neither (B)еither (D)do too -Me 11. V washing the dishes tonight? (C)Who are (D)Who does 12. Liam was born in Ireland. but his brother (A)was (C)wasn't (B)didn't (D)neither was ABсD ABсD тW0 Еoсh sеntеncеhos four undеrlined words or phrаsеs. The four undеrlinеdpаrts of thе sеntеncеorе marked A, B, С, ond D. Сirclе the lettеr of the onе underlinеd word or phrose thot is Nor сORREст, Еxдмptt: Mikе usually driveg to sсhool, but today he walks. ABC D ABсD 13. This is a good sсhool, wasn't it? AB A в с@ сD 14. Wэ went to Stan's holiday party last yeaц hadn't wе? ABсD 1 5 . Kevin has always been a gтeat student, and so his brother has. ABсD 16. My sister has never gone skiing, and neither did I. ABсD 1 7 . Where vou workеd last year when you were going tо sсhool? ABсD 1 8 . That sign is too small tо read, isn't that? ABсD 1 9 . English isn't an easy languagе to learn, is it-. AвсD 20. My parents are both good сooks, and me too. ABсD 21. Tоm and Fred hadn't been to Florida before then. had he? ABсD 22. I'm usually right about the wеatheц amn,t !? ABсD 23. Paul likes Italian food, doesn't Paul? ABсD 24. Where did theу went }resterday? ABсD 2 5. Why you сall me so late last night? ABсD (D AB ABсD ABсD AвсD ABсD ABсD (D AB ABсD ABсD ABсD AB(D 115
    • Ability: Оan, Could, Be able to ffiPЙlNт Сirclе T (True) or F (Folsе). т Сircle T (True)or F (Folse). F The father wants to know if his daughter has permission to do spreadsheеts. sTAТЕгvlENTS: / сoULD сАN сl]АRт l сI/iЕсI( т F | Сдtl/Couto* | oг Vвпв Thе form for сon and сould is the samе for all subjесts. | BдsвFoпм | Suв,вст l/Hе/S hе/|t/Wе/You/Тhеy сan (not) do spreadshеets now. сould (not) usе yеar. a сomputer|ast *Can and could arе modals. They do not havе -s in thе third person singular. YEs/NoQUEsтloNs CАN/COULD з li sHoRт ANSWERS вдsв l Сдt't/Couto | 5uв1вст 1 Foпм | Aггlпмдтlvв Can shе do thеm? Could they use o nе? Yes, s h ес a n . thеy сo uld. I I NвсAтIvE l No, s h ес a n , t . thеy сo uldn,t. !UH. QuвSТloNS: сAN/0OULD l4lн-Woпo I cлtl/Co*, I sury..' | вo,в гoпм | How well сl|ARт сl|EсI( 2 - Сhесk thе corrеct onswеr. Whiсh part of be oble to сhangеs for diffеrent subjeсts? л л J be J oble to 116 can she do spгeadshееts? сould thеy usе a сo mputеr ? sтAтЕп,tЕNТS: АBLE тo BE Suв,вст l ,. I rs | вo'. гoпм | am Hе/Shе/|t | л',, 'o Wе/You/Thеy arе (not) ablе to do spгеadsheеts'
    • 1y::1чi .?.:у:.Ч ?РI .:..!.Т7..o ..l S?::' !! у. у..rr. ... . Сheсk thе correct onswеr. In questions with be oble to, what сomes before the subjeсt? st|oRт [NsWЕRs YES/NO QtUЕsтlo| BЕ ABLЕ тo NS: I сl|ARт сHEсI( 3 Bс' l |вo'. I Suв,вст Aвш тo Fonм| Are you ls she Aггlпмдтlvв ] sprеadshееts? Yes, ablе to do П a form of be I I am. she I S . Nвсдтlvв No, l'm n ot. she is n' t. wH. QUЕsтloNS: BЕ ABLE тo П u fоrm of oble to Wн. Woпo | вr I suц.., | л',, 'o | вo'. гoпм | arе you ls How wе|| she able to do spreadshееts? ExPREssТHj;i:ii,i!li,,!#, with сan or be ablе to. Use onе word for eаch blonk. Сomplеtеthеsеsеntеnсes A: she able B: Yes. she use a сomputer already? and shе type and do spreadsheets too. {Ь *'m'ууя #"ж ewъ фж% жw ж,r p# e** ffixarтврЕ*s 1. Usе сoп or be oblе to to talk about abi|ity in pгеsent. thе r She сan do сomputегgraphiсs. l She,sab|е to do сomputегgraphiсs. Usдсr Noтt: ln everydayspeeсh, сon is more сommon than be oble to in thе oresenttense. 2. Use еithеr сould or wаs/were oblе to to ta|k (but not a spесifiсaсhiеvemеnt) in about abi|itv past. the about a speсifiсaсhievement a singIeevent in or the oast. Usе еithеr could or wos/were oble to in nеgativе sentеnсes about past abi|ity. 3. For forms and tensesother than thе prеsеntor past, use be oble to. l Sami сould read whеn he was fouг. r Не was ablе to usе a сomputегtoo. Noт r | сouldn,t win the Math Pгize|astyеaг. l l wasn,t able to do onе pгob|еm. r Jenwantsto bе ablе to write pгograms. (infinitivе) l By Juneshe will be ablе to сomplete hеr сomputеr с|ass.(future)
    • 118 r ltnit 27 o IDENтIFYRеod port of on orticle obout some tolеntеd Young businеsspeople. Undеrline the words thot exprеss obility. numЬеrof youngpеoplеhave Lеibowitz,Was ab|е to sеI] two softwаrе д surprising Wеb-basеd Programs whеn hе wаs fourtееn. mаde Ё b."n аblеto сrеate suссеssful Hе js ьu,i*,*,. o* y*,щ entrеprеnеur Sаm $30,000on the deаI and now Jay runs his Roberts.Sаm сou]d dеsign Wеb own Wеb sitе. Dan Finleywrjtеs WrвBuslшвssrs whеn hе was еight,but hе rеviеws of neW softwаrе. He Pagеs TORTUN got his breаk аt twе]vеwhеn a startedhis businеssаt sixtееn. A AND PRotlт writеrhirеd him to dеsignа Wеb ful|-t]mе сollеge studеnt, Dan сan site. Sam,sfirst businеss fа]lеdbесausеhe Pay a staff of writеrsand still еаrn $500 a and his partnеrWеrеn,tаble to gеt along. month. Althoughthey аll mаkе money, all Webman,is up thrее stаrtеdout to have fun аt thеir hoЬЬy, Howеver, nеw businеss, his youngbusinessman, and running. Anothеr Jay not to makеa profit. o с0ILPIEтЕ Reod еoch description,Complete it with o nomе from the orticlе. Jaу 1. sold softwarе progтams at thе age of fourteеn. 2. didn't agree with his partner. 3. earns money reviеwing softwarе. 4. was able tо dеsign a Web page for a writer. o с0ILPLЕтERеаd theseporogrophs, Сomplete thеm with can, сould, or be able to. Useсan or сould when possible.Сhoosеbetwееnoffirmotiveаnd negotive. cou|dn'| l. Stefan is enioying his сomputer сlass. Two wеeks ago, he usе the mousе. but now he еven еdit his homеwork. Bv next week" he do researсh on thе Internet. 2. Eleni misses her family in Greесе. She visit them for vеars. but they just got an e-mail aссount, so now they 3. I keep in touсh daily. understand how to set up a presentation. The software instruсtions dоn't hеlp. I think I,11 take a profеssional development соursе. In a fеw months maybе I 4. Mike and I make that prеsentation. get alоng sinсе we startеd this business. He work alone (he nееds peoplе), and I group (I have to work alone). I hope we work in a work out our problems soon.
    • Ability: Оarl, Ооtl|tl, 8е able tо l о с0ILPLEтEReod this odvertisemеnt. Сompletе it with thе oppropriote form of <an, Usе сould, or bе ablе to plus the vеrbsin pаrenthеsеs. can or сould when possiblе, WItL B. HAPPY' Profession а| Ilеaelopmеnt Coшrses Developmеnt Теamwork TimеManagemеnt Prеsentations Carеer Were Think about your last presentation: уou you - able to ?rePare 1. (preparе) 2. (сommuniсate) Will B. Hаppу@ hu, hеlpеd othеrs, and he on timе? your idеas? YoUl 3.ф"lp) ..BеforеI took Will B. Happy's сoursе, my work was always late bесausе 4. (follow) 5. (deсide) a sсhеdulе. I also had big piles on my dеsk bесausе I what was important. Now I еffесtivеly. Nеxt month, when my workload gets hеa*, I and do thе important things first.'' ..I didn't usе to my timе 6. (mаnagе) ,. '*. -Sсott Mаthis' student in front of groups. Now I сan!'' 8. (spеak) -Mаrу Zhаng, sаIes mаnаger journol. Find ond сorrеctsevenmistokеsin еxpressing ЕDIT.Reod this student,s obilitу. The first mistoke is аIrеodуcorrected. Lo p-еo-p|e]s,;]d when,|сo j r м - - .w , ' I.,-. . an'd'did,n't tо,work,е"ffiсient|у') ge,t аblе с'o"иld an,Аtor |he,сourse"bиt was hard.Ican, it do a |of more a|one" somе jobs are foo big toг ,fhat,Оur"in,st.ruсIor but ,,sаtzs,.f-hat ,s,a,an', |19
    • Permission: MaУ,Can, Could, Do УoU mind if . . .? lihink I h a v ee o m a l h i n qi n mУ aуo' Сou|d I take t,he LrэN t,omorrow? жPЙINт Сhеck thе sеntеncеthot dеscribеswhot,s hoppеning in the сortoon. rr@tt {,.'v t t 1"fl l сI|ART сl|Eсl( Сheck thе corrеct onSwer. Whiсh modal is used in quеstiоns but NoT in short answers about pеrmission? LJ MдY/Cдtl/Collto* su,l.., l May Can Could I Bяsв Foпм oг Vвпв l/wе/hе/shе/itlthеy start sHoRт ANSWERS could l I Aггlпмдтtvв Yes, may, can. youlhe/shelitltheу шЕGAтlvE No, сI/IARт с'|EсI( 2 QUЕsтloNS: Do YoU MIND IF . . . ? СirсIe T (Truе)or F (FoIsе), lF Do vouI|l|tND I suщ..' т т r20 F F now? *Moу, can, ar'd could are modals. Thеy do not havе -s in the third person singular. сon [l ть" studеnt is asking the tеaсhеr to allow him to takе the test tomorrоw. QUESТloNS:MAY/сAN/сOULD [З moy -t ть" student wants to know if his еye will be bеtter tomorrow. After Do уou mindif...? thе verb is the same for all subjeсts. Do you mind if The answer fVot ot oll gives permission. I v.*" l/wе/they start? Suqвст hе/shе/it starts? you/hе/shе/itlthеy s}|oRт ANSWERS Aггlпмдтlvв | Nвсдтlvв No t at all. No,ldon't. lYes, ldo. M sтAТЕlt,|ЕNTS: AY/ cAN l/He/Shе/|t/Wе/Yo u/Тhеy | мдY/сдн l вo,. Foпм may (not) сan (not) may not. Gan't. start.
    • EXPRESS Сirсlе thе сorrеctwords to сompletеthis сonvеrsotion. A: Do you mind if he hеlp / helps me with my homework? B: Not at all / Yes I do. He сan help / helps УoЦ, but you should do most of thе work. 1. Use moу, сould, and сon to ask for peгmission. I Мay I сall you nеxt Friday? r Co uI d W е usе o uг diсtio naгiеs? w l Can hе сo me to с|ass ith mе? Usдсв Noтв: Moу is a littlе morе forma|than con and сould. Lее? r May l lеavе the гoom, Profеssor refеrto the presеntor thе future.When you usе it could to ask for p.еrmission, is not past tensе Тhе B: Сеrtain|y. tеst startsat 9:00 д.м. 2. Wе often saуpleose whеn wе ask for Note the possib|е word orders. Рermissio1' r CouId l ask a quеstion,pleose? r Could I plеoseask a question? yrэu rrrint!if | с|еanup tomorrow? 3. Use Do you mind if . . . / to ask foг peгmission A: ffiEз I whеn your aсtion might bothеrsomеonе. B: Yеs,aсtua|ly, do mind. l hatе to sее a mеss. to Do уou mind if . . , l givespermission do somеthing.I| mеans, lt,s ОK, l don,tmind 4. Usе moy or сon in answеrs. not usе сould. Do B: Not аt аlI. (Youmaу lеovethe room) A: СouId I borrow this pеnсi|? B: Yеs,of сoursеyou can. Noт Yesaэu<et** Noт }*eaэu+q1n* We often use polite exprеssions instеadof for modals to answer requеsts pеrmission. 5. йl;. pеop|е."f.,," p.,-i,,ion, they often oivе an apo|oovand an еxp|anation. lf the rulеsare vеry сlеar,someonеmay rеfusе without an apo|ogyor еxp|anation. A: Could | с|osethе window? Bз Sure, СеrtainIу. Ga ohеod. No, pleo don,t. t,5hot in heге. ,s,е huu. u titttu 'or.. time? A: Сan l ptease B: l,m sorrv' but thе time is uo' Dпlvвп:Сan I park hеrе? oгrIсвв: No, you сon,t,
    • |22 l LЛnit 28 C Il|Aтсl| Еаch rеquеstfor pеrmissiongoеs with o rеsponsе.Motch еаch rеquеstwith thе corrеct responsе, Requеst d Responsе 1. Мay We сome in now? a. No, you сan,t. It,s a bus stop. 2, Could I see your tiсkеts, plеase? b. Not at all. Thеrе's plenty of time. 3. May I plеase speak to Harry? G. Sure they сan. Wе havе room. 4. Could they сome with us? d. Yes, you may.The test starts soon. 5. Can I park hеre? e. I'm sorry, hе,s nоt in. 6. Do you mind if I havе more tea? t. Certainly. Here thеy are. o с0ILPIEтE Mr. Hamod is supervisingo tеst,Сompletе his conversotionswith his students.Use o pronoun plus thе сorrect form of thе words in porеnthеsеsond short onswers. Could we come Aнмвo: into the tеst roоm now? l. (Сould / сomе) certainlу Mв. H: Yes, . Please show your rеgistration fоrm aS you сomе rn. Soгrд: My brother isn't taking thе test. 3. (Do you mind / stаy) room with me? Mв. H: Yes, in the Sorry, only people with tiсkets arе 4. pеrmitted inside. Rosд: a pеn to writе my name on the tеst 5. (Мay/ use) booklet? Mв,. H: No, . You must use a penсii. And everyonе please remembeц Rosд: Jamie. Jдшrrю: Mв. H: oK. 7. (сan,t / start) this penсil? I only brought a pеn. 8. (do you mind if / borrow) 9. . Take it. I brought a few. 10.(".Ф, / "pе.D instruсtions now. Jвдш: I,m late beсause mv train broke down. Mв.H:*o, the tеst until I tеll vou to. your test booklets and read the 1l. (Сan / сomе) We've alrеady started the test. in?
    • Рermissiоnz f,4aу. Can, Ооuld, Dо уоtl tпirзd if . . . ? l АSК. Lucу ond Сorl orе going to o concert,Rеod еoch situotion,Writе questionsto osk for pеrmission. Usе the words in porеntheses. 1. Carl wants his friеnd Bob to сome. Do уou mind if oob comeэ? Cдвr.: I have an extra tiсket. (Do you mind if) 2. Carl wants to use Luсy's phone to сall Bob. Cдвr,: Great. I'll сall him right now. (СouId) 3. Carl wants to park in front of thе stadium. Wе're going to thе сonсert, offrсer. Cдвl: (Mау) 4. Luсy, Bob, and Carl want to move up a few rows. Bob asks an usher. Boв: All those sеats are empty. 5. Carl wants to tape the сonсert. Luсy asks the ushe, n,.,...o"'o, Luсy: My friеnd brought a tapе reсordеr. (Сan) 6. Luсy hates the musiс. She wants to leavе. Luсy: This musiс is giving mе a headaсhe. (Do you mind if) EDIT.This exerciseis similor to port of thе тoEFL@.Find the mistаkе in eoch itеm ond fill in thе spocе thot corrеspondsto the lеttеr of thе incorrесt word or phrosе, Thеngo one step bеyond the тoЕFL@ond correctthe mistаkе, come l. Can he со+деs on the train with me or doеs he need a tiсket? AB CD 2. I'm sorry, he сouldn,t. only passеngers сan board thе train. AB СD 3. Could I сhanged seats with you? I'd like to sit next to my son. ABСD 4. Yes, you сould. Go right ahеad. I'm getting оff soon. ABCD 5. Mom, may I to have Some сandy? I'm hungтy. ABсD 6. No, you mayn't. I'm sorry, but you've alrеady had enough сandy. ABСI) 7. Do you mind if hе play his сomputеr game? ABСD Ф (D @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ Ф@@@ Ф@@@ Ф @ Ф@@@ 8. Yes, I do . He сan Pщy if hе wants. It won,t bothеr me. @@@@ 9. I'm still hungтy. Can we,ll get a sandwiсh soon? Ф@@@ ABсD ABСD l o. Not at all . We сan go find the сlub сar. АiJсD @@@@ |23
    • Requests: Will, Can, Would, Could, Would you mind . . ? .. ". .i POINT Сhесkthе сorreсtonswеr, The businеssman is t giving an оrdеr' П asking someonе tо dо sоmething. П asking fo. infоrmation. 'Miss Flеrningи,ottdpuminddiаlfu 9IIfor mе?,' сlIАRт сI]EсI( I Noтв:911 is thе emergеnсy tеlephonе numberin thе United States and Canada. QUЕsтloNSz WILL/ сAN/wou LD/ сo ULD Сirсlе T (Truе)or F (FаIsе). Wttt/Cдtt/ l lBдsвFoпм Wouto/Couto* l Suв,вст l oг Vвпв т wiш F You сan use would and сould in questiоns but NOT in short answers to requеsts. Can Would Could thisfo r mе? *These words are modals. They do not havе -s in thе third person singular. but | сan,t. Would you mind 124 thisfo г mе?
    • ПддЬ Flequestsz s}|oRтANsWЕRs сI]ART сIIEсK 2 Сhеck thе correct onswer. Aггlпмдтlvв No, notat all. |,db е g |adto . Not ot oll mеans: ЁloK Will, Carэ, Wotl|d, Cоtl|сl' Wоdd УОu {ninСl , ^. ? l Пno NЕGAтlvE l l,m sorry,but l сan,t. EхPREssr;"f;:;::Z,,ff,;j Сomplеtе this convеrsotion. A: you mind filing these reports now? B: at all. A: Thanks. And B: Sorry, but I you answеr the phone, please? . Mv hands arе full. &жmwwнужЖжp* ffiж&# жw ewъ жs; Жжж*r:вryf,'ж* 1. Use will, con, would, and сould to ask somеonе t o do so m e t h i n g . Wе oftеn use will and сon foг informalrеquеsts. Slsт:п: Will you answеr thе phonе? Can you turn down thе TV? Wе usе would and could to makе requеsts morе polite. Boss: Wou|d you typе this геport? сould you makе tеn сopiеs? 2. Wе aIso use pleose with will, сon, wo|Ild, and сould to make the requestevеn more polite. Notе thе word ordеr. l Could уou pleose с|osethе door? oR r Could you с|osethе door, plеose? 3. Wе also use Would you mind + gerund (withoutpleasе) make polite геquеsts. to A: Would you miпd waiting for a fеw minutеs? Mr. Caгasis stiII a mееting. at '. i:rr",|,,'j! ,,', Note that a negativе answer meansthat you wi|Ido what thе pеrsonrеquеsts. 4. Pеoplеusuallyеxpесt us to say уes to politе гequеsts. Whеn We Cannot say yes, Wе usual|y apologizeand givе a rеason. answer polite геquests. A: Could you takе this to SusanLanе,s offiсе for mе? Bi l,m sorrу| l сon,t. |,m еxpесtingan important p h o n ес a l l . B: Сertoinlу. Noт#еalr*ret*d. |25
    • , 126 r unit 29 ' r . . . . . . . o . . . o o . . . . . . . . . . О . . . . . o iDENтIFYMorcio hos o new co-workеr.Reod their conversаtions,LLndеrline the аll po|ite requеsts, 1. MдвсIд: Hi. You must bе the new offiсе assistant. I'm Marсia Jones. Lеt me know if you neеd anything. Loвшд: Thanks, Marсia. Could you show me the сoat сloset? Мдвсlд: 2. Certainly. It's right ovеr herе. Loвшд: Marсia, would you eхplain thesе instruсtions for the fax maсhine? MдвсIд: Sure. Just put your letter in hеre and dial thе number. 3. Mдвсrд: I,m leaving for lunсh. Would you like to сome? Loвшд: Thanks, but I сan't right now. I'm really busy. Mдвсrд: Do you want a sandwiсh from thе сoffеe shop? Loвшд: That would be gтeat. Can you gеt me a tuna sandwiсh and a soda? Mдnсrд: Sure. Will you answer my phone until I get baсk? Loвшд: Certainly. 4. Mдвсrд: Lorna, would you mind making Some сoffеe? Loвшд: I'm sorry, but I сan,t do it now. I've got to finish this lеtter before 2:0О. снaasEo Lorno,s roommote,lono, is hoving problеms todoу. Сheck the oppropriote rеsponsеto еoch of lono,s rеquests. 1. Lorna, would you pleasе drive mе tо сlass today? My сar won't start. a. Yes, I would. b. ,/ I'd bе glad to. 2. Would you mind lеnding me five dollars? I'm getting paid tomorrow. a. Not at all. b. _ Yes. 3. Lоrna, сan you takе thеsе books baсk to the library for mе? I'm running late. a. I'm late too. Sorry. b. No, I сan't. 4. Could you loсk thе door on your Way out? My hands are full. a. Yes, I сould. b. Sure. 5. Can you turn thе radio down? I nеed to study for my math qtiz this morning. a. Certainly. b. Not at all. 6. Will you piсk up some milk on the way homе this aftеrnoon? a. I{o, I won't. b. Sorry. I'11 at work until 8:00. be
    • yj,j'. :.Y.?у!! .Y?.Ч'9..:i:.Ч:.. ..:..!.?7..o .... :.??.Ч,9.' у.2Y ... .? .o . 3:.?.ч:.:l:... ?.1: o Use сIll00sEANDсOII/iPIEIE thе oppropriote imperotivе from the box to complеtе pIease whеn possible,аnd moke onу nеcеssаrу Use chongеs. thesеrequеsts. Buy some сerea|. Fi|ethese reports. 1. gun Call baсk latеr. Shut the door. a|oэеthe window? уou ?|eaee 2. Could It's freezing in here. I'vе finishеd rеading them. It's toо dark in hеre. 3. Would vou mind 4. will М Тurn on thе lights. Wе don,t havе anv left. s. Could Ms. Cho is on another сall right now. 6. Would There's too muсh noisе in the hall! Reod theserequеsts from Morcio,s bossond Morcio,sonswers(in dork print), EDIT. Find ond corrеct six mistokеsin moking ond responding to rеquеsts.Thе first mistoke is olrеodу corrеctеd, -Rep|y Suвi: Sa|esMeeting 1 9 D д т в : 0 4 - 1 1 - 0 з 2 : 1 4 : 3Е S Т Fвoм: MarсiaJones@dataIine.сom Тo: JohnSanсhez@dataline.сom AnnOhen@data|ine.сom CC: >>> <JohnSanсhez@data|ine.сom> 1/0310:37am>>> 04l1 ca|| p|eaэe a The meetingsare goingwel|but they have been extended day'Cou|dyou eа{+f{eаs.P our Doug Rogersto try to resсhedu|e sales meeting? Not at all. I'll do it right away. you ask Ann to takeсare Wou|d sales report. We'|lneed threeeхtraсopiesof the month|y of that? Yes, I would.(Ann-Could you do this?) We'llneedthe extratimeto go over I hateto ask, butwouldyou mindto workon Saturday? I've the new information gotten. Sorry,but I сouldn't.My in.laws are сoming for a visit. But Rob Lin says he can сome in to the offiсe to help out. thing. was goingto piсkup thosenewbusiness l сards,butI won'tbe baсkin time. one |ast you minddoingthatfor me? Would Yes, l would. l'll stop at the printer'sduring my lunсh break.
    • Adviсe: Should, Оught to, Had better I r ea||у n,N do mind etar tinq at Nhe botbom anА working mу waу to tha |op, EMPLaVMЕшт WPulNт Сheсk the correct onswer, П тьe interviewеr is suggesting a typе ofjob for the appliсant. t rтЕR sтAтEп,lЕNт |з SH0ULD/0UGHт тo/t|AD BE1 сI|EсI( l с'llART Сirclе T (Truе) or F (Fаlse). т F ought,to conэider a job ao an davaNor тьe interviewеr is telling the appliсant how to be suссessful. The same form of the verb follows should, ought to, and hod better. тo/ Sнouto/oUGI]т | BдsвFoпм Hдo всттсn* | oг Vвпв Suв,вст should (not) |/Hе/Shе/Wе/You/Тhеy ought to had bеttеr (not) look fo r a nеw .io b. *Shou|d ar,d oшght to are modals. Had better is similar to a modal. These forms do not havе .s in the third person singular. Noтв: For сontraсtions of should not and had bettеr,seе Appendtх 24 on pagе 346. сI]EсK 2 сI]АRт Сheсk the сorrect onswеr. In questions about adviсe,we usually use: A should YЕs/No QUЕSTIONS: S'TOULD l' | | Bдsв SнoutoISuв,встlFoпм Should I hе look? Ё1 ought to s}|oRТ ANSWERS I l AгrlпмдтIvв Yes, you he should. шEGAтlvE No, you hе v|lWQUЕsтloNS: J}|oUtD Ёl hod better lll Wн. Woпo | SнouroI Suqвст | BлsвFoпм | Whеre 128 s h o u ld I hе look foг a nеw job? shouldn't.
    • Adviсe: Shоttld, Оttght to' Наd bettеr l EхPREssжжж Сomplеtethis conversotion, A: Thеy'rе looking for a сashier at MсDonaldЪ. B: I apply for thе job? . You сan get more money working at , УoЦ the bookstorе. ыт'ta ffi & ra rв* r крЕ *иа&Ёогъg Еxarжр**s 1. Usе should and ought to to say that somеthing is advisable. l Maгio should find a nеw job. r H е o ught to r еad thе hе|pw antеdads. UsдсвNoтв:We do not usually thе negativе usе of oughtto in AmeriсanЕngIish. usе Wе shouldn't instead. 2. Usе hod better foг uгgent adviсе-whеn you bе|iеvе that somеthingbad wi||happen if thе pеrsondoеs not fo|lowthе adviсe. r He shouldn,t quit sсhool. NoтсoммoN@ l You,d bеtter leavе now, or уou,ll be lote. Usдсп Noтв:Wе usua|ly the сontraсtion usе for hodbe t tе r , r You,d bеttеr app|yfoг more than onе job. No т@ Тhе nеgativeof hod bеttеris hod better not. r You,d bettеr not bе latе. Noтffi prеsеntor the futuгe,nеVerto the past (еvеn though it usesthе word hoф. r You,d better сall thеm baсk tomorrow. 3. Use shoиld for quеstions. do not usuallyusе Wе oughtto or hod bеtter questions. foг r Should l apply for that job? r Whеn should I apply? 4. lt is usua|ly сonsiderеd impolitеto give adviсе to pеoрlе of equal or highеr status (suсh as friendsor bossеs)unlessthey ask for it. Fпltшo:Should l shakе handswith thе intеrvieweг? You: Yеs,you should. Bo ss: W hеr еsho uld l take o ur с|iеnt |unсh? to Yo u: l thinkyo u sho uld go to thе Тusсan Cгill. Whеn wе give unasked-for adviсe,we often softеn it with moуbe, perhops, or l think' l Муra, moуbе you ought to apply foг this,iob. Pпoшuшсlдпoш Noтв ought to is often pгonounсed,,oughta,, informa|spеeсh.Do not write oughtо. in |29
    • 13o l Ugъlt 3o o READ Look ot thesejob sеorch tips. o You should tell all your friends that you are looking for a job. r You'd better not quit your present job before you find a new one. о You shouldn't tell your boss that you are looking for a new job. о You ought to apply for several jobs at onсe. о You shouldn't immediately ask an interviewеr about job benefits. о You should always give the interviewer aссurate salary informatiоn. о ANswER Сheck thе things thаt ore ОK to do occording to thе tips. 1. И tetl.your friends about your job searсh 4. П lea,.e your jоb during your searсh 2. П t"tt your boss about your jоb searсh 5. П apply for several jobs at onсe 3. П ask about job benefits right away 6. П tеtt the intеrviewer your real salary сl]00sEo Rеаd this odvice for job sееkеrs.Сomplete it with thе corrесt words. R e ade r ЪW e e k l y V o |u m eI l ,|s s u e2 3 T or nееd a nеwjob? Ahеn's thе bеst timе to start looking? Right now! ,d ..stuсk. '' bet,ter not. you'll уou dеlaи dеlay. or you,ll start to fееl . 'd ^ T"' v v 1. (oughtto / b e t t e rn o t ) Thеse tips will hеlp: э A lot of pеoplе wait шntil aftеr thе holidays to look for ajob. Тhat mеans lеss соmpеtition for you гight now. You 2 . ( s h o u l d n ' t/ s h o u l d r wait! с Too btrsy at work to sсhеdulе intегviеws? Еarly morning intегviеws havе Геwеr intеrruptions. You ,d 3 . ( s h o u | d/ b е t t е rn o t ) э If уou arе laid off. y<lu ask for intеr.r,iеws bеforе ninе o'сloсk. 4 . ( , d b е t t e r/ s h o u l d n , t ) job takе a lolvег-payirrg jtrst to gеt woгk. If your nеw salary is loщ your еmPloyеr Won't apprесiatе yollr skills. If possiblе, you 5 . ( , d b е t t е rn o t / s h o u | d ) .- Howеvеr' monеy isn't еvеlything! You ask for a salary that matсhеs your skills. ,d 6. (ought|o l b е t t е rn o t ) takе a position with a сompany you dislikе, or you Won't do a good job thеrе' .} Don't иlk about salary too soon. You thе job and talk about your skills first. 7 . ( , d b е t t е r/ s h o u l d n , t ) wait-lеarn about
    • Adviсe: Stзоt.tld,Осtght tО' lad Lleffеr l o сOI|PIETEKim Yее,sbosshos invitеd him to dinnеr ot his homе. Сomplеte Kim,s conversotionwith his friеnd.Use should, ought to, or had bеtter ond thе words in pаrenthesеs.Сhoose bеtwееnаffirmotivе ond nеgotivе, Krм: How эhou|dI dreээ? In a suit? 1. (How / drеss?) Sсoтт: You don,t have to wear a suit. 2 . ( | o o k/ n e а t ) but vou сan Wear сasual сlothes. Кrм: 3. (Whattimе / arrivе?) Sсoтт: It,s really important to be on time. Your boss and his wife are expeсting you at 7:00.so It's oK tо be a little 4. (arrivе aftеr 7:15) late, but don't make them wait too long for you! Krм: 5. (bringa gift?) Sсoтт: Yes, but get something small. 6 . ( b u y a n е x p е n s i v еg i f t ) It would embarrass thеm. Krм: Sсoтт: I think 7 . ( W h a tl b u у ? ) 8. (get some flowеrs) ЕDIT.Reod this lettеr,Find ond corrеct six mistаkеsin expressingodvicе. The first mistokе is olrеodу corrесtеd, Dиr Soщ аrе, Wе, '0 hАf.Ру to |шаr а"boиtуoorttшrjob. сoчrаtot/лtt"ottslJи,rt roLИД44,ber-/o'|, it,и'oоrtа^t,tt s/шц/trntХtnr/c too hдrd,. Tho уи"ost щ 'aш шttr tsуot,u sclшol,оtnrk,, ,lllауboуo*oфoryhtnшork,h,n dлуsnшukoklлtИl,oftfu*.Аko, иnttriлkуooud, bottu а,s|cуottr for th,Иo, м*э boss 'f stф oха,'|4Б, tпу уoш|/hfuoPlol4ryof thаэ и ТhАt YoшиloиИ, b*tu ghto tЙtk ш tюtof cмф'|'"з|n, п"ot ofуoиrsф Yoц,d, bеttu stауt shppф OK? Pl"eа;o tа"kэ 7ood,саlo LИРАh, алl,уou,.dфltф sh"oиllnt иrorkpl, {1}i/,1, Аtуoиr а!Ч уot,t, bеttuget ш7oooL nеaj,ryщ ф|'t'' s|му Do уot,t, "t ч|'t. sh,И,|tr, sш^оL ofуouу boohsr tt,s оtlo Let kл"oиr. fo* h"orиp? ry WЁ/1,|о,,o, j,iot,и,аJ4d Dal, 131
    • Suggestions: Could,Whуdon,t.'.?, Whynot...?,Let's, Howabout.. ? Let's Travel! Going to Germ anу? Why not stay at a youth hostel? How about a magnifiсent one WWffiPOINT like Аltena Castle? A|tena is a|so Circle T (True)or F (Folsе). fun and сheap. So, why don't you make т our castle your home? сHART сl]EсI( I Сheck the corrеct onswer. Thе verb after could, whу don,t, why not, or let's t сhanges for different subjeсts. П does not сhangе for different subjeсts. (Mлvвс) | su'l.., | сouro- | вo,. гoпм | (Maybe) l/he/she/we/you/theyсould stay in a сast|e. *Could is a modal. It does not havе -s in thе third person singular. WHYDON'T...? wнY I ootr,т | Suryвст why | вo,. гoпм | don't |/wе/you/thеy d o е s n ,t hе/she stay wнY'vor.,.? Why not stay Ltт,s(Noт) вo'. гoпм | | there? сIIARт сHEсl( 2 Сircle T (Truе)or F (FoIsе). How ABIUт | свпuшo/Nouш| т How about Let's (not) нowAB0Uт,.,? 1..32 I staying a сastlе? in a сastle? LEт,s WнYшor i BдsвFoпм ; Suggestions with How аbout. . . ? have only one form. The ad wants to know *hy many pеople don't stay at youth hostels. COULD -ll F F in a сastle? stay thеre.
    • l ' W s ш g g e s t * с r n g э О r s t , l l d , W l . l у c о r s ' t ?,' ^ h у n о t ' . . ? ' L e t ' s , Н о w a b o u t ' " . ? o a a a a a a a a o o a a a a a a a a a a a a a a o a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a o a o o a o a a a a a o o a a a a a a a a a o a a a a a a a a Т##A#:д' Ex,PREss Add thе corrесtpunctuotion. Lеt,s take the train Maybe wе сould takе the train Why not take the train How about the train gж wж# effi & жжwwa жr Жжp# eжfl'* ЖжжжpГ.*ж 1. Use letЗ, (Moуbe)... could, Whу don,t/ doesn,t, Whу not, and How about to makе suggestions. A: B: A: B: Lеt,s take a trip this summeг. Maybe we сould go to Gегmany. Why don,t wе ask Lukеto go with us? Go o d idea.W hy do esn,t Тo m сall him to night? A: Why not сall him right now? B: How about staying at a youth hostе|? A: How about Altena Castle? in these A: Why don,t you visit ,li|| Hong Kong? Whу don,t/doesnt to make a suggestion, questions. Тhе Тhat,sa good idеa. B: arе exprеssions not information soеakеr -l-_-... doеs not еxoесtto rесеivеinformation |шгoпмдтtoш Quвsтtoш from the Iistener. A: Why don,t you еat mеat? I B: Bесause ,m a vegetar ian. |t inсludesthe spеaker. mеans: 2. Let,sa|ways me. for Here,so suggestion уou ond l Lеt's go to Hong Kong. (l suggеstthat wе go to Hong Kong.) 3. Notе the different forms to use with theseexprеssions. BдsгFoпм oг тнг Vгпв l Lеt,s to&e the tгain. r Maybe wе сould to&e the train. l Why don,t we toke thе train? r Why not tofte the train? o cвкuш o к No uш l How about toking thе tгain? r How about thе troin? 4, Notiсe the punсtuation at thе end of еaсh kind of suggestion. Sтдтгмгштs l Lеt,s stay at a hostеI. r Maybe wе сould stay at a hostе|. Quвsтloшs r Why don,t wе stayat a hostel? r Why not stayat a hostel? r How about stayingat a hostel? l How about a hostе|? o a a o a 133 a a a a a a a a
    • 134 r Unit 3't o iDENтIFYЕmilу ond Megon orе visiting Hong Kong, Rеod their convеrsotion,Undеrline oll the suggestions. Eмrr-y: Whv don't we gо tо the raсes? I hear they're really exсiting. Mвсдш: I'd likе to, but I need to go shopping. Eмrr.y: Then let's gо to the Temple Streеt Market tonight. We might even seе some Chinesе opera in the streеt whilе we're there. Мвсдш: That sounds like fun. If wе do that, why not gо to the raсеs this aftеrnoon? Eмrr,у: oK, but let's get somеthing to eat first in onе of those floating restaurants. Mвсдш: I don,t think we'll have time. Maybe we сould do that tomorrow. Right now, how abоut getting dim sum at the Kau Kee Rеstaurant nеxt door? Thеn we сould takе the Star Ferry to Hong Kong Island and the raсeсourse. Eмrr.y: Sounds good. Here's an idea fоr tomorrow. Why not take one of those small boats-h aido-to Lantau Island? When wе сome baсk. we сould have dinner at the Jumbo Palaсе. Mвсдш: Lеt's do that. It,s a little eхpensive, but at least it floats! o Read thеseconversotions,Сomplete them with the oppropriotе еxpression сOIЛPLЕтE in porеnthеsеs, l. A: I feel like having seafood for dinneц but we went to Tai Pak for seafood last night. Why nol Wnynot B: go again? Thе food's gтeat, and so is thе view. (Why not / Let's not) 2. Az I'm rеallv tirеd. resting before Wе go out? (Let's / How about) B: That's a good idea. I'm tired too. 3. A: I want to eхplore downtown Hong Kong. B: (Let,snot / Why don,t wе) takе a minibus? We,ll see a lot morе that way. 4. A: A gтoup of foreign students just сheсked in at thе hostel. B: (How about / Мaybе wе сou|d) ask them to join us for dinnеr. 5. A: I still need to buv somе souvenirs before we leavе. B: (Lеtъ F|.Э* aboug / go shopping aftеr dinnеr. 6. A: I don,t want to go homе tomorrow. I'm having a really good time herе. B: So am I. (Let's not / Why not) lеave tоmorrоw.
    • Bц-. -- ,.:.?!'.".,.?.?у.1??.!!.'.,.:.?... .. .l.19........ ?.,.Y!I:.?.,.,.... ?.?у!1:.Y:у.!?,:.l;.... Эу.gg:.::i.o..1:... o Reod thеsеconversotions.Сomplеtе the suggеstionswith phroses сlt00sEa сOIЛPLETE Punctuotе corrеctlу. from the box. Add pronouns ond chongе the vеrbs os nеcеssorу. take a trip together go to the bеaсh l. try that new sеafоod plaсe buy anothеrone @*icК A: Thеre,s an oasis сonсert at the Hong Kong Convention Centre next weekend. B: We'rе near thеre now. Maybe we could buу ticketэ, 2. A: It's going to be hot tomorrow. B: I know. How about 3 . A: Swеaters are on Sale. Maybe We сould buy onе for Brian's birthday. B: We got him a swea ter last year. Let's not 4. A: I don't know what to do on spring vaсation. I'm siсk of staying in thе dorm. B: Me too. Whv don't 5 . A: I'm hungтy. B: Lеt,s EDIT.Rеod thesenotеs, Find ond corrеctsevеn mistokesin thе use of suggеstions, Thе first onе is olrеodу correctеd.Don,t forget to cheсk punctuotion. 3:00 tmtу t,|l shoppiпg, be bасk аt l,m qoiп,q eal oK? 5:00,Lrts йe,'g аt 7:00, Мe3аи Еmi|у 4:00 |iowаbout to а maviеаttеwаrd. go 5ее уou|аtеr. e. 5:00 а morie. |,m3oiп3 to be too tirеd for ,ue fu|ауbе сoи|djиsthапgiпgаroиnd LеtЗ tаlk аftэrdiпиer, thehosfu| аboиt it lаtrr t,m tаИиg а ИаP. lvl. Меgаn .7.00 tordinnеr fine. is tu- 6:00 Ld,s not еаtаt thе aаrnеrеstаtlrаnt t0nigtlt? |}'lhу don'twе tryingа nеw plаcе?|iowаbot'lt Broаdwaу Sеаtood. |'|| rnеd louаownstаirs 1:00. аt e.
    • Preferenсes: Prefer, WouИ prefer, Would rather PreferredTeen PastimesAround the World Ь Ф oo t^ (! 80 60 WPЙlNт QJ o) ts o 40 Сheck thе moin point of thе bor groph, Р с Ф 20 0) ц П Tue',agers like to watсh TV, read books, and listеn to musiс. (J 0 watсhTV rеad listen.to m u slс shop П T""',ugers likе tо watсh TV bettеr than thеy likе to do other things. Тееnagers around thе world prefеr watсhing ТV to a|I othеr |еisure-time aсtivities. сl]Eсl( l сl|АRT Сhесk the сorreсt onswеr, Whiсh word(s) сan you use with all subjесts? O prefer tl would prefer ('d prefer) SтAтEпiENTS: PREFER/WOULD PREFER Suв1вст I twou,o1 PREFER l шouш/GвпuшollшFlNlтlvE l/Wе/You*/Тhеy prefеr Hе/Shе prefers would prefеr I/Hе/She/Wе lYoulTheу 'd prefer *You is both singular and plural. сHАRT сHEсK 2 YEs/No QUEsтtoNS: PREFER/WOU PREFER LD Сhеck the correсt onswer. Do/Wouto Isury,.' Whiсh two forms ofthe verb сan follow prefer? Do you/thеy Does hе/she Would уoult.heуlhе/shе П tь. basе form оr the gеrund t Inru,* |шouш/Gвпuшo/lшFlNlтlvЕ prefеr nеwspapers? reading newspapers? to read newspapers? s}loRт ANSWERS tьe gerund or the infinitivе Aггlпмдтlvв Yes, шЕGAтIVE | Ilweltheу do. hе/shе doеs. Ilweltheуlhе/shе w o uld. 136 nеwspapеrs (to magazines). reading nеWspapеrs rеadingbooks). (to (not) to read nеWspapеrs. l/weithеy No, don't. hе/shе do еsn,t. Ilweltheуlhе/shе w o uldn't.
    • Prеfеr, Wottld prefеr, Wauld rather Preferences: l sтAтEltiЕNТS: woULD RAтHER I wouto RAт'|ER | вo'. Foпм oг Vвпв Suв,вст would rather I/Hе/Shе/WеiYou/Thеy,d rathеr (than rеad magazines). read newspapегs (not) read nеWspapeгs. s}|oRт ANsWЕRs YEs/No QUЕsтloNS: WoUt.D RAтI/,ER Wouto I suq.., | кo,",* | вo'. Foпм Would shе rather rеad? Aггlпмдтlvв l NвGAтlvE Yes, shе would. l No, shе wouldn,t. Shе,d rathеr not. EхPREssж Сircle thе corrеct words to complеte this sentеncе. I,d rather rеad / to rеad than / to shop, but Jo prefers shop / shopping. A ram rвrarЕхplanetlons Ж.xamрlеs 1. Use prеfer, would prefer, and would rather to ta|kabout thingsthat you |ikеbеttеrthan othеr things. l Wе usua||y prеfеr ltolion food, r l,d prеfеr to hove Chinеsеfood tonight. r |,d rathеr сook at home. Usдсв Noтв: Wе often use prefer for a genеra| prеferеnсeand would prefеr or would rothеr for a prеfеrеnсein a partiсu|ar situation. 2. Prefеrand would prefеr may be fol|owеd by a noun, a qeгund,or an infinitive. Would rather сan bе followеd by on|y thе basе form of thе vеrb. r Whiсh do you prеfer-сhiсkеn oг shrimp? r Would you prеfer сhiсken or shrimp tonight? noun r I usua|lyprefer the newspoPеr. gегund l Doеs Bi||prefer reoding magazinеs? infinitivе r Hе,d prefer to wotсh-N. basе form l |,d rather stoy homе tonight. A: Would you like to havе some dessеrt? Usдсв Noтв: Wе oftеn usе l,d rother not, by or itsе|f, rеfusean offer,suggestion, invitation. B: l,d rathеr not. |,vеhad enough to еat. to l,drothernot. 3. A сomparison with to may fo|]ow prеfer/would prеfеr + noun. A сomparison with to may alsofo||ow prеfer/would orefеr+ oеrund. A сomparison with thon may follow would rаther+ base form of the vеrb. Noт noun noun r Lani prefers сomediеs to aсtion moviеs. gегund ger und l |,d prefer visitingLani to going to thе paгty. base form basе form r l,d rathеr watсh football thon play it. 137
    • 138 I Unit З2 о тRUE tАLsE lulio ronked some octivitiеsfrom 1 to 8 аccording to his prеfеrences 0R (1 _ his fovorite).Lookot his list. Then reаd eoch numberedsеntеncеond writе T (Truе)or F (Folsе). Preferred Aсtivitiеs т 1. He prefers listening to musiс to playing guitar. 1- tistento musiс 5 go swimming 2. Hе'd rather hike than go swimming. А go Ьiking 3. He prеfers swimming to biking. 1 watсh ТV 4. He'd rathеr not watсh Tv. 8 Ьakеpies 5. He prefers baking pies to reading. 6 play guitar 6. He prefers watсhing TV to reading. ? hike 7. He,d probably prefer a сonсert to a hikе in the woods. & сI{lO0sE с0мPIE71o lulio ond Ano orе disсussingthеir еvening plons, Сomplеtе their IJse conversаtion. wou|d rathеr (not) with one of the vеrbsin thе boх or bу itsеlfin short onswers. havе сook seе Staя go Aшд: Would you like to go to a movie tonight? |'drather otaу Jul.lo: 1. home and watсh TV. Aшд: Sounds good. Maybe we соuld make dinner later. Jur,ro: tonight. I'm tоo tired. Aгtд: oK. you a restaurant instead? Jur,rо: Let's order out for some pizza. Aшд: How about a peppеroni pizza? Jur,rо: 4. 5. . Pepperoni gives me heartburn. mushrooms than pepperoni if that's OK. Aшд: No prоblеm. Do you want to watсh the Stephen King thriller at 8:00? Jur.ro: 6. Aшд: Well . . . there's a сomedy on at 8:00 and a doсumentarу at 8:30. Jur,ro: 7. the сomedy. I need a laugh. to
    • o с0ILPLEтERеod theseсonvеrsotions, Сomplеtеthem with prefer, would prefer, or Сomplеtе thе comporisons would rathеr. Use pretеr to stotе gеnеrol preferencеs. with to or than. 1. A: We're going to Romе again next week. Prefer Would уol flying this time? taking the train the plane B: You know me. I alwavs the window seat. have thе aisle seat 2.4: I B: That's fine with me. I the train. the window seat. That wav I сan look out. 3. A: Where would you like to stay? In a hotеl ot a pеnsionе? B: Oh. I с.A: I to stay in a pеnsione this time. It,s more personal. eating in small trattorias eatrng rn big restaurants. B: Me too. They're less expensivе and the food is always deliсious. 5. A: Speaking of food, УoЦ make the best spaghetti with сlam sauсe in the world. B: Thanks, but I order it in a restaurant make it at home! 6. A: Whеn in Rome. B: I defrnitelv you сoffee drinking tea or сoffee? tea. You know what they say, "When in Rome do as the Romans do!" . EDIT Reod Anа,s rеport, Find аnd corrесt six mistokеsin the usе of prefer ond would rather. Thе firstmistаkеis olrеodycorrеcted. For mдr study' I inteгviewed fifty men and women. There Was no differenсe in men's and women's preferenсes for TV. I found that everyone prefeгs to watchin$ тv thа,n going t'o movies. Men and women both eцjoy news proglams and entertainment speсials. Howeveц men would гather watсhin$ adventure progtams and sоienсe fiсtion, while Women prefer soap operas. Men also like to watсh ail kinds of sports, but women would rathег see game shows to sports. Readin$ preferences differ too. Men prefeг to reading newspapeгs' while Women men read books, they pгefer теad would rather read. magazines and books. trГhen are preferrin$ novels. nonfiсbion and adventure stores. TAIomen
    • SelfТest lffil 0NЕ Circlе thе lettеr of thе corrеct onswеr to complеtе еoch sentеncе, Еxдmpш: Jennifer never tA) drink (B)drinks l. сoffee. {C)is drinking (D)was drinking shut the dooц please? :*""]: (A) Certainly. (C)Yes, I сould. (B)No' I сan't. (D)Yes, I wоuld. 2. Why a movie tonight? (A) about seeing (B)don't we see (C) not seeing (D}we don't sеe д@с D ABсD ABсD 3. Marсia сan't speak German yet, but aftеr a few lessons she-speakalittle. (A}сan (C) is ablе to (D)will be able to tB)сould ABсD 4. In 1998, Tara Lipinski win the gold medal in figure skating at the Winter olympiсs. (A) сan (C)will be ablе to (B)сould (D)was able to ABсD 5. I make new friends sinсе I mоved here. (A) сan't (C)haven't been able to (B}сouldn't (D)'m not able to ABсD 6. Shе (A) did (B)has ABсD better not arrive late. (с) ,d (D)would 7. -Do you mind if I borrow a сhair? Do you need only one? (A) I'm sorry. (C)Yes, I do. (B)Not at all. (D)Yes, I would. 8. Would you mind (A) сall (B)сalling 9. I,d rathеr (A) watсh (B)to watсh 140 metomorrow? tC) to сall (D)if you сall the movie. I hear it's very good. (C)watсhing (D)not watсh ABсD A B с ABсD D
    • 10. You (A) bеtter not (B)'d bettеr 11. miss the dеadline or you'll have to pay a fee. (с) ,d better not (D)had no bеttеr takе the train instеad of the bus? It's faster. (с) Why don't (A) How about (D)Whу not (B)Let,s A B с D A B с D A B с D 12.Maymysister-toсlasswithmetomorrow?ABсD (C) сoming (A) сome (B)сomes (D)to сome 13.I-havedessert.I'mtryingtolosеsomeweight.ABсD (с) ,d prefer (A) 'd rather (D),d prefer not (B)'d rather nоt 14. Jamiе prefеrs working at home (A) more (B)than working in an offiсе. (С) that (D)to Eoch sеntenсehos four underlinеd words or phrosеs. Thе four underlinеdports of thе sentenceore morked A, B, С, аnd D, Сircle thе lеttеr of the one undеrlined word or phrose thot is Noг сORRЕсI Еxдшtptп: Mike usuall}, drives to sсhool, but today he walks. AвсD A B с@ 15. When I was ten. I сould swim. but I wasn't able dive. ABсD 16. Why don,t we have dinnеr and thеn gq see Possiblе Drеams-- A B с D 17. You drove for seven hours today, so maybe you,d not bettеr drivе tonight. A B с D 18. Will you mind bringing your сamera to the gтaduation party tomorrow ? A B с D 19. Dad, may Jim borrows the сar tomorrow or does Mom need it? A B с D 20. I сan't help УoU, so maybe you should to ask Marta. A B с D 21. Should I bring flowers to Lisa's or should I giving her сandy? A B с D 22. Ma}r be yоu ought to just bring flоwers. A B с D 23. Silva сelеbrated last year beсause she сould win the raсe. ABсD 24. It's really late, so let's we ge out to dinner tonight. AвсD 25. Why would you rather stay hоme to go out tonight? ABсD ABсD ABсD AB(D AB(D ABсD ABсD AB(D ABсD ABсD ABсD AB(D
    • Necessity: Нave (got) and Must ffiТe] P0INт Сhеck the corrеct onswеr, Using a seat belt is: t a rеquirement t LJ a сhoiсе AFFI ENТS Rt,tAтlvЕ sТAтЕIUl : HАvE (GoT)To I сl]АRтсlllпсl( СirсIе T (Truе)or F (Folsе). т F We usе hove got to in affrrmativе and negative statеments. Suryвст | нлvс тo/ i Hлvr Goттo | вo,. Foпм i oг Vвпв l/We/You/Thеy havе (got) to H е /Sh e /l t has (got) to (oNтRAстIoNs Have got to = ,vе got to stop. Has got to = 's got to NЕGAт|VЕ SтAтЕMЕNTS; HАvE To Suв;вст | oo no. | нon,,o | вo'. Foпм IlWelYoulТheyd o n't H e /Sh е /l t have to doesn't сIiARт 2 сIIEсI( YEs/NaQuEsТloNS:H/ VE TO Сheck thе corrеct onswer. Do stop. In questions with hove to, what сomes before the subjeсt? [l tll t s}loRT ANsWЕRs I Bдsв l Suвlвст | Hдvt тo Foпм Do Wе Doеs Aггlпмдтlvв hе a form of do havе to stop? Yes, you do . he I NвGAтlvE l No, does. hе doesn't. sтAтЕlUtЕNТS:мIU9T П a form of hove to Suв'вст | мusт-(tloт) вo,. Foпм | |/Hе/S tlWelYou lThеy must (not) hе/| stoр. (oNтRAсTloN must no t = mustn't *Must is a modal. It does not havе -s in thе third pеrson singular. 142 you do n't.
    • .ry::.::.:ilт: ,{g.?:!.t?.3:9. ..1.1.1o... .?.:т: Y.".:|.:'. ..o.. EхPREss.r!ж Сompletе this сonvеrsotion,Usе onе word for eoch blаnk, A: Why Wеar her seat bеlt? she B: It's the law. Evervone Grammar Еxplanations Wear a sеat bеlt. Еxamрlеs 1. Use ftoye to, have got to, and rnиst to еxprеssneсеssity. in a. Hove to is the most сommon еxpгеssion evегyday use. r Еvегyonеhas to Pass a road tеst bеforе gеttinga drivеr,s |iсеnsе. b. Have got to oftеn exprеssеs strongfeеlings writino. in speakinoand informa| l Hе,s got to drive more slowly.l,m afraid hе,sooino to havе an aссidеnt. signs,notiсеs). l You must stop сomp|etеlу G. Mast is usеdin writing(forms, ata stop sign. Must is used in spokеn ЕngIisl.t, whеn о the speakеris in a positionof powеr. l Ling-|in9, Уou must сlеan your гoom. (mothertolking to hеr Youngсhild) о theгeis uгgentneсessity. must talk to your bossabout a raisе. l You геa||y (friеnd tolking to a friend) have very differеntmеanings,(SeeUnit 34.) (lt isn,tnесеssary stopherе.) to r You mцst not stop hеre. (Youсon,tstop hеrе,lt,s not allowеd,) 2. Use thе сorreсtform of hove to for all tеnses and foгms. Use hove got to and mиst only foг thе prеsеnt or thе future. l Aftег his aссidеnt,Sal had to take a dгivег,s (posttеnsе) impгovеmеnt сIass. has had to drivе to woгk foг two years. r Shеi|a (prеsеnt pеrfесt) r l,ll havе to drive tomorrow. (futurе) l l,ve got to wеar glassesall thе timе. must take an eyе test tomorrow. l Еveryonе 3. Use hove to for most questions. r Does Pau|havе to drive? pVе rarеlyusе hoye got to or must for questions.) r When wil! hе havе to leavе? PпoшuпсlдтloнNoтв ln infoгmaI speeсh,hove to is often pronounсed ,,hafta,, and got to is oftеn pгonounсеd,,gotta.,, Do not writе haftoor gotta.
    • 144 I unit sB o Read Bеn Leonard,stеlephoneсonvеrsotion with o сlеrk from the Сolifornio IDЕNтIFY (DMV) , Undеrlinеthе wards thot tolk obout nеcessitу. Dеportmеntof Motor Vehiсlеs Departmеnt оf Motor Vehiсles. May I help you? DMV: Bвш: I'm moving tо California sоon. Will I have to get a California liсensе when I move? Yes, you will. California residents must havе a California driver,s liсense. DMV: Bвш: When will I havе to get my California liсense? Yоu have to replaсe your old liсense ten days after you beсome a resident. DMV: So сome in and apply for your California liсense right after you get herе. Bвш: Do I have to take any tests to exсhange my Illinois liсense for a California liсense? Sinсe you alrеady have an Illinois liсense, УoU won't have to take the road test. But DMV: you will have to take the written test. Bвш: How about the eye test? oh, everyone has got to take the еye test. DMV: Bвшз oK. Thanks a lot. You've been very helpful. o сOILPIEтERеod this convеrsаtion.Сomplеtе it with thе correсt form of have to or havе got to ond thе vеrbsin pаrеnthеses, have got to ond give short onswеrs Use possible. whenеvеr Bвш: When Aшш: I do you 2. (piсk p) u you still Bюш: No. have to uэe thе сar? 1. (usе) Jim's sсhool reсords pretty soon.Why? 3. (сhangе) the оil? I did it еarly this mоrning. oh, and 4. I bоught some film. Aшш:oh, you Bвш: Wе 5. (not do) 6. (tаkе) Jim still Arтш: Nо. 8. that. I bought three rolls yesterday. lоts of piсturеs on the trip. ? 7. (paсk) He frnishеd and went to Sara's to sav goоdbyе. Why? Bвш: He 9. (hеlp) me сlеan out the сar. It's full of his stuff. Arтш: I 'll сall him again. It,s hard for him to leave his friеnds. I 1o.(сa||) him to сome home twiсe already.
    • m ы o ШoosEa с}мPLЕTE Lookаt thеsеsigns, IJsеthе verbs from the box to complеte thе obout things you must do ond must not do. sеntеnсes tEп1 LЕFт RIGнт l| l ll ttsPEЕБll L|Mlт I |i 55lt lt itз-lc] |мtшlмuм| 4sj It turn muot not turn l. gLL drive walk ride lsff,. 2. You right. 3. You over 40 mph. 4. You 60 mph. 5. Biсvсlists 6. Pedestrians on the right. on the right. . EDII Reod lim,s lеttеr to Soro. Find ond сorreсtsevеn mistаkеsin exprеssingnеcеssity, Thе first mistokе is olrеody corrеcted. Dеаr 5аrа, stYаngе in |iving siх doing? beеn Wе,ve hеrеаbouI weеks.lt,s аreou |{ow the sцburbs. got I hаd gdto drivееvе^[Nnеrе. to so trаnsvortаtian, o|А'vе Ihеrе'sno pub|ic t,s bу 50 еd signsup tor drivеr,s thissеmestеr | canqd mу|icensе surnmevtimе. uP, wеа(а sеаtbelt.l usеdto hаtеto buck|е buI the tawhеrethat еveцlnеrnusts аnd аrе m I hеrе, hаvеchаngеd mind,1T.lеrе a totof trееwауs, withthe traРtiс trсРtiс. Lvеnmvlvlorn hаvе a |аnеs With totot fastgoItа know to chаnge how oц,ve so hаs hаdto gеt usеdto it. Dаdwork;аI hornе, hе hаsn,t to do а totоt driving. with a gаmеs thosеcom?utеr t.tave bеаtеn уеt?|'mhаving lotоt ffoиble уou ,'Doom., gotto writеto аndtе|| how get ?а5tthe fitth |еve|! to rnе me ou Jim
    • Ghoiсe: Don,t have to No Ghoiсe: Must not and Can't don'l have to эtop and aoktor d i re c t i o n o l it, [/1, 'tz ,,tl .И| ,11 WPЙINт Сhеck thе correct onswer, The drivеr сan сhoose to П park in the сrosswalk. t stop to ask for dirесtions. DON'T HAVE TO сl|АRт сHEсK I Сheck the correсt аnswеr, Whiсh part of do not hove to сhanges for differеnt subjeсts? t t ш do Suв,вст Do t,toт | нon' ', | вo'. Foпм oг Vвпв IlWelYoulThеyd on't Hе/Shе/|t have to doеsn,t hеге. park LJ hove MUsт,vor сIllARI сHEсl( 2 Сirclе T (True)or F (Folsе). т F The form of must лot and con,t сhanges for differеnt subjeсts. SuЦвст гoпм | | мusт* I Bдsв ",' l/He/5hе/ltlW elYou lThеy must not I stop her е. сAN,т Suqвст l/Hе/Shе/l tlWelYou lThеy tl6 stop | сяш,т* Gan't | вo'' гoпм | stop hеге. *Thеsewords arе modals. They do not have -s in the third person singular.
    • E&* -. Ghоiсe: Don't have ta Nо Ghоiсe: Мust поt аrrd Carз,t l ЕхPREssж#r Unscrаmblеthеsе Words to form two sentenсes. stop о He о have о here о tо о doesn't must о fast о You о not о drive о too r экрffi erъffiКf-фgж% & rg gжryвъ* ffi Ежarжp*es They l . H ove t o a n d m u s t h a v e s i m i l a rm e a n ings. the idеa that somеthingis both еxprеss nесеssaгy rеquirеd. oг l Yo u havе to sto p atthe sto p sign. r You must stop at the stop sign. Don,t/Doesn't hove to and must пot have vеry meanings. diffегent that a. Don,t/Doеsn,t havе to expresses lt somethingis not nесеssary. meansthat Тhеre is a сhoiсe. there is anothегpossibility. l You don,t havе to drivе. l сan do it. r Hе doеsn,t have to turn herе.Hе сan tuгn at the nеxt intеrsесtion. prohibition. lt means b. Must пof еxpгеsses that somethingis not alIowеdor is against thе law. Тheгеis no сhoiсе. r You must not use thе сar without my peгmission. r You must not drivе without a liсеnsе. It'sagainstthe law. 2. Must пot is usеd to eХpressprohibition offiсial forms,signs, in writing,inс|uding and notiсes. r You must not use your horn unnесessari|y. wе Usдсt Noтв:ln spokеnЕnglish, do not usе mustnot whеn talkingto or about usually anotheraduIt.We usе con,t instеad. r Wе Gan,t park heгe.lt,sa tow-awayzone. peoplеuse mиst not to tе||a сhiId Sometimes that theie is no сhoiсe in a situation. you mustn,t take off youг seat bе|t r Jеssе, while thе сaг is moving. 3. You сan use nothovetofor all tеnses and forms. Must not геfersonly to thе pгеsentor the futuгe. r You don,t havе to drivе. (prеsеnt) nеxt l Shе won,t havе to renew hеr |iсеnsе (futurе) уear. l Wе haven,t had to Paу a lot of paгkingfines perfесt) this yеar. (prеsеnt l Тhey didn,t have to take driver,s еduсation post tеnsе) lastyеar. Now it,s rеquirеd.(simplе r Drivеrsmust not pass on thе right. 147
    • 148 I unit 34 o iDENтIFYRеod this orticlе. Undеrline the words thot show thot thеrе is o choice аbout doing somеthing. Сirclе thе words thot show thot therе is no choicе, problems, howеver.Members of cargroups sharing havea carwhentheynеed A l{ew Alternativе to Car Ownership one foreithеr shorttripsor vaсations, but New driversare usua|lyexсitedabout their they don't have the high expensesof "My mom doesn't have to new freedom: ownership' Тhеy pay Very littleto use a drive me ever}^/vhere sharedсar, and theydon't haveto worry anymorе!l don't have to ask my friendsfor ridesto sсhoo|!'' about maintaining сar or paying When thе the you don't have your own сar yet, any priсe insuranсe. Fees for short trips are only paying.But onсе you buy a sеems worth about $З.00an hourp|us$0.50permile. сar,you@your сar payments and Groups do not have striсt rеquirements premiums, you Won'tbe a insuranсe either. Members must not havе bad or gas driver verylong. сan't|eavе and drivingreсordsor poor сredit, and they for You maintenanсe of the budget еither. mustnot return сars in poorshapеor out the Car sharing offersan alternative these theywill payextra. to o сOI|PLЕтEReаd this convеrsаtion.Сomplete it with сan,t or thе corrеct form of not havе to ond thе vеrb in pаrеnthеsеs, Jrм: Austin doeon't have to eit r. (sit) Aшш: Jim, you really in a safety seat, but I do. It's not fair. 2. (yell) like that in the сar. Your fathеr has tо соnсеntrate оn driving. Ben, turn left fоr thе restaurant. Bвш: 3. (turn) left. ItЪ a onе-way streеt. I'll go arоund the bloсk. Aшш: There,s the rеstaurant. Uh-oh. You hеre. It,s a bus stop. Bвш: Maybe I'll park in that indoor garage.That ,i;T -. 5. (worry) about our stuff while we,rе еating. Remind me to buy gas after lunсh. Arтш:We Bшш:I know. But we 6. (get) gas, do we? Thе tank is still half full. 7. (buy) gas for a long time. I'm not sure the gauge is working. Ausтrш: You 8. (bring) Jrм: Mom said OK. Anyway, I that truсk into the restau rant, Jim! It's too big. 9. (listеn) to vou. Lеt,s eat!
    • Choiсe: Г)оn.t havе to Nо Choiсe: Мusf r;оt aпd Оarз't J o a READ с0ff|PLEIELook ot this sign ot thе Holidoу Motel swimming pool. Сomplеte must not or don,t havе to ond the corrеctform of thе verb sеntеncеrлrith еoch porеntheses. in Holiday Мotel Swimming Pool Rules and Rеgulations P o o l H o u r s l 0 : 0 0А М _ l 0 : 0 0 p м . Ch i l d re n u n d e r l 2 y е a r s N o T A LLOW ЕD in po o l without an adult. . ball plaуing . r adio s NO . diving о glаssbo ttlеs . alсoholiсbеvеragеs dеsft. TowеIs аvаilаblе front аt muэ|-not-gwim 1. Childrеn under age 12 2. You your own towel. (bring) 3. You ball in or around the pool. (play) 4. You into the pool. (divе) 5. Teеnagers 6. You without an adult. (swrm,) with an adult. (bе) the pool at 8:00 p.м. (|еаvе) . EDIT Rеod Аustin,spostcord to his friend, Find ond correct five mistokesin expressing The first mistokе is olreodу correctеd, nеcеssitу. щ HolidayМotеl,Rte.55 Hi,Jonet/ We got to the rnotel|ote this еveningЬeсoose we got lost But we kept o.n noorn *!ж#tiia onotь.n Weгe |сlckg_theg "" is rnotel. Jinrng гeollghoPPg Ьеоoсlsehe don't hove to go to Ьed leove when the swirnrning c|oses.We rnоstn't poo| onti|often 10,00, so сlnti| 11'00tornoгnow(cheоkoоttirnе), We con stog op |oteг. Yoserтiteis onlg foсlг hoons owog' so We won't hod to dгive the Мg It's who|edog tornoгnow. going to Ьe exоiting. ponentssog theге Ьecot,lse we oЬsolotеlgrnсlst to go oсlt Ьg oоnse|ves not oгe Ьeons thегe.I'd |oveto see o Ьeoг (fгornthe insideof the coг). ]'|| send o postcond of one. Aostin To: JonetЕdwoгds 5500Arnhenst Lone Егie, 16506 PА 149
    • Expeсtations: Be supposed to Оh no! waэ эu??oэed to preparea |'е,dbr||er Thank oodneэe q |'m no| eu??oeed to paу for thiэ photoqraphеr, h u rr у u p wi Lh N h e e e picturеe' |t'э эuppoэed аY v v v Ь 1 t i r nppгt WPЙINт Сhеck the corrеct onswers. The gтoom'sfather is thinking about best man bride,s maid bridе groom parents of honoг t groom's parents сHАRт cI]ЕсI( Suв,вст т I You сan usе he supposed to in thе simple present and simple past tеnsеs. П the usual way something is done at a wedding. sтAтЕMЕNтs Сircle T (Truе)or F (Folsе), F something hе forgot to do. II тo ! (Noт)Supr,osсo ] влsв Foпм oг vппв | ]е am was H е /Sh е /l t Wе/You*/Тhey ts was (not) supposed to stand be arr wеrе *You is both singular and plural. вд YEs/NoQUЕsтloNs ro l l suвlпст suрposдo | вo,. гoпм | Am Was ls Was Are Wеre 150 he you supposed to stand here? here.
    • Eхpeсtations: Be supposed to l sHoRт ANsWЕRs Aггlпмдтlvв you Yes, hе I шEGAтlvE | you are. wеrе. ls. was. No, am. was. arеn,t. werеn,t. hе i s n ' t. wasn't. I 'm not. wa s n 't. ЕхPREss rfrЕtrIl Сomplete thеsеsеntеnсes. A: What we supposed to wear yestеrday? B: Our suits. It supposed to bе a dress rehеarsal. A: Oops. Grammar Еxplanations Ехamples l. Use be supposed to to ta|kabout diffеrеntkinds of еxpесtаtions: a. rulеs and usual ways of doing things r The groom is supposеd to arrivе at thе сeremonyеarly'|t,sa сustom. b. prediсtioпs l lt,s not supposеd to rain tomoггow.I heard it o n thе r adio . G. hеarsay (what everyonеsays) r Тhe bеaсh is supposеd to bе bеautifu| in August.Еvегyonе saysso. d. plans oг arrangеmеnts r Тhе сеremony isn,t supposеd to bеgin yеt. 2. Use be supposedto only in thе slmрlе prеsеnt tеnsеor in thе simрle past tеnsе. r The bгideis supposed to wear whitе' was supposеd to bеgin at7:0О. l Thе сeгеmony I lt wasn't supposed to rain. Usе thе simple presеnt tеnsеto геfеrto both the presentand the futurе. l l,m supposеd to be at thе wedding rеhеarsa| tomorrow. Noт Usдсв Noтв: Тhе simple past tensе oftеn that somеthingdid not happen. suggеsts l Сaг|was supposed to brlng flowеrs,bиt he forgot. 151
    • |52 t Uэ.lit 35 o Rеod this orticle аnd undеrline the phrases thаt expresseхpectotions. IDЕNTIFY Iт WдsN'т SupposЕD тo Bв д Blс WвppING Str i с k l a n ds P кovl oв шсв, J u l y l 9 - T h е wantеd a quiеt wedding-that's why they e l ope d t o Bl o с k |s l a n d , o f f th е A tl a n tiс Coast of t h е U n i t e d Sta t е s . T h е i s l a n d is qui t е s mall ' s o t h е S tr i с k l a n d s p a с k ed thеir bikеs for thе fеrry trip. The weathеr WaS supposеd to be lovеly, and thеy had aske d t hе m a y o r t o m a r r y t h е m o n a hill ovеrlooking thе oсean. ..Whеnwе got thеrе, wе found a сrowd of сyсlists admiring thе view,,'laughed Bеth. W hen Bill kissеd his br idе, thе audiеnсe bur st into lo ud applausе and r ang thеir biсyсlе bеlls. ,.W е W еr еn't suppo sеd to havе fifty wеdding guests, but wе love Bill said. сyсling,and w е'r e no t so r r y,'' Whilе paсking thе nехt daу' Beth lеft hеr wеdding bouquеt at thе hotel. Мinutеs bеforе thе fеrry Was Supposed to lеavе, Bill iumpеd on his bikе, got thе flowеrs, and mаdе it baсk to the fеrry on timе. .,Cyсlists arе Supposеd to stay fast and fit,,, said. hе o IRUE0R FALiE Reаd the orticle аgoin, Write T (True)or F (Folsе)for еаch sеntence, r l. Thе Striсklands plannеd a big wedding. 2. Thе weather foreсaster prediсted rain. 3. The Striсklands invitеd fifty wedding guests. 4. The fеrry followed a sсhedule. 5. People think that сyсlists are in good shape. о сOillPIEтE Reod thesеconversotions,Сomplеtе thеm with o form of bе supposеd to ond the verb in porеntheses,Givе short onswers,Сhoosе аffirmotivе or nеgotivе, 1. A: Netta, Gary сalled while уou Werе out. Am эu??oэedt.oca|| B: 1 A: No, you aren't a. (сall) him baсk? . Hе'll сall vou this afternoon' 2. A: The dress storе сalled too. They dеlivered your wedding dress to your offiсe. they B: that? a. (do) ! That,s why I stayed home tоday. They с. (dеlivеr) 3. A: Let,s get in line. Thе rеhеarsal B: We're bridesmaids. Where it here. a. (stаrt) we in a fеw minutеs. ? b. (stand)
    • д. Аz Gary! You a. (bе) here! B: Why not? A: You b. (sее) Netta until the сеrеmony. It,s bad luсk. 5. A: Sophie, сould I borrow your handkerсhief, pleasе? I a. (Wеar) something old, something nеw, something borrowed, and something bluе. I don,t havе anything borrowed. B: It today. Maybe I should lend you my b. (rain) umbrella instead. 6. A: I hеar Gary and Netta are going to Aruba on their honeymoon. B: Oh, that a. (bе) a really niсe island. о EDIT Reod Sophie,slеttеr to o friеnd, Find аnd corrесt six mistokеsin thе usе of be supposеd to. Thе first mistаke is аlrеody corrеcted, Deаr /{аshа, I,m so sorrу-| wa9 krloи, |-аttt sиpposed to шritе to уoи /аst шeek аboиt mg p/апs to risit' |,re bееи а'ufи//у bиsу, fuIу frieпd Nettа isgettiпg mаrried sooп, апd sheЗ аskеd mе to be hеr mаid of hoпor She апd Gаrу cuапt o b'9 toеdс/iпg Thеу'rе sиpposed to hаve аboиt tи,o hипdredgиesk, I hаvе а /ot of respoпsibi/ities,I tai//be sиpposеd togire Nеttа а shoruеr Ьеfo,e thе cuedditg (thаtЗ а pаrtу шhere еVеrуo'lе briпgs prеseпk Р" thе bride), / аtп а/so sиpposo to he/p her сhoosе thr bridesmаids, dressеs, The best rпаиЬ Иаme ЬJim, Нe,//hе/p Gаrуget 'eаdу, / /lаreп,t mеt him уet, bиt hеЪ sиpposеs to be vеrу niсe. |,d bеtfur sау goodbуe пocu,I sиpposed to /eаvе reheаrsа/ for fne miпиtеs аgo, Love, Sophiе PS, Аboиt -у rЬit-/,m bе сoиt,епiеиt? sиpposing to7еt somr time of iпl"/у, tЦoи/d thаt
    • Future Possibility: MaУ,Might, Could Еuкopв,s Wвдтнвк WPЙINт Сircle T (Truе)or F (FoIsе). Ъmpеraturеs in London may drop as mцсh as еlеvеn dеgrееs Ьy tomorrow morning. Wе might еvеn sее somе snow flurriеs 'W.inds latеr on in thе day. сoцld геaсh 40 mph. сI]АRт сHEс'K 2 Сhеck thе correсt onswer. When do vou usе moy, might, or could for future possibility? П m quеstions П t, answеrs Suвlвст It's definitеly going to snow in London tomorrow. | м*tм'снт/Couto*| BлsвFoпмoг vвпв | may (not) |/Hе/S he/|t/Wе/You/Тhеy might (not) сould (not) get *These words are modals. They do not have -s in the third person singular. YEs/NoQUЕsтloNs sHoRт ANsWЕRs Аre you going to f|y to Paris? Arе you takingthе train? may (not). l/Wе | might (not). сo uld(n,t). ],t/f,. QUЕsТloNs When are you going to Parls? How |ongwi||you bе thеre? 154 F sтAтЕ]vlENтs сl|ARт сI{,ЕсK I Сircle T (Truе)or F (Folsе), т F Moy, might, and сould have only onе form for all subjeсts. т ANsWЕRs maУ lg"ltomorrow. l/We I might сould Ibe Ithеrеawееk. сo I d.
    • E- Future PossibiliIуz May, Мight, Could l a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a o a a a a a a a a o a a a a a a a o o a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a ( EXPRESS Сomplеtethis convеrsotionwith might or might not. A: Are you going home aftet сlass? B:I . It's very possible. Why? A:I сall you about the homework assignment. I don,t understand it. B: Maybe you should сall Jean instead. I understand it either. rж ffi G ya aтъ mr ffiкр*ffi etioв"r $ fi,xamplrs 1. Use moy, might, and сould to talk about futurepossibility. r It may bе windy |ateг. l |t might gеt сold. r lt сould rain tomorrow. moу be and moуbe. Both еxprеss possibility. Moy be is a modal + vеrb. |t is always two words. r Hе may bе |atеtoday. Moуbе is not a modal. lt is an adverb.lt is r Maybe hе,|| takе thе tгain. alwaysoneword,anditсomesatthebеginningNoт@ of the sеntenсе. 2. Use moy not and might not to еxpгеssthe possibility that somеthingwill not happеn. r Тhеге arе a |ot of сlouds, but it might not rain. Use сouldn,t to say that somethingis impossiblе. } A: Why don,t you ask Johnfoг a гidе? B: l сouIdn,t do that. He,stoo busy' Bв сдпвrul! We usual|y not сontraсt do might not, and Wе nevегсontraсtmoу not, r You may not nееd a сoat. Noт @ arе 3. Quеstions about possibility usua|ly notformedwith mqY might,or could.|nstead, they arе formed with thе future (will, be going to, or thе presentprogressive) phrasessuсh as , D o у o u t h i n k . , . ? o r l s i t p o s s i b l е t h o t ,? , lt,sthе answеrs to thеsе quеstions that often have moу, might, or сould. A: Whеn will it stort snowing? B: lt might start around lunсh timе. Az Are уou going to drive to work? B : l m i g h t t a k e t h е b u si n s t е a d . A: When orе уoU leoving? B: I may lеave now. |n short answersto yeslnoquеstions,use moу| might, or could a]onе. A: Will youг offiсeс|oseeaг|y? B: |t might. Usдсв Noтв: lf a form of be is thе main verb, it is сommon to inсludebe in the shoгtanswеr. A: ls ouг train arгiving|ate? B: lt might be. 155
    • 156 t &Jз-tit **6 C IDENтIFYAlicе is o collegе studеnt who works pаrt time; Bill is hеr boyfriеnd.Reod their conversotion.Underlinе thе words thot ехprеssfuturе possibilitу or impossibilitу. Ar,rсш: I just heard that it may snоw today. Are you going to drive to work? Brьь: No. I,ll take the 7:30 train instead. Ar,rсв: I'll take the train with you. I have some work to do in the library. Brr,r,: Great. Why don't you сut your afternoon сlass and have lunсh with me too? Ar,rсш: oh, I сouldn't do that. But let,s meet at the train station at 6:00, oK? Brr,ь: I might have to work until 8:00 tonight. I'll сall yоu and let you know. o ANswER Whot will Alice ond BilIdo together?Сhеck thе oppropriаte box for eoch octivitу. Certain Possible t t t 1 . Take the train at 7:30 д.м. 2 . Have lunсh. 3 . Meet at thе train station at 6:00 p.м. lmpossible t t t t П П o сOIfiPLEтEAlice is groduoting from collеge with o dеgree in Еorlу Сhildhood Eduсotion. Сomplеtеthis porаgroph from her diory. Сhoose thе аppropriotе words in porеnthеsеs. 'm qo inq Ijиst gotthе noticе trom rnyschoo|. I lo l . ( m i g h tn o t / ' m g o i n g t o ) in grаduаIе Jиne,bиt l stit{ don'thаvеanуp|ans. Somеdау-cаrе cеntеr;hirефцdеnts bdore Ihеу grаdt'lаtе, I so or now. I 2. (сould / сou|dn,t) apptv a.1ob for to aPPlV а grаduаtе schoo| аnd 3. (might / might not) jиst notsцrеInougn1hеsepаsttlt'lo gеt mу master's dеgrеe'l,rn чеаrshаuеbеen hаrd,аnd I bе rеаdуto studуfor two mтrе' 4. (maу / may not) Аt |еаst| аm sсlrеаboutrY| caвеft | 5. ('m going to / might) WOrk childrеnITlа|'s With ' cеrtаin. madеan appointmеnt discцssrnvPtans to I withrnу rеаchеr, Hиrnphreу, tomorrow. Мrs. I Ihis ovеrwithhеr.5hе whatto do. 6. (mаybе l maу) 7. (won't / might; tatk hаveаn idеа aboцt
    • - Future Possibi|itу: {t4aу,hllight, Соuld о DESсRIBELook аt Аlicе,sschеdulеfor Mondаy. Shе put o quеstion mork (?) next to аbout Alice,splons for Mondoу, Usе еoch item she wosn,tsttrеobout, Writеsentеncеs may or might for things thаt orе possiblеond be going to for things thot orе cеrtoin. M0NDАY сall Dill at 9:ОО go to workat 1:ОО buу aomo notrboоko boforе c|aэe ? go to meeting wtth Mre, Нumphreуat 11:ОО go ahoppingafher work ? take 7:ОО tratn ? have coffer with Эur aftor сIaee ? piсk up pizza 1. А|ice iэ going t,o cal bil| at 9zoo, 2. Эhe maу buу эome no|ebookэ before claээ. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. report obout Еl Nifio. Find ond corrеctеight mistokesin EDIT.Rеod this student,s еxpressingfuturе possibility,The first mistoke is olreodу сorreсtеd, few years, the oсean neaг Pеru beсomes Warmer. Callеd Е1 Niflo' this maУ variatlon in temperature ffiаf,rbr- сause weather changes all over the world. Evеry Thе west сoasts of North and South America mi$ht to have heavy гains. on the other side of the Paсifiс, New Guinea mi$ht beсomes very dry. Northern aгeas сould have Warmeц wetteг winters, survive in warmer areas сould beсome changеs affeсt plants and anlmals. much сoldeт. These weather mayn't and. southеrn waters. Drou$hts food may grt very expensive. Some fish сould causin$ сrops to die, and El Niflo may happen еvery two years, or it сould not сome for seven yеaгs. Wiil El Niflos $et worse in the futurе? сould bе. Pollution They holds heat in the aiц and it will incгease the effесts of El Niflo, but no onе ls suгe yеt. l 157
    • Assumptions: MaУ, Might, Could, Must, Have (got) to, Can't K i q h La q a i n l Тhie man haэ got to be a geniuel You muэt be Gina Lemont, жPпINT Сheck the correct onswеr, Thе famous detесtivе Sherloсk Holmеs is П making a guеss. П tutki.'g about an оbligation. sтAтЕ]UlENтs l сIIARт сI|Eсl( Сirclе T (True)or F (Folsе). т F Thе thirdperson singular modal dоes not end in -s. | мooo. Suв'вст | вo'. Foпм oг vвпв | may (not) might (not) |/Hе/S tlWelYou lThеy сoцld (not) hе/l must (not) can't be гight. work thеге. AFF|R]tf,AтlvЕ sтArЕniЕNтszHАVE(Goт) To | нon, (coт) тo | вo,. гoпм | Suqвст IlWеlYoulThеy havе (got) to Hе/She/lt 158 гight. work thеr e. YEs/NoQUЕsтloNs 2 сl|ARт сl|EсK Сircle T (Truе)or F (Folse). т F A1l rnоdals оf assumptions arе usеd in quеstions. has (got) to be s}loRт ANsWЕRs ll Mooдl./ ll Сouto I Suв,вст | Blsв Foпм Could hе work Suryвст | Hлvс (сoт) тo thеге? Noтв: For сontraсtions witЬ could пot and cа,nnot, see Appendix 24 on pagе 346. Hе must (not). may (not). might (not). сo uI d(n,t). Gan't. has (got) to.
    • *:.:ygР}j:.T:: У3у:.Y'g,:!'.9.?у.,!: .9.: .9.::.i ..1.|.?..... .Y.|'?: .r?у.: .U..r.1 ..- .... EхPREss Circle thе corrеct words to complеte this conversotion. A: I heard a sound сoming from thе basemеnt. What сould / might it be? B: I'm not sure. It сan / might be the сat. It can l can,t be thе dog. Thе dog's upstairs. 6ranrmar Еxplanatiоns Жк*rжр**к 1. Wе oftеn makе assumptlons, oг,,bеst guesses,,, Aггtпмдтlvг based on infoгmationwe have about a prеsent must situation. Тhe modal that we сhoosedepеnds havе (got) to on how сertainWe are about our assumption. may might, сo uld t 10Оo/oеrtain с I t Nвсдтlvг Gan,t, сo uldn,t must not may not might no t 0oloсеrtain 2. Whеn you are a|most100 pегсentсertainthat somеthing is possiblе, usе must, hove to, or hovе got to. H o |mеs a br il|iant is dеteсtivе. Assuмpтtoш l Hе must solvе a |otof сrimеs. Usдсв Noтв:Wе use hove got to in informal сontraсtit. speeсhand wгiting,and we usualIy I H е,s go t to bе a gеnius! When you are lеss сеrtain, usе moу might, or could. Watsonknowsa lot about mediсinе. Assuмpтloш r Hе might bе a doсtor. 3 . Whеn Vou are almost .l00 oеrсеntсеrtainthat somethingis lmpossible, use can,t or сouldn,t, r H е Gan,t be dеad!| think hе,sstillbr eathing! When you are slightly lessсеrtain,usе musf not. l Shе must no t fееl w е||. palе. She |o o ks Use moу not or might пot whеn you are lеssсertain. r H е may no t kno w abo utthе plan.H is bo ss do еsn,t him еver ything. tе|| Bв сдпвгuь|Havе to and hаvе got to arе not usеd to йake negative assumptions. I lt сan,t bе tr uе! Noтffi 4. Usе сould in questions. Usдс: Noтв: Wе rarеly use might and wе nevеr usе ,noy in quеstionsabout possibi|ity. 5. In short answrrs, use hoye (got) to or a modal alonе. Use be in shoгt answersto quеstionsthat inс|udea foгm of he. l So meo nе,s ming.W ho сo uld it be? сo Rлпв: Might hе bе at home? Noтffi A: Could Ann know Maгiе? B: She hаs to. They'renеighbors. A: ls Ron sti|| with Сity Bank? B: I 'm no t suге.H е might no t be.
    • 160 l tr"Еnit 3? о lIIАтсIt Еасh foct goеs with on аssumption.Motch еoch foct with the сorrectossumption, Assumption Faсt 1. Her last name is Lеmont. She a. must not be at home. He's оnly thirteеn. He b. must bе married. 3 . Her eyes are red. She C. has to be older tkran twenty. 4. Shе's wearing a wedding ring. She d. сan't be marriеd. 5 . His initials are M.B. He e. might have allеrgies. t. may bе Frenсh. The house is сompletely dark. They 7. She has somr graУ hair. She 9. сould be Marс Brunner. o сI]00sЕ Look ot the picturе ond circle thе corrеct words to complеtе this convеrsotion, Wдтsoш:Lоok! What,s going on over there? Hor,мвs: I don't know. It 6oulф/ сouldn't bе Somekind оf delivеry. Wдтsoш: At this hour? It сan't / must bе 2. almost midnight! Nothing's open now. Hor,мшs: Hmm. 27 Cat|lsle Street. That сan,t /,s got to bе thе bank. 3. Wдтsoш:It ls the bank. Hor,мшs:Can you see what that man is taking out of the сarriage? Wдтsoш:It lооks like a box. What do you suppose is in it? Hor,мшs:I don't knoщ but is seems heavy. It сould / must not сontain gоld. 4. Wдтsoш:Look at that man in front of the bank. Could / Must he bе the bank manager? 5. Hor,мrcs: might / might be. He 6. lVдтsoш:But why are they making this delivery at this time? This сould / сouldn't 7. be normal. Hor.мшs:The manager might not / must want people to know about it. Hе 8. сouldn't / ma]r be worried about robbers. 9.
    • *:.:ygР:j:.T.:.. Уту:.Yi.g.?!'.9.?у!!:.Y.i'?!:1?!.1.9.?!).!?., o Reod Shеrlock Holmеs,sconversotionwith o murdеr suspect.Сompletе it сOIff|PIEтE with the words in porеnthesеsond o modol thot shows the dеgreeof certointу.ffhere moy be morе thon onе correct аnswer,) Hor,мвs: You muel be Gina Lemont. 1. Almost certoin (You / bе / cina Lеmont) Lвмoшт: Who wants to know? 2. Possible (l / be) Hor,мвs: Sherloсk Holmes. I hear something in the neхt room. Lвмoшт: Hor,мвs: Alonе? .I'm alone. 3. Possible (|t / bе / thе саt) platеs on the table. that 5. Possible (it / bе) you are mistaken? Lвмoшт: No, There are two 4. Almost cеrtoin (You / eat a |ot) I was expeсting 6. Impossible (it / bе) someone. but he never сame. Hor.мвs: Does your сat smoke? I smell pipe tobaссo. Lпмoшт: 7, Almost сertoin (lt / сome l from your own pipе) Hor,п,шs: oh. a look at this "cat"? 8, lmpossible (Тhеrе l bе l anу othеr еxp|anation) 9. Possible (thеrе / bе) May we have EDIT.Rеod this studеnt,sreoding journol for o mуstеrу novеI,Find ond corrеct six mistаkеsin ехprеssingossumptions,The first mistoke is olrеodу corrеcted. The mаiи сhаrасtец tvlo//уSmith, is а сo//еgrЕSL fuасhеr,Shr is trуiпg to fпd her deаd grаиdpаrепts,first homеiп the uпitеd Stаtеs,lt mа! & iи а пeаrbу tocuи.The toшпspеop/e therе seem sсаrrd, Thеу сoи/dbе hаre а sесret, or theу mиstjиst hаfu strапgers, tvlo//ghаs somе o/d letfurs thаt mght /eаdher to the p/асе. Theу аrе iп Аrmeиiаи, bиt oиe of her stиdeиts mghk trапs/аfu them for hеr. Тheу hаftа be importапt bесаиse thе аиthor mепtioпs them r(ght ашcI!/.The /etter mиst сoпtаiп fo-i/у seсrеts, Who is thе bаdgиу? |t сoиldи,t bе the stиleпt beсаиsehe шаnts to he/p, It mght to br thе пеtuspаPrr eс/itoriи the toшп,
    • Advisability in the Past {,I1у night рaren.ts haveenсouragid . memОre, ./ ' I shouldn't have missed .that, ^ opportunlтJ, I covid havеbeen richand{amous. жPЙlNт Сhеck thе correct onswer. Thе man t l. planning his future. П ."gтets things in his past. sтAтElt|ENтs сIIARт сIlEсl( I Сirclе T (Truе)or F (Fаlse). т F You сan add пot to all modals that express past advisability or obligation. сI|АRт снEсK 2 СirсIе Т (True)or F (Folsе), т F In questions and short answers, we usuallv only use should hove. Suв1вст | мooo. | нo,' | гo'' should (not) ought (not) to |/He/She/We/You/Тhеy сo uld might have PдптIсlpl-в applied. YEs/NoQUEsтloNs Sнouto sury..' | нon, | гo'' Pдптlсlpl.в I Should hе havе applied? s}|oRт ANsWЕRs Aггlпмдтlvв NEGAтIvЕ l Yes, he should havе. l No, hе shouldn,t have. ш/r'.QUЕsтloNs Wн-Woпo I s"ou,, I suщ.,, | нon, | гo'' Pдптlсlpl-в Whеn 162 s ho uld hе have applied?
    • Advisability Whiсh words are NoT usually сontraсted? J h s h o u |d a v е сouldhave might havе should not have = = = = sho uI d,ve сo uI d,ve might,ve shouldn't have should hаve [l I сoNтRA(тloNs сliEсl(3 сHART Сhеck the correct answer. in the Past could hove [1 ought to hove ЕxPRЕssж Сompletе this сonvеrsotion. A: Should I B: Yes, you сalled you yesterday? . I waited all day for your сall. Grammar Цxрlanatioшs *xannрI*s 1. Use shoиld hove, ought to hovе, сould hovе, and might hove to talk about things that were in advisab|e thе past.Тhese modals oftеn exprеssregretor blame. r I should,ve appliеd to сo||еgе. (l didn,t opplY to сollege,ond l,m sorrу.) l I ought to havе taken that job. (l didn,t toke thе job, Thot wos o mistoke.) r Shе сould,vе gone to a bеttеrsсhoo|. (Shе didn,tgo to o good sсhool' Now shе rеgrеts hеr сhoiсе,) r You might,vе told me. (Youdidn,t tеll me, Thot wos wrong,) 2. Should not hove and aught not to hove are used in negativestatemеnts. thе on|y,forms Should not hove is moгe сommon. Should (not) have is the most сommon form used in ouestions. r He shouldn,t havе missed thе еxam. l He ought not to have missed the еxam. r Should he have сalled thе tеaсhег? Pпoшuшсlдпoш Noтв In informalspeeсh,hove in modal phrasеsis often pronounсed likе the word of or o. Do For eхample, could have sounds |ike,,сouldof,, or ,,сoulda.,, not wгite сouldof or сouldo. Do ought to is often pronounсеd |ike,,oughta.,, not writе oughto. 163
    • 164 I unit BB o тRUE FAtsE Rеod еoсh numbеrеdsеntenсe.Write T (Truе)or F (Folsе)for thе 0R stotеmentthot follows. 4. Feliсia сould have been president. 1. I shouldn't have сalled him. т Feliсia is presidеnt. I сalled him. 2. I shou]d have told them what I thought. 5. I ought to have praсtiсed more. I didn't tell them. Now I,m sorцz. I didn,t praсtiсe enough. 3. He might havе warned us about it. 6. They shouldn,t have lent him their сar. Hе knew. but he didn't tell us. Thеv lent him their сar. o с0[|PIEтE Reod this еxсerpt from o mogozinе ortiсlе, Сomplеtе it with thе corrесt form of thе words in porenthesеsond o short onswеr,Сhoosе betweenаffirmotivе ond nеgotivе. Regrеts . . . I t , s o t u n u s u a lt o f е е l r е g r е t b o u tt h i n g si n t h е p a s tt h a t y o u t h i n k y o u n a э h o u |d h a v e d o n e 1 . ( s h o u l d/ d o ) y o u d i d d o a n d f е е ly o u and did no t do -o r 2 . ( s h o u l d/ d o ) thе o ppо sitе, abo ut things ln faсt,wе lеarnbv For a thinkingabоut past mistakеs. еxample, studеntwho fails a tеst lеarnsthat hе or shе morе and сan imprоvеon thе 3 . ( s h o u l di s t u d y ; pеoplе spеnd too muсh timе thinkingabout what thеу nеxttеst.oГtеn,howеvеr, 4. (сould / do) Мany rеgrеts simply nоt basеd diffеrеntly. arе in fасt.A mothеrregrеts missinga fоotballgamе in whiсh hеr son,slеg was iniurеd,,I . ' , , s h еk е е p st е l l i n gh е r s е l f . 5. (ought to / go) 6. (should l sIaу) homе.I Thе offiсials thе iniurv. 8 . ( m i g h t/ с a l I ) 7 . ( с o u I d/ p r е v е n t ) at lеast mе as Soon as it happеnеd.', shе rеаllц Did havеthе powеrto prеvеnthеr son,sinjury? offi сi аl s 9 . ( S h o u l d/ с o n t a с t ) thе her bеforе lookingat thе injurу?No, of сoursе,thеу . Thеrеis an ltalianorоvеrbthat savs. 10. ,,Whеn " thе ship has sunk' еVеryonе knowshоw thеу it. 1 1 . ( с o u | d/ s a v е ) It,s еasyto sесondguеssaboutthе past:Thе rеalсhallеngе to solvеthе problеms is ' ^ ' y' o 'u { a с^ ri l^ Ьn L ^ ^ W . l ^. е ' g t nO
    • Adчrisаbifitу in thе Рast o REWRIтERеod Grеto,srеgrеts.Rеwrite them using the modols in porеnthesesаnd choosebetwеenoffirmotiveond negotivе, 1. I didn't gо to сollege. Now I,m unhappy with my job. (should.) | эhou|d have gone to co||ege. 2. I feel siсk. I ate all the сhoсolate. (shоuld) 3. Christina didn,t сome over. Shе didn't even сall. (might) 4. I didn't have enough monеy to buy the shirt. Why didn,t Еd offer to lend me some? (сorr1d) 5. I jogged five miles yesterday, and now I'm eхhausted. (slrоuld) 6. The supermarket сharged me for the plastiс bags. They usеd to be frеe. (should) 7. I didn't in vite Cynthia to thе party. Now she's angry at me. (ought to) 8. Yesterday Was my birthday, and my brother didn't send me a сard. I'm hurt. (might) o ЕDlT Reаd this journol entry,Find ond corrеct six mistаkesin the usе of modols, Thе first mistoke is olreody сorrеctеd. -,.{lr} ii> /5 DeсеmЬеr Аboиt а cuеek Jeипifer шаs /аtеfor шork аgаin, апd Doиg, oиr boss,to/dme he шаиtrd to7et аgo, rid of hеr l шаs 'eаllу иpsеt, of сoиrsе,Jеппifer shoи/lи,tЫ bееп /аte so oft"n, bиt he mtlht hаs tаlked to her аboиt thе problеm befЬre he deсidel to let hеrgo, Thеn hе told mе to mаkе herjob l,ffси/t for hеr so t/tаt shе ,uoи/с|qиit, ljиst prеtэп,/eс/| didп,t heаr him, Whаt а mЬtаke! I oиghtа hаve сoпfonted him rght аI!су, or I сoи/d аt /еаst hаvе шаrпedJеиифп Аиушау' Jenпifer is sti|/ here, bиt noш I'm шorried аЬoиt mу oшпjob, Shoи/l t of to/d ooиgb boss? / шoпder futауbe t shoиld hапd/e thiпgs lffirentlу lаst шeek, The сompапу shoиld Иeverhаs hired this3иу, f 165
    • Speculations about the Past WPЙlNт Сhеck the correct onswеr. Thе question under the photograph asks П iг it was possible that something happenеd. П ir people had permission to do something. sтATЕlvlENтs сIlАRт сI|EсK l Сirclе T (True)or F (False). т F The form of thе modal does not сhange for differеnt subjeсts. сlIАRт сIIEсI( 2 Сheсk thе corrеct onswеr. Whiсh modal сan bе used in both questiоns and short answers for speсulations about the past? r- LJ Mooдl./ Hдo тo Suцвст may (not) might (not) can't I/He/She/Wе/You/They сould (not) must (not) had to Hдvt I Pдsт l Pдптlсlpl.в havе YEs/No QUЕsтloNS:CoUt.D l l |пo'' Couto l SuЦп.ст | Hлvс | Pлптlсlпl.в Could hе l havе seen thе statuеs. S}IORTANSWERS I Mooдl./ Suв;вст Hлoтo | seen a|iеns? Hе сon [l Едsтгп lst-дшo: Could visitors fгom anotherplanet havе built thеsеqiant statuеs? сould may (not) might (not) can't сould (not) must (not) had to l I Hдvс' havе. Ё1 might EхPREssж Сirclе the corrеct words to сomplеtе thesеsеntеncеs. Could they сarvеd / have сarved the statuеs? Thеy might / might havе. 1,66
    • Speсulаtions G ram шт*r ЕxplanetiФits 1. Wе oftеn spесulatе, or make ,,bestguessеs,,, about past situationsbased on thе faсts that we have.Thе moda|that wе сhoosedеpendson how сertainWe arе about our spесUlations. about the Past f Еxamplеs 1 100% сertain Аггlпмдтtvг must havе had to have may havе might have сould have I t Nгсдтlvг Gan't have сouldn,t have must not have may пot have might not havе 0oloсertain 2. Whеn you arе a|most100 perсentсeгtainthat somеthingwas possib|e, usе must havе or hod to hove. When you are |еssсertain,Use ,''oy hove, might hovе, or сould hove, 3 . When you arе a|most100 pеrсеntсеrtainthat Тhе statues veгy big. are Spгсut-дтloш r Тhеy must havе been haгd to movе. Тhе islandеrs Wеrеablе to сarvеthе stonе. Spгсuитloх r Тhе stonе may have beеn quite soft. l The isIandersсouldn,t |t was too hеavy. When you are s|ightlyIеssсeгtain,usе ,'UJt not. T Thеy must not havе moved it without hе|p. Use mсy not hovе or might not have whеn you arе lеssсеrtain. I Тhе islandеrs might not havе movеd thе statues ovеr |and.Тhеy сould havе used boats. somеthingwas impossiblе, use Go,l,t hove or couldn't have. have moved the stone! Bв сдпвгul! Wе do not usua|ly usе hod to hove for nеgative speсuIations. 4. Use сould hove in quеstions aboцt possibility or u5е quеstionswithout modals. l CouId thе is|andеrs have moved thе stonе? OR r Do you think thеy movеd thе stonе? 5. Use beеn in short answers to quеstionsthat inс|ude form of be, a A : Could von Ddnikenhavе been wrong? OR Wos he wrong? B: Hе сеrtainly сould have beеn. Use on|y thе moda| + hove in short answеrsto questions with other veгbs. A: Did thе is|andегs work on thеir own? B: Тhey сould havе. Рпoшuшсlдтloп Noтr ln informalspeесh,hove in modal phгasеsis oftеn pronounсеd likе the woгd of. For examp|e,must have sounds likе ,,mustof.,,Do not write must of. |67
    • 1 68 r uni t B e lflАтсlto Еoch foct goеs with o speculotion. Motсh еoch foct with thе corrеct spесulаtion аbout outhor Еrich von Diinikеn, Spесulation Faсt 1 . The original title of Chаriots of thе Gods? was Brinnеrungеn an die Zukunft. 2 . Von Diniken visited every plaсe he desсribеd in his book. 3 . In 1973, he wrote In Sеarch of Аnciеnt Gods. a. He must have traveled a lot. b. They must not havе beliеved his thеories. C. He сould have learned about the subjeсt on his own. d . He must have made a lоt of money. 4. Hе doеsn't have a degтee in arсhaeologу. 5 . Von Dflniken's books sold millions of сopies. e. He must have written it in Gеrman. f. He might have written other books toо. As soon as von Deniken published his books. sсientists attaсked him. o ANSWER Some orchoeologystudents аrе аsking quеstionsin closs.Use thе modols in porentheses writе short onswers. to 1. A: Do you think the people on Easter Island built the giant statues themsеlves? B: Тhey coud have (сouId) . They had the knowledge and the tools. A: W,eremany people imprеssed by von DДniken's theories? B: 3. (must) . His books were rеad all over thе wоrld. A: Von DЁniken says that many anсiеnt artifaсts show piсtures of astronauts. Could these piсtures have illustratеd anything сloser to Еarth? B: (mаy) It's possible that the piсtures show pеоplе dressed in loсal сostumes. 4. A: Was von DЁniken upset by all the сritiсism he reсeived? B: 5. (might not) . After all, it helped his book sales. A: Do you think von DЁnikеn helped inсrease general interest in arсhaeology? B: (must) . Just look at the size of this сlass!
    • abоut ttre Past Speсulations сOI|PLEтЕо Rеod port of o reviewof Еrich von Diiniken,sbook Chariots of thе Gods? it with thе verbs in porenthеses. Сomplеte Who aould havemade the Easter Island statues? Aссording 1 . ( с o u | d/ m а k е ) to Eriсh von DДnikеn. our anсеstors thesе 2 . ( с o u | dn o t / b u i | d ) struсtures on thеir own beсausе thеir сulturеs Wеre too primitive. His solution: They help from Spaсe visitors. When hе 3. (had to / gеt) wrote his popular book. von DAniken about 4. (must not / know) the Easter Island experiments that proved that the anсiеnt islandеrs 5 ( с o u I d/ с a r v е ) and thеse 6 (tгаnsport) statues without any help frоm alien visitors. Not only that, the island's population 7. (might / bе) muсh larger than von DЁnikеn bеlieves. onе sсientist speсulates that as many as 20,000 peоple on Еaster Island-enough 8. (mаy / |ivе) pеople to have done the job. Visitors from another planet? A more logiсal answer is to think that our anсestors 9. (must/ havе) gтeat skill, intelligenсe, and strength to сreate these wonderful things. EDIT.Rеod pаrt of o studеnt,s еssoу,Find ond сorrеct six mistokesin the use of modols for speculotionsobout thе post, The first mistoke is olreodу corrected. have bеen In 1927, Toribio Mexta Хesspe of Peru must baveгy suгprisеd to see lines in thе shapеs of huge animals on the $гound bе1ow his airpJ.anе. Crеated by the anсient Nazсa сulture, these forms are too big to гeсoEprize from the gтound. Howeveц at about 600 feеt in the aiг the giant forms take ж shape. TАIithoutairplanеs, how сou1d an anсient сulture had made them? ДГhatpurposе сould thеy havе had? Authoг Eгiсh von Dё,nikеn beiievеs that the drawin$s mi$ht have mark a landing stгip foг the spaсrсraft of astronauts from another planеt. Aгсhaeolo$ists, howevец now believe that the anсiеnt Nazсan сivilization mi$ht devеlop flight. They сou]d of built hot-air ba}lons and desi$n the pictures from thе aiг. l 1'69
    • SelfТest lffil 0]{Е Сirc|еthе lettеr of thе correct аnswer to complеte еoch sеntence. Еxдмрш: Jennifer nеver (A)drink (B)drinks A@с сoffee. (С) is drinking (D)was drinking l. -W.asn,t that Mehmet in сlass? -It -. Mehmet left sсhool last week. (A} сouldn't (C) сouldn't have been (B)сould have been (D)сouldn't havе ABсD 2. Frank watсhes all the Lakers games. He their biggеst fans. (A) must (C) сouldn't (B)has got (D)should have to be one of ABсD swim without an adult. (C)have to (D)arе supposed to ABсD 3. Children under five years old tA) don't have to (B)must not 4. Where (A) do {B)are we supposed to go for the test tomorrow? (C)will (D)should 5. Bring your umbrella. It _ (A) might rain (B)rains later. (C) сouldn't rain (D)might havе rained ABсD ABсD 6. -Will your plane be late this afternoon? _It -. The airport was сlosed this morning. (A) сouldn't bе (C) maybe (B)may bе (D)will ABсD 7. You told Mark. You knew it was a seсret. (A) should have (C) сouldn't have (B)might have (D)shouldn't havе ABсD 8. They built this temple 3,000 years ago. This must ABсD a gтeat сivilization. (A) has been (B)have been 9. Jan - {A)supposed (B)is supposed 170 (C)was (D)not have been to сall Myra yesterday but he forgot. (C) supposes (D)was suppоsed ABсD D ]
    • 1 0 . -Could Amy have been at home yesterday? -She . I reallv don't know. (A) сould havе bеen (С)had to have been (B)might be (D)сouldn't have 11. Chris (A) have got (B)has got to сlean up his room. It,s a mess. (C)must (D)got 12. I failed the test. I (A) should have (B)must havе studied harder. (C) should (D)may l3.Lisawasintownreсently.Shemight-metosayhe1lo! (A) сall (C)have сalled (B)has сalled (D)be сalling IffilтW0 Еаch sentencehos four underlinеd words or phroses. Thе four undеrlinеdpаrts of the sеntеnсеorе morkеd A, B, С, ond D. Сirclе the lеttеr of thе onе underlinеd word or phrosе thot is Nor сoRRЕст, Еxдмptt: Mike usually drives to sсhool, but today he walks. ( A B D A B сo 14. Tom didn't wave to me, so he must have known I цras here. ABсD 1 5 . We,d better hurry, or thе train miфt ABсD ABсD ABсD leaves without us. 1 6 . His English is exсellent, so he had to has studied hard. ABсD 1 7 . We ought to have look at more сars bеfore wе bought ours. ABсD 1 8 . You gotta get dressed beсause Sasha may be hеre soon. ABсD 1 9 . You have to buсklе your seat belt now or you сouldn,t drive. It,s the law. ABсD 20. You don't have to drive faster than 65 mph or you might get a tiсket. ABсD 21. Hardlie,s must has gonе out of business reсently. ABсD It must rain tonight, so I'd bеtter stay home. ABсD Aв(D ABсD ABсD AвсD ABсD ABсD AB(D 23. Jason will bе supposed to be there tomorrow, but he сan't attend. ABсD 24. It must be almost 11:00, so we really hafta leave now. ABсD 25. You should of sеen that moviе with us bесause it may not be here long. AвсD ABсD сD AB AB(D
    • Adieсtives and Adverbs %l wiffiPЙцNT Сhеck thе сorreсt onswеr. The ownеr thinks thе apartment is: /-r LJ pеrtесt П *u.- and сozv cHEсК сI|АRт ADlЕстlvЕs ADvЕRBs Circle T (True)or F (Fаlsе). Thеy aге quiet tenants' |t,sa fast е|еvator. T h е b u i I d i n g e е m sniсе. s perfесt. lt,s absolutе|y Тhеy work quiеtly. |t movеs vеry fast. Shе dеsсribеdit niсely. lt,sabsolutely peгfесt. т F Adverbs often сomе bеforе nouns. т F Adjeсtives often сome aftеr aсtion verbs. т F Adverbs often end in -ly. EхPREss with the сorrеctform of thе word slow. Сompletethesеsentences A: It's a B: It's not 172 еlevatоr. It moves verY . It just seems
    • Adieсtives arrd Adverbs жr effi йy mжмж* Жжp& effgфYъs" &кamр*еs 1. Usе adiесtivеs to desсribеnouns or Dronouns (foгpeop|e,plaсes,and things). l r Thе housеs are bеoutiful. Theу are new' ad|eсtivе pron. noun аdiесtivе adjесtivе noUn Adjeсtivеsusuallyсomе immеdiate|y beforеthе noun thеy desсribe. l Тhis is a s,mollapartmеnt. Adjесtivesсan aIsoсomе aftеr non-aсtionverbs suсh as be, look, or sееm, r This apartmentseеms smoll. 2. Usе adverbs to dеsсгibеverbs,adjесtives, and othеr adverbs. Advеrbsthat desсribeadjeсtives and othеr adverbsusual|y сome immеdiatelybeforе thе word thеy dеsсгibе. vеrb adiесtive vеrb advеrb r Тhey furnished it niсelу. adverb adjесtivе l lt,s an extremely niсе house. аdverb adverb r Тhеy found it very quiсkly. 3 . Usе advеrbs of manner to desсribeaсtion vеrbs. r lt,ll rent quiсklу, (Quiсkly dеsсribеs Тhеsеadveгbsoftеn answerHow?questions. Тhеy how fast it will rent') сomе aftеrthе verb thеy dеsсribе. verb direсt obiесt Bв сдпвгul! Do not put an adverb of mannеr r Shе,IIrent this apartmеntquiсktу, betwеenthe vегb and its direсt objесt. Noт 4. Adverbs of manner are oftеn formеd by adding .ly to adjeсtives. a dj е с t i v е We nееd a quiсk deсision. advеrb You should dесide quiсkly. adiесtivе |t,sa lovely apartmеnt. for еxamp|e, sillу friеndlу lovеlу and lonelу, 5. Some Gommon advеrbs of manner do not еnd in ./y. a dj е с t i v e аdverb a. Тhе adverb form of good is well. r She,sa good wгiteг. Shе writеswеll. b. Somе advегbshavе the samе form as thеit rе|atedadieсtives,for exampIe, еorlу, fost, wronltt lote, and hord. Bob was latе. Bв сдпвгurt,. Lotеly is not the adverb form of latе. Lаtelуmеans ,,reсent|y.,' Hordlу is not the advеrb form of hord. l-lordlу means ,,a|most not.,, Ao1гстtvв Shе,sa hard woгkeг. Aovгвв Bob сamе late. Shе works hard. r She hasn,tmеt any nеW pеop|elotelу. l Тhеrе,shordlу еnough timе to prеparefor hеr job сlasses. paгt-time takesup most of hегtimе. Her Сheсk oul! iI For a disсussion of advеrbs of frequеnсy' seе Unit 2, page 7. 173
    • 171 r unit 40 o iDENтIFYReod this notiсe obout on oportmеnt for rеnt. IJnderlinethe аdjесtivesond circle thе odverbs. Thеn drow on orrow from the odjectivеor odvеrb to thе word it is describing. APт. FoR RENт Students! Come to Я Щ looking Are you looking for a speсia]. 140 Grant Street, Apt. цB. This perfeсt for a quiet сampus. This It is two serious into in wa1k to the bus stop. town. At night at a11. You сan wa1k safely parks on your way home. Thе rent an appointment: Don't wait! This 1ive? is who are 15 minutes from a new building. The exprеss bus goes thе bus hard1y makes any stops Ca11 for to apartment students just neighborhood, 1ove1y apartment is a short direсt1y for p1aсe through is very thе wonderfu1 affordable. 555-5050. apartmеnt wi11 rent fast. o MonY pеoplе wеnt to seе thе oportment dеscribеdin thе notiсe obovе. сOI|I|PLETE Сomplеtе thеir сommentsobout thе oportment with thе corrеctform of the words in porenthеsеs. l. extremelу nicе I'm very intеrested. I think the apartment is ( е x t r е m е/ n i с е ) 2. I was eхpeсting muсh bigger rooms. I was (tеrrib|е disаppointеd) / 3. I thought the apartment would be hard to find, but it was 4. I was happy to hear that the park is (surprising еasy) / (extremе / safе) 5. It's a grеat plaсe,and thе priсe is reasonable. will rent It 6. The owner seems niсe, but she talks (awful / slow) 7. The notiсe said it was quiеt, but I heard the neighbors 8. I hеard them too. I thought thеir voiсes Were 9. All in all. it's an ( е x с е p t i o n a/ p | е a s a n t ) l (inсredib|е fаst) / plaсe. (vеry / с|ear) ( u n u s u a/ l o u d ) l
    • Adieсtives and Adverbs . . . . . o o o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . о o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . arurгЦnn<Е СomplеtеMoggiе,s lеttеr with the corrеct word in porenthеsеs. h ru . - 'lvl,.,r ы Aor,tt /l/** orX >ad, !ф еxcit.ing Uа// * /Уoo, Qa,,Ь /,1, a'июha ф, 2. (|aгgе |argе|у) l !*z 1 . ( е x с i t i n g/ е х с i t i n 9 l y ) ",x I аlatp,la,l lulp u,,е,J,1,},е /!,,J il,a 4o, ,,/4JДp4J/,4q/ цeЙadn// /4ф) аil''a/ Ju ploaЫ l/аp aд/дo аr, иu,t,4k)а,n | 3. (bеautifu/ bеautifuIIy) 5. (busy busily) / /!*]1,,4r ll /юan,r o фr'tс' ф a,,,,,а,r)ai/44Р,/4J /1./е И,m 7. (quiеt quiеtly) / J4,',' ,z,фo,L /*J ,"* |,.,l,аn /1 a?И/ lе)ip,llе lt,l' * a,"],/-'l lР)%o * /Уе,.t,, ц,,,,/" 0ш ие,хJ- ,4l //л,4J 4*,,*l 4,h, 1o. (shy/ shyly) 11. (good / wе|l) l,o|J"*ыJ, Р/"-a' v^" t/л/n,аp |,/" /,,,,|," а/4l ш,ИJp 4IJ{t/t,, /rrur lo A,{,1/1, -lorn, Иаaqip journаI еntry,Find ond ЕDlT.Rеаd this studеnt,s сorrеctsevеn mistokеsin thе use of odjeсtivеs ond аdvеrbs, Thе first mistoke is olreаdу сorrected, funnу I (,|,еа|/уhpt,тпd...сrocudеd,bиtthp-pьun.еriпsisfdthаt.its-и-tfdt ! hа,,tlу пot to /пиg/l,luhi/rhе шlls- /42 i,? Jюr,4n,l llZ ш 6. (niсеi niсe|y) 8. (hard l hard|у) 9. (niсе/ niсеIy) a пю 4а,11L l,hюol ,яL |а'ki'gfrthеп.ooп!|,,,oпf,,..tuап.t..rlsmа11 /,rt/ookiп!аtлrtotherр/асе-to'шorroщ.T-/tеасls-аg-s,||С1eа l L t |7 5
    • Partiсipial r Adjectives ar ar t-t Nеw to the Area Sсreen Name: newge|@XYZ.сom Age & Gender: 20 уear old Fema]e Loсation: Miаmi, FL Looking for: Friends Tiredof doing thingsalone?Me too! 20 year old ф senс me e.mаil! ф senс me an online greetiпg! Send this to a friend! сollegestudent,new to the area,is interestedin peoplefor friendship аnd fun. meetinginteresting ) print/save POINT lffi] Circle T (Truе)or F (Folse), т F Thе writer of thе ad SayS that she is an interеsting person. сiIART сHEсl( Сircle T (True)or F (Fаlsе). . т F There are two types of partiсipial adjeсtives. PARтlсlPlAL .lшс Ao;в(тlvEs l AD,ЕстlvEs -дo AotвстlvEs Shе is bored. Thеy had a borеd look on thеirfaсеs. Sh e i s a m u s i n g . Тhеy had an amusing date. H е is amused. Тhеy had an amusеd look on theirfaсеs. The moviеwas frightening. Тhey saw a frightening movie. Тhеy were frightеned. Тhеy had a frightened look on thеirfaсes. Тhejob is tiring. Sh e h a s a ti r i n g j o b. Shе,stired. Shе has a tired sound to hеr voiсе. Тhе weеkеndwas relaxing. He had a rеlaxing wееkеnd. 176 Hе is boring. Тhеy had a boring date. Hе felt reIaxed. He had a relaxed mannеr.
    • PaЁiсipial Adjeсtives l GlTlтг{Il EхPREss Сomplеtеthе chort, lшс Ao,встlvЕs гo Ao,встlvts еxсiting interеsted frightening amused tiгing Grammar Explanations Examplеs 1. Partiсipial adjeсtives arе adjeсtivеs that end with -ing or -ed. Тhеy usuaI|y desсribе A: Тhе |astStor Worsmoviе was amazing! B: I know. I was amazеd by thе spесialеffесts. feelingsor гeaсtions. Тhe two forms have different mеanings. 2. Partiсipial adiесtivеs that end in .ing desсribе somеonеor somеthingthat сauses a feе|ingor reaсtion. 3. Partlсipial adjeсtivеs that еnd in .ed desсribe somеonеwho еxpеriеnсеs fee|ing reaсtion. a or That aсtor is aIways amusing. (Hе сousеsomusеmеnt,) Тhеsedirесtions сonfusing. arе (тhеу Сausеconfusion.) l Wе wеrе amusеd by that aсtor. (Wе fеltamusеmеnt') |,m rеa||y сonfused by thesеdirесtions. (l fееlсonfusion.) 4. To the right are somе сommon partiсipia| adieсtivеpairs. annoying boring depressing еmbarrassing еxсiting frightеning relaxing shoсking sur pr ising Cheсk oul! iI For a list of сommon partiсipial adjeсtives,see Appendix 11 on page 339. annoyеd borеd depressed еmbarrassed еxсitеd frightеnеd rеlaxed shoсked surprisеd |7 7
    • 178 I Unit 4i o IDENтIFYReod this ortiсlе, Undеrlinе oll thе -ed pаrticipiol odjeсtivеs.Сirclе oll thе -ing porticipiаI odjеctivеs. 1.4. Sвстlolr 4 . Lrгпsтyl,вs Not Personal Еnough? .!Иtкд Iштвкшдтloшдr Sвкисвs In somе сountriеs,pеoplе whо arе intеrеstеd mееtingothеrstuгn Гorhеlp to in ads pегsonal in nеwsPaPеrs magazinеs, and and оnlinе. A @PrffiD numЬеr oГ Ьusy pеoplеviеw thеsеБa praсtiсalway of ..I'vе inсrеasing thеirsoсialсirсlе. triеdhard mееt pеoplе on my O.Wn',, said onе to ..I satisfiеdсustomеr. was nеw in town and wantеd to makе friеnds Гast. Thе pеrsonals providеd mе with a quiсk way of mееting many intеrеsting pеoplе in a short pеriod of timе.'' Othеrs arе not so ..I imprеssеd. think itЪ kind of dеprеssing whеn pеoplе nееd to rеsort to plaсing ads ..A to makе friеnds,'' oЬsеrvеd onе man. friеnd of minе triеd thе ads sеvеral timеs and was rеally disappointеd with thе rеsults. ItЪ just not Per:ona|.:уяу:gb-,"-- o сl/l00sE Reod this convеrsаtionbеtwееnMorto ond Luisаbout thеir friend Alice, Сircle the correct words to complеtе the convеrsotion, Mдвтд: What,s the matter with Aliсe? Lurs:Whoknоws?She,salways@aboutsomething. 1. Mдвтд: I know. I try to understand heц but this time I'm reallу pttzz],ed plzzling. / 2. Lurs: Really? What's so puzzled / puzzling this time? 3. Мдвтд: I thought she was happy. She met an interested / interesting guy last wееk. 4. Lurs: That's niсе. Was she interested / interesting in him? 5. Mдвтд: I thought she was. She said they saw a fasсinated / fasсinating movie together. 6. Lurs: Well, maybe she was fasсinated / fasсinating by the movie but 7. disappointed / disappointing with thе guy. 8. Mдвтд: I don,t know. It,s hard to tell with Aliсe. Her moods arе alwavs vеrY surprisеd / surprising. 9. Lurs: I'm not surprised / surprising at all. That's just the way she is. 10.
    • PaЁiсipial ru ы Adjeсtives о betweеn Аliсеond hеr dotе,!аke. Сompletеit с}мPLЕ'/E Reod this conversаtion with the corrеct form of thе words in porеnthеsеs,Сhoosе bеtwееn -ed аnd -i,'9 porticipiol odjeсtives, intereэting - Ar,rсв: That WaS a very 1. (interеst) movie. What did you think? Jдкш: To bе hоnest. I found it kind of 3. (intеrеst) . f'm not that 2. (bore) in sсienсe fiсtion. Ar,rсв: Really? I find it o. .,.,**. . What kind of movies do you enjoy? Jдкв: Mostly сomedies. Have you seen Homе Agа,in? Ar,rсп: Yеs' but I wasn't 6. (hoгrify) 5. (amusе) at all. In faсt, I thought it was . The storv line was ?. (сonfuse) , and I сouldn,t find any humоr in the сharaсters'problems. Whеn I left the theateц I felt kind of Jдкп: I'm 8. (deprеss) 9. (amazе) that you felt that way! I thought it was very lo. (аmuse) Ar,rсв: Well, I guеss it,s a matter of taste. Jдкп: Speaking of taste, would you like to get a bite to eat? Ar-rсв: Thanks. but it's latе and I,m ,,{.,ь^,,t) . ЕDlf. Reod Аlicе,sjournol еntr . Find ond сorrеct six mistаkеsin thе use of pаrticipiol odjеctives. The first mistаkе is olrеаdу сorrеctеd, dioappointed home, I,m disаpprrн#gt шith the еvепiпg.Аt frst I thoиghtJаke шаs otп Jиstgot iпtеrestе'd с| gиу, bиt tnпlht t fe/t somе'уhаtboredшith his сompапу,We solLu Yеrу eпfurtаiпe/moriе,bиtJаke didп,t /ikr it, Iпfасt, it seems/ikecuе /lаvесonp/еtе/g difereпt tаsfus iи thiпgs, Аft", the morie, I tried to mаkе сoиrersаtioи, bиt а|l I шапtеd шаs togo homе, So, / to/d him / шаs ехhаиstiпg аnd didn,t ruаnt to "еа//у gеt home /аtr. |f he аsks me oиt аgаiп-I,m пot iпtrrestiпg. Trуiпg to mеetpеop/е сап bе wrу frиstrаte'd, l |79
    • Adiectives and Adverbs: Equatives hе ridеs as fast as he does.Shе сontrolsher bike just as well. But hеr shouldеrsaren,tas wide аnd her arms aren,tas long as his. Whyshould shе rideа bikе for designed him? W;wжPЙINт Сhеckthеthingsthеboy ondgirl hovein сommon. t t AD|ЕстlVЕS: Сheck the correсt answers. Whiсh words are always used in еquatives? Д Lf not Пos t a.. adjeсtivе or an advеrb сontrol of bike t сIiАRT сI/iEсК width of shoulders t izеd to fit уou. riding speed length of arms ЕQUAтIvЕs 1tlo1 лs | лo;..,,u. | я, I I vвпв* | T h е g i r| thе boy. fast Shе ts H е гb i k e isn't as Тhe girl,sbikе good big as hе is his. the boy's. heavy *Non-aсtion verbs like be. look. sеem. ADVERBS: ЕQUAТlvЕs (нoт) I vвпв* | o' l Aovвпв l o' T h е g i rl fast 5hе rides H е гb i k e doesn'tride Тhе gir|,s bikе *Aсtion vеrbs 180 as well smoothly сonsistently the boy. as hе do еs' his. thе boy,s.
    • !Er.r--*.^- P s ;'.i;::::|',,: Eх RE s i:i:" with thе еquotivеform of the words in porеnthеsеs. Сompletеthеsesеntenсеs A: Мv old bike wasn,t didn't perform B: And it didn't look (еxpеnsivе) (wе|l) (good) my new one. of сourse, it the new one. thе nеw one either. #"ж,fi:#?i.4.1',i'h,{":i{.зTxr% &ы;*tнз*:уз{А,{ r a rжr*rуъ'*'н*t*ъ 1. You сan u5еequatives (os + ad|eсtivе + os) to сompаre peop|e,p|aсеs, and things. r Thе Traxbike is as еxpensive as the cordo. (Thе Troхсostso lot of monеу'The Gordo сosts thе same omountof monеу.) l lt,sno t as light as thе Go r do ,tho ugh. (Thе two bikеsore not thе somе wеight,) Usе os + adjесtive + os to сomparеpeoplе, plaсes,and thingsthat arе equa|in somе way. Use jшst to emphasizеthе equality. r Тhis hеImetis as good as youгs. l |t,sjust as еxpensive as youгstoo. Usе nof os + adjeсtive + os to talk about pеople,p|aсes, and thingsthat are diffеrent in some way. r Тhe nеw ad is пot as еffeсtivе ;iз thе o|d onе. r |t isn,t as funny as the o|d onе еithег. ;";;;";;;";;:;,;;;;";oi*";;i;;;|.;;;";;-:;;;;"";;"*": to сomparе aсtions. (Thеуridе еquollуfost.) r H е do еsn't r idе as safely as she do еs,tho ugh. (тhey don,t ridе thе lomе woу' Hе rides sofеly, but shе ridеsmore sofely,) Use os + adverb + os to ta|kabout aсtionsthat aге the samе or equal.Usefиst to emphasizе thе equa]ity. l Kleenbrightens thoroughly as Bгitе. as r |t геmoves stainsjust as еffесtivеly as Bгite. Usе пot os + adverb + os to taIkabout aсtioлs that arе not thе same oг еqua|. r K|ееndoеsn,t с|еanas welI as Brite. 3. You do not alwayshave to mention both paгts of a сomparison. Sometimes the meaningis сIеar from the сontеxt. r Trax and cordo are both great bikеs,but Trax isn,t as light (as Gordo). l Jakeand Christophеr both ride fast,but Сhr isto phеr esn,t r ide as skillfu! ly (asJ akе). do
    • lA2 I rlnit 42 o IDENтIFYReod this аrticlе on loundry dеtergеnts,Undеrlinе oll the еquotivеswith odjеctives,Сircle thе equotivеswith аdvеrbs, ffiЖYffiж&ЖtrТff Pпoouст Rвивws + fuджжвжY o you Wereriding trailsthis weekend, the and you hit the dirt. Nowyourсlotheslook as bad as yourbike.Nevermind.Тhey'lI look as food as new nextweekend. Wе сheсkedout three majorbrandsof detergent, We сan te||you whiсhones сlean best and and whiсhones don't remove trai|stains effeсtively others. as overall,Britеand Kleenaren'tas expensive Тrend, theydidn'tperformas we|l as but either,However, they were almost as good in partiсu|ar categories. Тrendrеmovedboth mud and grass stains effeсtive|y. Brite removedmudjust as effeсtively Тrend,but it as grass stains as we||. didn'tremove K|eenwas effeсtive grass stains,but not on mud. on Briteсleanedсlothesas thoroughly K|een, as but again,Briteand KleenWеren't good as as Trendin this сategory. the otherhand,Briteсame out on top in brightеning. on сolors just didn'tlook as bright the onеs washedin Brite. washedin Kleen and Trend as o сOfflPIEтЕReod thеsеconvеrsotions,Сompletе thеm with equotivеsusing thе corrеct form of thе words in porеnthеsеs. Doeэ 1. Toм.4.s: ride aэ comfortab|Уaэ your new bike Drшд: It,s gтeat. Thе handlebaГS __ъ. = a. (ridе/ сomfortаb|е) . ' . .. GotБ/ W.dе) the old one? and the handbrakes to rеaсh. This bike was madе for a small с. (not bе / hard) person like me. 2. Hдшs: We need a name for this produсt. It should show that this detеrgent the others but a. (сlеan / еffесtivе) to the environment. Evд: I like ..GrеenKleеn.',It it 3. с. (soundi еxсiting) b. (not bе / unfriеnd|y) other produсt namеs, and thе message Iш-Su: The last group I rodе with thеirs too. -a. (be / noisy) a herd of elephants. I prefer to ridе alone, but I know it's dangerous. Srrш.Hr: Ride with rrie neхt wеekend. I I promise. b . ( p e d a l/ q u i e t ) a mouse.
    • Adieсtives and Adverbs: Еquativеs о & сOIILPАREс0мPLETE Rеаd thе chort comporing sevеrolmodels of biсусlеs.Сomplеte thе sentencеswith equаtivesusing the corrеct form of the words in porеnthеses. Сhoosе betwеenаffirmаtivе ond nеgotive, Pпoouст Rдтlшсs + B:sYсLЕs Mooвl. Pнсв Trax Goмгoкт $999 o o o $ss0 Gordo $22s 1. The Gor 6o Bпдкlшс SPEED' DRY GROUND О Huff Квv:Bвттвп G + Q --+О Woпsв Bпдкlшс SPЕED' WЕг GRoUND a) О o c Sнlпlшс EAsЕ О (stopi quiсk) @ О Ф o a) aэ doeэn,t eto? ag quick|у 4. The Trax 5. The Trax @ @ a) Ф the Trax and the Huff. thе Huff. (fее|/ сomfoгtab|е) еither. (be / сhеap) thе Traх. ( r i d e/ с o m f o r t a b | e ) 7. on the road. the Gordo the Trax. 7 gooф 6,.,unaь 8. off the road. thе Gordo and the Huff 9. The Gordo нANDLlNG thе Trax. (bе / еxpеnsivе) 6. Even thе Gordo 0гг.пoдo the Trax and thе Huff. 2. on wet gтound, thе Huff 3. The Gordo 0ш.пoдo IIANDtING (shift / еasy) (hand|е good) / thе Trax. thе Huff. EDIT.Reod thеsebulletin boord postings, Find ond corrесt six mistokеsin the use of еquotives.The first mistokе is olreаdy corrеctеd. Мountain Bikе Forum ж{fr.#/.,:,:|'*:ffi жж Rв: Not as many bruises! lnexperienсed ridersshouldtry the SouthТrailat BearpawPark.Тhesсeneryis justas beauliful The slopes aren'tas {эeat,ti+t*|+и ridingtraсkisn'tas unfriend|y thanthe NorthTrail's. but its beсausetherearen'tas manyroсks.lt isn'tas short|ike fal| steep,and you Won't as frequent at sti|| the North,so you'Il get a good ride,and you won'tfee|as disсouraged the end of the day. Rв:The (expensive)new Тrax it lot, withthis bike?l test-drove aroundthe storeparking Does anyonehaveany experienсe too. and it handlesas smoothly My and I'mnot impressed. old Traxshiftsas justeasily, сost $999 either. but of сourseit'snotas |ightly, thenit doesn't l 183
    • Adieсtives: Comparatives BIffЕfl МшшU! Рfrf(Еsl l0}ytf, '{!;;i1* шттIt FфD! P0lNт Сhеck the corrеct onswеr. Thе nеw restaurant will be il dift.'еnt from the old restaurant. t tь" samе as the old restaurant. сoil|PARAтlvЕs сt/'ARт сIIЕсI( Сirclе T (Тruе)or F (Folse). т F Thе сomparative adjесtive form always ends in -er. Coмpдпдтlvв | Tндм brighter bettеr is Тhе new геstaurant than more lеss т F You сan usе thе samе сomparative adjесtive twiсe in a statement to show a сhange in a situation. thе o |d o ne. сomfortablе beautiful RЕPEAтED сoMPARAТlvEs | сo"oo*AтlvEl лn, | сo"oo*AтlvЕ bеtter Тhе food is gеtting worse more less bettеr. and worse. more dеliсio us. Iess interеsting. DoU BLE сolt,lPARAтlvЕs тнr |Goмpдпдтlvв l The more сrowded l rнп|сoмoo,o'.u. I thе rеstaurant, hе slowеr t thе sеrviсе. ЕхPRЕss,,,#-'ж Сomplеtеthis sentеnce. Mo's is bigger and 184 popular Val's.
    • lafr.^" Adieсtives: ООmрarativrs l rgъ s й ra gът ar Еxр*ажe&*Фer ffix*в.къ р&rs 1. Usе the (omparativе form of adjесtivеs to foсus on a differenсеbеtweеn peoplе, plaсеs, an d t h i n g s . 185 l Тhe nеW mеnu is biggеr than thе o|d mеnu. r Thе nеw waiteгsare more experienсed than thе o ld w aitегs. 2. Thеrе is more than one way to form the comparativе of adiесtives. bright friend|y Сoмpдпдтtvв brighter friendlier whеn уou add -er, big prеtty niсer bigger prettiеr foгms. сomparativе bad better worse a. For onе-sy|lab|e adjесtives and two-syl|able adjeсtives ending in .y, usе adjeсtivе + -er. Aojсстtvг b. For most othеr adjeсtivеs two or morе of sy|lables,use moreЛess + adjесtivе. сomfoгtab|e C. For some adjeсtives, еithеr-er or use morеЛess. r Thе lnn is quieter than Joе,s. r The I nn is mo r e quiet than J o е,s. 3. Use thе сomparativеwith than when you mеntionthе thingsyou are сomparing. Use the сomparative without thon when it is сlear whiсh things you are сomparing, 4. Rеpеatthe samе сomparative talk about to сhange-an inсreasе a deс or : GomParativе . ---J . сomparative + ono + ad|eсtive adieсtivе morе сomfortable less сomfortablе r Тhе apple piе is bеttеr thon the сakе. r Thе new dеssеrts bettеr. arе (Thеnеw dеsserts bеttеrthan the old dеssеrts.) orе gettinghardеr and hardеr to find an l |t,s rеstaurant. inexpеnsive OR more/less + аnd + more/less + adjeсtivе 5. Use a doublе сomparativе show сausе to and effeсt: LI^- Comparativе + L,-^. сomparativе . Ene + tne + ao|есtlve adjeсtivе l |t,sgetting morе and morе diffiсu|t. (Thе diffiсultyis inсreosing,) r Тhе shorter thе |inе, thе faster thе seгviсе. (Whеn thе linе is shortеr,the sеrviсеis fostеr,) it Cheсk out! F'or spelling rulеs for the сomparativе form of adjeсtives' see Appendiх 22 on page 344. For a list of irregular сomparative adjeсtivеs,see Appеndix 10 on page 339. For a list of some adjeсtivesthat form the сomparative in two ways, see Appendiх 12 on page 339.
    • 186 I unit 43 тRUE FАIiEo Look ot thesе two rеstаurаnt ods. Then rеod the stotemеntsbelow, аnd 0R dеcidе if thеу аre Truе (T) or Folsе (F), 4',t"''nь Luigi's Itаliаn Restашretnt Ri'to'аnte ltoliono Family-srylе еatingsinсе 1990 Еstаblishеd iп 1.990 Rеlахеd diпiпgin а romпntic аtmosphеrе open seven days a week-dinner only rеservations suggested Opеn Tuеsday_Sunday, 12:00-9:00 Едкry-BIко Spвсиr ( Г u l l d i n n е rГ o r $ 1 0 . 9 5i f o r d с r е dЬ е Г o г е : 0 0 ) 6 *rdlt r"tdt "ll "r".@ 127З ОrangeStreet 45З-З285 oпefree bellеrаgетllith this аd No rеsеruаtioпs песеssаrу No сrеdit саrds B75 orangе St. f l. Luigi's is older than Antonio's. 2. Antonio's is more romantiс than Luigi,s. 3. Luigi's is probably less сrowded. 4. Antonio's seems сheaper than Luigi,s. 5. on Tuеsdays, Luigi,s has shorter business hours. o Look ot port of Luigi,s mеnu. Thеn complеtе thе comporisons. с0IILPAREсOff|PLETE a Usе the comporotive form of thе words in porеnthеsеs. ? Spaфеtti Primavеra (ulith lцhtф sаutёеd uеgеtаblеs) ......$6.95 sp"ф"tti ArraЬЬiata (taithhоt сhitipeppеrs tomаtoсs).............$7.s5 аnd Fеttuссini Alfrеdo (ulithbuttеr аnd hеаuу сrеam) ...........$s.29 Linguinе Aglio е olio (ttlith gаrliс аnd oil).... V low fat, low salt hot l. The spaghetti primavera i, 2. The linguine aglio e olio is 3. The spaghetti arrabbiata is (spiсy) 4. The fettuссini Alfrеdo is s. The spaghetti primavera is $5.67 and spiсy chea?ert'han (сhеap) (еxpensivе) (hot) the spaghetti arrabbiata. the fettuссini Alfredo. and the linguine aglio e olio. (fattеning) (healthy) the spaghetti primavera. the fettuссini Alfredo.
    • Comparatives l Adieсtives: о Reod thеsесommеntsobout o restouront.Сomplеtе them with the сOff|PLEтE comporotivе form of thе words in porеnthesesto show сousе ond effесtor o chonge. l. A: I сan,t beliеve the size of this mеnu. It's going to take me forеvеr to сhoosе. B: The |onger (|ong) the men u, the more diffiaub (diffiсU|t) the сhoiсe. 2. A: They say the food herе is getting B: And and the food (good) (good) it is. (е-pe,ъi"e) 3. A: The serviсе seems a little slow tonight. B: Yеs, the restaurant. ' (popular) 4. A: The сigarette smoke here is getting B: (smokY) the room. thе serviсe. G|oФ and (bad) mу сough gets. (bad) 5. A: It's pretty loud in here. (сrowdеd) the rеstaurant, it is. (noisy) 6. A: Thеy сertainly g,,.e you a lot of food. I сan,t eat anоther bitе. (big) the portions, 7. A: Thеir desserts keep getting B: And I keep getting it is to finish. (hаrd) and and (deIiсious) I (heavy) EDIT.Reod this restouront review.Find ond correct еight mistokеsin thе use of the comporotive of odjectivеs,Thе first mistokе is olreodу corrеctеd. Dining Out tomatо sauсе in town. And lеavе room By Bкuсв Nвwндкт for dеssеrt. Thеy iust kееp gеtting gоod Pеtе,s Plaсеhas Iustrеоpеnеd and bеttеr. Thе wait staff is friеndly but nоt ablе Thе dining room undеr nеW managеmеnt. briаhter lооks biggеr, mоr+ь+ф' and prettiеr as to handlе largе numbеrs of pеoplе-thе thе old onе. Althoughthе food isn,t bеttеr, thе сrowdеd rеstаurant, slowеrthе sеrviсе. thе it is iust as good. Thе mеnu is morе variеd At dinnеrtime thе linеs outsidеthis pоpular Try and lеss еxpеnsivеr' onе оf thеir pasta еatеryarе gеtting longer and morе long. Try dishеs. Yоu won,t find a morе frеshеr lunсhtimе a quiеtеr fоr and rеlaxеdеr mеal. ta7
    • Adiectives: Whojust happеns bе to my wifе! Superlatives WPqINт Сheck thе corrеct onswer. Hдppy VдLвштlшп's The sеnder of this сard thinks his wife is vеrу: Dду! П typiсal П speсial Noтв: Valеntinе's Day (Fеbruary 14) is a holiday in the Unitеd Statеs and Canada. Many peoplе send сards to speсial pеоple in their lives to tell them thеir feelings. sUPЕRLAтlvЕs сHEсI( сHART Сhеck thе correct onswеrs. Whiсh word always goеs bеfore the supеrlative form of the adjeсtive? [l .tt You arе sweеtest funniеst best most wondеrful least selfish pеrsonin thе woг|d. That's the thе thе th е the niсest lovеliest worst m ost amusing lеast original сard l,vе еvеr rесeivеd. LJ most Whiсh lеtters do yоu add to thе end of a short adjeсtivе to form the supеrlative? -est Гl -er t Whiсh wоrds do you add bеforе a long adjeсtive to form the superlative? [l moreоr less [l mostor leost l i thе the the thе thе oor on LJ the 188 Supвпl.дтlvв Ao;встlvвFoпм
    • **.чу.чy.YY i,:т:]у.,::. .}.9P.......t i :т :.. .. EхPREss**l:!'"i;.i,i!ii;jэ AotвстIvп Сompletethе chort, Supвпl.дтlvв niсe bеautifuI Waгm happy жж wвж *ж жwжж Ж.жpf- ж**tз жw Жжж*жpfl.*ж to 1. Usе the super|ativе form of adjeсtives p|aсes. and thingsfгom other singlеout pеop|e, people,plaсes,and things. r You are the best parentsin thе world. l You are thе most wondеrful fгiеndl,ve evеr had. 2. Тhere is morе than one way to form thе super|ative of adjесtives. Ao|гстlvв bright friend|y Supвпrдтlvг thе brightest the friеndliеst when you add .est. big pгеtty thе biggеst thе prеttiest forms. supег|ativе bad thе worst of b. For most other adjесtives two or moге usе syllab|еs, the most/the leost + adjeсtive. сomfortabIе thе most сomfortablе thе least сomfortable use G. For some adjeсtives either the . . . .est or thе most/the leost. l My third hotelwas the quietеst. r My third hotel was thе most quiet. or adjесtives a. For onе-syIIab|е two-syl|ab|e еnding in .y, use thе + adjeсtive + .est. is 3. Thе super|ative often used with еxpressions b е g i n n i n g w i t h i n o r o f , s u с h a si n t h е w o r l d and of all. l You,rethe best mothеr in the world. l Hе,sthesmartestone of usoll. is 4. Thе superlativе somеtimеsfo|lowed by a сlausе. oftеn the с|ausе usеsthe pгеsеnt perfeсt with eyer. r That,sthe niсest сaгd I,ve ever received. r You havе the lovеliеst smiIеl,ve ever seеn, Сheсk oul! it F'or spelling rulеs for thе supеrlative form of adjeсtives, sеe Appendix 22 on page 344. For a list of irrеgular superlative adjесtives'see Appendiх 10 on page 339. F'or a list оf some adjесtivesthat form thе supеrlative in two Ways' see Appеndiх 12 on page 339.
    • l9O r Unit 4ul о lDENтltY Reod this Mother,s Doy cord writtеn bу а young child. Underline аll thе superIotivе odj eсtives. Youarе thе smoгtеst, brightф ond thе thefunniеst Knoшгr. doll momsl.vееvоГ qrеthеniсеdr гnогn evег 'Ve You hqd. ond Yоuqгetk, пost wondегful defrhitеly JhеlеqstГгеoг1. ls Nomomin1hе ьrhоe worid widе Ьqttеr 1hon you, Yоuоrethе rnotheгqll. c 9геоfеd l l lсvе vеr/V€ r y rnuсh yоv Day MоthегЗ l НqPрy N v W W .ж;Ф щ с0|{|PLЕTE t, о|00sE. Rеod thesesеntencesfrom Volеntine,sDoy сords. Сomplеtе them with thе superlotivе form of the odjесtivеsin pаrenthesеsond the expressionsin thе box. ofall,inthesсhooIofmylifeinourfamilyМoftheуеar the |uckiеэt 1. You are so good to me. I am (|uсky) 2. The day Wе Were married was 3. Yоu are a tеrrifiс tеaсher. You are 4. You make me fеel warm еvеn in 5. You are (niсе) 6. Grandma, you are why I love you the most. (happy) (good) (сold) pеrson in thе wor|d day teaсhеr months сous1n (wisе) pеrSon Maybе that's
    • Adjeсtives; Supеrlatives o Look ot thеsеgift itеms, Writе sеntenсesobout them. Use the supеrlаtive DESсRIBE form of thе words in pаrеnthesеs. сJъ=*_ r- 1 . T h e boоk iэ the |eaэt expenэive gift,, 2. The painting 3. Thе painting 4. The book 5. Thе painting 6. The sсarf 7. The toy (еxpеnsivе) (unusuа|) (praсtiса|) (small) (big) (еxpеnsivе) (fu n nlz) ЕDlT. Reod this porogroph from o student,sessoу,Find ond correct five mistokеsin the usе of superlotiveodjеctives.Thе first mistoke is olrеodу сorrected, moэt эeriouэ timе in Muslim Ramadan is the sefifi*sr€t сulture. During Ramadan, we do not еat fгom sunup to sunsеt. This is diffiсu].t for everyone, but teena$еrs have the hardеst timе. Right aftеr Ramadan is the Eid al-Fitг. This holiday iasts three d.ays, and it's the most happiest time of thе yеar. Thе moгning of Eid, my family gets up early and goes to the mosque. Aftег wе 6pееt ouг nei$hboгs by saying "Eid Mubaгek'' (Happy Eid), We go homе. We eat the bi$ breakfast you have ever seen. ouг parents $ivе us gifts, usually new сlothеs and monеy. one yeaц Eid сamе around thе tlmе I $тaduated from high sсhool. That yraц I $ot the most bеautiful сiothеs and thе fatter еnvelopе of money of all the сhildгen in my family. Еid Mеla is part of Eid al-Fitr. on that day, we all $o to a biЕl paгk. Last year at Еid Mela, I had the betteг time of my lifе. I met' my o1d high sсhool friеnds, and we a11ate junk food and showеd off our nеw сlothes. l 191
    • Adverbs: Comparatives and Superlatives Сome on, bryant,,Nry harder, Watch Jordan. The more he p|aуe, the better he looko, Ж POINT Сirсlе T (True) or F (False). т F Jordan improves every time he plays. сl|АRт сl]ЕсK сo]YlPARAтlvEs Сhесk thе correсt. a|lswеr. What do you add to long adverbs to form the сomparative? J [l Goмpдпдпvв AovвпвFoпм | т"o* hardеr Jordanplayed more or less -еr ot -est t tltе morе lеss aggrеssively сo nsistеntI y than Bryant. sUPERLAтlvЕs Whiсh word do you always add to form thе superlative? Д LJ mast ш bеttеr Supвпl.дтlvв Aovвпв Foпм Hе thrеw the fastest th е bеst the most thе least aссuratеly frequently o f anyo nеin the gamе. ЕхPREssi,i';.,,"i'i".,,'.;:,i".",,i'i, Сircle thе corrесt words to complеtе thesеsentencеs, Sims threw fastеr than / of Jоnes. He played better / the best of all. 192
    • Adverbs: Cопrраratives аnd supеrlativrs s 6 rвжъжзar Жжpfl.e'x*tЁ#ffi 193 Еxamplеs 1. Use the comparative form of adverbs to betweenaсtions. foсus on diffеrenсes I l Тhe Bul|spIayedbеttеr than thе Lakеrs. r Joгdanp|ayеdmore skillfully than o,Nea|. without thon whеn jt is Use the сompaгativе сlеarwhiсh thingsyou are сompaгing. 2. Usе thе superIative form of advеrbs to sino|еout somеthinoabout an aсtion. with еxprеssions Wе often use the super|ative bеginnlng wlth of, suсh as of onу ploуеr. 3. Тhere is more than one way to form thе Gomрarativе and supеr|ative of adverbs. r Hе p|ayеdless aggressively, though. l Bryantworked thе hardеst. r He sсoгеdthe most frequеnt|у of onу ployеr on thе tеam. Aovвпв fast hard Сoмpдпдтtvв Supгпt-дтlvь faster thе fastest harder the hardest badlv worse thе worst b. For most advеrbsof two or more syllab|еs, use moreЛess + advеrb or the most/thе lеost + adverb. ski|Iful|y morе/less skillfully thе most/the lеast skillfully с. Some advеrbsuse еithеrmore/lessor -er and the most/the leost or the . , . .est. quiсk|y more quiсkly the most quiсkly quiсkеr thе quiсkеst adverbs,use advеrb + .er a. For onе-sy|lab|е or the + advеrb + -est. forms. сompaгativе and suoеrIativе 4. Repeatthe same сomparativeto taIkabout or сhanое_an inсrеase a dесгеase: сomparativе -.^J . сomparativе + ono + advеrb advеrb oR moreЛess + ond + more/less + adverb r Bryantis p|ayingbettеr and bettеr as thе seasonсontinuеs. (His pеrformonсе kеepsimproving') r He is shooting more and more aссurately. (Нis shootingkееpsgеtting morе oСсurotе). to 5. Usе a doubIeсomparative show сause and еffeсt: the + сomparative advеrb сomparativе .| + the + advеrb l Thе hardеr he played,thе bettеr hе pегformed. (Whеn hе ploуеd horder, hispеrformonсе improvеd.) iI Сheсk oul! For a list of irrеgular сomparisons of adverbs, sеe Appendix 10 on page 339.
    • 194 r unit 4s o iDENтIFYRеod this fеoturestory from thе sports section of the nеwspoper.Undеrline oll the сomporаtivе forms onсe. Undеrline oII thе superlotivеforms twiсe. Seсtion 3 Sports Gоlds BеatSilvеrs! still handlсd thе ball likс thе old Aсе. Hе In thе first soссеf gamе оf thе sеason, thе Golds bсat thе Silvеrs,6 to 3.Thс Silvег tсam playеd a truly fantastiс gamе, but its dеfсnsе is still wеak. Thе Gоlds dеfсndсd muсh morе aggrеssivеly thс ball than thе Silvсr tеam did. of сoursе, Aсс Jaсkson сеrtainly hсlpеd чrin thе gamе for thе Golds. Thе Golds' star playсr was baсk on thе fiеld сеrtainly handlеd it thе mоst skillfuЩ of anyonс on thс tсam. Не сontrollсd thс ball thе bсst, kiсkеd tlrс ball thе farthеst' and гan thе fastrst of anу of thе playеrs on сithеr tеam. Hе playеd hаrd and hеlpеd thе Golds look good. In faсt, thс haгdсr hе playеd, thе bеttеr thе Golds pеrformеd. W,atсhAсе this srason. tоday to thе dсlight оf his many fans. Hе And watсh wаs hurt badly at thе сnd of last sеason, сoaсh, and thеy'rе training morе sеriously this yеar. I think wе'll sее thеm play bеttеr but hс has rесovеrсd quiсkly. Although hс didn't p|aу as wеll as pсoplе еxpесtеd, hе thе Silvеrs. Thеy havе a nеW and bеttеr as thе srason progfеssеs. o Reod this conversotionbеtweenfriеnds, Сomplete it with thе compаrаtive сOПлPLEтE or supеrlotiveforms of the words in porеnthеses. Add the ond than wherе nесеssorу, Brr-r,y: Did you hear about that new speed-reading сoursе? It helps you read faeter 1. (fast) a16 2. (wеll) Mrсrrвr,: I don't believe it! Thе 3. (faф you understand. you read, the 4. (|itt|е) Brr,r,y: Thе ad says that after the сourse you'll read ten time* ,1'o.9 and understand five times more. And the best thing is that you won't havе to work anv 6. (hard) Mrсuвr,: I,d like to see that. All through high sсhool, I read any student in my сlass, but I also remеmbered details and 9. (long) 7. (slowly) of 8. (сlеar|y) of anv of mv сlassmates. Brr,r,y: Maybe you сould rеad еven that and still remеmber 10.(q,сщ4 details. That way, you'd have more time to go to the gym. Mrсuвr,: Did you read the сourse dеsсription сompletely? Brr,r,y: I read it 11. (сomp|еtе|y) I read most things.
    • о Look ot thе chort. Тhеn complete the sentenсеs & сI/l00sЕ сOПлPLETE with thе сomporotive or supеrlotivеform of the words in the box. You will use somе words morе thon oncе. good far Aтнt.втв Cruz fast slow BвoдоJuмв Pot-е Yдuьтlшс high S.МlLЕ Ruш l4.3 feеt 7 feet 3 inсhеs 24 minutes Smith l4.l fеet 7 feet 2 nсhеs 28 minutes Lin l 5 .2 f e е t 7 feet 8 n с h e s 30 minutes Storm l5.4 fееt 8 fеet 2 inсhеs 22 minutеs Cлlzjumped Storm vaulted farther than the higheet, Smith. of all. Lin ran Smith ran Storm. Storm jumped Сt:uz tan Storm vaulted Smith. Smith. All in all, Storm did All in all. Smith did rеport obout o boskеtbollgomе, Find ond сorrectseven EDIT.Rеod this studеnt,s mistokesin the usе of odvеrbs, Thе first mistokе is olrеodу corrеcted. Last night I watсhed the Lakeгs and the Bulls. Both teams played moгe than aggтessively{'ve ever seen thеm. In fact, they played the better of any game I've watсhed t'his season. In the first half' Miсhaеl с.Iordansprainеd his left' ankle, and Shaquille o'Neal was out of the game beсause of fouls. But they still didn't start the seсond haШ any slower that the first. With сIordan out, Kukoс sсored the most frequenteт of any player. He's been playing more and more better as the season goes on. In faсt, more he p}ays, the betteг he looks. The Bulls Won 97 to 88. The Lakers sermed to get bired at the end. They played llttle and less сonsistently as the gamе wеnt on.
    • SelfTest gNE rc:S:rr{pnrl Сircle thе lеtter of the сorrect onswеr to complеtе eoch sеntencе. Exдшptп: Jennifer never (A) drink (B)drinks l. I have (A) a good (B)best д@с D сoffee. (C) is drinking (D)was drinking job in the world. 2. The apple pie smеlls (A) wonderful (B)wоnderfully 3. Our team didn't play (A) as well as (B)well (C) more wоndеrfully (D)the most wondеrfully I expeсted.I was disappointеd. (C) as badly as (D)bеttеr 4. I passed my driver's tеst. It seemed muсh (C)easiest {A)easy (B)easier (D)easily 5. The faster Tranh walks. (A) morе tired (B)he gets tired 6. Could you talk (A) more quietly (B)quieter than AвсD (C)the bеst (D)the better this timе. (C) the morе tired hе gets (D)he gets more tired ? I'm trying to wоrk. (C) more quiet (D)quiet ABсD ABсD AвсD AB сD ABсD 7. Lisa is staying home. Her сold is a lot today. (A) bad (C)worst (B)worse (D)thе rrgorst ABсD 8. Sorry we're late. Your house is muсh than we thought. (A) far (C) farther (B)the farthest (D)the farther ABсD 9. The movie was s o _ (A) exсitingly (B)exсitеd AB 10. Chris is working very (A) hardly (B)hard 196 that we сouldn't slеep last night. (С) ехсitе (D)еxсiting thеse days. (C)harder (D)hardеst сD ABсD
    • ЧF--. SelfTest 1 1 . Writethereportfirst.It'smoreimportant-yourothеrWork. (A) than (B)as Vlll I ABсD (C) from (D)then 12. T h e l u n с h m e n u i s v e r v s h o r t . I t ' s - t h a n t h e d i n n е r m e n u . (C) less varied (A) varied (B)more varied (D)the least varied ABсD 1 3 . Thank you! That,s ABсD r've ever reсeived. (C) niсest g,ft (D)the niсest gift (A) the niсer gift (B)a niсe gift 1 4 . It's getting more to find a сheap apartment. (C) the most diffiсult (D)and very diffiсult (A) hardly (B)and more diffiсult ls,ЕстloNI ABсD TWo Еoch sеntencеhos four undеrlined words or phrosеs, The four underlinedports of thе sеntеnceorе morkеd A, B, С, ond D. Сirclе the lettеr of thе onе underlinеd word or phrose thot is Nor сORREст. Еxдмptt: Мike usually drives tо sсhool, but today he walks. AвсD A B сo 1 5 . The harder Sylvia tries, less she suссeeds. ABсD 1 6 . This has been the best day than my whole life! ABсD 1 7 . Wе,re always amazing ф John,s inсredible travеl storiеs. ABсD 1 8 . We took a lot of photos beсause she was suсh a сutely little baby. ABсD 1 9 . our new сar is hard to drive than our old one. ABсD 20. Patriсk doesn,t run quiсkly as Lee, but hе сan run farther. ABсD 21. You did muсh morе better in thе last test --D than in this onе. ABсD 22. What's the more popular of all the new TV shows? ABсD 23. The more I praсtiсe the piano, the most skilled I get. ABсD 24. The garbage in the street is more disgusted than the potholes. AвсD 2s. Today seems as hotter as yesterday, but the humidity is lower. ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD AB(D AB(D AB(D AB(D A--_E,----_-т---D- ABсD 197
    • Gerunds: Subjeсt and objeсt I ' ma l l o uI o f br aaf,haqain. I real|у nеrd to jogging! oуuit lжжffi] PпINт Сheck thе corrеct onswer. What does thе woman want to give up? A & G oa t r..l LJ сHART сliEсK сigarеttes eхеrсlse GЕRUND As SUB,EсT Сhеck the corrеct onswеr. Gвпuшo (Suцвст)v.*. I oш.., | What does the gerund еnd with? Smoking har ms yo ur health. Not smoking makеs you hеa|thiег. fl -ed Г1 -ing What goes before the gerund to makе it negative? Д LJ not Ёl don't or doesn't 198 GЕпuND oB,Ест As _ll 5uв,вст | Vвпв (oв1вст) [ Gвпuшo You s h o u l dq u i t smoking. My doсtoг suggеsts not smoking.
    • Gerunds: Subjeсt and objeсt r ExPREss ffiЖ Сompletе this convеrsotionwith thе сorrect form of thе vеrb drink. Use the offirmotiveor negаtivе. A: too muсh сoffee isn't gоod for you. B: Iknow. Iquit сoffee last vear. A: My doсtor suggested soda either. Grammar Еxplanations Еxamples 1. A gerund (basеform of vеrb + -lng) is a verb that funсtionslike a noun. I Drinking too muсh сoffеeis bad for youг hea|th. A geгundсan bе thе subjесt of a sentеnсe. l Smoking is also unhеalthy. when you add .ing to thе basеform of the vеrb. iog Notiсe that a gerund is aIways singularand is followedby thе third-pеrson-singuIar of form the verb. r Еating junk food mokes mе siсk. r lnhaling smokе gives me bronсhitis. jogging gеr und progrеssivе form of the veгb. 2. ^ gerund сan also be thе objeсt of сеrtainvеrbs. Тo the right is a short |istof verbs that сan bе followed by a gerund. with 3. Therе are many сommon еxprеssions go + gerцnd. Тhese exprеssions usually dеsсribеaсtivities, fishing, suсh as shopping, skiing, swimming, and сomping. progrеssive form r Hе is drinking сoffеeright now. r I enjoy eхercising. l |,vесonsidered joining a gym. admit avoid сonsidеr dеny еnjoy finish miss praсtiсe quit resent suggеst understand l Wе oftеn go swimming in thе Iakе. r Yеsterdayl went shopping foг a nеw pair of running shoеs. Сheсk out! it For morе сomplete lists of сommon verbs that сan bе followed by thе gеrund, sее Appendix 3 on pagе 337 and Appendix 6 on pagе 338. 199
    • 2OO r unit 46 о IDENтiFYRеod port of аn orticlе from o heolth nеwslеttеr.Underlinе thе words ending in -ing thаt ore gеrunds, п }wtммlшс is grеat еxеrсisе. It.s hеalthy,fun, and rеlaхing.Bесausе swimmingis a ..low-impaсt'' sport, mostpеoplееnjoypartiсipating in this aсtivity withoutfеarоf injury to thеirbonеsor musсlеs. Jogging, whiсh is a ..high-impaсt'' aсtivity, canat timеsbе harmful. I know this from pеrsonal ехpеriеnсе.Last yеar whilе I was jogging, I injurеd my right knее. I don't gо jogging anymorе. Aftеr a painful month of rесovеry' I stoppеd running and switсhеd to watеr sports.l'm now сonsidеringjoining a swimming tеam and сompеting in raсеs. сH00sE с0мPLEIE.Rеod thesеstotеmеntsobout hеolth issuеs. & Сomplеte thеm with thе gеrund form of the verbs in thе boх. Сhoose bеtwеen аffirmotive ond nеgotive. inсrease eat Эmokng 1. do walk drink }n€ f iб swim run go is bad fоr your heart and lungs. 2. tоo muсh fat and sugar is also unhealthy. 3. enough water is bad for your general health. 4. Doсtors suggest s. Avoid the amount of fruits and vegetablеs in your diet. too many high-impaсt sports suсh as jogging and Jumpшg rope. in a pool every day. It's an exсellent 6. Instead. соnsider low-impaсt aсtivity. 7. Many health eхperts think that is better than beсause there is less strеss on your body when your feet сomе into сontaсt with the gтound. 8. Some people are afraid of the doсtoц but is a mistake. for regular сheсkups
    • ggТiTgYj.?.1L:J.ч:l g?l::}.:. ........ .?.9l.. .1']у. o sUмlIiАRlzE Reod eoch numberеdstotеmеnt.Сompletеthе following summory using thе oppropriotе vеrb from the box ond thе gеrund form of thе verb in pаrеnthesеs. aсknowledge 1. сonsidеr (Jog) (smokе) (swim) Jrм: I smell smoke toо. But don,t look at mе! I didn't havе a сigarette! (smokе) Iшд: I know I should eхerсise, but I don't want to. I guess you're right. I am lazу. Suммдвy: Ina 6. (bе) Iazу. Pнrr,: No, thanks. The сakе looks gтеat, but I'm trying to stay away frоm swееts. Suммдвт Phil 7. quit Cнвш: I,m going to that nrw swimming pool. Would you like tо go with me? Suммдвy: Jim 5. go Мдвтд: oh. no thanks. I don't smоke anУmore. Suммдвv: Chen is going to 4. ФdФ jogТing, enjoу Suммдвv: Мarta 3. deny Toм: Ann jogs, but I don,t really likе that kind of еxerсise. Suммдву: Tom doesn't 2. avoid (eat) sweets. Vrr,мд: I'm not sure' but I maу go on a vaсation. Suммдву: Vilma (take) a vaсation. o ЕDII Reodlim,s notes,Find ond corrеctninе mistokesin thе usе of thе gerund, Thе first mistokе is olrеodу corrеctеd. 9MOKING WАУ5 I CAN Qиlт J'f*Ot<ЕCleАREттЕl Pick аи eхacL daLe Lo 4иit svиoКe. (Cиr 9Lop svоokingcovоpLeLeL,1. dowи is harder Lhaи sЕoPpivg aLLat ovlce.) Avoid Lo be aroцnd oLher sиokers (aL LeasLaL Lhe beqivtиivlg). daiLу' To erercise CaИ redцce sLress. 9Larr eхercisivlg No driиkiиg cof*ee YoavheLPLoo. PosiЕivewtevlLaL tvлages caи heLp. Lvnaginebeeиa иoи-svиoKer. Loиsider Lo 1oiи^ suPPorLgroцP. Dovl,L deLaу Lo asK for help. CaLLDr. Bиrиs righL awaу K e e pLr у l и g a n d d o v t ,L i v e иp ! 9
    • Gerunds after Prepositions GЕT l}|v0tvЕD! in lnterested improving |ifeon саmpus? Tirеdof heаring сomp|aints not finding solutions? аnd (ounсi|! JointheStudеnt p.м., Nеxtl4еeting: 25,8:00 Мon., Маrсh МаinAuditorium Wе lookforwаrd seeing you there. to You(ANmаkе differеnсе! а The Student Counсil is looking for studеnts who т F want to make new friends. т F want to improve lifе on сampus. Т F likе to сomplain. GЕRUNDSAFTЕR PREPoslтloNs сlflEсl( сHАRT Сhеck the corrеct onswеrs. What part of speeсh is the word to in Iook forword to? П part of the infinitive t a preposition I P*.,o,.,loш |rшoт) с,*uno | Do you havе idеas for improving life on сampus? We're good at planning ahеad. You сan hе|p bу taking notеs. Shе bе|iеvеs ln (not) compromising. Are you tirеd of hearing What form of thе verb follows a preposition? Let'swork instеad of сo mplaining. t Thеy insist on (not) сo ming to thе mееting. I look forward to (not) having to study next summег. th" base form П tь" gerund П tь" infinitive 202 сompIaints?
    • Gerunds atter Рrepоsitiоns I Eх'PREss'жж Сomplеtе this conversаtionwith thе corrеct form of thе verb ioin. A: Are you happy about B: Sure. I,d beеn looking forward to ggt G rаmrnar frxрl*ma*f; g l. A preposition is a word suсh as obout, ogoinst, ot, hу, for, in, instеod of, of, on, to, with, and without. А prepositionсan be fol|owеdby a noun or a pronoun. Beсausea gerund (basеform of veгb + -ing) aсts as a noun, it сan follow a prеposition too. 2. Many Gommon еxprеssions are madе up of a verb or an adjесtivеfollowed by a preposition. Тhеsе еxprеssions сan be followеd by a gerund. 3. Bв сдпвгur! a. ln thе еxpressions to thе right, to is a prepositjon, not part of an infinitivеform. For this rеasonit сan bе followеd by the gerund. b. Do not сonfusеused to + basе form of verb (foг habits in the past) with bе/get used to + gеrund (meaning ,,bе/get aссustomеd to,,). the Studеnt Cоunсil? a group for a while. Ж,xamрl*s noun l Тhе сounсil insistson eleсtions, oгonoun l Тhe сounсi|insistson them. oerund r Тhe сounсi|insistson 7oting. Vвпв+ Pпвpostтlotч adviseagainst bеliеvеin сount on Ao;встlvв Pвгposlтtoш + afraidof bored with exсitеdabout t She сounts on going to сo||еgе. r Hе is borеd with working in a storе. Vtпв + Pпвpostтloш look foгwardto ob|есtto геsortto Ao;встtvв Pпвpostтtoш + aссustomеdto opposеd to usеd to l l,m lookingforwaгdto seeingуou. Noт |,m |ooking forward tffi€ € j Ёot*. l I used to take the train. (lt wos my hobit to toke thе troin, but l no longеr tokе thе troin.) l l,m usеd to tokingthе train. (l,m oссustomed tаking thе troin,) to l |,m getting used to toking the tгain. (l,m gеtting oссustomеd toking thе troin,) to it Сheсk oul! For a list of сommon verb plus preposition сombinations, see Appendix 7 on pagе 338. For a list of сommon adjeсtive plus preposition сombinations' see Appendix 8 on page 338. 2o3
    • 2O4 I Ltll.it 4? o IDENтiFYThе StudentСounсil wrotе o lettеr ta thе сallеgеpresidеnt.Rеad it and undеrlinеаll the prеposition+ gerund сombinotions, A/e,the membeгs of the Student Council, would like to shaте wlth you the thoughts and сonсeгns of the general studеnt' body. As you probably knoщ many students are сomplainin$ about Шfe on сampus. lVe aге interested in meetin€ you to disсuss our ideas foг deaШn$ TЛrith T^rith these сomplaints. [Iе know that you aгe tired of hearing students сomplain and that you aгe not used to woгking With the Student Counсil. Howeveц if you really believе in $iving new ideas a tгy, we hopе you wlll think about speaking With ouг гepгesentatives soon. lVe look forward. to hearing fгom you soon. о сн00sE& с0мPIETE Rеod thеsеcommеntsfrom thе sсhool nеwspopеr.Сomplеte thе stotеmеntswith the opproprioteprеpositionfrom thе box (уou will use onе studеnts, of thеm severаl times)ond thе gеrund form of thе verb in porenthеsеs. at on in to about for about Тetting 1. I don't havе any plans for spring brеak, but I'm not сonсernеd bоred. I сan always takе a walk or somеthing.-Jl (gеt) m Hsu 2. What are my plans for spring brеak? I'm very interеsted to jazz.I,m going to attend thе Spring Jazz Festival .-Lisa (listеn) Suarеz 3. My friends and I are driving to New orleans. I,m exсited but I'm nеrvous (rеlax) Lealе at night.-Emilia (drivе) 4. I'm really looking forward (qo) at homе and just (stay) .-Don Pitt 5. I,m driving to Quеbeс. It's famous (hаvе) 6, I love languagеs, but I'm not good my Japanеsе сlass over the break. -Claire gтeat food. -Eun (lеarn) them, so I'm studying for Kaplаn 7. My friеnds and I are going сamping, but my little brother insists with us. A lot of fun that,ll be!-omar 8. My girlfriend plans Ko (сomе) Sisanе u'd iБ;ф movies, so I guess I,ll rеad a lot and see a lot of movies.-Tim (go,) Rilеу to the
    • Gerunds after Рreроsitions l o сOlлBlNE Rеod thеsеpoirs of sеntеncesobout school life. Сombinе them with the prеpositionsin porеnthеsеs. 1. You сan't walk on сampus late at night. You have to worry about your safety. You can't wa|kon cam?uэ |ate at night wi|houtworryingabout Уour эafetу, (without) 2. We сan make сhanges. We сan tell the administration abоut our сonсerns. (by) 3. The administration сan help. It сan listen to our сonсerns. (by) 4. In some сases' students just сomplain. They don,t make suggestions for improvements. (instead of) 5. Students get annoyed with somе teaсhers. Some teaсhers сome late tо сlass. (fo0 6. You сan improve your gтades. Study regularly. (bv) letter.Find ond correctsеvеnmistokеsin the use of gеrunds EDIT.Reod this studеnt,s oftеr prеpositions, Thе first mistoke is olrеodу corrected. Deаr Briаи, I hаve brеп аtteпdiпg Loпgtrее Сo//еge а !е'Ir l,m rеrу hoPPу for э|udуing he,e, Аt frst, it шаs а littlе hаrdgеttiпg to sprаk Епgltsh "sed а// thr'time, bиt nool,t feе/ ,е,у сomfo,tаb/eаbout сommиniсаte iп mу аboиtф seсond /апgиаge, Ijиstjoiпеd аn iиfurпаtionа/stиdепtgroиp, апd |,m eхсifudц,it|t meеtiиg ИelaPеoP/r, Sиmmer brеаk is сomiпg, аnd а fr- of аrе p/аипiпg "s on do somo trаre/iпg together.Bфn tojoiп this groиp, I иsed to speпd ho/idауs а/onе. P/eаsr шrite, | /ookforшаrd to heа" fo- уoи! /<. 2os
    • lnfinitives after Certain Verbs Lifestyles Seсtion 4 Asк AшNlЕ DеаrAnnie, Iжffiж] month agо I mеt this gгеat Меgan, and I askеd Awoman, r l hеr to mаrry mе гiфt awaу. Shе says things aгl ..moving too fast''' and shе wants mе to think about m}r pгоposаl somе moге. I told hеr I сan't afford tо чrait _Impаtiеnt forеvеr. Am I riфt? I сI]АRT сIiEсK Сirсlе T (Truе)or F (Folse). т F Thе infinitive = base form + to. т F The nеgativе infinitive = not + infinitive. т F All verbs nееd an objесt bеforе thе infinitivе. Сhеck thе corrеct onswer. П М"gan wants morе time to сonsidеr the marriagе proposal. t Megan thinks "Impatient" should сonsidеr his proposal morе. SтAТЕмЕNTS: WlтHoUT AN oB'Ест Suв,вст | v.*' They l r"oо | ln,.n,,.u. I deсidеd agrееd (not) to сall to ask A nnie. SтAтEП,|ЕNТS: Wtт}l AN oB'Ест Suв,вст | v'*' Тhey urged advisеd I ory.., | цoт1| ln,.n.,.u. I John him (not) to сa|l to ask hеr. sтAтЕпnЕNTS: wlтH AN oPтloNAt oB|Ест Suвlвстv.*, | Тhеy I to,,..,) | ln,,n...u. I wanted (ohn) nееdеd (him) to сalI to ask her. ПnErТf; EхPREss Unscromblеthеsе words to form o sentencе, to о want о Annie о write о to о I 206 P1INT
    • lnfinitives after Certain Verbs Grammar Еxрlaпations Еxamples 1. Сertain veфs сan be fol|owedby an lnflnltlve (fo + basеform of thе vеrb). r l want to get maгriеd. r l askеd Anniе to help me, 2. Somе of thesе verbs arе fo|lowеddireсtly bу an infinitlvе. l Hе dесided to write to Anniе. r Hе hoped to get a quiсk rep|y. Тhе vеrbs to the right сan bе followed direсt|y by an infinitivе. 3. Some vеrbs nеed an ob|есt (noun or рronoun) bеforе thе lnflnltlvе. agreе bеgin fail p|an rеfцsе seem objeсt r I invited Morу to сelebratе with us. objесt r I r eminded her to сo mе. Тhе vеrbs to thе right neеd an objeсt beforе the infinitive. advisе encoцragе ordеr tеll urgе waln 4. Somе vеrbs сan bе fo]lowеdby eithеr: . an lnfinltivе r Hе waпts to leove' Hе,stirеd. OR OR о an obieсt + lnfinitlvе r Hе wants уou to lеove. You,rеtired. Тhе verbs to thе гight сan be fo||owed either direсtly by an infinitivеoг by an objесt + infinitive. ask expeсt help 5. Form a negative infinitive by plaсing not bеforеthe infinitive. need want would like r Lеe геmеmbегеdnot to coll aftег5:00. (Lееdidn,tсoll ofter5:00.) r Аna to|d mе not to go to сlass. (Ano: ,,Don,t go. Thе tеoсhеris siсk,,,) infinitivесan havе a vеry differеntmеaning from a sеntеnсе with a nеgativеmain vеrb (Van:,,Don,t givе up',,) l Van didn,t tеll mе to givе up. (Von didn't soy anything.) it Cheсk out! For a list of сommon verbs followed direсtly by the infinitive, see Appendix 4 on page 338. For a list of verbs fоllowеd by objeсts and thе infrnitive, sеe Appеndiх 5 on pagе 338. For a list of verbs that сan be followed either dirесtly by an infinitivе or by an objeсt + infinitivе, seе Appеndix 5 on page 338. I 2O7
    • 2O8 I unit 48 ,,lmpotiеnt.,, о oll LLndеrlinе the vеrb + infinitive ond tDENтltY Reod Annie,s responsеto vеrb + objеct + infinitive combinotions. Lifestyles 17 DеаrImpatiеnь loцr down! You аppеаr tо bе in toо muсh of a hurгy.You'vс only known this pеrson for amоnth and yеt you askеd hег to mаfry yоu!.ЧIhat's thе big rush? WIцl сan,t,yoll affоrd tо чrait? Arе yоu afraid that if shе gеts tо know yоu bеttец shе may dесidе not to tiе thе knot? I agгес with youг girlfriеnd.Yоu nееd tо соnsidеr things fl1orе сaгеfrrlly.Yоu сan,t rxресt hеr (оr yоursеlf) tо mаkе sцсh an impогtant dесision so quiсkly.If you dоn't want to rеglеt a hasty dесisiоn,I advisс you both to gеt to knоw еaф *Аnnie оthеr bсttеr bеfoге yоu hurry tо thе a|tar. o сЙI|PIEтE Reod this orticlе. Сomplete it with thе corrеct form of the vеrbs in porеnthеses,|Jsеthe simplе presеntor thе imperotive form of thе first vеrb, Plalrlcilog for Lоvе ost peoplе make сarefulplans when thеy decide to take Yеt whеn they a mate,they dеpend on luсk. 2. (attеmpt / find) Ph.D., ЕdwardA. Drеyfus, Не lovе to сhanсe. 3. (waгn / singlе peop|е / not / leavе) plan whеn thеy searсhfor a lifе partnеr. his four,"stеp ,4.(urgе/them/usе) When you Rеmеmbеr: a vaсation. 1. (deсide / takе) you 5. (fail / рlan) sтЕP oNЕ: Makе a list. What kind of person do you 6. (plаn / fail) 7. (wish / meеt) Someonewho loves sports?List everything. Somеoneintеlligеnt? sтЕP TWo: Make anothеr list. What kind of pеrson are you? 8. (Ask / two friends / геad) your list and сommenton it. Thе two lists should matсh. sтЕP THRЕЕ: lnсrеase your сhanсes. 9. (Сhoosе/ partiсipаtе) Dr. sтЕР FOUR: Ask for introduсtions. Drеyfus to еmbarrassed ask.Еvеryonе 1 1 . ( w а n t/ b е ) in aсtivitiеs you likе. l o . ( а d v i s е/ p е o p | e/ n o t / f е e l ) a matсhmakеr!
    • frтflпЁt*wes aft*r Оеrtalrr V*гlэs l o Rеod еoch numbеrеdstotеment.Сomplеtethe SummorYusing thе sufflЛflАRlzЕ oppropriote vеrb from thе box followеd bу аn infinitive or on objеct + infinitivе, agree remind would like ж invite neеd forget еnсourage Aгтшrв: I reallv think you shоuld take things more slоwly, Chet. l. Suммдвy: Annie urgedChet to take thngэmoreэlowly. Cдвyш: Tom. сould you сall me at 10:00? 2, Suммдвy: Caryn Kuвт: Еmily, plеasе remеmbеr tо buy gas today. 3. Suммдвv: Kurt Joнш: Wе,re going out for сoffee,Marta. Would you like to jоin us? 4. Suммдву: John Jдsoш: oK, oK, Dad. I'll bе homе by 10:30 if that's what you want. 5. Suммдвy: Jason Jвгг: oh. no! It's 4:I5.I didn't go to the 2:00 staff meeting! 6. Suммдву: Jеff Moм: Come on, Lisa, don't be sсared. Just try again. 7. Suммдву: Lisa's mother Tвввy: I,m using the сar tonight. I'm taking Sue to the mall. 8. Suммдву: Terrv EDIT.Reаd this еntrу in o pеrsonol diorу. Find аnd corrеct sеVеnmistаkesin thе usе of infinitivesoftеr cеrtoin vеrbs. Thе first mistokе is olreodу сorrectеd. &r " to join жrAnnieаdvis-еdmеpяlяgac|ab,oу-tаkeа-c|аss, ..I|.m_rе'aLIуехc,lt.еА.аbor,tthjs-,Тhе...c"lшb.isplаnnin-gahlИngfjp '-to...go-''rn*ting''in.Ihe'5Qr.i,nq'At.l,trst|'d-iАл!IмanI'slgningap,batIhe Ji,,eI|1h'o.p-ed-mokе-sлme-trlen/s.мhе.n L4oinеА'lhj;о.|шb*hмI.-I'dtdnI-eхw*-еveухолe ----,.", -betng- 2o9
    • lnfinitives after Ceгtain Adjeсtives and Ceгtain Nouns |I,э hard to find qood frieэ Nhеoе daуe' wffiPЙINт Chеck thе сorreсt onswer, П гi.'аing good fries is diffiсult. П тьe man hardly еats anything but fries. lNFlNlтlvEs AFтЕR сЕRтAIN AD'EcтlvЕs сIIART сI]EсI( I Aol..r,u. I tn'n,r,u.I Сhесk thе сorrеct onswеrs. Thе infinitive is formed with: It',s hard to find nutritious food. fast Wе,re eagеr to hear about thе new restaurant. t to + base form of verb He sееmеd surprisеd to lеarn thе amount of fat in a buгgеr. t to + base form of verb + -ing lNFlNlТlvEs AFтER сЕRтAIN NoUNs | шou* The infinitivе follows: П сertain nouns and adjeсtives -t LJ сеrtarn prepositions 2to | In'.n.'.u.I It',s t i me to go. That'sa high priсe to pay. Doеs hе have pеrmission to stay out late?
    • lnfinitives after CeЁain Adieсtivеs and Nоuns l 2tt EхPREss'ж& Unscromblеthеsеwords to form two sentenсеs. сonvenient о lt's о еat o fast о food о to pay . a о priсe о low о That,s о to trxрЕeшetiоrcs A n,amrжar Е.xamрles l. Cегtainadjесtivеs сan bе followed by an infinitivе (to + basеform of thе vеrb). r Thеy Wеrееagеr to trу the nеw taсo. adjeсtive infinitivе Мany of thesе adjесtivеs desсribea feеling about thе aсtion in thе infinitive. r She was glad to heor that it was |ow in сa|oriеs. Adjeсtivesthat expressщa.!sc-.a[ Цзлne aгe often fo||owеdby an infinitivе. l l was wrong to leove, r Тhеy werе brave to tell him. Adjесtivеsthat show the ordеr of aсtionsaгe oftеn fol|owеdby an infinitive. r We wеге last to order. r Whеn the сhесk сamе, she was first to lеove the rеstauгant. 2. Wе often use lt3 + adjeсtive + infinitivе. infinitive adjесtivе l lt,s grеat to seeyou again. When thе aсtion in thе infinitiveis done by a person,we often use of or for + noun,/рronoцn. r lt was si||у of Tom to lеavе. l |t,shard for us to gеt hеге on timе. lt's + adjесtive + infinitivе is oftеn usеd to makе gеnеra| obsеrvations. I lt,s сonveniеnt to eot fast food. l lt,s diffiсult for studеntsto work fu|ltime. 3. Cегtainnouns сan be followedbv an infinitivе. Тhe noun + infinitivе сombinationoften advjsability neсеssity. exprеssеs or l r l r r no un inf initive lt,stime to toke a bгeak. l havе the right to eot what l want. Тhеy madе a dесision to lose wеight. ltЪ a high priсе to poу, Hе has pеrmission to stoу out late. l Robin is thе pеrson to osk about that. (Youshould qskRobinobout thot.) r I have a tеst to studу for гight now. (l must study for my tеst,) Сheсk oul! it Por a list of сommon aфeсtivеs that сan be followеd by the infinitive, see Appеndix 9 on page 338.
    • 2|2 l U*тit .*sl o Reod this questionnoire.Undеrline oll the odjeсtive+ infinitivе ond IDENтIFY noun + infinitive сombinotions. Writе A ovеr thе odiectivеsond N oyer thе nouns. Please take a few mirl{utes to сomPlete this questionnaire aboцt fast.food restaurants. Cheсk (/) a|| the answers that are aPPropriate for you. A 1. How often are you likely to eat at a fast-food restaurant? .7 4-6 timеs a wееk Г 1_З timеs a weеk . ' nеver . morе than 6 timеs a wееk 2. Inyour opinion,fast food is: :good to eat a Wayto savеtimе П цnhеalthyto havе еvery day П fцn to order oссasiona|ly 3. Whiсh statement Ьest dеsсriЬesyour feе|ingsaboцt the сost of fast food? l] Yoц get a lot for just a little money. П |t,sa high priсe to pay for сonvеniеnсе. 4. ls it a good ideato inс|udehеa|thy сhoiсesin fast.foodmеnus? ПNo ПYеs o с0ILPLEтE Reаd thеsеexcerptsfrom letters to the еditor of а co|lеgеnеwspopеr, Сomplеtе them with the corrеct form of thе words in porеntheses, Last year I stoppеd еating in the sсhool сafetеria bесausе thе fоod was so bad and it placeto have was suсh a grim the first time. I was the u meal. Yеsterdav I wеnt baсk for 1. (p|aсe havе) / Taсo Bеl1 therе. Fast foods arе 2. (dе|ightеd find) / ! They're 3. (way / go) and the 4. (fun / еаt) сheerful atmospherе has made the сafetеria a in. I'll bе 5. (plеasurе еat) / eating lunсh therе every day from now on.-L, Brеnner It was a 6 . ( m i s t a k е/ b r i n g ) 7. (outrаgеous sеe) / fоod theу Srrve isn,t fast-food сhains to thе сampus. It's thе eхaсt same restaurants everywhere you go. The . It сontains muсh too muсh SugaЦ 8. (good / еat) salt' and fat. Fоr сommuter students, it's mеal bеfore еvening сlass, and it's | 9 . ( е s s е n t i a/ h a v е ) t 1 o . ( d i f f i с u l/ g o ) dinnеr. We just don't havе thе time .-B. Chеn a hеalthy off сampus for
    • j:jj:...tjy.::..1Tуj.Р.:t1i:i*Yi:::у.1:.?:.'::.Гj:-, о сlt00sГ& сOмPIETE Rеod thеsесonversotionsbetwееnco-workеrs.Сomplеtе thеm pаrеnthеsesаnd the infinitive form of o verb from thе box. with thе words in get cry hear kеep work find deсide wake up show E<{ t,imeio t,ake Cнвrs: H"y, Dana. I,ve got tо talk to you. Do you have 1. (timе) a break? Dдпд: Sure, Chris. What,s wrong? You lоok like you,re Cнвrs: Mr. Kay just askеd me if Id be to midnight. 2. (rеady) from 4:00 p.м. rc Dдшд: Yоu have an early сlass. It's early afbеr 4. (hard) working late. Cнвrs: Right. When I told him that hе said,..I,m Chris. I thоughtyouwеrе shift manager." Dдшд: It's a promotion to re your gтades up too. Did he give you ?(П.po.ta.ф 8. (timе) that, 5. (suprisеd) ? Cнвrs: He just said, "oK. I'll ask Steve. We'll g',,e him th.e 9. (сhаnсе) his loyalty to the сompaIlУ.,, Dдшд: Fast-food jobs are 1o. (еasy) ' Just сonсentrate on sсhоol. EDIT.Reod Mr, Koу,sjournol, Find ond corrеctsеvеn mistokesin the usе of infinitives. Thе first mistokе is olrеody сorrеctеd, to aэk ToniqhLL vnalo Lhe decisioи as .k4 Chris Lo t.ake Lhei"ghr shlf:ь.L reъLLу-Lhoуф she waL1aJnц|-o Ve g|ad for geLLingLhe oftor-5he.hasеxPcиses. Looks Like she wаs Lhe wroиДPersoиI аsked!тhe Probtgtи иlt_llit]i *Was-}s,!Le-[v-a5 эfuААIgъ.Еэ Litu Le -- jr,..xЕJL_"waswrqnqof JmPa-L. u$pr=pLhreaЕenГ-o.asK..5LзХe-J-c^pуLd_L:r-ш_---_-|hЭ,L-sh,e-"w'A'S.'P-re-Lуv-nРs?-r-I.p-h9aI*L.-haу-.J1Lt.hiлKэ-Dp-tlL *r*oлotio-и*aиушaу-5Le-lt.*Iv e5 geLLiИg a b rcalк.
    • lnfinitives with Too and Еnough [Е'*гсв PпINт Сirclе T (Truе)or F (Fаlsе). т (сSan, уour rnothеr вnd I think that уou arе now old, еrlough to gеt уaur own d,rink of aпtеr.'' The man's parents want the man to get them a drink of water. т F Thе man wants his parents to gеt him a drink of water. s WlтH тao + IAo;встlvв/ (Foл Nouш/ l сl]ARт сIIEсI( lNFlNlтlvЕ I Сhеck thе corrеct аnswеr, Whiсh word сomеs before the adjeсtive or advеrb? Д LJ too F Too IAovвпв oв,вст Pпoшouш) lшгlшlтlvп | Wе,rе (not) young (for peop|е) to trust. Тhe tеaсhег talked too quiсkly (foгmе) to takе It's(not) hard (for us) to dесidе. notеs. -lr LJ enougn lNFlNlтlvЕs Wlт}| ENOUGIi Ao;встlvв/| |1гo*+Nouш/ I Aovвпв i Eнouсн| oв,встPпoшouш) | lшгlшlтlvв Thеy,re(not) Sh е h a s n ,t o m e often с It's(not) 214 (for peop|е) o ld еasy enough to trust. (for mе) to rесognize (foгus) to deсide. her.
    • tnfinitives with Too and Enouqh I 215 EхPREssж Unscromblethеsе words to form two sеntеncеs. vote r She's . to . young o too to о enоu$h о old . We,re о work 6 ramштar Еxрia]ratlФпs ЕxaктрIеs l. Usе too + adjесtivе/advеrb + infinitivе to give a reason. l |,m too young to drive. (l,m not siхtееnуеt, so l сon,t drivе.) r She isn't too young to drive. (Shе,sovеr siхtееn,so shе сon drivе.) r She aггivedtoo late to toke the test' (Shе arrivedtwеntуminutеsoftеr thе tеststortеd, so she сouldn,ttake the tеst.) too late to toke thе test. l Shе didn,t aггivе (Shе arrivedonly two minutesofter thе test stortеd,so she сould tokе thе tеst,) 2. You сan also usе adiесtivе/advеrb + enough + inflnltivе to givе a гeason. l l,m old enough to go into the aгmy. (l,m over еightееn, l сon go into thе ormу.) so l Hе isn,t o|d enough to go into thе army. (Hе isn,t eightееnуet, so hе con,tgo into the ormу.) r | гan fast enough to poss thе physiсa|. (l ron vеrу fost,so l possedthе phуsiсal') l Shе didn,t run fast enough to Possthе physiсa|. (Shе didn,t run vеry fast,so shе didn,t poss thе physiсol') 3. Notiсe that you don,t neеd to use thе infinitive when ttiе meaningis сlеarfrom thе сontext. l yeaгsold, and | сan,tvote yet. |,m seventеen |,mtoo young. |,m not old enough. and enough. Тoo сomes bеforethе adjесtivеor advеrb. l Shе,stoo old. Enough сomes aftегthе adjесtiveor advеrb. l |,m not old enough. Noт l,m not сnetgh-оl* 4. SomеtimesWe usе for + noun or far + objeсt Pronoun bеfore thе infinitivе. l Wе arе too young for people to trust us. (Pеoplеdon,t trust us,) r We arе too young for thеm to trиst us. (Thеydon,t trust us,)
    • 216 t il'Ёпit sФ сlt00sEo Peoplе hаvе diffеrentopinions obout publiс issues.Reod еoch numbered stаtеmentof opinion, Then circle thе lеttеrof the sentencе(a) or (b) thot bеst summorizеsthot opinion, 1. Teenagers are rеsponsible еnough to stay out past 10:00 p.м. permission tо stay out past 10:00 p.м. @ Teenagers should have b. Teenagers shouldn,t have permission to stay out past 10:00 p.м. 2. Teenagеrs are too immature to vote. a. Teenagers should be able to votе. b. Teenagers shouldn't be able to vote. 3. Teenagers are responsible enough to use the Internet without сensorship. a. Teenagеrs сan use the Internеt without сensоrship. b. Teenagers сan,t use the Internеt without сensorship. 4. Adults are toо afraid of сhange to listen to сhildren,s ideas. a. Adults listеn to сhildren's idеas. b. Adults don,t listen to сhildren,s idеas. 5. At age seventy, people are not too old to work. a. At age sevеnty, people сan work. b. At age seventy, pеople сan't wоrk. 6. Siхtееn-year-olds are not experiеnсed enough to drive at night. a. Sixtеen-year-olds сan drive at night. b. Sixteen-year-olds сan,t drivе at night. UNiсRAI|BLE. Gino wonts to drivе to onothеr сitу for o concert, but hеr mother thinks with thе words in porenthеsеs, Then writе G (Gina) she,stoo young. Moke sеntencеs rеpresеnts. or M (Mothеr) to show whoseopinion eаch sentenсe 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. You're t,oo уoung t,o be out, эo lat,e. ( t o o / Y o u , r el y o u n g l t o / o u t / b е / s o / | a t е ) ( g e t / | t , sl | o l b у t e n / u s l t o o l h o m е / f a r l t o r ) ( t a k eс a r е o f / m a t u г е/ m y s е | fl | , m l t o / е n o u g h ) ( d a n g e r o u sl t o o l n i g h t / l t , s/ t o / d r i v е / a t ) ( t o o i g i v е l w o r r у i | / m u с h / t o / p e r m i s s i o n/ y o u ) / 1trrаt еxperienсеd / drivе / arеn,t l far l enough / to / You) M
    • Agзfgз*t*rяes '+vitГr Т*tэ эпt-l ||,,r:i-;l,'';;. . o Some tееnogеrsorе lеoving o сonсеrt. Сomplеtе thе sеntеncеs,IJsethe с0ПiIPIEтE words in porеntheses with the infinitivеond too or enough. 1. I сouldn't hear that last song. The guitar у7gg for too |o-ud me |o hear (|oud/me/heаr) 2. Let's get tiсkets for the сonсert in Hampton. They,re 3. I hope the сonсert hall is (сhеаp/us/аfford) all the fans! (lаrgе / hold) 4, I hopе my mother lets mе go. This сonсert is going to be 5. Let's get a pizza at Sal's. The large ones are 6. It,s 9:30 alrеadv. It's 8. Kyle didn't get out of work (good/mе/miss) (big/ sharе) for pizza. ( | а t e/ s t o p ) 7, I hatе this сurfew! I think we,re thе words. ( o | с l/ s t а y ) (еar|уl сomе) 9. Van, I'm playing basketball tomorrow. Are you still 10. Lеt,s find out. But I want to walk. Your сar isn't out past 10:00! tonight. ( s | o w/ b е a t ) ( s а f е/ d r i v е ) o journol entrу.Find ond correсteight mistokesin thе usе of EDII Reod this student,s infinitivеswith too or enough. Thе first mistokеis olrеody corrеctеd. ь"}, ' to э|eep -i , T|w,P|Й/ФфttДxt Иrа,{ аJ,|le{'ot,иp! I'ш, too oхсttЙ,#rs|ryф. Noоr саn Qord"oп, rиЦ ntюo ь|,tt *Чlu!пozLt0 sLИ! tt,,|у TllАt мЙo '*! *tЙp s|шtttе,r! дfto tЙp uпrut иlo И)erorцЩ fucчrу, bиt ь И/а,' hto togo fo, P*"*. I |+АТЕ t0 tЙlх sttф, *f'',,! It's toо t1,е,b0L tt,иl'^цstnи^d,.ftэrtl, Todd,'nrk,s аJ4nhА5 му toFry tnхu, bиt thp |ллrsауshэs too TlLаt's уo^g fo, 'try'И! oиtp.aсt10:00! ufory ,*Ч|uto t,ил"k"е,шarttto sсуeanи,. reИuLИjr I sшro t,tц,o Th^аt |'r" ry шx,. tи"otЙ,er chлryеs |uе/l44i,Иn s00?t/,*чlufor I to bry *tkJ<rt to tЙp |}а"tаptoш cott,ult. Tho/ se/LoцtuPxуrЙq Wц fuеsшt shpt/цлk r'и,t,t,паturе,to druto lLаиoto dюit sot,иtti,уиl,! t WеhL, d, bеttu trу to7et s0ше/ s[eеуоr ffу шdpsr I'[,1, I,1,1, botoo tiуЙ,too got L? |ntЙ"oшоrnф. mе? 217
    • lnfinitives of Purpose 534 llAIAtAт0п t Electronic 0rganizer $89.95 Available at all Laсу,sDepartmeлt Stores. Use me r' Ю look up words r' to store namesаnd phonе numbеrs r' to add and subtraсt t/ to write down ideas r' to look сool! WPЙINт Сheck аlI thе correct onswers. What сan you use thе Datalator as? П an address book сI]EсK сI]АRт Сirclе T (Truе)or F (Fаlsе), т F There are two ways to form the affirmаtive infinitive of purposе. т 218 F Thеre arе two ways to form the negative infinitive of purpose. t a telephone П adiсtionary t anotepad л LJ a radio AFFпrшAтlvЕ NЕGAтlvЕ l p u t h i s n u m b е ri n my o r ganiz eг (in ordеr) to save it. l madе a note (in order) to remеmber ouг date. | |еftat 9:00 (in order) to arrive еarly. l ran (in order) to сatсh thе bus. l put his numberin my o r ganiz еr in order not to losе it. l made a notе in ordеr not to forgеt our date. | |еftat 9:00 in ordеr not to arrive latе. I ran in order not to miss thе bus.
    • |nfinitives оf Purрosе l Еx,PREss .-в {Фft": Unscromblеthese words to form two sentеncеs. Store . addresses . use . I . an о organizet . to in order . I О not о set о oversleep o my . alarm сloсk r to 6 rarmrжar fixрlaиetf;ФШs Еxarrrрlеs 1. Use an infinitivе (to + base form of thе verb) to explain the purposeof an aсtion. ]t oftеn answersthe question Whу? A: whу did you 9o to Laсy,s? B: l wеnt therеto buy onе of thosе Data|atoгs I saw in an ad. Usдсв Noтв: |n spoken Еnglish,you сan аnswеr A: Whу did you go to Laсy,s? the question Why? with an inсomplеtеsentenсе B: To buy an e|есtroniс oгganizег. bеginningwith Тo. 2. You сan also usе thе longег form in ordеr to + basе form of thе verb to explain a purpose. Usдсв Noтв: Тo + basе form of thе veгb is more сommon in informalspeeсh and writing. 3. Usе in order not to + basе form of the vеrb to еxorеssa nеoativeouroosе. 4. You сan also use noun/pronoun + infinitive to exprеssthе ouroose of an obieсt. l bought an organizеrin ordеr to store names and pho nе numbeгs. to I bought an organizеr store namеsand pho ne number s. in I I use my Data|ator ordеr not to makе mistakes pronunсiation. in (l don,twqnt to mokе mistqkеs') l nееd an organizеr to hеIp mе remembеr my sсhedule. I need it to hеlp me remembermy sсhеdu|е. 2|9
    • 22o l s"* &"ArъЁ* o Rеаd this сonversation.Undеrline oll thе infinitivеs thot еxprеsso purposе. /iDENTIFY Yoкo: It,s 5:00. Aren,t yоu gоing home? Lвв: I.[о.I,m staying late to finish this report. What about you? Are you going straight homе? Yoкo: No. I'm going to stop at the bank to get some сash. Thеn I'm going to Laсy,s Departmеnt Store to take advantage of the sale they'rе having. Lвв: oh, what are you going to get? Yoкo; one of thosе nеw elесtroniс organizers they're advertising. I,ve bеen looking for somеthing to help me with my work. Lвш: What's Wrong with just a regular сalсulator? Yoко: Nоthing. But sоmеtimes I have to сonvеrt other сurrenсies to dollars. Lвш: What еlse are you going tо use it fоr? Yoкo: oh, to store important names and phоne numbеrs and to balanсe my сheсkbook. Lвв: What did we do beforе they invented all thеsе eleсtroniс gadgets? Yoкo: Wе made a lot of mistakеs! о АNsv!ЕR Look ot Yoko,slist of things to do, Then writе o phrose to answеr еoch quеstion, To Do -Get gas -Mаke dentаlappoiпtmеnt _Buy batteгies -Withdгaw $,loo -lnvitе Flikaand Taгotо diпneг -Buy milk and eggs To make a dental appointment^ 1. whv did she сall Dr. Tоwbin,s offiсе? 2. whv did shе gо tо the bank? 3. whv did she сall Mrs. Watanabе? 4. whv did shе go to the supermarket? 5. whv did she go to the elесtroniсs stоrе? 6. whv did shе go to the serviсe station?
    • Еnfirritiчяes оf Рi;rr:оsсl l m 22|' o Il|А|сH For еoсh oction, find thе сorrectpurpose. ы Aсtion Purpose q 1. He enrolled in Chinese 101 beсause he a. didn't want to get any phone сalls. b 2. She took a bus beсausе shе b. didn't want to be late. 3. She went to the store bесause shе G. wanted to store informatiоn. 4. We disсonneсted оur phone beсause we d. wanted to listеn to thе news. 5. He turned on the radio beсause he е. didn't want to worrу me. 6. He didn't tell me he was siсk beсause he f. needеd tо buy some dishes. 7. She bought a Datalator beсause she 9. wanted to lеarn the language. o REwRlтE Сombinе the sеntencеports аbovе. Use thе infinitive of purposе. 1. He enro||edin Chineэe 1o1to learn the |anquage. 2. 1he took э buэ in order not,|o be |ate. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. journol entry,Find ond сorrect six mistokesin the use of the infinitive EDIT.Rеod Yoko,s of purposе, The first mistoke is olreodу corrеctеd. to gеt, tесtll .сlgапсd...t-p-d.аg..lЦh.lс,|..tц..qs'шq.[tiпg,..|..и';сd l.шrnt..t.p-.Dr..Tдцу..hlл..fu.fu-шg Dа.tа.|в.tаr..to'stиdg..f.o-r'thс...Т.Q.Е.Е-L.,'.T.h.еп'.|..иspd..tt.to-.kс/р;nт.е.P-raпaш ,dспtа| floss-||.Йr..ш.и.а.p.p.r,iпt.п.r.п.t,.Аftсr.tlэ.е.d.сп.tis.t-.Iс.h.с.с.kс'd..шt.ц..ас.h .,|tЗikа..qпd..T'а,rp,..d'iп,п.еп..7;3Q,.,!''|'.shpиId..и.s.e-.it.,[п..lzr.d.е,r.tp..п.о.t'.fr. !tt.|t..rQсipls'q'r.с..g.lr'.€.qdИ'g'tl..th.е..D.q.tаIa.tp-r..;p..|..и.sgd..th'сп'..fr'r.Ш.qk l'lst,..Wh.e.п'/'.rl.оLh.qшэ"..th.е.r.е.tllа.s'q.!t.p.t.е.'.aп'.2l.ц.'d.qp.r-.!.С..all..h/.d.q,'. ,.!h|dg" Dаtд.|q.tp-r.dir'tnпа'rg. sиpеr!!..T.lэс.'!.hи.il.dtщ.sиp.сr.ta,tе.п.d.е.п't',!..нlа.п.te. ta.f:п.d иp.i.п..qrdgr'fх..th.е'.dparhll|t..R.ik0"..T..qr.p.".g.п.d..l.p.|g'ц.е..d'.шith...thе.Dq. Yoи сап oroаrаm it for to olаи сomoиfur аolmеstoo, I doп,t kпo. hoш | linсd шithoиt it!
    • Gerunds embarraэerd' I didn,L rвmember Bob. mеet,ing and lnfinitives c o u |dу o u forget? tсн жl P0lNт Сirclе T (Truе)or F (Folse). т F The infrnitive sometimеs follows a preposition. т F F The woman forgot that she had mеt Bob onсe bеforе. GERUNDS lNFlNIтlvЕs Martaenjoysgoing to partiеs. Marta wants to go to partiеs. She lovеs mеeting nеw pеop|e. Shе loves to mееt new pеoplе. She stopped buying iсе сream. She stoppеd to buy iсе сrеam. сHARт сl]ЕсI( т The woman had an appointmеnt with Bob, but shе forgot to go. т Сirсle T (True)or F (Folse). т F Sоme verbs сan be followed by either the gerund or the infinitive. F She,sworriеdabout forgеtting people,s namеs. Agerundсan bе the subjесt of a sentеnсе. Mеeting new pеoplе is fun' lt,s fun to meеt nеw peoplе. EхPREssж Complete thеsеsеntencеswith the corrеct form of thе vеrbsgo or talk. о Phil wants О о Phil enjoys о It's fun 222 tо the party. tо partres rs exсrtrng. about a lot of diffеrent things. to new peоple.
    • Gerunds and lnfinitives Grammar Еxplanations l Мaгta еnjoys meeting pеop|е. r Shе misses going to paгtiеs. 2. Some verbs are foIlowed by an infinitivе. l Marta wants to meet pеop|е. r She'd like to go to parties. 3. Some vеrbs сan be fol|owеdby еithеr a gеrund or an infinltlve. 223 t,xamplеs 1. Somе vеrbs are followеd by a gerund. r r Marta lovеs meeting nеw pеop|е. OR r Мarta lovеs to meet nеw pеoplе. 4. Bв сдRвгul!A fеw verbs сan bе followеd by еithеr a gеrund or an infinitivе, but thе mеanlngs arе vеTy dlfferent r Marta stopped eating iсе сгeam. (Shеdoеsn,t iсе сrеamonуmorе,) еot l Maгta stoppеd to eat iсе сгеam. (She stoppedanothеractivitуin ordеr to еot somе iсе сrеom') r r Riсhar d emеmbеr еd mailing thе invitatio n. (Firsthе moilеd thе invitation.Thеn hе rеmеmbеrеd thot he did it.) l Riсhardrememberеd to mai| thе invitation. (Firsthe rеmеmbered. Thеnhе moilеd the invitotion,Hе didn,t forget,) r Marta forgot meeting Riсhard. (Morto mеt Riсhord,but oftеrwords didn,t shе remеmbеr evеnt.) thе r Marta forgot to meеt Riсhard. (Morto hod plons to mееt Richard,but shе didn,t meethim bесousе forgotobout the plans.) shе 5. A gеruпd is the on|y vегb form that сan fo|Iow a PreрoJltion. 6. To makеgeneral statements,you сan Usе: . gerund as subjeсt l preposition Marta,s worriеd about forgetting names. r Mееting nеW pеoplе is fun. OR . It's + adjесtlvе/noun + infinitive OR I ;t,s fun to meet nеw pеoplе it Cheсk out! For a list of сommon vеrbs followed by the gеrund, see Appеndix 3 on page 337. For a list of сommon verbs followed by thе infinitive, see Appendix 4 on page 338. For a list of verbs that сan be followed by the gerund or the infrnitive, see Appendix 6 on page 338.
    • 224 r unit s? тRUE FАIiE. Rеod еoch numbеredsentеnce,Writе T (True)or F (FoIsе)for the 0R stotеmеntthot fo|lows. l. Marta remembered meeting Мr. Jaсkson. т Marta has already met Mr. Jaсkson. 2. Riсhard stopped smoking. Riсhard doesn't smoke anvmore. 3 . She didn't remember to buy a сake for the party. She bought a сake. 4. She stopped eating desserts. She used to eat desserts. 5 . Riсhard forgot to invitе his boss to the party. Riсhard invitеd his boss. 6. Riсhard forgot inviting his neighbor to the party. Riсhard invited his neighbor. 7. Riсhard thinks giving a party is fun. Riсhard thinks it,s fun to give a party. Marta likes going to partiеs. Marta likes to gо to parties. o сl{i00sE Сirсle thе correct words to completе these idеаs from а book collеd Super Mеmory.* 1. Get into the habit o to repeat things aloud. 2. Nevеr rely on someone else's memory. Learn trusting / to trust your own. 3. It's easy forgetting / to forget what you don,t want remеmbеring/ to remembеr. 4. Study immediately before going / to go to slеep. You'll remember a lot more. 5. our memories are filled with things we never meant remembering / to rеmember. 6. Makе it a habit to pass in front of your сar evеry time you gеt out, and you'll never forget turning off / to turn off your headlights. 7. Plalring / Tо play gamеs is a fun way of improving / tо improvе your memory skills. *Souпсв: Super Memorу: Quiсk A Aсtion Progrom Mеmorу for Doug|as Hеrmann, lmprovеment |. (Avenеl, WingsBooks, N|: 1991).
    • Gerunds аnСl |nfinitives o Сompletethe summorу sUIl|мARlzEReod eoсh numbеredstotemеntor conversotion. stotemеntusing o gеrund or аn infinitive. 1. Roсвв: Hi, Riсhard. I brought the soda. Whеre dо you want me to put it? Suммдвy: Roger remembеrеd 2. the to brng эoda, Мдвтд: You,re Natalva! We mеt last yеar at Riсhard,s party! Hоw havе you beеn? Suммдвy: Marta rеmеmbers 3. Roсввз Don,t look at mе|.I didn,t spill grape juiсе on thе сouсh! Suммдвy: Rogеr denied 4. Nдтдr.yд: I,m so glad Riсh ard plays jazz at his partiеs. I listеn to it a lot at home too. Suммдвy: Natalya еnjoys 5. Lвv: Would you like to go danсing some time? Mдвтд: Sure. I'd like that verv muсh. Suммдвy: Lev suggested Marta agreed 6. Nдтдr,yд: Marta' сan wе give you a ride homе? Мдвтд: Thanks, but I think I'll stay a littlе longer. Suммдвy: Natalva оfferеd Marta deсided o portу. Find ond сorrеctsеvеn ЕDIT Rеod Morto,sjournol entrу obout Richord,s mistаkesin thе use of thе gerund ond infinitivе,Thе first mistokеis olreodу corrеcted, bсс,,иse itЗ sисh а prob/еmt'ir шr to Whаt llgrсаt sltlrtц! l иsиаllу ",u,,1ff}!u раrties | rеmem|lсr1lсosl/e пLl|,lсs,|,m sogLт,-{ 'еас/ thаt book аboиt iш1эrovеуoиr mеmotу, T/tе З аиthor sиggеsfui to lo еxсrсises, аиd thеу rеа//у hе/pеl, I stoppеl to шorrу аboиt шhаt | pеoplе -oи/сt thiпk of -е, ,тпс{ triес/to P,у аttэпtioп {1lluhаt pеop/ешerе sауiпg' Аs а ,еs"/t, l hа,t а3reаt titпс! I'm еrеи p/аииiпggoiпg iltпсiп7 шith thisgиу Leи so / hаre ап Епglish tеst tomorroИl| / shoи/d stop шritiпg пo- апс|stлrt stиdуiиg, t The book еvсп lптi somе9oo,| tips аboиtstиr/ц fbr аИ ех.1m, hopе I rсmеmber иsitпJ somе, ofthе* toпiqht! l 225
    • Let, HeIp, Makё, HaVёl and Get N ft'e qoinq o make uэ эt,aу after c|aэo, |1e,|| nеver |et,me |ake тhаt quiz aqarn. WffiP0INт Сirсlе T (Truе)or F (Folsе). т F The tеaсher in the piсture has vеry striсt rules. with two of his students. |aimeЕsсalante мAKE, IIАvE, LEт HELP сI]Eсt( сI/,ARт Сirclе T (Truе)or F (Folse). т F Moke, hove, and let are always followеd by the base form of thе verb. т т 226 F F Getсan be fоllowed bу еither the base form of the verb оr the infinitive. HеIp сan be follоwed by either thе basе form of thе verb or the infinitive. 5uв,вст | млкс/Hлvс/ | I | Ltт/Hrtp Тhе teaсhеrs (don't) make have lеt help l вo'. Foпм oв'вст t oг Vвпв us do students homеwork. GET, нELP Suв;вст I I Gст/Hсw Тhе tеaсhеrs (don't) get help I""..t It-rt-,t,"n us students to do homеwork.
    • Make, Haven Let, Help,, and (ief I 227 o a a a a a a a a a a a a a a o a o o o a o o o a o a a a a o o a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a ( EхPREssж Сompletе thеsеsentеnceswith thе correсt form of thе verbsсorrесt or stay. A: Did the teaсhеr get the students B: Yes. He had them their essavs? their essays in gтoups. A: Do vou think he,ll make thеm late again tоday? B: I don't think so. But he'll let them late if they neеd help. 6rаmmar Axpianatioпs Е,xamp1*s 1. Use moke, hove, and let folIowedby objесt + basе form of the vеrb to ta]kabout things that someone саn rеouirе.сausе.or permit anotheг personto do r Thе tеaсhегmakеs his students do homеwork еveгy night. (Hе rеquirеs them to do homework.) l Hе has them tofte геsponsibi|ity thеirown for lear ning. (Hе cousеsthеm to takе rеsponsibilitу.) r Hе lеts thern сhoosethеir own essaytopiсs. (He pеrmitsthеm to сhoosеtheir own essoytopiсs,) You сan a|sousе moke to mean ,,сause to.,, r Тhis will make уou beсome a bettеr studеnt. (Thiswill сausеуou to bесomеo bеttеrstudent.) 2. Help can be folIowеd by еither: о obiесt + basе form of thе verb OR . obiесt + infinitivе. r She helpеd me undеrstond thе homеwork. OR r Shе hеlped me to understond the homework. Тhe meaningis the samе. Usдсr Noтц: HеIp + base form of thе vеrb is more сommon. r Тhе tеaсhеrgot иs to stoу a littlе latеr. 3. Get has a similarmеaning to mokе and hove, butitisfollowedbyobjесt+infinitivе,notNoт (Thе tеoсhеrpеrsuodеdus to stoу o littlе lotеr,) thе basе form of the vеrb. r Shе a|waysgеts me to do my bеst. (Shе olwoуspersuodеs to do mу bеst,) me
    • 228 I unit sS o тRUE FАLiE Reаd eoch numbеrеdsеntеnce.Write T (True)or F (Folsе)for the 0R stаtеmеntthot follows, l. My teaсher made mе rеwritе the rеport. т I wrotе the report again. Мs. Tragеr lеt us use our diсtionaries during the tеst. We had to usе our diсtionariеs. 3 . Mr. Gоldberg had us translatе a short story. Wе translated a short story. 4 . Paulo helped Meng dо her hоmеwork. Paulo did Mеng,s homework for her. 5 . Ms. Batеs got thе dirесtor to arrange a сlass trip. The dirесtor arranged a сlass trip. Professor Washington let us сhoosе our own topiс for our term paper. We didn't сhoose our own topiс. сl]00sЕo Сirclе the corrеct words to complеtе this orticle obout lаimе ЕscаIontе, tttiraсle /'* llr rU Tea.Gher "l/ lll. ,;it 11 7i 4! Ir1t tt, lll ' ,i ti. tk /i" |aimе Еsсalantе first arrivеd at T ^ /hеn v U Garfiеld High, the administration of "'ь"n-,o"t; :":;Ъ::"-;-;:; :.:":'1ЦБ ; ; 7. thеm drop out of сlass. Thеn hе did thе gangsof impossiblе. Hе had / lеt his studеnts takе studеnts roam thе halls and spray the walls thе Advanсеd Plaсеmеnt Ехam, a vеry with graffiti. Howеvеr;this math tеaсhеrfrom diffiсult national tеst. Whеn his students Boliviabеliеved in his U.S.studеnts muсh too passеd, thе testing сompany suspесted to hеlp / lеt thеm runwild.He madе/ lеt them thеm of сheаting.To provе thеir innoсеnсе, do massive amounts of homеwork,had / got Еsсalantеhad / got thеm take thе test again. this Еast L.A.- high sсhool @Щзф 1. 4. thеm takе dailу quizzes, and еVеn got / lеt 5. thеm to fill out daily timе сards.To devеlop team spirit, hе got / madе his students do 6. football-likесhееrs bеforе сlass. Hе knеw *L.A. = Los Angelеs 8. 9. Again, еVеryonе passеd. How did Еsсаlantеwork thеsе miraсlеs?In thе words of a studеnt, Еsсalantе ..lеt/ madе us fееl 10. powегful, that wе сould do anything.',
    • Y.1 :.у ?.Y *?.t: 2l :.T.q .:..?.??........ |.: ?.,. .I f .g?.t. .. o sИriffiАRlzE Rеod eoch numberedstotеmеnt.Сomplеte the summory with thе corrесt Сhoosebеtwеenoffirmаtiveond nеgotiveforms. form of thе verbsin porenthеses. 1. Ms. Ar.r.вш:Pabl o' you сan rewrite this сomposition, but only if you want to. Suммдвy: She didn't make ?ablo rewrite (makе/ rеwrite) his сomposition. 2. Ms. Alr.вш: I know you prefer working alоne, Ana, but you really need to work in a group today. Suммдвy: Shе 3. Ms. Allвш: (makе / work) rn a gтoup. Listеn, everyone! No diсtionariеs during the test, please. You should be able to guess the meaning from сonteхt. Suммдп,y: She 4. Ms. Allвш: diсtionaries. Fernand o, сould you do me a favor and сlean the board before you leave? Suммдвr She 5. Ms. Allвш: (|еt usе) / ( h а v е/ с | е а n ) the board. Jean-Paul, put the tip of your tongue between your tеeth and say "th-, thorn." Yes! That's it! Suммдвy: She (9еt/ pronounсе) an Engli sh th. 6. Ms. Allшш: Greta, please use English in сlass! Suммдву: She ( | е t/ s p е а k ) in German. 7. Ms. Alr,шш: olga, you сan take the test in the сlassroom. Just move your desk to a сorner. Suммдвy: She (make/ lеavе) the room. o journol еntry,Find ond correctsevenmistokеsin thе use of EDIT Reod this studеnt,s makе, have, let, hеlp, ond get. The first mistokeis olreody сorrectеd, rny |d n tA/henwas аtеeoagеr, ?arеrftlnevеr mе#кЬиnti( I hаdtinishеdalt I rт| Тhey with hornеwork. evеnmаdеme hе|ping brЙhers theirhorneWorkbdore goI a I cou|d hаvеanvfиn, Оn Ihe onеnand,thеу cеvtаin|у mе |еаrn tot.Оn the othеr 5еr.ol15,l theyhаd|d meto have tittle theyml,de bеcametoo a mе wish more hаnd, re5?on5.bili, atso to |еarns a m bиt 1bеcornе ?аrеot,l want haue cn.|d tиn. ЦJhen 5а.d,,,Аll and nop|aу to Аs Work Want |d hе or shе hаvеfиn. BеnFranklin I wou|d thd rnistakе. makеs a bov.,,wantto аvoid l Jaоk bеcome du||
    • SelfТest 0шr lffiI Сirclе thе lеtter of the corrеct onswеr to completееаch sentеncе. Еxдпtpш: соffеe. Jennifer never (A)drink (B)drinks A@ с D (С)is drinking was drinking {D) dinneц so she may be late. (C)to eat (D)еat l. Maria,s gоing to stop (A) еating (B)for eating 2. My glasses arе in my bоok bug, but I dоn't remember them there. (A)putting {C)I put (D)put (B)to put 3. I askеd him -, (A}not to go (B)to not gо 4. but he went anyway. (С)not gоing (D)hе doesn't go in a forеign сountry is sоmetimеs diffiсult. (C)Livе (А.) Ilive (D)Lives (B)Living 5. He's not used to (A) wake (B)waken uP so earlY. (С)wakes (D)waking ABсD ABсD ABсD AвсD ABсD vote. (с) old enough tо (D)old enough for ABсD 7. I don't think Tom enjoyеd (A) helping (B)to help mе study for the tеst. (C)hеlped (D)hеlps ABсD 8. I bought this nеw sоftware (A) for learning (B)learning Chinese. (C)to learn (D)learnеd ABсD 9. We got a new сard holder losе our сrеdit сards. (С) not to (D)for not ABсD 6. We're eighteen, So We'rе - tA) tоо оld tо (B)yоung enoughto (A) in ordеr not to (B)not this textbook. (C)for understanding (A) understand (D)to understand (B)in оrder to understand 1 0 . It isn,t diffiсult 230 ABсD
    • SelfTest t 1. Arе you rеady? It's time (A) for going (B)to go 12. I resented (A) he said (B)he saying ABсD (C)going (D)go that. He сould have been more polite. (C)his saying (D)him to say 13. I talkеd to thе students about working hardeц but I сouldn't them to study. (A) make (C)got (B)get (D)let do my homework or I сan't go out. (C) gets me (D)lets me 14. My mother (A) makes me (B)helps me lX r ABсD ABсD ABсD lffiIoNlтW0 Еoch sеntеncеhos four undеrlinеd words or phrosеs. The four underlinedports of thе sentencеorе morkеd A, B, С, ond D. Circle thе lеttеr of the one undеrlined word or phrose thаt is Nor сoRRЕст. Exдmрш: Mike usuallv drives to sсhool, but today hе walks. ABBD A B с@ t5. I deсided сhanging jobs beсausе my boss makеs mе work ovеrtimе. ABсD 16. Most students appreсiatе their prinсipal's try to imprоve sсhool сonditions. ABсD |7. I suссеeded in to find a job, So my parents didn't make mе gQ to сollеge. ABсD 18. Get mоre exеrсise appears to bе thе best Way to losе weight. ABсD 19. In ordеr to not forget things, I pцt a string around my finger. ABсD 20. Hans is only fourteen, but he seems enough old to stay out until ten. ABсD 21. I know you're too bus]z to stay, but I look forward to seе you again. ABсD 22, I forgot bu},ing gas, but I gф tо a gas station before I ran out. ABсD 23. Getting enоugh sleep is important in order not fall asleep in сlass. ABсD 24. Let's stop to ]цatсh so muсh TV so that Wе сan rеad or gо out instead. ABсD 25. I'm trying to pеrsuadе my sister to drive, but r сan't get her dо it. ABсD AB(D ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD Aв(D AB(D ABсD ABсD 231
    • Phrasal Verbs: lnseparable gaуbe w eэ h o u | d eat oul. жPЙINт Сheck thе correct onswеr. :<--:; /ll* Suqвст | v.'' t after the dirесt оbjесt П t' a park uP. ate out. ran into his teaсhеr. stuсk Thеy baсk. 9avе to thеirdесisio n. EхPREssжж Unscromblеthеsе words to form two sentenсеs. intoоWe.Bоbоran outоWasoHeоеating 232 at homе П i., a rеstaurant | гo*'.... I Dlпвстoв,вст came Where does thе partiсlе go? П b"fo.e the direсt оbjeсt t INSЕPARABLEP}iRASAL vЕRBs сI]ART сHЕсK Сhесk the correct onswеr. Whеre does the woman suggest eating?
    • Рhrasal Verbs: lгlsеparab|e l у*t & g"atъt a в, Aк рЕa rret*ФffiЁ ffixaжrpl*s l. А phrasal verb (a|soсa|leda two-paгtor two-word vеrb) сonsistsof a vеrb + partiсle. r We often eat out. 2. Partiсles prepositions thеsame. and look . sr..Тl?'TlТ:xъ1l., .unn"r beсause she Howеver,partiсlesarе part of thе verb phrase, and thеy often сhanoе thе mеaning of thе verb. vеrb + partiс|е Wasn,tpaying attеntion. (Sheсollidеd with anothеrrunner.) vеrb + partiс|е l l r an into |o hn at thе super mar kеt. (l mеt John by oссidеnt.) 3. Тhe verb and paгtiс|e usually are сommon words, l Plеase9сr on. I didn,t mеan to interгupt' (Plеose but their sеparatemеaningsmay not heIpyou сontinue.) guessthе mеaning of the phrasal verb. r We got back afterdark. (We rеturned verbs are verv сommon in Usдсв Noтt: PhrasaI oftеrdork.) еvеryday spеeсh. l They сallеd off thе mееting. (Theyсonсеledthе meеting,) 4. Most phrasalverbs are transitive. (Thеy takе direсt objeсts). dirесtobiесt r You shou|dgo aftеr уour gools. dirесt oLljeсt phrasa| Some tгansitive vеrbs are insеparab|е. r Shе ran into her friend at the |ibгaгy. Тhis mеansthat both noun and pronounobjесts Noт Shе at thе |ibrary. alwaysgo ____;.l^:;afterthе paгtiсlе. You сannot sеparatе , dirесt objeсt the vеrb from its paгtiс|е. r Shе ran into her. No т Shе r an hег into . vеrbsarе used in сombination 5. Some phrasal with сertainprеpositions. Тhеseсombinations aгe usuallyinseparablе. r She (amе up with a bri||iant idеa. r l droppеd out of sсhoo|and got a job. it Сheсk out! t.or a list of some сommon inseparable phrasal vеrbs, see Appendix 17 on pagеs 341_342. To learn about separable phrasal verbs, seе Unit 55, pages 236-237. 233
    • 234 I unit s4 m o |DENтIFY Reod this orticle. Сirclе oll thе phrosol vеrbs. ы The of FengShui Аrt 6| ,/ffi: ffi,:ii:H:ж:::;lТ:}Т;Т:out. :';l, find!9 ..wind Fеngshui(mеaning and water',) thе anсiеntСhinesе of p|aсing is art thingsin thс еnvironmсnt. Aссordingto this art,thе arrangеmеnt furniture, of doors, and windows аffесtsour hеalth,wеalth,and happinеss. Ho was сoncеrnеdabout his businсss, Мr. but hr didn,tgivеup. Following сonsultаntЗ thе adviсе,hе rеmodе|вd rеdссorаtеd and piсkеd up and Мr. Ho beсamс riсh. his rеstaurant. aсtionspaid off. Soon businеss His ..ltWasthс bеst dесision| еvеr made,'' glows. hе Аnd hе isn'talonе in his еnthusiasm. Fengshui has сaughton with modеrnarсhitесts and homеownеrs еvеrywhеrе, о IllАтсlt Writе еаch phrosol verb from thе orticle nеxt to its mеoning. PhrasalVerb Meaning 1. 2. PhrasalVerb Meaning has beсome pоpular ca m e b a c k 3. 4. learn information returned 5. quit were worthwhile improved сH00sEo Complеtе this student,sjournаI entrу bу circling the correctpаrticles, аЬ v./v 7^Y l jиsг tinishedаn аrtic|е аbout tеng shui Аt thе еnd,rhе аutnor ' эuqgestssiiting how mаkеsуoutее|. уourhomеаndthinkingаbout уourеnvironmеnt @ЦPin 1. 5o todaу wnеot gв цp+gщtrom schoo|, Itried iI,I noticеd mу apavtmеnI is fiаt quiIе rеа||у darkаnd tt mаkеsrnеtее|down. thinkwiththe аddition sornе l ot |ights, |,dchееrаwаu ц? considеrаbly. comеout/ цpwitha lеw othеridеаstoo, / l,ve 3. 4. ts Мy apartrnеrrtsrnа||, I thinkit will|ook bиt spаcious l jиst. more if strаighten ч! q morе trеquеrftty. shе|vеs rnybooks morе Hangin sornе for mightwork too. Чцwel( jиst a few smаI| With chаngеs,cou|d out!.uPtее|ing I еnd in hаppiеr rnyown nomе' ||,sоеуtаintv Щing on L.outl Worгh
    • Phrasаl Verbs: lnseparable o a с'|oosE I}мPLETE Rеod this orticle аbout the orchitеct t, M. Pei. Сomplеte it using form of the phrosol verbs in the boх. thе correct give up сome up with go baсk go up keep on фAАкФ pay off turn out Born in 1917, Ieoh Ming Pei (better known as I. M. Pei) qrewuP in Canton, China. When he was 1. seventeen' he wеnt to thе United States to learn about building. As it , Pei beсame one of the most 2. famous arсhiteсts of the twеntieth сentury. Pei is famous for his strong geometriс forms. one of his most сontroversial projeсts was his glass pyramid at the Louvre rn Paris. The old museum had a lot of problems, but no onе wantеd to destroy it. Pei had to a solution. Мany Parisians were shoсked with his proposal for a 7l-foot-high glass pyramid. It anyway, blending with the environment. Today 4. many people say that it is a good example of the prinсiples of feng shui. Pei despite сritiсism. He strongly believed that..you havе 5. to identify the important things and press for thеm, and not His determinatron 7. . He сontinued to build struсtures that refleсted thе еnvironment. Pei rесeived many prizes for his wоrk. He used some of the ptize money to start a sсholarship fund for Chinese students to study arсhitесture in thе United States and then to to China to work as arсhiteсts. o EDIT Rеod Bob,s noteto his roommote,Find ond corrеcteight mistаkesin the use of phrosol vеrbs,Thе firstmistokeis olreodуcorrected. insеporoblе Eoггy thе аpагtment is suсh a mеss. Igotdfi.l+ lаtе this morning and didnt hаvе timе to stгaТghtеnoиt |'m going to thе gym now to work off for anhour. Ishould 9еt aсгoss bеfore Wе сan 9еt togеthеr with уou, and |'ll сlean up thеn. ГJowabout еаtТngtonTght out? Аftеrwаrd, -Dob oг *omе of thе gиys and maybе seе a movTе. mayЬe wе'll сome over with а betteг idеа. oh' -| ranTom into at sсhool. Гle'lldrop off to sеe you latеn l 235
    • Phrasal Verbs: Separable WffiPЙINт Сheсk the сorreсtanswer. The dog thinks that t Geоrge is dreaming. П G"o.ge is gеtting an idеa for an invention. SEPARABLE PHRASAL VERBS сIllАRT сIIЕсK Noт SEPARAтЕD Check the corrеct onswеr. Suвlвст v.." | t Hе Di'".t objeсts that are nouns сan go before or aftеr thе partiсlе. П Di,".t objeсts that are pronouns always go after the partiсle. | гo*,.... I o.*..т oв1пст dreamеd uP thе idеa. worked out thе dеtai|s sEPARAтЕD Suryвст | v."' dreamed Hе workеd I o,*..' oв,вст| гo*,.... thе idеa it thе dеtails them uP. o ut. EхPREssж Сomplete thеsеsеntеnсеswith thе сorrеct form of thе wards in porenthesеs. Who 236 (dгеаmup / thаt idеa) ? Did уoш (drеam up / it)
    • Phrasаt Verbs: g? жr &y жжъжж Wжpfl.eeaй*t*.? s l ffiжaввтр*es of t. A phrasal vеrb сonsists a verb + partiсlе. Sepaгable vеrb+ oartiс|е l Shе sеt up an еxperiment. Partiсles |ookthe same as prepositions, but thеy arе paгt of the verb phrasе.Тhеy often сhanqеthе mеaninqof thе vеrb. Тhe sеparatе meaningsof thе vеrb and paгtiсlе may bе veгy diffеrentfrom the meaning of the phrasal vеrb. (thеy take vеrbs are transitive 2. Most phrasaI direсt objeсts).Мost transitivеphrasalvегbs are sеparablе. Тhis meansthe dirесt objе<t сan go: a. afterthe paгtiс|e (vеrb and paгtiсlеаrе not sеparated) vеrb+ prеposition r Hе looked up at the sky. (Hе lookedin thе direсtionof thе skу.) vеr b+ о аr tiс|е r He looked up thе information the Internеt. on (Hе found the informotionon thе lnternеt.) r They turnеd down my appIiсation. (Theyrеjесtеd oppliсotion.) my vегb+ paгtiс|еdirесt + objесt r I just drеamed up o nеw ideo. oп oR b. bеtweenthе verb and thе partiсle (verb and paгtiсlеarе sеparated) Notiсe that when the direсt objeсt is in a long phrasе, it сomes after the paг t i с |е . veгb + direсtobiесt + oartiс|е r I just dreamed o new ideo up. d i г е с to b j е с t r Shе drеamed uP on unusuollу сomplicoted new deviсе. No тShе @ pronoun, it must go betweеn thе verb and thе oartiс|е' Noт Shе drеamеd+ptЪ verbs,thе veгb 3. With a smal|gгoup of phrasal and partiсlеmust bе separated. keep somеthingon l Кееp your hot on. Noт {феРonjourhа+ tolk someoneinto r Shе talked her boss into a raisе. NoтSheffiaraisе. Cheсk out! it For a list of сommon separable phrasal verbs, see Appеndiх 17 on pages 34|_342. For a list of сommon phrasal verbs that must be sеparated, see Appendix F.or information 17 on pages З4I_342, about inseparablе phrasal verbs, sее Unit 54, pages 232_233, 237
    • 238 r unit sS o lDENтltY Rеod this orticlе. Undеrline thе phrosol vеrbs. Сirclе the dirесt objects. reka! :.Т-,-,r*idyouknowthattwoсollеgеdropoutsthoughtup@ofthe *"ъid you know thаt two сollеgе dropouts thought up(hе ideфof thе first Ъt # a t# personal сomputer? What,smorе, they put it togеther in a garagе. %.'"ё morе' Invеntionsdon't havе to сomе out of fanсу laboratories.Averagе pеoplе in сlassrooms, kitсhеns,and homе workshopsoftеn drеam up nеWand usеful ideas' Thе ability to think of somеthingnew seеms like magiсto many peoplе, but in faсt anyonе сan dеvеlop the qualitiеs of an invеntor.First, inventorsfollow their сuriosity. Thе Swiss invеntor Gеorgе dе Меstral wantеd to find out thе rеason it was so hard to removе burrs from his dog's сoat. His answеrlеd to thе idеa for VеlсroЧ now usеd to fastеn everythingfrom sneakеrsto spaсе suits. Sесond, invеntors use imaginationto put things togеther in nеw Ways.Walter Morrison watсhеd two mеn tossing a piе pan to еaсh othеr and thoughtup thе FrisbееЧ onе of the most popular toys in thе world.Perhaps most important, suссеssful inventorsdon,t quit. Thеy сontinuously look up information about thеir idеas and try nеw designs out until they suссeеd. сIIOOiE сOIf|PIETE. E, Reod obout onе of history,sgreotеst invеntors,Сomplеtе thе informаtion with the correct form of the appropriote phrosol verbs from thе boх, fi|I up keep away bring about Ф6tr set up сarry out pay baсk piсk up As a сhild, Thomas Alva Еdison (|847_19311 almost anything he heard about-he t,riedout 1. evеn tried to hatсh goosе eggs by sitting on them! Before he was twelvе, he 2. his first laboratory using money he had earned himself. He had hundreds of bottles. and hе them with сhemiсals for his еxperiments. He ..poison,, labeled thе bottlеs to his family 3. 4. . Whеn he was fifteen, Edison 5. a nеw skill. He had saved a сhild,s life, and the gтateful fatheц a telegтaph operatoц Еdison work nights and by teaсhing him tеlegтaphy. After that, Edison was ablе to his experiments during the day.
    • Phrasаl Verbs: Separablе [n 1869, Еdison fiхed a piесe of equipmеnt for a сompany that supp1ied priсes to gold brokers. This his first useful invention-the stoсk tiсker- for whiсh hе reсeived $40,000. Hе was then able to spend all his time wоrking on his new inventions. During his lifеtimе, Еdison was issued 1,093 patents! o сOilIPIЕтЕRеаd thеseсonversotionsthot tokе plocе in а schoollаborotorу. Сomptetе thеm with phrosol vеrbs ond pronouns, 1. A: Please put on your ]ab сoats. ?ut them on B: Do we really havе 1o ? It,s hot in here. 2. A: I сan,t figure out this problem. B: I know what you mеan. I сan,t either. 3. A: Remembеr to fill out these forms. B: Can wе at homе, or do wе have to do it now? 4. A: Are you going to hand out the neхt assignment today? B:I a few minutes ago. Weren't you here? 5. A: I сan't get this to work. We,d better do the whole proсedure over. B: We don't have timе to . Class is over in ten minutеs. 6. A: Are we supposed to turn in our lab reports today? B: No. Please neхt week. EDIT.Rеod on inventor,snotes,Find аnd correctsеven mistokеs the usе of phrosol in vеrbs. The first mistoke is olrеody corrеctеd. l,ltаl,t 3 I d/еДJ,|4еtr,ж * ruф d^и,-а,jаt ryood, ,f P"*t t,utth, аpphrлtor |i,kothr, kh47,u,sd,for sh^oo а"tt, o |///.12lФ pаф Fouo|u.It саn bo ttсd,,to touсh,oи,spоtтott, I12а//,, rooL|,I/. t bt,oltrа" fuи,t t,tlалtto pаll,tt а,и,,fub I'uса'/Llуhлna.и^/"ordэr sеllеlа,/,уpех I саntrуthД,И,iJ.|,. so аn И4А'ilЙ,itуutеrф ",ф 3 tfJIЙ, dюиttl, аф)ratши,for а,pаtе,lttаJ41, I'|| bo ab|^oto а,stroч алtr, sф с,ot:l,шnч d^eи,t"ot<вtrа|шru of tЙ^o уodиrt иу sooru. Аt,иtcrt .--_- 30 r d^eшлпstrаtеdt|аэ proda"ctаt аn oхh,ibtturuford'pсorаtors' tоа^etd,,to I pоtлt oиt tЙдt t,t'suerу ttэаt to Ц,sцso r Р,Иt иlhbo j/luu It |,Uu4t for t/аpd'"etи^oпвtrаНюn,. ouеr uеrу ше/L' I 239
    • SelfТest IW{рffi0шп Сircle thе letter of thе corrеct onswеr to complеtе eасh sеntence, Еxдmшr: Jennifer never (A) drink (Bl drinks A@с сoffee. {C)is drinking (D)was drinking ABсD 1. Come in. Please sit (A) down (B)down it (с) it down (D)up 2.Yourmothеrсalled.Shewantsyoutoсallher-tonight. (C)baсk (A) in (B)off (D)over ABсD 3. Could you turn {A}down {B}away ABсD thе musiс so we сan sleep? (C) оver (D)up 4.P1easeput-yourlabсoatsbeforeyouleavethelaboratory. (c) up (A) off tD)in {B}away ABсD 5. Мark works so hard that he's sure to -. (C) turn over (A) give up (B)work off (D)get ahead ABсD 6. Kevin is going to (A) сall baсk (B}givе baсk ABсD 7. A lamp will (A) turn on (B)blow up from vaсation tomorrow. (C)set baсk (D)gеt along ABсD this соrner niсely. (C)put up {D)light up ABсD 8.Insteadofarguingabouttheproblem,let,s-. (A) look it over (C) take it away (D)talk it over (B)сharge it up 9. That's very original. How did you dream (C)of (A) about (D)up (B)down l o. That pot is hot. Don't piсk (A) it up (B)up it 240/ ! (С) up (D)it that idea? ABсD AвсD D
    • seIfТest ABсD 1 1 . -It,s сold оutside. You nеed your jaсket. -OK. I'll put (A)it on (B)it over (C)on it (D)over it ABсD on the way home. (C)into Jason (D)Jason into 12. She ran (A) him into (B)intо ABсD you! (С) after (D)to 1 3 . Slow down. I сan't kеep up - (A) оf (B)with гffift-l X l TWo Eoсh sеntеncehos four underlinеd words or phrаses. Thе four undеrlinedports of the sеntenceorе mаrked A, B, С, аnd D. Сircle thе letter of the onе undеrlinеd word or phrose thot is Nor сoRRЕст. Exдмшr: A B с@ Mike usually drives to sсhool, but today he walks. ABсD 1 4 . Could we talk over it bеfore yоu turn the whole idea down? ABсD down when I forgot to piсk his suit out from 1 5 . I know I let дцф AB(D ABсD ABсD the dry сleaner's. 16. I ran into him whilе I was getting thе bus off. ABсD 17. As soon as I hand in mlr report, I'm going to take all these books ABсD ABсD AB( on to the library. D 1 8 . We'd better get the bus on now, or we're going to miss it. ABсD 1 9 . Instead of сalling q]ffthе meeting, maybe Wе сan just put it over ABсD AB(D сD AB until next week. If you don't use out the milk by Monday, plеase throw it awаy. ABсD 2 7 . Chеt had to ч* *+* after the сompany turnеd down hеr appliсation. Do you want to ge!-цp by yourself or would you likе me to wakе up you? AB(D ABсD ABсD ABсD 23. Tom asked mе to piсk some stamps for him at thе post offiсe up. ABсD 24. Did you frnd out how Jane talked into Meg working on Saturday? ABсD 25. Wе gФ over wеll after we found out we wеre both from Chiсago. ABсD AвсD ABсD AB сD 24l
    • Nouns A(Ros' тH E AтLANтIс oN A REEDBoAт Bдквдoos-May |7, |970.Norwеgian еxplorеr Thor Heyerdahl, along with an intеrnationalсrеw, has сrossеd thе Atlantiс oсean on Ra Il. Thе rеed boat' modеlеd aftеr those of thе anсiеnt Egyptians,madе the iourney in 57 daуs. THAMЕRlCA w.жwPЙlNт Сhесk the corrеct аnswer. Thе namе of Hevеrdahl's boat WaS: Heyerdahl sailedRa ll aсrossthe Atlantiс. сo]vlпioNNoUNs Тhе еxрlorer sailеdhis boat aсrossthе oсеan. т F Non-сount nouns сan be plural. NON. сoUNт NoUNs COUNТ NtDUNS 2 сI/,АRт сI/IEсK Сircle T (Truе)or F (FoIsе), т F Count nouns сan be plural. П Rеed Boat PRoPЕR NoUNs I сI]ARт сI]EсI( Сircle T (True)or F (Folsе). т F Common nouns are written with сapital lеtters. П вu tt I I Aппсl.в/ | Nuмввп l Nouш A onе (The) Тwo sailor Vвпв Nouш ts Firе bгavе. sailors aге Vвпв | ts dangеr o us. Sailing ExPREssж Сirсlе thе correct words to сompletе thesesentences, The boats was / were made оf rеed. Crоssing the oсean was / werе hard. 242
    • Nouns ar G rа nтEтt *'жplaПatiФtrъs Еxamplеs 1. Proрer nouns arе the names of раrtiсgjal oеopIе, o|aсes. and thinos.To thе гiohtarе some сategoriesand examplеsof proper nouns. Peoplе Plaсеs Months Days Holidays Languagеs I CapitaIize first letteгof most propеr nouns. thе Wе do not usual|y usе an artiс|e(a/on or thе) with propегnouns. HеyегdahI, Еgyptians Afriсa,Moroссo,thе АtIantiс oсеan Sеptembeг, oсtobег Monday,Тuesday Еastег, Passover, Ramadan A r abiс,Spanish Note that the is usеd with somе nouns of plaсеs. r Hеyerda| sailеdaсгossthe Atlantiс oсеan. 2. Common nouns гeferto peop|е,p|aсes, and names.For things,but not by their individual is example, ехplorеr a сommon noun, but Неyerdohlis proper noun. a People Plaсеs Things 3 . Common nouns aге еitheгсount or non-сount. l a sai|or, thе sai|or, two sai|ors r an island, the island, ee islands thr I a ship,the ship,fo ur ships (ount nouns are thingsthat you сan сount Тhey сan bе singularoг p|ural. Foг sеparately. You еxample,you сan saУa shipor thrееships. сan use o/on or the bеforесount nouns. ex p|o гег, sai|o г, bui|dег сontinеnt, сountry,сity pots,еggs,fish, honey Form the plural of most nouns by adding -s or -es to thе noun. Thеrе are somеtimes сhangeswhеn you form thе pluraI. spеl|ing ship watсh ships watсhes potato potatoеs сountry сountries Thеy do Br сдпвгul! Some nouns arе iгrеgu]ar. not form thе pluralby adding .s or -e5. foot сhi|d fеet сhildr еn man mo usе 4. Non-сount пouns arе thingsthat you сannot Foг you сount sеparately. еxamplе,in Еng|ish сan say gold, but you сannot say o gold or havе no twogolds.Non-сountnouns usual|y p|uгaI forms.Wе usua||y not usе o/on with do non.сountnouns.Тo the гightarе somе and of сatеgoriсis еxamp|еs non-сountnouns. Some сommon non-сountnouns do not fit into You must mеmoгizеnouns theseсatеgories. suсh as thе ones to the right. verbsand pronouns. Abstraсt words A сtivitiеs FieIds of study Food Gases Liquids Materials Natural forсes Partiсlеs adviсe сlo thing equipmеnt food men miсe сoUгa9е/ eduсation, timе sailing, ming far ex p|o r ing, gеography, history fish сoгn,сhoсo|ate, air,oxygen,steam watег,mi|k,сoffee,gasoline сotton,plastiс, si|k weathеr сold, е|есtriсity, dust,sand,sugaг, sa|t,гiсе jewе|гy monеy furnituге gar bagе |uggagе new s ho mew o гk maiI work information l Reеd is a good matеrialfor boats. r ,t fIoats in the hеaviest storm. iI Cheсk oul! For a list of somе сommon irrеgular plural nouns' see Appеndix 18 on pagе 343. 243
    • 244 I Unit sci o lDENтltY Reod this artiсlе obout Thor Hеуеrdohl,Сircle oll the propеr nouns. Underlinеoncе oll the сommon count nouns. Undеrlinеtwicе thе common non-countnouns. rеally thе first eХplorеr to wu' @Б'ьu) honеy,oil, еggs,nuts,and frеshfruit.Ra,thе disсovеr thе Amеriсas? Thor Hеyеrdahl expеdition'sboat, сarriеd an intеrnational didn't think so. Hе bеliеvеd that anсiеnt group inсluding a Norwеgian, Еgyptian, an people Wеrеabiе to build boats that сould сross oсeans.To tеst his idеas, hе dесidеd to build a сopy of thе rееd boats that Wеrе piсtured in anсiеnt paintings an ltalian, Мехiсan. a and a Chadian. Thе first trip failеd, but Who Really Disсovrrеd Amеriсa? еvеryonеsurvivеdand wantеd to try again. Departing on М a у | 7 , | 9 7 0 ,u n d е r t h e f l a g and sail aсrossthе Atlantiсfrom NorthAfriсa of thе Unitеd Nations, Ra II сrossеd the Heyerdahl's to Barbados. tеam also сopied Atlantiсin 57 days. Thе ехpedition proved anсientMiddlе Еastеrnpots and fillеd them that anсiеnt сivilizations had thе skill to with food for thеir journеy-driеd fish, rеасhthе Amеriсaslong beforе Columbus. o Mеgon аnd loson МcKoy arе planning o сOilIPLEтЕ hiking trip. Сompletе thеir сonvеrsаtion with thе correct form of the words in porentheses. Jдsoш: Thеrе 'g work still a lоt of l. (bе) 2. (work) to dо this evеning. Wе havе to plan thе fооd fоr the trip. Mвсдш: You,re right. 4. (be) 3. (Food) сеrtainly important. I,vе been reading this book about сamping. Thеre 6. (idеa) some good 5. (bе) in it. Jдsoш: oh? What doеsit say? Mвсдш: We should bring a lot of Jдsoш: 9. (Potato) 11. (trip) Mвсдш: No, frеsh and 7. (bean) l0. (bе) 8. (riсе) good on сamping too. 12. (vеgеtab|е) 13. (bе) сan get some when Wе pass through a town. toо hеavy tо сarry. Maybе wе
    • *Ч*uаffis l the 14. (Bе) ready? We should go over 15. (equipment) the сheсklist. Mвсдш: I did that. We need .l6. (battегy) for the radio. Jдsoш: Why do wе need a radio? I thought we were running away from сivilization. lVIвсдш: But the never 17. (nеws) 18. (stop) . I still want to know what's happening. Jдsoш: That's oK with me. By the way, do we have enough warm l,{.l"thi"ф It gets сhilly in the mountains. Mвсдш: That's true. And the 2o. (со|d) Jдsoш: But we have warm sleeping Mвсдш: And we have eaсh other! really 21. (bothеr) me at night. ,,. фaф EDIT.Tinа Arbеit soilеd oround the world olone on o smoll boot, Rеаd hеr diory ogreement. еntriеs.Thereore fiftеenmistokesin the usе of nouns ond subjеct-vеrb Find аnd corrеctthem. Thе first two mistokesorе аlreodу corrеctеd. Canarу daуs l,ll When Т7. bееnonthе€ a яary|s|andstorthrее now. starthornе Оctober |'vе wea|her iэ todау. whеnI pickedиP rnt7 mai|э the у+феrэаrе be]ter, wаs50 sur?risеd I is mе Му Мy famil seГff sornebivthdaу ?rеserfts. Birthdaу the ъf . I Wonto1еn thе gilts иntilthen. todау, thеre thundеrs is but zg, l worsе. hеаrd octobеr I thinkthеvlефnеr ge|ting it сvе^ltimе thunderеd, tn , Wasntanvrain I stауеd bеdulithrnycаt,Tуphlon, thе rеаding Nove|, undеr covеrs.stаYted 0, uP I phoonаnd I anugg|еd c|o;еr BrаveNew Wor|d. а sIrong the с-anаry todау-1usГ co|umbu5.1hеrе,s like wind ОcIober I leРt |s|аnds ъ0, ot now. wentz5'0Мt|es. l and ?|еnIу sцnshine аnd To Ос,tobеr |,rn todaу| ce|еbrаte, Ъ1. u I drаnkaomеcoffееstor brеаktаst I jеwе|riеs. аnd o?еnеdrn?rеsеnts. qoIsomе?еr+urnr ?rсit si|vеr l tow. аrе not l.1T.lе е|ectricities Ven/ |,dbe1tеr usе mucnиntilI gd nеаr Novernber cooklng. so rаdiothеn. rаinеdtodау, I co||еdedWа|еrstor |'|| |t new York, nееdthе 245
    • Gluantifiers I ' mq l a d I boughta lot of batterieэ' .anу aand|eэ? lP0lNт Сhесk the correсt onswеr. The сhild wants to know if they have П сhoсоlatе. t AND QUANтlFlERs CoUNт NoUNs сI/iАRт сl|Есl( Сirсle T (True)or F (Folsе). T F A lot of is used with both сount and non-сount nouns. т F Severol is usеd with non-сount nouns. т F Afewis usеd with сount nouns. т F Anу is used in nеgative sentenсes. AND QUANТlFlERs NoN.сoUNт NoUNs lr IQuon,.,,.* |шoun IQuлштlгlвп |Nouш l havе some enough o lot of o few sеvеrol monY l havе battеriеs. сookies. onу enough l don,t havе o lot of monY a good supply of сhoсolate. some enough o lot of o little o grеot deol of сandy' water. much onу enough I do n,thavе o lot of muсh ЕхPREssж Сomplete this convеrsotionwith muсh or many. A: We didn't buv batteries. B: Well, we didn't have A: That's true. We had 246 time beforе the storm. things to do.
    • Gluаntifiers Grammar Еxplaпations Examрles l. Quantifiеrs arе еxprеssions quantitysuсh as of monу.Тhеy arе usеd beforea noun. o lot of and l r Wе usеd o lot of watеr |astsummеr. I Тhere Wеге,nony storms. сan when it is Quantifiеrs also bе usеd aIone, сlеar what they referto. Notе that in o lot of, of is dropped. 2. Use somg еnough, o lot of, and oпy with both n сountan d n o n - с o u n t o u n s A: How many еggs do wе havе? B: Not o lot, just o few' non-сount сount l Wе havе some batteriеs and some gasolinе. no n-сo unt сo unt r Wе have enough water and еggs for a wееk. r сount non-сount We have o lot of bеans and riсe Ieft. non-сount сount Usе oпy in ouеstions and in nеoative sentеnсes. A: Do we have onу milk oг tеabags? B: No, and wе don,t have onу сoffeе or papеr platеs еithеr. Use some whеn you makе an offег. 3. Usе o few, severol, and monу with p|ura| сount nouns in affirmativе sentеnсеs. l WouId you likе some сoffeе? l A few people got siсk. l $everolсhildrеn wеnt to thе hospital. l Monу rеsCue workers arrivеd. Usе o llttle, o grеot deol of, and mисh with non.сount nouns in affirmativе sentenсes. l They had o little troubIe with the radio. I Тhey thгew awaУo greot deol of food. l Muсh planning wеnt into the resсue. monуis Usдсв Noтв: ln affiгmativе sеntеnсes, much is vеry formal. more foгma|than o lotot Monу pеop|е agгееd. Moкг FoкмдL: A lot of pеople agreеd. LгssFoпмдr: VгкvFoкмдt-: showed much Courage. Hе Hе LгssFoкмдt-: showеd o lot of сouragе. with fеw and littlе.Few and littlе usua|lymеan , , notе no u g h .,, 4. Use monу with сount nouns and much with non.сountnouns in quеstions and negativеsentenсеs. (not a lot, but probablу еnough) l Тhеy гeсеivedlittle news last night. (probablynot еnoughnеws) A: How monу people did you seе? B: We didn,t seemonу. A: How muсhfood did thеy сarrУ? Usдсr Noтв:In quеstions and nеgativеsеntеnсеs, B: Not muсh. monу and muсh are usеd in both formal and i n foг maЕn g I i s h . l 247
    • 248 l Цnit 57 o Rеаd this orticle obout preporing for noturol disostеrs.Undеrlinе the IDENтIЕY quаntifiers+ count nouns. Сirclе the quontifiers+ non.count nouns. Bв fdlre PкEPARЕD you ready? Мany peop|e don't гea|izеthat some natura|disasteгssuсh as earthquakеs сanstгike*,,n@.ltmaytakеseveгaldaуsfoгassistanсetoгeaсhyou.Pгeparеуour disasteгkit in advanсe!Herе are a few tips. Watеr may be unsafe to dгink. Stoгe enough watеr foг sеveral daуs.Еaсh pеrson needs a gal|onpeг daу foг сooking and washing. You wil] aIso neеd food for sеvегaldaуs.|tЪa good idea to storе a Iot of of сannеd mеat, food, suсh as fruit,vеgеtаЬ|es, milk. Howevег,aIso inс|udеseveгa|kinds of high-eneгgу and And dont forget some..сomfort food'' Iike сookies and сhoсo|ate! Peanut buttег and je||y. lf you don't havе anу eleсtгiсity,уou might not have anу heat eitheг.Keep some Ьlankеts, s|eepingbags,and extГa с|othеs for eveгyone. Prеpaге a first aid kit with some pain rеIieveгs, sevегaIsizеs of bandages, and an antisеPtiс. ТhеAТMs might not be woгking.Do you havе any сashlYou shouldn't kеep muсh monеy in thе house, Ьut you shouId have a lot of smalIbi||s, and a few |argerЬilIstoo. o сl|00sE Сircle the сorrеctwords to complеtethis rodio intеrviewbеtwееnТhis Morning (тM) ond food psуchologist Angie WеInitz(AW). TM:Dr.Welnitz,inu..i.i.,@Щtшhpeopleсraveсhoсolate.Doesсоmfоrtfood 1. have an), / many real benefit? 2. AW: Yеs. Sevеral / A little types of food help g,ve emotional balanсe. Choсоlatе gives an 3. emotional lift beсause it сontains a great deal of / many sugaЦ for examplе. 4. TM: What about mashed potatoes? When I'm sad, I сook a lot of / muсh potatoеs. AW: They remind you of сhildhood, when you felt safe. lД*Чg"* 5. traditional foods сomfort us like this. TM: I have a few / a little friends whо eat сomfort food to сelebrate. Why? 7. AW: Wе have muсh / many сhangе in our lives today and a fеw / fеw ways to сalm down. 9. 8. Comfort food tells us, ..Don't worr}..Some / A little things are still the samе.', 10. TM: We only have a few / a little time left. Tell us-what 11. is уour favorite сomfort food? AW: Pistaсhiо iсe сream. I always feel better after I eat a few / few spoonfuls. 12.
    • Gluantifiers o Rеod thеsесonversotions.Сompletе thеm with the corrеct words. сOI|ЛPLЕтE l. muсh, many' a fеw, a little manу A: Hi, Barb. Did you and Jim lose treеs in the storm? B: Just one. And the house is OK. We onlv lost windows. How about you? problems either. We didn't have A: Wе didn,t have time to shop beforе thе storm, but thanks to the disaster kit, we had сandles and e. t. food on hand. 2. little' a little' a few, fеur A: It's intеresting to see what we usеd up from the disaster kit. I notiсed we havе only hot сhoсolate left. a. B: That's bесausе things taste bеtter in a сrisis. I bet there arе more than сans of spinaсh, though. A: Six сans. I guess therе's B: Wе lеarned е. d. reason to buy more of that. things about сomfort foods during the storm, didn't we? EDIT.Reod this child,s diаrу entrу, Find ond correct sеvеnmistokеsin thе usе of quаntifiers. Thе first mistokе is olrеodу сorrectеd. Wehod o Ьig stonm|ost week,ond we lost thе e|ectгiоitg fo{few dogs.onое I got ovenЬeingsconed,it wos o lot of fсln_q|ittlelikeооrnping Wehovеqn electnic oоt heot Wеsleрt in oоn sleeрing fогnoce,so We didn'thоvеsorne Ьogs oгoundthe We Ьqkedsorne Ьneodin on inonpon in the wood! Мorn finep|oce. sогeоsed 0Р rnong She tirnes, it wos гeollggood whenit woгked.Wеote fineplocе. hod to tng seveгql Ьоt it with litfle peonutЬuttenТhe f]nstnightwe hod rnооh pnoЬ|erлs out figoning whot to do, It got doгk eoгlg,ond wе on|g hod o little оondles_ondno TV!Сindgis five, ond she wos гeo|lg hot chocoloteoveг the fiгe.Finollg, fneokedout сlntilwеrлodе evengЬodg took tсlгnstel|ing stonies, foоnd out thot Dod knows о |ot good stoгies. ] I 249
    • Artiсles: lndefinite and Definite An evilmаgiсiаn а universe from beyond ours trying сonquer Eаrth. is to the ThemаgiсiаnZаdo. is Hehаs fourhelpers- WPЙINт Сhеck thе correсt onswer, Aссоrding to the ad fоr the vidеo gamе: П Th"r" is only onе universe bеyond оurs. П Thе," is only onе Earth. lN DЕtlN IтE сl]ARт сl/iEсl( Сircle T (Truе) or F (Folsе). т т F F A/An can bе used with non-сount nouns. Тhe сan be used with singular and plural nouns. т F Use the whеn you mentiоn a noun for the sесond timе. DEFlNlтE SINGULARсoUNт NoUNs SINGULARсoUNт NoUNs |т"' |шoun ll IA/Att I Nouш Lеt,srent a vidеo game. геnt Lеt,s It',s adventurе. It',s an PLURALсoUNт NouNs/ NoN-сoUNт NoUNs I wo n by Сеrеbгo. of Zado. шou* l |т",| | (Soмс) | Nouш (some) 9amе adventure thе PLURALсoUNт NoUNs/ NoN.сoUNт NoUNs tt Lеt,sp|ay l vidеo games. p|ay Lеt,s go ld. It',s thе 9ames wе rentеd. go ld Zado lost. EхPRЕssж Сirclе the corrеct аrticles to completе thesеsеntences. Cerebro has a / the new video game. A / The game is сalled Spacе Dеfendеr. 2so
    • Artiсles: gBъ r 6 и,a AЖ* Жxрfl eвre*fi $ #}з lndefinite arrd E}eflnite t Ежaтжplеs l. We сan usе nouns in two Ways: a. A noun is indefinite (not speсifiс) whеn еitheryou or your |istеnеr not hаve a do partiсu|ar peгson,pIaсe,or thing in mind. A: Lеt,sbuy a vidеo gamr. B: cood idеa.Whiсh onе shouldwe buy? (A ond B ore not tolkingobout o speсifiс gomе.) b. A noun is definite (speсifiс) when you and A: l bought the new game from Cеrеbro! your |istenеr both know whiсh person.pIaсе, B: Creat! Is it fun? or thing you mean. (А and B аrе both tolkingobout o spесifiс gomе,) 2. Thе artiсle you Use beforеa noun dеpеnds on thе kind of noun (сountor non-сount) is it and on how you are usingthe noun (indеfinitе or definitе)' a. Use the indеfinitе artiсle o/on with singularсount nounsthat arе indеfinite. A: l,m readingabout o magiсian. B: oh, rea||y? Whiсh onе? A|souse a/on for singularсount nouns when you сlassify (saywhat somethingis). A: What do you do for a living? B: |,m o pilot. And you? Use o beforeсonsonantsounds. Usе on bеforevowel sounds. l o magiсian,o grеat advеnturе l oп еviI magiсian, advеntuге on that determines whеthеryou usе o or аn. r o hostilеaгmy (pronounсеd,,hostile,,) . on honestwarrior(pronounсed-,,ahnеst,,) b. Use no artiсlе or somеwith pIuгal сount nouns and with non-сountnouns that aге indеfinitе. 3. Use the definitе artiсlе fhe with most nouns (сountand non-сount, singuIar and P|uraI) that are definitе. r Тhеге are(some)games on thе shеlf. r I had to buy (some)mеdiсinе. A: The magiсian l to|dyou about is on W tonight. watсh him! B: Let,s Use the whеn: a. a pеrson,plaсе,or thing is unique-thеrе is only one. l b. the сontextmakеsit с|earwhiсh person/ plaсe,or thing you mеan. A: Тhe music Wasgгеat. в: l еnjoyеdit too. (A ond B orе сoming out of o сonсert.) с. the noun is mentionеdfor thе seсondtime (it has alreadybeеn idеntified)' r t magiсian is trying to сonquеrthе Еarth. The magiсian is veгy poweгfu|. d. a phraseoг an adjесtivеsuсh as first,best, right, wrong' or only idеntifieswhiсh one. r Donkey Kong was the first video game with a story. Тhе moon is 250,000 milеsawaУ. (ThеЕorth hosonlу one moon,) 25|
    • 252 I Unit 58 o s, с|I00sЕ DEsсRlBЕ Reod thesеconversаtions.СirсIеthе letter of the stotemеnt thot bеst dеscribеsеoch conversotion. 1 . Coпд: I'm bored. Let,s rent a video game. Fвво: oK. a. Fred knows whiсh game Cora is going to rent. @ Fred and Cora arеn,t talking about a partiсular game. 2. Coвд: Mom, where,s the nеw video game? Moм: Sorry, I haven,t seen it. a. Мom knows that Cora rented a new game. b. Мom doesn't know that Cora rented a new game. I'1l bet it's in thе hall. You always drop your things there. Coпд: I'll go look. a. Thеre are several halls in Fred and Cora,s house. 3 . Fвво: b. There is only оnе hall in Fred and Cora's house. Was I right? Coвд: Yоu weren,t even сlose. It was on a сhair in the kitсhen. 4. Fввп: a. Thеre is only one сhair in the kitсhеn. b. There are sevеral сhairs in the kitсhen. 5 . Fвво: Wow! Look at that! The graphiсs are awesome. Coпд: So is the musiс. a. All video games havе gоod gтaphiсs and musiс. b. The game Cora rented has good gтaphiсs and musiс. Coпд: This was fun. But why don't we rent a sports game next timе? Fвво: Good idea. I love sports games. a. Fred is talking about sports games in general. b. Fred is talking about a partiсular sports game. о сl|00sЕ& сOмPLЕTE Circlе thе correct аrticles to complеtе this porogroph, Board games are popular all over a/@ 1. world. Mah Jong is an / the eхample of 2. a l an very old one. I had an l a unсlе who had an / the оld sеt from Singapore. 4. 3. 5. He kept a / tЬe set in thе / a beautiful boх in a / the living room. He usеd to open 6. 7. 8. t e / a box and tell mе about tЬe / a pieсes. They Were madе of bamboo, and eaсh 10. 9. one had a / the Chinеsе сharaсter on it. To me, they Were tЪe / a most fasсinating 11. things in a / thе world. 13. 12.
    • Artiсlеs: lmdеfinite anсJ E}efini*e o Reod eoch сonvеrsаtion,Сomplеte it with the oppropriote ortiсIe сOil|PLEтE (a, an, or thе). сar just pullеd up. Are you еxpeсting Somеone? 1. A: B: No, I'm not. I wonder who it is. 2. A: Can we usе cat? B: oK, but bring it baсk by 11:00o'сloсk. game system before we leave. 3. A: Let's turn off B: We don't have to. We сan just leavе it on Pаusе. 4. A: Do vou have gamе system? B: Yеs, I do. I just bought a Sega Genesis. 5. A: Do you see the video storе? I was Sure it was on Main Streеt. B: I think it's on side street. but I'm not sure whiсh one. 6. A: There it is. B: Good. You сan park right aсross street from the store. 7. A: Еxсuse me, do you have any new games? B: newest gamеS arе in the front of the store. 8. A: W.e'dbetter go. Wе,ve bеen here for B: That was hour. fastest hour f've ever spent. 9. A: Еxсuse me. I,d like to rent this game. B: Just take it to сashier. She's right over thеre. . EDII Rеod this mogozinе orticle obaut vidеo gomеs. Find ond corrеctninе mistokesin thе usе of orticlеs, Thе first mistokе is аlrеodу сorrесtеd. Ihe plumber had onе daу,aapеfеll in ^^. nсеthеrеWasa plumЬеrnamеdМario.Рh*mЪсr bеautifulgirlfriеnd. ll -/ lovе with thе girlfriеnd and kidnappеd hеr. Thе plumbеr сhasеd apе to rеsсuе his girlfriеnd. This simplе talе bесamе Donkеy Koпg a first vidеo gamе with a story. It was invеntеd by Sigеru Мatsimoto, a artist with Nintеndo, Inс. Мatsimoto lovеd thе vidео gamеs' Ьut hе wantеd to makе thеm morе intеrеsting.Не likеd fairy talеs,so hе invеntеd story similar to a famous fairy talе. Story Was an immеdiatе suссеss,and Nintеndo followеd it with The Маrio Brothers. Thе rеst is vidеo gamе history. l 253
    • a, (No Artiсle) and The arОУОU rnJОу|nq the ride? Ro|Ier сoaэ|rr rideэ are a |ot |ike |ife'You 1uэLhave and anjoу |o rе|ax WffiPЙlNт Сhеck thе correct onswеr, Who is talking about roller сoaster ridеs in gеnеral? П tь. littlе girl П tье little boy сliАRтсl|EсК No ARтIсLE (lNDErlNПЕ) Сhеck thе сorrеct onsWеr. You сan usе o.(no artiсlе) for a noun that is: o + Noш-Couшт Nouш Tнс+ Noш-Couшт Nouш Do you |ikесotton сandy? Thе сotton сandy in this park is gгeat. 0 + Pluпдl CouштNouш Tнr + Pluпдl. Couшт Nouш П i',defi.,itе Ridesсan be veryexсiting. Thе ridеs in this paгkarе еxсiting. Тr,Е (DEFlNlтЕ) П d"fi''ite You сan use o fоr a сount noun that is: П singular П plural 254 Tнс + Slшсul.дп Couшт Nouш Thе r ide nеarthе еntгanсе еx сitinq. is
    • g. !J::. *rj:.'.:l.?:.ч.Т:::..:..2-iР....l o o. ExPREssж Сircle the or o (no orticlе) to completе thesеsеntences. A: Did you enjoy Ф / t}reroller сoaster ride? B: Yes, I lovе И / th.eroller сoaster rides. A: And did you trу И / the сotton сandy? B: No. I don't like o / the сotton сandy. It's always too sweet. Grammar Еxplanatiопs A,xamplеs 1. Wе often use o (пo artiсlе) bеfore non-сount nounsand pluralсount nounsthаt aге indеfinitе (not spесifiс). Use O when you: a. havе no spесiflс pеrson,p|aсе, thing oг in mind. A: What do you want to do tonight? B: Lеt,sstav homе. Wе сan |istеn musiс or to watсh uid"o,. b. сlassify (saywhat somеthingor someone is). A: B: A: B: G. makе genеral statеmеnts. What,sthat? |t,sсotton сandy. And what are thosе? Тhеy,rеtiсkets for the ro||еr сoaster. bought I them w hilеyo u W еr eo n thе pho ne. r (otton сandy is vегy swеet. (сottonсondу in gеnerol) r Roller сoastеrs aге popu|ar. (rollеrСoostеrs gеnеrol) in 2. Usе the with non-сountnouns and сount nouns (singular that are dеfinitе-when and plura|) you aге ta|kingabout a spесifiс or unique per'on, plaсe, or thing that you and your -----.-_. J |istener know about. A: Can I tastеthe сotton сandy? B: Suгe.Havе as muсh as you,d like. A: Wheге are the tiсkets for the rollеr сoaster? B: I put thеm in my poсkеt. A: Тhis is the best rollеr сoaster in the worId. сandy bar. 3. Bв сдпвгul! Singularсount nouns сannot stand r Тhis is o dеliсious alone.Youmusta|waysusееitheranartiсle,aNoтThisis@ pronoun, onel or a woгd suсh as this,thot, eасh, l |t,shard to еat just oпe сand у bar, isn,t it? or еvеrybеforea singularсount noun. r Civе mе thot сandy bar! You,vеhad еnough. l |t,smу сandу bar.
    • 256 I &jrъЁtmffi o iDENтiFYReod this onnounсеmеnt o nеw аmusеment for pork. LJndеrlinе thе olt сommon nouns thot hove no orticles.Сirсlе oll the nouns with thе. Grand Opening! | -,[, -t,'i '',' Do you еnjoyamusеmеnt parks?Tomorrow, BlarеGardеnswill opеn tо . / 1] ridеs and gamеs that will appеal to both adults and сhildrеn.And oГ сoursr an park would not bе сompletеwithoutсottonсandy and hot dogs.Thе food amusеmеnt at Blarе Gardеnspromisеsto bе Vеrygood.Comе еarly,bring thе wholе family,and bе surе to stay for thе firеworksdisplaythat takеsplaсe right aftеrthе sun sеts.So сhесk it outl You won't bе disappointеd. оl00$ о Сirсlеthе сorrеctwordsto complеtеthis mаgаzineartiсIе. nl lIIj an ftiЬ T:,;:ж;:::-%;.:]"::: d < Lrill. 2_ 3. Disnеy World and Conеy Island offеr the l Ф fun, rеlaхation,and еsсapе from the / И 4. problеms and borеdom of еvеryday lifе. Thеy offеr bЧP 5. adults and сhildrеn alikе a сhanсe to take risks without сonsеquenсеs.Thanks to advanсеs in Чg ЧP Ihe-| О tесhnologу, Ihg l Ф aссidеnts in thE i o amusemеnt parks are now rare. You сan 9. 10. 11. go on th91 a rides that look sсary but arе aсtually safe. You сan sсrеam and laugh as 12. thg! Ф rollеr сoastеr raсеs down toward th9 l a ground and loops up to thе / И sky '14. 13. 15. again, lеaving your сarеs and troublеs bеhind. Еven though the l О roller сoastеrs are the / И most 17. 16. popular of all rides, thеy arе not for evеryonе. But чlP don't Worry.Today's amusеment parks offеr a lot more than the l a thrills and сhills. Thеrе arе train ridеs 19. through a rеpliсa oI theJ.Ф rain forеst.And there arе thе-!а gamеswith thE1О prizеs too. The lИ hot dogs, 21. 22. 23. iсе сrеam, and соtton сandy сomplеtе фЭ!P this pеrfесt getaway for ЧlP wholе family. piсturе of
    • .+fj:.l.:l.?:.Ч .:..?77..o... .Тl.:. 3.!]Y:. ... . о Reod this convеrsotionobout on omusеmentpork. Сompletе thе с0I{|PLEтE Usе sеntenceswith the whеre necеssorY, a if уou don,t nееd аn orticlе, A: I'm going to Blarе Gardens next wеekend. You wоrk there. What,s it like? sсary rides? If you do, then you,re going ?. rides at Blarе Gardеns. B: That depends. Dо you |tke to lovе A: What's most exсiting ride there? 3. B: The Python. I'vе seen peoplе aсtually shaking with fеar beforе they got оn it. fun. By the way, how's A: Sounds likе hatе B: Then you might have a little problem. They sell 11. hot dogs and - pizza, and that's about it. But do you like - A: I love it. I listеn to B: food there? I hot dоgs. 6. 8."9. 5. lo. musiс? сountry musiс all the timе. Why? musiс at Blare Gardеns is grеat. They have bеst 12. сountry musiс gToups i' еntire state. i ,: A: What eхaсtly do you do there? Maybе we']l Sеe you. B: I dress likе a сartoon сharaсter and guide people around park. ЕDlT. Reod this postcord from BIorеGordеns, Find ond corrеct еight mistаkеsin thе use of the ond a @o orticlе). Thе first mistаke is olreodу correctеd. Pаrk B|аrе Gаrdens Amusеment I /ovethe rilrs here,I meаи,I,re bееиoи the rollеr сoаsfursbefo,е,bиt пothiпg is likе the oпr thец,rrgot To: Rуап Тиrпеr here!Апd foo,l isgrеаt too,/ иsиаl/у doп,t еаt the /lot 31 Bаrсo/oпа Dr dogs, bиt hot logs /lereЙrrу/rе[It. is 1эizzа.Doуoи So Boиldеr Сo B03o3 /ike thе аftl|Isl||tепt pаrk? lf so,уot,t,l,t: togсt loиr got fo-i/у to сomе. Тhеoпlу p,oblem is сroшds hеrе,Pеoplе hаrе fu шаit fu qеt iиto сvсrlthiпg-еvси thс restrooms!Sееуoи soo|t. Niсkц
    • Reflexive Pronouns and Reciprocal Pronouns @P0INT Сircle T (True)or F (Folse). ,,I и,ill not tаlk to mvself' I wil| пot tаlk to mvsеlf.', сI|ARт сI]EсК Сirclе T (Truе) or F (Folse). т F , т F Singular reflexive prоnouns еnd in -selves. Reсiproсal pronouns always rеfer to mor,еthan one person. т RЕFLЕxlvE РRoNoUNs Suryвстl l Rвгlвxlvв Pпoшouш i i Pпoшouш I myself. You yourself. He F The man is talking tо another pеrson. REClPRoсAt P|IONOUNS suв;вст l Pпoшouш l We You Thеy Rвсlpпoсдl- ] Pпoшoutч himsеlf. She It lookedat lookеdat еaсh other. onе anothеr. hеrsеlf. itself. Wе ourselves. You yourselves. Тhеy thеmsеlves. EхPREss Сircle thе corrеct words to completе this conversotion. A: Is someone in there with УoU, or are you talking to }roursеlf/ themselves? B: No one's here. I'm just talking to one anothеr / myself. 254
    • Reflеxive уEт r etЁФrr $ G rаffi.в ** #жрfiё gg 1. Usе a rеflеxivе pronoun whеn thе subiесtand obieсt of a sеntеnсerеfеrto thе o s amеpe o o |e г th i n o s . Pronouns and Reс-proeal Рrоnouns l Жxarтъ р$rs subjесt = objeсt l Sara |ookеda|herself in thе miггor. (Sarolookеdot hеr own faсe.) ln imperativе sеntеncrs usе: -уourself when thе subieсt is singular l ,,Don,tpush yoиrself so hard, Tom,,, Saгasaid. -уourselyes whеn thе subjeсtis pluraI I ,,Don,tpush yourselvesso hard, guуs,,, Sar asaid. 2. Use a rеf|exivе рronoun to emphasizе a l Tom was upsetwhеn hе lost his job. Тhе pronoun usua||y noun' ln this сasе,thе reflеxivе importantto him, but hе iob itself Wasn,t fo|lows the noun dirесtly. needеdthe moneУ. 3. By + a rеflеxivе pronoun means oloneor withoutonу help. Be + a reflеxive Pronoun means oсt in the usuаlwoy. 4. Usе a rесiproсal pronouп when the subjесt and thе ob.ieсt a sеntеnсerеfегto thе of samе peop|еand thesе peop|еhave a two-way rеlationship. Usе eoсh other whеn the subjeсtis two pеoplе.Use eithеrone another or eoch other whеn thе subjeсtis morе than two pеople. r Saгa|ivеsby herself. (Soro livеsolonе,) r Wе paintеdthе housеby oursе|ves. (No one hеlpеdus,) r Justbe yourself at your intеrviеw. (Асt likе уou usuallуoсt') l Hе wasn,t himself aftеrhе lost his job. (Hе sеemeddifferent,) = subjесt obieсt r Тom and Sara mеt eссJr othеr at work. (Tommet Soro,and Soro met Tom,) subjесt = objесt r We all toId one onother about our jobs. oR subjесt = objeсt r We al! told eoch other about our jobs. ongеd informotion with еvеrу ,:;,: i:;"; ;r,h reflexivepronouns havе diffеrеntmeanings. (Frеdtolkеdto lone, ond lonе tolkеdto Frеd,) l Fгedand Janеta|kedto themselves. (Frеdtolkеdto himsеlf,qnd Jonе tolkedto hеrsеlf,) forms: 5. Reсiproсal pronouns have possеssive eoch other,s, one onother,s. l Tom and Saгatook eoсh other,s numbеrs. (Tomtook Sora,snumbеr'Soro took Tom,s numbеr.) it Сheсk out! For a list of verbs and expressions сommоnly used reflexivеly, see Appendix 16 on pagе 340. 259
    • 260 r unit 60 o iDENтiFY Rеod this ortiсlе obout sеlf-tаlk.IJndеrlinethе rеflexivepronouns once ond the reciprocolpronouns twice,Drаw on orrow to thе word thot each pronoun rеfеrsto, atP 'еlf-talk is thе waУ wе exp1aina prob1еmto oursе1vеs. сan affесt the way wе fее1 It and how wе aсt. Tom and Sara, for example, both lost thеir jobs whеn thеir сomPany laid off a lot of people. Sara kept hеrself fit and spеnt timе with friеnds. Tom gainеd tеn pounds and spеnt all his timе by himsеlf. They Wеrе both unеmploУеd, so thе situation itselfсan,texplainwhy.hThеmaindiffеrеnсе was the waУTom and Sara explained the problem .o .й*'.,. Sara bеliеved that shе hеrsеlf сould сhange hеr situation. Tom saw himsеlf as helpless. Latеr, everyonе got their jobs baсk. Whеn thеy all talked to onе anothеr baсk at the offiсе, Tom grumblеd, ,,They must havе been despеrate.,,Sara replied, ,,Thеy finally rеalized thеy nееd us!,, сl]00sEo Tom ond Soro,s componу held on offiсepаrty. Сhoosе thе correct reflexivеor reciprocolpronouns to complеte thе сonvеrsаtions, oч|эe|veo 1. A: Do you mind if we pour (mysе|f oursеlvеs) i somеthing to drink? B:ofсoursenot.Andthere'sfoоdtoo.Plеasehelp_. ( У o u r s e | v е/s t h е m s е I v e s ) 2. A: That,s the new head of Мarketing. She's standing bv B: Let,s go and introduсе .*.*n, nu^'.'*u ( h i m s е |/ o u r s е l v е s ) f 3. A: I'm nervous about mу datе with Niki. I сut B: You'll be fine. Just relax and be 4. A: My boss and I always givе ( m y s е l fi h е r s е | f ) twiсe shaving. ( у o u r s е | v е/ y o u r s е | f ) s ( o u r s е | v е/ е а с h o t h е r ) s the same holiday grfts. Every year I give him a book and hе gives me a sсarf. B: Funny. I always thought you bought ( y o u r s е |/ h i m s е | f ) f 5. A: The nеw softwarе is so easy, it just seеms to run by a lot of sсarves. (itsе|f/ mysе|f) B:Really?Inourdepartment,we,rеstil1teaсhing@howtouseit. 6. A: Did you and Armina go to Japan by ( y o u r s e |/ y o u r s е | v е s ) f B: With a gтoup. We'vе all kеpt in tоuсh with or with a tour group? ( o n e a n o t h е r/ o u r s е | v е s ) sinсe the trip.
    • rР.f.l.:}jy.:.I::.T:YI:..1:9.l:.:l?:.?:3j.:Т:.T:.YI:. o .:..?s!... o.. o О Gеorgе Prudеou is o high school French tеаcher,Сomplete сOШIPLEтE his tolk to o Troup of new tеochеrs.|Jsеreflexivеond rеciprocolpronouns. I teaсh Frenсh, but the subjeсt itэe|f isn't that important. I think my 1. experienсe applies to all subjeсts. Your first Уeat may be hard, so teaсh 2. to use рositive self-talk and keep things simple. Remember that a good teaсher helps students learn by students' Was having trouble teaсhing . Reсently, John, one of my 3. how to bake Frenсh brеad. I enсouraged him to keep tфng, and in the end he suссeeded. As far as disсipline goes, I have just a few rules. I tell my students, *Keep 5. Disсuss thе lessons, but don,t interfere with teaсhing materials simple too. I pride 7. busy. 's work." Keep on bеing able to teaсh anywhere' even on a street сornеr. Finally, the salary for teaсhers is not gтеat, but you have a lot of freedom. I run my сlass by -just the way I want to. 8. You will all have to deсide for if it's worth it. I сan't afford to 9. travel to Franсe, but I satisfy with trips to Quebeс! lo. о EDII Reаd this womon,s diory, Find ond corrеct sеvеn mistokes thе useof rеflexive in ond rесiprocаlpronouns, The first mistoke is olreodу corrесtеd. rforgot ulLJаn ofu bi/t/4щ. I ,,,,,,),j*;#,Io to hl,s ryryI Iforgot ц, аJ4d,thе]Ф Ifilt turij/"o.му sustuАt.tttд, saii,, ,,Dor.r,itsohАld oп,уourselueс,'' bo bцt t ЙZnt bеJhru hu. shэ prrnэс hg on rеJoLе),JulИ! еl,wуtll,rt1. Т/luJФ I reа^оL ал,.аrtirJe sфtа,|k. It sаij,tl'м oп, r-ф oхp{лl"lt, prob/Д44' to tЙдlуsеАteс.I rц/l2tl, t/.tАt thz шау I tа/h tо t,и.e iв |J4'u/tt24!-0k2,tЙэ иtауoш саn с,hattgotЙp,ry щ шd,,to фh'sсА"ooLИ4лt{.|,tеА^d42/ tа/hto u,r. t t{шч|*, Jаn аJ47, trедt ел,dФ I otЙg И,е1,|,. forgаl,v ^/'"/ff'r Иу L?Йtа,k>, tro ,gl,t Ч, аJ4aI,frU*" hfufo,foyфt,,t1 oцr dlп*tll dАtott,tto шеd<s чo. Jаn шj, t cou/7,forgtlnt|4ДИ'е,br,с,gt,tэсs *,f,U*,"/'Ч. sot I
    • SelfТest lffiI oшв Сircle thе letter of the сorrесt onswеr to complеtеeoch sеntеncе.Choose И whеn no orticlе is nееdеd, Еxдшptt: Jеnnifer never (A) drink (Bl drinks I . I introduсed - {A)himsеlf (B)mе 2. The job (A) myself (B)itself сoffеe. to Bill as soon as I saw him. (C) myself (D)eaсh оthеr {Al themselves (B)ourselves during the holidays. (C) еaсh othеr's (D)one another 4. What a beautiful braсеlet! Is it made of - (A}a lоt оf (B)a few 6. Hоw (Al many {B)muсh bottled water bеfore thе hurriсane. (C) twelve (D)many eggs do you neеd for thе сakе? (с| И (D)more friends at frrst. (С)few (D)a fеw 8. That's (A) a (B)an best movie I,vе еver sеen. 9. Di's in Еurope on vaсation. (С|И (D)the (A) a (B)an l o . Freda's ь|a (B)a 262 ABсD ABсD (D)a 7. She was lоnely beсause she had (A) little (B)a littlе gold? (qa {A)the (B)somе ABсD ABсD isn't a problem. It's my boss. (C)himself (D)it 3 . The students ехсhange сards with 5 . I bought д@с D (C)is drinking (D)was drinking (с)the ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD DA astrоnaut. Thеre are siх оf them on this mission. (C)an (D)the ABсD ABсD
    • SelfTest 1 1 . -I just rеntеd -Great! Whiсh one? (A) the (B)some l ABсD vidеo. (c)a (D)any fruit left. Could you buy some apples? (С)litttе (D)many 72. We don't have (A) muсh (B)some lъЕcтlrоNl Хl AвсD тW0 Еаch sеntencehos four underlinеd words or phrosеs, The four underlinеdports of the sеntencеorе morked A, B, С, ond D. Сircle the lеtter of thе onе undеrlinеd word or phrose thot is Noг сoRRЕст. Еxдшptп: A B сo Mike _ - п * _ - - ъ _ - - Сtо- т usuallv drives - sсhoоl. but todav hе walks. 13. There are a lot of food in the fridge, so help yоursеlf. ABсD 14. Do )лourfamilies сome fоr thanksgiving or do you сelebratе ABсD ABсD Aв( by )'ourselves? D 1 5 . The nеws arе starting, so let,s watсh TУ in thе living room. ABсD 1 6 . Lее wants to oрen his businеss in may and start working ABсD AB(D ABс for himself. D |7. I m}zselfdon,t еat сhili, but it,s the most popular spiсе in a world. Aв(D 1 8 . A mone-v isn't everything-the AB(D ABсD job rtsеЦ has to be interesting. 1 9 . Mathematiсs isn't Todd,s best subjeсt, but he suссеeds with the D AB( hard work. ABсD ABсD 20. Hоw many timеs do we have before the movie starts? ABсD 21. Smith Was an unpopular mayoц so he had a few friends in politiсs. ABсD 22. Wе havе only a fеw milk left, so сould you piсk Some up for us? ABсD 23. We didn't know one anothеr names beforе Maria introduсеd us. ABсD 24. Ben has to savе a fеw monеy so that hе сan go to *т,1 ABсD AB(D AB(D ABсD B(D A B A in фе fall. 25. I mеt an aссountant and a lawyer at }rourparty, and an aссountant ABсD said he,d help mе. ABсD 263
    • Тhe Passive: overview WPЙINт Сhеck thе informotion you con get from the od, П tь" name of the founder Rеodеr'sDigеst was foundеd in 1922. Today it is read Ьy pеoplе in every сountry in the world. Shouldn'tyou Ье onе of them? SuЬsсriЬеtoday. П tь" number of years thе magazine has еxistеd П tь" priсе of thе magazinе сI/,АRт сHEсК Сircle T (Truе) or F (Fаlse). T т т F F F The objeсt of an aсtive sentenсе beсomes thе subjeсt of the passive sentеnсe. Passivе statemеnts always have a fоrm оf the verb be. Passive statemеnts always have an оbjeсt. Mi||ions peop|еbuy it. of lt is bo ught by millio ns f pеo p|e. o SomеonеpubIished it in 1922, lf w as published in 1922. PAsslvЕ sтAтElt,lЕNтs tl I Pлsт | Suцвст Br (Noт) | Pяптrсlвlв | 1вr + oцвст) It is (not) bought It was (not) publishеd by mi||io ns f pеo ple. o YEs/NoQUЕsтloNts tl Bс |,u",... Еill...o.. | ls Was sold it I l in China? |гo,, ШнWoпo| в. I su"t.., l Ьii....o.. Wherе ls it sHoRт ANsWЕRs Aггlпмдтlvв wн. QUЕsтloNs 26+ in 1922. sold? Yes, it ls. was. I I Nвсдтlvв No, it isn't. wasn't.
    • Тhe Pаssive: Оverviеw l EхPREssж Сompletе this sentеncewith thе possive form of thе verb print, How many сopies of Rеаdеr,s Digеst last year? Grammаr Notеg Еxamplеs 1. Aсtive and passive sеntеnсes oftеn have similarmеaningsbut diffеrent foсuses. Aстlvв l Millionsof peoplе rеad the magazine. (Thе focusis on thе pеoplе,) Pдsslvг l Тhе magazineis read by mi||ions peoplе. of (The foсusin on thе magozine') 2. Form thе passive with a form of be + past pa*iсip|е. r |t is w r itten in ninеtееn languagеs. r lt w as publishеd in 1922. r lt has just been printed. 3. Usе thе passivе whеn: a. thе agеnt (thе personor thing doing thе aсtion)is unknownoг not important. r Тhе magazinеwas founded in 1922, (l don,tknowwho foundеdit.) b. thе identityof the agеnt is с|еar from the сontеxt. r Тhе magazineis so|d at nеwsstands. (Wе сon assumеthat thе nеwsstand ownеrsand emp|oyееs it, Wе don,t neеd to mеntionthеm.) sе|| C. you want to avoid mеntioningthеagent. werе madе in that artiс|e. I Some mistakеs (l know who mode thе mistakes, l don,twont but to blame thе pеrsonwho madе thеm') 4. Use the passive with bу if уou mention thе agеnt. Меntion, agеnt whеn: thе r The aгtiсlewas written by o psусhologist. a. you introduсеnесеssary new information about the agent. r John Dеlgadois a famoussportswritеr. He has just been hirеd by Notionol Sports to w r itеa mo nth|y |umn. сo (Thе nаmе of John,sеmploуeris nесеssory nеw information,) b. you want to give сreditto someonewho сrеatеdsomеthing. was written by lohn Delgodo' r Thе aгtiс|е с. thе agent is surprising. l ouг windows arе washed bу o robot. to mеntion an agеnt in passivеsentenсеs. Do not inсludеan agent unnесеssarily. Noт Тhe magazineis publisheobу+ьеa*+isнеr onсe a wееk. 26s
    • 266 I unit 6i сl]00sEо Rеаd thеsеsеntenсesond dеcide if theу аrе Аctive (A) or Passive (P). 1 . Readеr's Digеst was founded in 7922. 2 . Millions of people read it. 3 . A large-type edition is also printed. 4. They also reсord it. I; |; ffi 5 . Rеadеr,s Digеst is published оnсе a month.ffi 6 . It has been translated into many languages. 7 . Мany readers subsсribe to the magazine. 8 . It is sold at newsstands everywhere. 9. I read an interesting artiсle in it. 1 0 . The artiсle was written by a famous sсientist. о Look ot REАD с0I{LPIЕTE & thе chort. Then complеtе thе sentenсеs,Use thе vеrb speak in the octive or thе possivе form. Cantonese(China Ho (Biharand OrissaStates, lndia Swahili(Kenya, Тanzania, Uganda, Demoсratiс Republiс Congo) of ТagaIog (Philippines) Japanese ken bу 126 mi||ion One million people bу 57 million pеople. Spanish Cantonesе. 246 million people. Мorе than 500 million peоple in Uganda.
    • The Passive: Оverview o сOIлPLЕтEUsе thе pаssivе form of the verbs in thе first set of porenthesesto complеte this rеport. Includе thе ogent (from thе sеcond set of porenthеses) only if obsolutеlYnеcеssorу. MоdernReader Nеwsletter TпштнAшшlvвпsARY lssuс Dto You l{ьlolry. . ? . } Modеrn fuа,dеr waэ founded bу A, J. ThomPaon '1. waэ printеd ) At first it in thrее forеignJanguagе еditions. ) 3 . ( p u b | i s h( t h е p u b l i s h е ф 4 . ( r е a d )( r e a d е r s ) ) Sinсе 2000, twеnty nеW еmployееs ) Baсk at homе, tеn nеW сomputеrs ) Thеy (ourwriters) 7. (usе) | Мodеrnfuаdеr ) our еditorial staff ) Thе intеrviеw t.еnyеars ago. only in Еnglish. 2. (print) fitgp*аtФ ) Today it )It ( f o u n d )( 4 . J . T h o m p s o n ) ln morе than tеn сountriеs. 5 . ( h i r е )( o u г i n t е r n а t i o n аo f f i с е s ) l ( 6. (purсhаse) thе сompany) last month. to Writе our award-winning artiсlеs. ) 8 . ( а d v е r t i s е( а d v е r t i s е r s ; 9. (interview)(Livеot Tеn TV) all ovег thе woгld. last month. l o . ( s e е )( m i | l i o n s f v i е w e r s ) o EDIT.Reod on editor'snotes for o story for Modеrn Readеr. Find ond correct еight mistokеsin thе usе of the possive. The first mistаkе is olrеody corrected, are located pеoplе in thе coolwеstеrn Twohirds Bo|iviа's miltion ot f ive W highIаnds known thе Аttiptano. аs thе L|аmаs rаisеdior iuц mеаt,аrld For cеntцriеs, grаinquinoa bееngrеwin thе moцnIаins, hаs (еaoцrce, rnining minеrsin thе high Аndеs, transportаtion. tin, Bo(ivia,s Аnd richеstnаtцrа| is bу Iropicа|. Ihе Оriеntе, аnothеrnаmеtor thе еаstеrnlowlаnds, most|у is Ncе is thе majorlood crop, аnd cow;arе rаisеd rnitk. is а|so for oit tindthere, АIIhough 5pаnishis thе aРtiсiat |аnguagе, |anguаgеs sIi|I spoken аrе by NativeАmеricаn ptaуed rеed pipеsWhose textites woven hаnd,аnd mt,lsic Trаditionаt bу tonе arе on PeoPIе, rеsеmb|еs soundof thе windblowing highp|аins thе Аndеs, thе in ovеr l 267
    • The Passive with Modals Э i I Iэ o m e Ь h i n q , h aэ t , o b e d o n e a b o u L Еd , | e э nor e e e o |o u d h e ,oа o i n а L o kn o c k u e o u L o f o r b i t ! жPЙINт Сhеck thе corrеct onswеr, l kn ow ,Сa r|a . l,e can be heard back on Еarth| Aссording to Carla, П ва has to d.osomething about his snoring. t sтAтЕil,lЕNтs сIIARт сHEсl( l Сirclе T (Truе)or F (Fаlse), т F Passivеs with mоdals alwavs use be. т F You сannot talk about the future using the passivе with modals. somеbоdyhas to do somеthing about Ed's snoring. I l Pдsт Suв;вст l Mooдl.* 8g l PдптlсlPLE will (not) should (not) Тhe сrеw Hдvс (сoт) тo/ Bс сotнс тo Suв|вст has (got) to doesn't have to is (not) going to Тhe сrew be Br bе replaсed I nеxt month. Pдsт Pдптlсlpl-в rеplaсed nеx t mo nth. *Modals have only one form. Thеy do not have -s in thе third person singular. lЕsт oNs YI s/rvoQU сHARт с'{,Eсl( 2 Chеck thе corrеct аnswеr, What сomes before the subjeсt in questions? Jьe П u modal or an auхiliary vеrb 264 Mooдl. will Shoшld ,u",r.r IBr Pдsт it replaсed? be Pдвтtсlpl.в sHoRт ANsWЕRs I Aггlпмдтlvв Yes, it w ill. sho uld. I | NвGAт|vЕ No, it won't. sho uldn't .
    • Тhe Passive s}|oRт ANsWЕRs YES/NI} QUEsтlo NS Auxll.tдпvl I Hдvстo/ Vвпв | 5uв|встI Goпсстo Doеs ls it have to g o i n g to witir МосJals t I port Bg I PдптlGtPLЕ be repIaсеd? AггlпмдтIvв Yes, it does. ls. I l NвсAтlvЕ No, it doesn't. isn't. ExPREss,#ж--ф:;я, Сomplеtethis conversotionwith the pаssiveform of will preparе. A: food B: No. it on board? It on Earth. rъ Ф s ar &y awуъхж tr"жp"aet Ё yв E,x*rтвр1еs l. Тo form the passivеwith a modaI,use modal + bе + past partiсiple. r r l r 2. Usе иdll or he going to with thе passivеto talk about thе futurе. l lt will bе launсhed vегy soon. oR r lt,s going to bе launсhеd Verysoon. 3. Use сoл with the passivеto exprеss present ability. r Thе blastoffcon be seen for miles. Use сoиld with the passivеto exprеss Past ability. 4. Use сou!d,froу, might, and сont with thе passiveto exprеssfuturе possibility or impossibility. The SpaсeShutt|е will be launсhеd soon. Тhe launсh won,t he postponеd. Тhe сrеW,nиst be given time off. shouldn,t be madе too quiсkly. Deсisions l |t сould bе seen vеry сlearlylastyеar. l r r l |t сould be launсhed vеry soon. tгenсh sсiеntists moy be invited to partiсipate. P|ants might bе grown on boaгd' |t con,t bе donе. 5. Use should, ought to, hod better, hove (got) to, and must with the passiveto exprеss: a. advisabilitу r Тhе сrеw shoиld be prepared to work hard. r Crеw members ought to be given a daу oft. r Pгivaсyhod better be respесted. b. песessity l Rеpoгtshove to bе filed. r Еvеryonemust be сonsulted. 269
    • 27O I unit 62 o lDЕNтltY Rеod this orticle obout the lntеrnotionаl Spаcе Stotion Unity. Undеrlinе oll thе possivеswith modаls, Living in outеr Spaсо Paсе StationUnitу will be сomPletеdwithin thе next dесаde,and intеrnational tеаms of аstronаuts thеn bе sharingс|osequаrters long pеriodsof time. will for whаtformеr Whаtсаn be donеto improve сonditions spасе? in Hеre,s |iving аstronauts suggеst: Foodshouldbе mаdеspiсier tastеas goodin zerogravity. to * Fooо lt doеsn,t ovеrсome lntеrnаtionаl tаstеs mustalsoЬe сonsidеrеd. thosееffесts. Layerеd stay Тhe сlothing сouldhеlp astronauts сomfortablе. top layer s Cr-отнlГt[G vаry. сouldbе rеmovеd аddеdas temPerаturеs or in of sleep s Slввplгtс Bесаusе wеightlеssness, is oftеninterruptеd spaсе. restraints mustbе provided givea sеnsеof stabi|ity. to Сomfortаblе ,,down timе,, spaсejustas thеydo on Еarth. in s ЕмoтloNAL Nввps Peoplenееd Тimеoughtto bе providеd rеlаxation privасy. for and o с0I|PIЕтE Comet Magazinе (CM) is interviewingаеrospocеengineеr Dr. Bernord Koу (BK). Сomplеtе thе intеrviеw with the possive form of thе vеrbs in porеnthesеs. w!|| handled be CM: Dr. Kay, I'd like to ask how mеals 1 . ( w i l l/ h a n d l e ) 2. (Bе going to / preparе) in the Spaсe Station. on board or from tubes? 3. (squeеzе) BK: Neither. Gourmеt meals on Earth and thеn thev 4. (wi|| prеpaсkаge) / on board. 5. (сan / warm up) CM: The Spaсe Station will have an international сrew. How 6 . ( s h o u | d/ с h o o s е ) BK: An intеrnational menu to suit everyone's tastе? 7 . ( h a v еt o / o f f е r ) . Food 8 . ( с o u | d/ s е | е с t ) from food preferenсe forms that the сrew mеmbers сomplete. CM: dishes BK: Probably. But utеn.il. around! Meals 9. (Wi||/ usе) on board? to the plates so they won't fly ,*nuo *.*., u,.*, as pleasant as possible. 1 1 . ( o u g h tt o / m a k е )
    • The Passive with Мосjals o Some scientists completedo simulotionof life on the Stаtion, just с,|00sE с0|{|PLETE & Сompletе their conversotionswith thе modols in porеnthesesаnd the сorrесt verbs from the box. design improve keep remove Фh€ Kвшт: Thesе simulatiоns showеd that thеrе are still some problems. I hopе theу can be эolved 1. (сan) - bеforе thе rеal thing. For example, the temperature at 68o, but I Was unсomfortably warm most of the time. 2. (should) Lyr,в: The material for our сlothing . Maybe сlothing 3{ouфt tФ in layers. A layer 4. (сould) 5. (сaD if it's too warm. dеliver do Hдшs: I didn,t like the food very muсh. W" give storе uo"* ' more fresh food. Hrsд:Well,freshfruitsandvеgetablesbytheShuttleregularly. Hдшs: What Hrsд: I'm sure it 8. (will) 9. (will) with the trash? Spaсe littеr is already a problem. on board and сarried to Earth bv the Shuttlе. о journаI notеs.Find аnd сorrеctsеvеnmistokesin the use of ЕDIT Reod on ostronotlt,s thе possive with modаIs, Thе first mistoke is olrеodу corrеctеd. bе made rеlтаints tаstnightаnd s|ефa lot bgtter,Thеч oцgffito я+а]<e corrуtortаblе, morе I usеd thе s|ееping in though,Ifeff trappеd, 1usttookеd thе mirror. face is pиttyаnd mу еуе5аrе red. I'd be1tеr | Мy bе gofrеn thе ехеrcisе on bikеrightaWaV.cаn bе misundеrEtаnding l tooktikethis. Lаst night I Whеn g ' I Мах thoughtl was аngrуаt himfor tиrnin on ,.5rаrTrеk,',Аctиatty,lovethаt show I mightbе givеn аnd cаn еаrIуlunchshitt todaу.I hopеthеу hаvеmorеtеriуаki, nicе аnd spicу, thе 9аL|cе actua|Iу |t's be o( bееntaEtеd,еvеnаt zеrogravi. Somеol it hаd be1tеr fty in on thе Sht,ttt|е ?rеttуaoon, tnеrе of |ast mightbе somеиnhaPPt7 аlтonаt,tts! Spеаking иnhappy, nightWistеncа|Iеd toIdmе shе аnd qut yett gеt 0иt аlrаid|,|I аng^|and if Ithinkshе cou|dbetа|k oг it bиt|,m WasPlanningto acnoot. Wе bу wе discцssi{' I mightovеrnеаrd othеrs, nееd50mеvrivаcу herе! l 271
    • Тhe Passive Gausative Н i , Е r и i l . .l. у lmm,,,Эome|hin7'e differrnt, oid уou -jE get, уour hair cut? Jсt =L (iн г. I WPOINT Сhеck the correct onswer. Thе guy wants to know if his girlfriеnd П сut her own hair. П went to a hair salon. sтAтЕlt,|ENтs сI]ARт сIllEсK Сircle T (True)or F (Folse). т F The passive сausative alwaуs has a form of thе verb be. т т F F Iport I Suцвст | Hдvr/Gы oЦпст She has her hoir Hе has had his beord trimmed befoге. got mу noils at Andrё,s. is going to get her eors You сan form the passive сausativе with hove or get. Sh e The passive сausativе always nееds an agent. AuxlI.lдпY l |Pлптlсlгlв|(Br + Aсвшт) <ut by Andrё done pierсеd. VEs/NoQUЕsтloNs Vвпв I Suв,вст Hлvr/Gст oцвстl Еfil...,.. +Aсrшт) |1,, Does shе havе her hoir сut Has hе had his beord trimmеd? Did you 9еt уour noils done? ls 272 everymonth. shе going to gеt her eors pierсed? by Andrё?
    • Тhe Pаssive ёausative EхPREssж Сompletе this convеrsotionwith thе corrесt form of thе vеrb do, A: Where do you gеt your hair B: I don't get it sraпзmar frxрlanet;{Эrъs t it myself. Жж*vхъpИr,s l. Usе thе passivе сausativе to ta|kabout seгviсes r I usеd to сo|ormy own hair,but now for I havе it сolored' that you arгange someoneto do for you. r | get mу noils done by Mariе. Stмpt-г Сдusдтtvг Pдsт donе)with thе past r I had it done |astwееk. сausative(hod somеthing (Somеonе it for mе') peгfeсtin aсtive sеntеnсеs(hod donе something). did PдsтPгпггст r I had donе it beforе. (l did it mysеlf.) 2. Form the passivе сausativе with the appropriateform of hove or gеt + objесt + past partiсlple. Тhе passivе сausativе сan bе usеd in all tenses and with modals. l alwayshave my hoir сut by Andrё. I havеn,t had it do nе sinсеJ une. Lastyеaг | got mу coot сlеaned onсe. Next weеk I,m going to have my windows washed. l,m gеtting them done by Spot|ess' l had them washеd a long timе ago. You should get the сor сhесkеd. You ought to have it done soon. to 3. Use by when it is nесessary mеntionthe persondoing thе sеrviсe(thе agent). Do not mеntionthе agеnt unnесеssaгlly. l Lynnеgets hеr hair donе by Andrё. r Whеrе doеs Lynnеget hеr hair donе? Noт Wherе does Lynnegеt her hair donе Ъyа+а+r+у+;вt? Сheсk out! it For more inforrrration about whеn to usе an agent, sеe Unit 6L, page 265. l 27З
    • 274 I U n i t 63 тRUЕ tAIsЕo Rеod еoch pеrson,sstotеment.Write T (True)or F (Folse)for the 0R sеntencethot follows. l. Jдкв: I'm going to get my hair сut tomоrrow after work. F Jake сuts his own hair. 2. Dшвпд: I,m сoloring my hair this aftеrnoon. Dеbra сolors her own hair. 3. Aмввв: I didn't paсk any nail polish, beсause I had dоne my nails bеfоrе the trip. Amber did her own nails. 4. Jдкв: I'm thinking of gеtting the floors waхed before the party. Jake might hire Somеone to wax thе floors. 5. Mдвrв: I had my apartmеnt painted two months ago. Marie paintеd her own apartment. 6. Toшy: I'll wash the сar this weеkend. Tony is going to wash the сar himsеlf. о FIND & REPORт lt,s Fеbruorу l5. Lookot thе Sontаnos,colеndаr ond writе OUI obout things they had donе ond things thеу are going to havе donе. sеntеnсes tЕBRUARY Тuгsoдv W в o ш в s o д y T н u п s o д y M oшoдy Suшoдy 1 2 3 4 I 9 10 11 16 windows 17 18 15 Тodаy,s dаtе 22 2 4 Ambеr- 25 2з 6 26 27 1. They / have / piсtures / take Thеу are going to have pic|ureэ taken, 2. Debra I get I her hair / pe rm Debra go| hеr hair ?ermed. 4. Theу l get / the windows / wash 5. They / have / th.eсarpets / c|ean 6. Amber / have / }rer ears / pierсе 7. Jake /getlhis hair laft 8. Theу / have / food and drinks / dеliver 7 Dеb-hаirdreяеr 1 3 Ambеr- 14 Jаkе- 12 (аrреt5 doo oroomеr bаrber 20 21 19 раrty!! food drinks аnd piеrсеd eаrs 3. Amber / havе l t}re dog l gтoom Sдтuпoду FпloдY 5 28 fаmi|y рiсturеs
    • Тhe Pаssive Gausаtive o Dеbrа ond Joke ore going to hove o pаrtY, Сomplete thе сlt00sЕt. с0/{|PLETЕ conversotionswith the possivе cousotiveof thе oppropriote verbs in the box, dry сlean 1. сolor сut paint Dввпд: Your nеW dress is a little long. Why don't уou wash Тet it эhortened Aмвшв: oK. They do alterations at thе сlеaners. I'll take it rn tomorrow. Dвввд: My blue dress has a small stain. I havе to Aмввв: I сan drop it off at the сleanеrs with my dress. Jдкш: Thе housе is ready, exсept for thе windows. Thеy look pretty dirty. 3. Dввпд: Don,t wоrry. We tomorrоw. Dввпд: Your hair is getting really long. I thought уou were going to сut it. 4. Aмввв: I deсided not to do it mvself this time. I by Andrё. 5. Dвввд: My hair's getting a lot of gтay in it. Should I Jдкв: It looks fine to me, but it's up to you. Guшsт: Thе housе looks bеautiful. you Jдкв: Nо. aсtually we did it ourselves last summer. о ЕDlT Rеod Аmber,sdiorу еntry. Find ond correctsеvenmistokеsin thе use of thе possive сousotivе. Тhe first mistаkе is olrеаdy сorrесtеd. ф..,w |eЬruarу Z| grеat. Thepаrty lt wеntгеally Тhеhousе wеll! lookеd МomаndDad thеflooЁs wastonTght. had waxеd аllthеwindo and -:хlжirofеssionаlly so еvеrything spаrklеd. of Coursе hаdthе Аnd wе (l' paintеd that.lttookus twowееks!) housе аst torgеt l woге whoе oursеlvеs summеr. nеVеr my jоb. nеwblaсk drеssthаtl hаvе by аnd t-lе shortеnеd Do, Igоt сutmуhаirbyАndrё. didа grеаt Thеrе Werе lotof gиеsts thеpаrty. hаdаlmost а аt Wе fitty pеop|е invitеd, theyаlrrost showеd аnd аlI hегsеlt shеhаdthегеstof up! food Тhе wаsgrеаf Мommаde too. mostof thе main dishеs but thоfnnd nrогяго а сatеrеr: аndDаd photographеr, thееndof the by Мom hirеd profеssionаl a so аt I l Iv |vvЧ H| vt/Ч| v pаrty аlltookоurpiсturеs. gеttin9 DadЪ nеxt | wе thеmbасk wееk.сan1wаitto sееthеm! l 27 5
    • Selfтёst ffiБiТl oшп Сirclе the lеttеr of the correct onswеr to completе еoch sеntence. Еxдмptt: Jеnnifer never (A) drink (B)drinks l. This book (A) is tB)has 2. Coffеe is (A) grow (B)gтew соffee. (C) is drinking {D)was drinking written in 19g9. (C)was (D)werе in Colombia. (C)bееn growing (D)gтown 3. Millions of peоple {A)saw (B)were seеn the movie. (C)will bе sееn (D)must be seen 4. The meеting won't {A)сanсel (C)bееn сanсеlled (D)сanсelled tB)bе сanсеllеd д@с D ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD 5. Sally doesn'tсut her own hair. Shе - at the salon. (C)has it сut (D)gets it ABсD 6. That book was writtеn (A) at (B)by Maya Angelou. (C)from (D)of ABсD (A) сuts it (B)has сut it 7. The report (A) publishes (B)is published soon. (C)will be published (D)will publish ABсD 8. -When wil] the work be соmpleted? -It bе by June, but I'm not rеally surе. (A) has (с) will (B)might (D)won't ABсD 9. How often (A) do you get (B)did you gеt AB your сar sеrviсеd sinсе you bought it? (с) had you gotten (D)havе you gоtten lo. I have to get my piсture (A) take (B)takеn 276 for my Wеb site. (C) taking (D)took сD ABсD
    • ffiтW0 Еoch sentеncеhаs four undеrlinеd words or phrosеs, Thе four undеrlinеdports of the sеntеnceore morkеd А, B, С, ond D. Сirclе the lеttеr of thе onе underlinеd word or phrosе thot is Noг сoRRЕст. Exдшtpш: A в сO usually Мike -_*Т-.--- drives to sсhoоl, but to4ay hе wъlks. D с в frqm the meсhaniс that 11. Tomorrow I'm getting my сar serv=iсed -A с в ABсD Jakе usеs. D 12. The rеports wеrе arri=vedlate, so I hgd thепL sеnt to you this morning. ABсD 13. Some mistakes Wqre *g!е in the broсhure, but they might сorreсtеd ABсD ABсD beforе yo" baсk. # ABсD lд. You'll seе a сopy before they'це priцtеd by theдrinter. -B -A D с 1 5 . A funny thing w-as happened when your ч* P yesterday. ".+!ф ABсD ',6. WЩ your stay be exteцded, or will you be rеLurned nеxt week? -A_всD AвсD done 17. I used to do my own taxеs, but now I hEve ___---т-them -D u. aссountant. Щ B ABсD 18. Bеfore a final deсision is reaсhed, the various possibilities should B ABсD A A probablv disсussеd !y the whole team. v L -D- - с 19. The house pa+!ф morе than three yеars ago, but I'm not &oiцg to ABсD have it done again for a while. сD be 20. We didn't knоw about the problem, so it shou=ldn't handled in timе. ABсD gтеw in thе mountains beсause Ц g9щ too сo]d. 21. Ь lot of сrops сan't be - B , D с ABсD A-в-_сD A 22. That pottеry цLР foъnс! this area. P u" arсhaеologist while she was ЧLorkеd in ABсD still worЕing? 23. Does the lightbulb have to =replaсеdor is i=t D с ABсD yet 24. Have you had your teeth сlе=an щ Dr. Ellin'S new oral hygienist? ABсD 25. Thе last payment shouldn't mqke until all thе work has Fеen ABсD A B- A-B-сD AB сompleted and сarefully сhegked. -сD
    • Faсtual Gonditionals: Present жPqINт Сirclе T (Truе)or F (FoIsе). т F The man may not be ablе to board the planе. sтAтЕгvlЕNTs сI|ART сHЕсl( Сircle T (Truе)or F (Folsе). т т т F F F The verbs in both сlauses are in thе present tеnse. TЬe if сlause always сomеs first. There is always a сomma betweеn thе two сlausеs. lг Cиusв tf | Rвsul.тCиusв it snows, сlo thе aiгpo r t sеs. Тhе airpoгtсlosеs it's foggy, p|anеs Gan,t lеave. P|anеsGan,t lеavе YEs/NoQUЕsTloNs Rвsul.тGьдusв Doеs thе airpoгtсlose (an p|anes lеave | t, G.ou,. if it snows? it's foggy? ltrf,-QUЕsтloNs Rвsul.тCиusв l lя Cиusв Why doеs air get Iighteгl ,f it eхpands? 278 sтAтЕгvtЕNтs Rвsul.т Gцusв i l. с.ou,. if it snows. it's foggy. s}toRт ANsWЕRs Arгlпмдтlvв Yes, it do еs. thеy сan' I NвсAтlvЕ | No, it doеsn,t. thеy сan,t'
    • Faсtuаl Conditionals: Рresent l EхPREssж Motch the if сIouseswith thе rеsult clаusеs, 1. If you hate airplane food, a. thеy often fеel jet lag. 2. You might not be able to board b. you сan order a speсial meal. 3. If people travel a long distanсe' G. if you don't сheсk in at the gate. Gramrпar Еxрlanat;ons Ёxаmplеs to 1. Use prеsеnt faсtшal сonditional sentеnсes faсts. talk about gеnегaltruthsand sсiеntifiс if с|ausе rеsu|t сIausе l lf it's noon in Lima,it's 6:00 p.м.in Romе. Тhe lf сlauseta|ksabout the сondition,and the rеsu|t с|ausе ta|ksabout what hapреnsif the сonditionoссurs. lf с|ause r е s u | tс I a u s e l lf air expands, it beсomes lightег. Usе thе simplе prеsent tеnsе in both сlauses. 2. You сan also usе presеnt faсtual сonditional sentеnсes taIkabout habitsand rесurгing to еvents(thingsthat happеnagain and again). Usе thе simp|еorеsеnttеnseoг pгesеnt progгessive the if сlausе.Use the in сlause. simplеpresеnttensеin the rеsu|t с|ausе. 3. You сan a|souse modals in thе гesu|t if сlаusе rеsult с|ausе fliеs, he ordеrs a spесiaI l lf Bi|| mеa|. if сlausе гesult с|ausе l lf |,m travеlinq faг,l alwavsfly. your Сhinеsееveryday, r lf you praсtiсе уou сon improve quiсkIy. r You might learn moгe if you |istento tapеs. Сhinеse сlauseto givе 4. Usе thе lmреrative in the rеsu|t instгuсtions. that сommands,and invitations depеnd on a сertainсondltion. press thе button. r lf you want thе seatto гeс|ine, r |f thе sеatbе|t|ightis on, don,t leavе youг sеat. l lf you сomе to Tokyo,stay with us. 5. You сan bеgin сonditioпal sепtenсеs with Тhе meaningis thе if с|ause the resu|t or сlausе. t h е s am е . Usе a сomma bеtwееnthe two с|auses only whеn thе ff сlausесomеs first. r lf the light goеs on, buсklеyouг seat be|t. oR yo r Buсkle uг seatbе|tif thе light go es o n. 279
    • 2aO r unit 64 o IDENтIFYReod this orticlе. ln eoch foctuаl conditionol sentencе,undеrline thе result thе clouse onсe. Undеrline the clouse thаt еxprеsses condition twicе. PдssвшGЕRs, Rlснтs . kno w yo ur r ightsas a passеngero ftеn the air linе If уou r u n i n to p ro b l е m s o n y o u r i o u rnеy, сompan yi s re q u i re dto с o m p e n s a t еy ou fo r dеlaуs o r damages.Fo r ex ample,thе air linе pr o vides me al s an d h o t e l r o o m s i f a f l i g h ti s u n duly delayеd. H o w еvеr , thе air linеo w es yo u a lo t mo r е if it сausе dt h е d е l a y b y o v е r b o o k i n gT h i s саn o ссurеspесiallуdur ingho lidaуsif air linеssel| mo r е . t i сkе t st h a n th е r е a r е s е a t s .l f a l l th е p assenger s aсtuallysho w up, then the flightis o ver bo o kеd. Airlinеs usuаlly award upgradеsor additiona|freе travеl to passengеrswho voluntеerto takе a later i fl i ght .Ho we v е r , f n o o n е v o l u n tе e r s y o ur flightmay bе dеlayed.ln that сase,the air linе must r epay , y o u l 0 0 p e r с е n t o f h е с o s t o f y o u r t i с k е t f o r a d е l a y o u p t o f o u r h o u r s o n a n i n t е r n a t i o nfal li g h t . f t l f t hе de l a y i s m o rе t h a n f o u r h o u rs ,y o u r есеivе200 pеr сеnto f the сo st o f yo ur tiсket. o sUмII|ARlzERеod thesеconversotionsobout Hong Kong. Summorizе the odvicе with conditionol sentenсes, 1. A: I hate hot wеather. B: Thе bеst time to go to Hong Kong is Novеmber or Dесembеr. lf you hate hot weather, beэt timе to qo to Honq Konq iэ November December, the or 2. A: I,m traveling with my сhildren. B: Take thеm to Lai Chi Kоk Amusement Park in Kowloon. 3. A: We nееd a mсlderately priсеd hotеl. B: I suggest thе Harbour View International House. 4. Ьз We like seafood. B: Thеre are Wonderfu] seafood restaurants on Lamma Island. 5. A: I'm fasсinatеd by Chinesе opera. B: You might likе the street opera in the Shanghai Streеt Night Market. 6. A: I'd like to get a good viеw оf Hong Kong. B: You should takе the funiсular to the Pеak.
    • Faсtшal cоnditienals: Рrеsent о Сompletethis intеrviewbetweеnСareers Magazine (сM) ond flight с0I[|BINE in ottendаnt Moу Simko (Ms), Сombine thе sеntеnces porеntheses moke o fасtuol to conditionolsentence. Use the sаme ordеr,Mаke nеcessаrY chongеsin copitolizotion ond punсtuotion. CM: How long arе you usually awaу? MS: |f | 0o to the Bahamaэ, I havе a two-daУ |aУover. 1 . ( I g o t o t h е B a h а m a s .I h a v е a t w o - d a y l a y o v е r . ) CM: What do vou do for two davs? MS: 2 . ( | s p е n d a | o to f t i m е a t t h е p o o l . I s t a y a t a h o t е | . ) l 3 . ( | s t а yw i t h f r i е n d s . s p е n d t i m е w i t h t h е m . ) CM: Sounds niсe. MS: ,,Drасulа.,,) 4 . ( I t , sn o t 5 o n i с е . I g е t a That,s when you fly somewhеre at midnight, spend four hours, and then flу baсk. CМ: Sounds likе a tough job. Is it wоrth it? МS: 5 . ( l t , sv е r y r е w a r d i n g .Y o u d o n , t m i n d h a r d w o r k . ) CM: Who walks the dog and waters the plants when you'rе away? MS: 6 . ( Y o u h а v е t h r е е r o o m m a t е s .Y o u d o n , t h a v е t r o u b | еf i n d i n g d o g w а | k е г s . ) CM: What's thе best thing abоut this job? MS: Frеe trips. 7 . ( A f | i g h th a s a n е m p t y s е a t . I r i d е f o r f r е е ! ; , ЕDlT.Rеod Moу,sjournаl еntrу.Find ond corrеctsеvеnmistokesin thе usе of prеsеnt fасtuol conditionols. Thе first mistаke is olreodу corrесted.Don,t forgеt to сhесk punctuаtion! Whаt а greа{ ,,,еekeпi! lf-Loи аис/ Teri.zreп,t thе bсst llosts in thе шorlс|,,*J2ьoш шllo is, |'vе iиvitеd thеm to Neш,York, bиt 'f!u" /ivе iп the'Bаhаm'I' loи rаrе/у cuапt to /eаvе.Т.lmorroш[It t f/у roипll trtp from Neш York to Pittsbи,gh, ThereЗ а/ш.zуs а priсе to P"!, |f Iget а fее 'aееkeпс/iп thе is/апds / а/tuауsgеt а ,'Drасрt/а,,аfrrи,аrr/s, oh, u,е//'tf t шoп,tfа// аs/eеp,I саn иsиаl/у midпlht .qet а /ot of reаling с/o,e. Pаt аис| |{im both f/eш fu Loпdoп уesfurlау, / hopе someoИесаи ша/k FrЬkу fo, mе. t/sиа//у, f t,//br u,o,kiи!I, oпr of tllem Ь off tf Frislg is а/oпefo, а long timе, he b,тrkе,1а /ot, Thаt distиrbs thе пеghbors, fulауbе / shoи/djиst leаve thе TV oп fo' hio,, НеЗ аlшауs Vсr! са/m, if thе TV is oи. or mауbе / l betfur са// Pаt апd аsk her аboиt ller sсhedи/e' tf it cuаs 6:00 p'm, hеrе iп пot too /аtе to са//' Nccu York, itь 17,.oo p.m, iп Loпdon, T/lrтts l 28|
    • FaсtuaI Gonditionals: Future WPqlNт Сirclе T (Truе)or F (FoIsе). т Baker is defrnitely going to raise taxеs. т -::-,--=>- F F Small businesses are definitely going to leave. will leavе. businеssеs lf Bakеrralsеs taxеs,sma|I AFFIпlliAтlvЕ sтAтElli ЕNтs сI]АRт сHEсК Сhеck thе сorrеct ' аnswеr, Use the simple present tеnse in lг Cиusв: Pпвsвшт Rвsul.т Cиusв: Fuтuвв lf Bakеrwins, hе,ll raise taxеs. hе,s going to fight сrimе. П tьe ff сlausе' П tь" result сlausе. Use a сomma bеtweеn thе two сlauses t NЕGAтlvЕ sтAтЕшlЕNтs lг Cиusв: Pпвsвшт won,t return' |f hе doеsn,t lowеr taxes, I businessеs whеn the if сlause сomеs frrst. П when the rеsult сlause сomes first. Cцusв: Fuтuпв | Rвsul.т YEs/NoQUEsтloNs Rвsul.т Clдusв: Fuтuпв | lг Cиusв: Pпвsвшт WIII hе lowеr taxes if he wins? ls hе going to fight сrimе sHoRт ANsWЕRs Aггlпмдтlvп Yes, he wi l l . ls. 242 I l Ntслтlvв No, hе won't. isn't.
    • Faсtual Gonditionals; Futurе l wH- QUЕsтIoNs Cиusв: Fuтuпв Rвsul-т will he do is hе going to do W hat l l, с.ousЕ: PRESENт if hе wins? EхPREssж Unscromblethеse words to form o sеntencе.Add o comma if nеcеssory, fight. she о сrime о shе'll о If o wins &raffi fiTfr ffixрlamfttЕФffis nr Еxamplеs 1. Usе fцturе faсtual сonditional sentenсes to talk about what will happеn under сertain сonditions.Тhe if сlausеstatеsthe сondition. The rеsultс|ausestatеsthe result. if сlause rеsu|t с|ausе wins, he,ll raise taxеs. l lf Bakег (t,s o rеalpossibility thot Bakеrwillwin,) Usе the simple рresent tеnsе in thе if сlause. Use the futurе wtth will or he going to in thе resultс|ausе. r |f Soto wins, she,ll improve housing. r lf Soto wins, she,sgoin$ to improvе housing. You сan also use a modal in the rеsultсlausе. l lf you want to votе, уou must rеgistеr. l |f you don,t vote, you might rеgret it. t thе future, usе thе simple pгesenttensе. 2. You сan bеgin сonditional sеntеnсes with Thе meaningis с|ause. thе if сlauseor the rеsu|t thе samе. Noт {f*hе+vill*мiн r lf you vote for Soto, you won,t rеgrеt it. oR l You won,t rеgrеtit if you votе for Soto. only Usе a Gomma betweеn the two с|auses whеn the ffсlauseсomesfirst l If уou votе, you,||havе a say in thе futurе l. lf and unlessсan both bе usеd in сonditional sentenсes, but thеir meaningsarе Very diffеrent. of our сity. Usе иnless to state a nеgativeсondition. l Unlessyou votе, you won,t havе a say in the futurе of our сity. Unlessoftеn has the same meaning asif...not. l lf уou don,t votе,you Won,thave a say in the futuгeof ouг сity. OR 2a3
    • 2a4 l i-#вtit 6s o II|Атсlt Еoch сondition will hovе o result,Motсh thе condition with the аppropriotе rеsult. Result Condition f t. If Soto wins. she a. won't stay out of trouble. 2. If shе lowеrs taхes, business peoplе b. won,t have a say in the government. 3. If thе eduсation system improvеs' we G. 4. Unless young people have hope for the future, tйe an еduсated ::ч'.nfl"e WorK Iorсe. d. won't be ablе to votе. 5. If сrime deсrеases. this е. will move their сompaniеs baсk to the сity. 6, Unless you registeц you 7. If you don't vote, you f. will lower taxеs. 9. will be a safer plaсe to live. o сOil|PIЕтEReod this interview bеtwееnPo|itiсs Тoday (PT) аnd moуorаI condidаtе Doniel Boker(DB). Сomplеtеit with thе correctform of thе verbsin porеntheses аnd if or unIеss. 'll do PT: What's the first thing you 3. (gеt) 2, $ l unIеss) 1. (do) еleсtеd? DB: Wеll, lt's beеn a long, hard сampaign. - I 6. (tаkе) I a short vaсation beforе I begin my new job. you 5. (win) PT: Sounds gоod. Wherе to? DB: Sorry, but I,d rather not say. 9. (trу) I mayoЦ ,f,ш/ U'ilеФ *o..".", to keep my personal life privatе. Even mayors need privaсy. PT: I сan understand that. Now, evеry eleсtion has a winnеr and a loser. What /nI r _ you DB: 1 1 . ( i fi u n | е s s ) 12. (Iosе) 1 3 . ( | f/ U n | е s s ) 14. (losе) aсtive in politiсs aS a private .l7. (сoopеratе) Finally, _ I 1 o .( d o ) , this сity 19. (if / un|еss) 2.l. (bе) citizen. this elесtion, I 16. 0f / Unbss) l8. (not bе) the pеоple - 15. (сontinuе) to be both partiеs as gтеat as it сan be. 2o. (not е|есt) baсk in four yеars to try again! me to offiсe this timе,
    • Faсtual cоnditionalsl Future I Yuko Tomori is trуing to decide whеther to go to lаw school. She modе o с0If,BINE. dеcision treе to hеIp her decide. ln thе trеe,orrows connесt the conditions аnd the rеsults,Writesеntencеs obout hеr decisions.Usе futurеfoctuol sеntеnces. bе in debtforyеаrs) tаkе student loans out nothаve dеpеnd to i @ goto lawsсhool? putmvsistеr щ bе ablеto improvе t - lifefor othЬrs ) runformаyor l. |f I go t,o |aw эchoo|, |'|| iake out эtudent, |oanэ, 2. ) |f I take out эtuden| loanэ, |'l|be in deb| for уearэ, 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. EDIT.Reod thisjournol entrу.Find ond correct siх mistаkеsin the usе of futurеfoctuol Don,t forgеt to chеckpunctuаtion! conditionols,Thе first mistokeis olreodу corrеcted, soonit |ж counci| Shou|d campаtgn stцdеrft I tor |,|I to vrеsidеntl hаvе dеcidе fu run.ltl,tt be tirnе studу.Thаt,sprob|еm, to cаmpаigning, а bеcацsе notgoinq qеt into to busу I wonthаuе much |,m if this thеrе's rnцch do in this schoo so ta Оn а goodco|Iеgе I get goodgrаdеs уеаr. thе othеr hаnd, prеsidеnt that.gиt is donеit ToddLаkerbеcomes аgаin'A |otot vеop|е аnd nothing gеting know gеt dеа| that prob|еm,l win' if Io mind'|,I| with whаt do if |,tt thе1ob?Nеver wil{ know l zas
    • Unreal Gonditionals: Present YOU SAY,..IF,, DID..UNLЕss,,? oR ii l{oPЕ! I AD^^lт I sAlD..UNLЕss::. it rt J : Бi €з :; t: ij wffiffiPЙINт Circlе T (Truе)or F (Folsе). т F Sсhroеdeц the piano playeц wants tо marry Luсy. сl|АRT сI|Eсl( AFFIR]vlAтlvЕ sтAТЕ]tл ЕNтs Сirclе T (Truе)or F (FаIsе), lг Cиusв: SIмpl.в Pдsт | п.,u.' GI.дusв: Wouto+ BдsвFoпмoг Vвпв т F Use the simple prеsent tense in thе l/ сlausе. т F F Useaсomma betwееn the two сlausеs when the result сlause сomes first. hе lovеd hеr, hе wеre* in Iove, hе w o uld get mar r iеd. *Notе that шerе is usеd for all subjeсtswith be. Usе were for all subjeсts. т tf N ЕGAтlvЕ sтAтE]vlЕNтs |я CI.дusв: Slмpl-вPдsт Rвsul.т Cиusв: Wouto+ BдsвFoпмoг Vвпв tf hе didn,t lovе hеr, he would not gеt marгied. hе wеren,t in |ovе, YEs/NoQUEsтloNs Rвsul.тGиusв | l. с.ou,. Would | get marгied if I loved hег? I were in lovе? sHoRт ANSWERS Aггlпмдтlvв l Yеs, l would. t No, l wouldn,t. Uyf,. QUЕsтloNs Rвsul.т Glдusв What would vou do | ,, с.ou,. if you lovеd her? you wеre in love? Noтв: For сontraсtions with шould, seе Appendix 24 on pagе 346. 246 Nвсдтtvв
    • l.lnreal *оnditiсna|s: Рl.esеnt l ЕxPREssж Сirсlе thе correct words to сompletе this question. What will /would hе do if /when he was /were a millionaire? m*r & g"аgъъ Жжplffi *ъetg#ffi $ 1. Useprеsentunrealсonditionalsentеnсes untruе,imaginеd,or to talk about unгеa|, impossib|e сonditionsand thеiг гesults. Тhе ffсlausеprеsents unrеalсondition. the Тhе resultсlausеprеsentsthе unrеal геsultof that сondition. 2. Usе the simplе past tеnsе in the if сlausе. Use would + basе form of the vеrb in the геsult с|ausе. #"жжwwу"в#*ь . ,l,.,'ilТ"d him,i.#l.".Jlffiarry him. (Butl don,tlovеhim, so I won,tmorrуhim.) if сlаusе rеsu|t с|аusе l lf I had morе timе, lwould travеl. (Butl don,thavе time,so l don,ttrovеl.) r esult /fсlаusе с|аusе r lf thеy had monеy,thеy wouldn,t livе thеrе. p u a. Т h е f f с l a u s е s е s t h е s i m p l е a s t te nsefo r m, l lf l had mo r е mo nеyno w ,lw o u|d takеa tr ip but t h е m е a n i n gi s n o t p a s t. thе aгo und w o г|d. b. Don,t use woиldin thе if сlausеin pгеsеnt сonditiona| sentеnсеs. unrеa| you. r |f shе knеw the answег, would tе|| shе Noт |f shе weн|d |<new answеr. . . thе t G . U s e wе re f o r a ] Is u b j е с t s wh e nh е v er b in thе if сlausе is a form of be. l I f I W еr e r iсh,lw o uld tr ave| o undthew o r |d. ar Noт4f*.мrat+i# Usдсв Noтв:You will somеtimes hear native Нowever, spеakеrsuse wos in the if с|ausе. manv pеoplethink that this is not сorгeсt. 3. You сan also use a modal in the rеsultсlause. r |f I had timе, | сould rеad moге. 4. You сan bеgln сondltlonal sеntеnсes with Тhe mеaningis the if сlauseor thе rеsultс|ausе. t h e s am е . l lf I had more money, l would move. oR r lw o uld mo ve if l had mo r е mo nеy. on|y Usе a Gomma betweеn thе two с|auses whеn thе if сlauseсomes first. bеginning with lf l werе YoU, . , , 5. Statemеnts arе often usеd to Фve adviсe. l lf l wеrе уou, |,d гead ,,Pеanuts.,, lt,s rеallyfunny. 287
    • 288 r Unit 6A о choroctеrs.Writе T (Truе) тRUE FАISE Rеod eoch quototion from thesе ,,Pеontlts,, 0R or F (Folsе)for thе stotеmеnt thot follows. 1. Sшoopy: If I werе a human being, I wouldn't even ou)n a dog! F Snoopy is a human being. 2. Luсy to Sшoopy: Yоu wouldn't bе so happy if you knew what was going to happen. Snoopy is happy. 3. Luсy to Lrrq;s: If I wеre УoU, I,d sleep underneath that tree. Luсy is giving Linus adviсе. 4. Sшoopy to WоооsToск: What would уou dо if you had fоrty dollars? Woodstoсk has forty dollars. 5. Sшoopy: If I ate one more snowflake, I'd turn into a Ъ|izzatd. Snoopy plans to eat anоther snowflake. 6. Luсy: If we were married, Sсhroedeц I'd сome in everу morning and dust your pianо. Luсy dusts Sсhroeder,s piano. o с0I|PLЕтE Reod port of аn аrticlе obout thе comic strip ,,Peonuts,,, Сomplеte it with thе corrеct form of thе vеrbs in pаrenthesеs. ..peanuts,, What makes Of if sopoputar? сourse,it Peanuts О........... o.... p f u n n u ,e g p t e weren't 1. (not bе) pгovides it so muсh. ..Peanuts,, But 2. (not Iikе) jeatousg, morethan just taughs. addresses |t themesas [ove, tonetiness, suсhuniveгsаt аnd hope. If the сhагaсteгs 3. (not bе) we s0 гea[, 4. (сou|dn,t idеntify) / withthem. ..lf TakeLuсg, exampte. tovewiththe piano-ptauing foг ln SсhгoedelLUсg сomptains, We married, and Uou 5. (bе) gourgotfсtubs! gou lf сaг!|f gou 1o.(bе) 8. (drivе) a bowteсI 6. (|ovе) golf, I a spoгtsсa[ | 11. (hatе) 7. (hatе) 9. (hаtе) gouгspoгts gouгbowting batt.,' Without piano!'' "| tooking fromhis pianoor missing beat,Sсhгoeder Up a asks,..So?', hаteUouг shouts LUсg she kiсksit out fгon4 behavioг? ..Peаnuts,, see oursel'ves |n as Undeгhim.Reсognizаbte We ..peanuts'' enjogit. atongwith ouг weaknesses hopes. we don,thaveto anatgze and But to lf it 12. (not bе) tessfun. a tittte foг сomiсstгipslike ..Peanuts,,' lives oUг 1 3 . ( m i g h t/ b е )
    • Unreal Conditionals: Prrsеnt o chorаcters,Whot would hoppеn if thеir сOIлBINEReod obout these ,,Peonuts,, situаtions wеrе different?Сombine thе two sentеncеsinto one, using the unrеol presentconditionol. 1 . Sсhroeder ignorеs Luсy. She gets angry at him. get, |f Эchroеdеrdidn't,ignoreLuсy,эhe wou|dn'| an1rу at, him, 2. Sсhroеder loves Bееthovеn. Hе plays his sоnatas all the timе. 3. Charlie Brоwn doеsn,t have enough friends. Hе feels lonely. 4. Sallу doеsn,t know her teaсhеr's name. Shе сan't send her a сard. 5. Linus is smart. He finds сlever solutions to life,s prоblems. 6, Woodstoсk and Snoopy have a сlose relationship. Woodstoсk сonfidеs in Snoopy. 7. Rerun's parents refuse to let him havе a dog. He tries to borrow Charliе's dog. 8. Pigpen doesn't take еnough baths. He,s filthy. . ЕDlT Rеod this boу,sjournol еntrу. Find ond сorrеct siх mistokesin the use of the prеsent unrеol conditionol. The first mistoke is olreody corrесtеd, w o uld ,T,'ue,go,t stop-sto gingup lote геodtng,,Peoлuts"/ I wеnеn]tolwogs so tiгеd' I t#illbе oЬ|e t"o ff сlg-оs. Whenеven tеoоhеn,co||s,on J don't knowwhqt to sog.ТhenJ,-,the пe, to зtog qwс,ke|n Ь'eоoosе thot оuteгed-hoined thot I like'J woсrld to heгif ginl tolk of . gеt re-ol|gernЬonгgssed ..If I would,n"-t so-shg. fntend Ье Josonsqgs, I wos go0,I'd qsk hento o pontg''' I'mtoo Ьоt Мg thot ЬoseЬo|l. shеоlosо, J,ploged NoЬodg ',,,o|roid if I oskedhe.n woo|dhoyesqid no'Af.tег 1 Life is I p-!og n'e ,wr;rntяd on''tЬeiс,.tean'II b-etten woold get ch-osen-,,sornetirnes,hoгdl].оon thot u'ndenstond Chonlie didn'tloоghso hoгd rea||g Bгownchoгocten ,.Реonot.s,'' ]n foct if."I in nеoding I woоldcniedJ whilе ,.Pеonots''' l 289
    • Unreal Past Gonditionals: Sесtion 5l ЕштвктдINМЕNT 4^ Vn*ing ffi En,tEnt,fonГ-]ol;Joч It's a Wonderful Life Rating:**** out of **** would have happenеd if you had never bееn Iflrh"t Y Y born? Gеorgе Bailеy,s guardian angеl, Сlarenсе, shows Ceorgе that lifе in Bеdford Falls would have bеen a lot differеnt if Gеorge hadn,t beеn there. In thе proсеSs/ Сlarenсе tеaсhеsus all how our livеs touсh thоsе оf othеrs. Highly reсommended for the whole family. (seotеd) Gеorgе with hisguordion ongеl W-.ffiPqlцт Сirclе T (Truе)or F (Folse). т F Gеorge Bailеy was nevеr in Bedford Falls. sтATЕlt,lЕNTs сI/iART сIllЕсК Сhеck thе сorrесt onswеrs. Usе thе past pеrfeсt in t tьu l/ сlause. t tьe rеsult сlause. Use a сomma betwеen thе two сlausеs when t tьe lf сlause сomеs first. П tь" result сlause сomеs first. lя Cиusв: Pдsт Pвпгвст Rвsul-тCI.дusв: Wouto (t,toт) ,]AvЕ+ Pдsт Pдптlсlpl-в lf I had (not) had money, I lwould (not) have movеd away. YEs/No QUЕsТloNs Rвsul.тCиusв i lя CI-дusв Woц|d you havе Ieft I if уou had had money? sHoRт ANSWERS Aггlпмдтlvв l NEGAтIvE Y e s , l wo u l d havе. l No , lw o uldn,t havе. 290
    • Unreаl conditionals: Past f !vr,. QUЕsтloNs Rвsul.т Cиusв сoNтRAстloNs i lя CI.дusв What would you have done I if you had had money? wou|d havе = would,vе wou|d not havе = wouldn,t have EхPREssжж Сompletе this sentencewith the correct form of the vеrb studу. Add а сommo if nеcеssorу, if I had knоwn about thе quiz today. rпar A,ж & rarъъ s р|a*ъat*Фat Еxаrnрles 1. Usе past unrеal сonditional sеntеnсеs to talk about past сonditionsand гesu|ts that never happened. if с|ausе rеsu|t сlausе l lf Ceorgе had diеd young, hе wouldn,t havе had сhildrеn. (Buthе didn,tdiе уoung,so hе had сhildrеn.) pгеsents unrеalсondition. Тhe if с|ausе thе Тhe rеsultсlausepresеntsthe imаgined rеsult of that сondition. 2. Usethе past pеrfесt in thе if сlause. Use woald hove + past paftiсiplе in thе resu|t с|ause. 3. You сan also use modals in thе resultсlausе. l |f Georgе hadn,t been born, many pеop|е,s liveswould havе beеn Worsе. (But СеorgeWasborn,so thеirliveswеrеbettеr.) if сlausе rеsu|t сlausе r lf thеfi|m had won an osсar, itwould have bесome famous right away. l lf Cеorge had gonе to сollе9е,he might hove bесomе an arсhiteсt. r lf cеorgе had bесomе an arсhiteсt, сould hе hove designed bridges. 4. You сan begin сonditional sentеnсes with Тhе mеaningis the ffсlausеoг thе resultсlausе. the samе. - - - - _ - -Use a Gomma bеtwеenthe two сlausеs-...J only w h е n t h е f f с l a u s e o m е sf i r s t. с l lf he had won a miIlion dollars, hе would havе travеlеd Сhina. to oR r Hе wou|d havetravеlеd China if he had to w o n a millio n do llar s. l lf I had known Mary was in town, 5. Past шnrеal сonditionals are often usеd to еxpressregretabout what happened in thе past. I would have invited hеr to the party. (l regretthot l didn,t invitеher,) 29|
    • 292 t uni t 62 тRUE FАIiEo Rеаd еаch numbеrеdsеntеncе.Write T (Truе)or F (Folse)for thе 0R stotеmentthot follows, 1 . If I had had time, I would havе watсhed lt,s a Wondеrful Lifе. т I didn't havе time to watсh It's a Wondеrful Lifе. 2 . I would havе taped the movie if my VCR hadn,t brokеn. I taped thе movie. 3 . If Clarеnсе hadn't bеen there, Gеorge might have killed himself. Clarеnсе was there. 4. George wouldn't have met Mary if hе hadn't gone to his brother's gтaduation party. George didn't go to the party. 5 . George would have been happier if he had beсome an arсhiteсt. Gеоrge bесame an arсhitесt. The movie wouldn't havе bеen sо good if James Stewart hadn't played the part оf George Bailey. Jamеs Stewart played the part of George Bailey. o сOltlPLEтEGеorge is thinking obout thе post, Сompletе his thoughts with thе corrеct form of thе words in porenthеses. had gone 1. I didn't go into businеss with my friend Sam. I f I wouldhavebecome business with him, I a Suссess. (bесomе) 2. I сouldn't go into thе army bесause I was deaf in onе ear. I into the armv if I (go) my hearing in that еar. (not losе) 3. Mary and I wеren't ablе to gо on a honeymoon. We my father siсk. (not get) that I was so important if Clarenсe (not show) 5. Mу old boss onсe madе a tеrrible mistake. I f I (not know) me. him, hе (not hеlp) to jail. (саn i go) 7. Life herе away if (сan / go) 4. Clarеnсе showed mе how the world would look without me. I 6. Mary into (go) (maу l not lеad) (bе) a happy lifе if shе rеally diffеrent i f I (not marry) (not Iivе) me.
    • Unreаl Gonditionals: Past l o REWRIтERеod еoch truе situotion. Thеn writе o post unrеol conditionol sеntenсеto еxpresshow things could hove bееn diffеrent. 1. Clarenсe wasn't a first-сlass angel, so he didn't havе muсh self-сonfidenсe. |f C|arеnce had beena firэt-c|aээ ange|,hе wou|d havеhad morе ge|f-confidеncе, 2. George was unhappy about his businеss. He уеlled at his daughter on Christmas Еve. 3. Poor people сould buy houses beсause Gеorge's business loaned them money. 4. Mr. Potter wasn't able to triсk Gеorge, so George didn,t sеll Pоtter the businеss. 5. George's Unсle Billy lost $8,000. George got into trouble with thе law. 6. George's friends didn't know about his troubles. They didn't help him right away. 7. George,s friends сolleсted money for him, so he didn't go to jail. ЕDlT.Rеod Clorencе,sdiorу еntrу. Find ond corrесt siх mistokеsin thе usе of the unrеol conditionol,The first mistokeis olrеody corrеcted, Rеmеmber cheсkpunctuotion! to Deауohrу, hadn't оuоrk, sot,иlti,уиэs. 0eоr9oы+ И,а,J4tеj,to tf It'sfu^И}у /t"ottrt/,laчs outt jotшу Еuo, 0f t/.IАtbrфo oп,сhristt,t,tд"с I щht Иauerl.IА1,,o!еrt|J4! шаportалt аn job ti/<l, sаliч lЙ44,. if АИ^d, |4,,|шjnt bцn so stшbborщt mш/l, ИД)er|4аl, (ф of t/,|2, ilxn ф shnш,п1hjJ4,t, tn Bфrd, Fаl|Б иlttlшиt ш44,,ottэ of th"osа^d^dprt so|tr, tl|l,ttgsиtаssu,lл1 а,/,/,tJшso P-Pb ш|ш dj"dnt hwo hюшв. If ]eoryo7allo t,t?ал^d, hiх thЧ|'t bшсiltl;sto /vlr. Рottщ tЙon Pottе,rиloи/tr, hД,o rшtd, roш.dlttrш аpаrdпutts to а/L thlso P-ф. Bцt bцш,cгoф 7е.orjи щ ву шоtrhшo jooоLh"orиpг. tJ*tш42, иto tttuof,rЙhl), hp Qеlrjo reа"/,uzd, rелЩ /4аl,а, иnnduf,cl ф 'f |Йfi,Й hлint jil)еn ш,И, *ry rJ* trt,frct, hx,ИI1]/ hшogottэ tojаl,L hofrФ, |ДIkц щ h,Jr4j,h"u,ш oф h2ИIojxn.WеIL,, I got аJ4d, а,f.rst-с/лss аJud dЙnt go tojаl/,,АИ^оL ry t,,'|t!s beсаи,t"o hp *!"L! 293
    • Wish: Present and Past Tiпу Fаiry Thlеs Тнь ТнкнгWtsнL: reТиrеrЧVi'hеs nе day a poor woodсuttеrWaSgivеn thrееwishеsby a trее еlf.Whеn his hungry wifе hеard thе nеws,shе said,..I wish I had somе sausagеs.,, At onсе fivе sausagеS aPpеarеdon a platе. Thе woodсuttеrwas furious about wastinga wish. ..I wish thosеsausagеs werе hanging from your nosе'', shoutеd.At onсе thе sausagеs hе hung from hеr nosе.Thе two strugglеd to gеt thеm loosе,but thеy соuld not...I wish I hadn't madе that wish,''thе woodсuttеr sighеd.At onсе thе sausagеs Wеrеon thе platе again.Thе сouplе happily atе thе sausagеS and wishеd for nothing morе. ifli 49 WPЙINт Сheck the correct answer. The woman wantеd sausages t that day. t the dav before. I снАRт снEсl( WlsнЕs ABouт тHЕ PRЕSЕNт I Сhесk thе correct onswеr. Mлш Cиusв i Wlsн Cиusв In wishеs about thе present, what vеrb tensе follows wish? S h e wi s h е s П tь" simple present П tь" simplе past 294 shе had somе food гight now. wеre* r iсh. *Notе tЬat ulеrе is used for all subjeсts with be.
    • Wish: Preseпt and Рast l Wls}tЕsABoUт т}lE PAsт 2 сl|АRт сl]Eсl( Сhеck thе corrеct аnswer. Mдlш Cиusв l Wlsн Cцusв In wishеs about thе past, what verb tеnsе follows wish? H e wi s h e s hе had had food last night. had bеen г i с ha s a с h i | d . П tье simplе past П tье past pеrfeсt r;#,#;!;,f;# EхPREss with the corrесtforms of thе vеrb know, Сomplеtethеsеsеntencеs .IwishI a good story to tell in my next сlass. .IwishI more storiеs as a сhild. rв ;Ye & wжwж &Y Жи., жrз w* mk#* s #.жarжpf*ж l. Usе wish fo|lowеdby a vеrb in thе simplе past tenseto talk about thingsthat you want to bе true now but that arе not tгuе. r Hе wishеs he hod a yaсht. (He doеsn,t havеo уoсht,but he wontsonе.) Аfterwish|usе werе instеadot wos. 2. Use wjsh followеd by thе past perfeсt to exprеssrеqrets about еvеntsin thе past. l Sometimesl wish I wеre a сhi|d again. l No т So mеtimеs w ish l w as a сhild again. r Thеy wish theу hod moved to thе сity. (Thеуdidn,t movе to the сitу and now thеу think thqt wos o mistakе,) l l wish уou would <ook bгеakfast. You have 3. Use would afterwish to expressa dеsirefor way. or somеthingto aсt in a diffеrеnt more timе than l do. somеone Тhis oftеnсommuniсatеs сomp|aint a rеgrеt. a oг r l wish she wouldvisit morе often.l rea||y miss hеr. Do not usе t,vil/ after wish, 4. Usе сould or could hove after wish to abiIity. еxpress Do not usе сon af|erwish. Noтffi moге often. r Hе wishеs he сould earn morе money now. r Hе wishеs hе could hove found a betterjob w hеn he w as yo un9ег. NoтffimorеmonеУ. 295
    • .,-'j ;i1l1шl]l1}'i) 296 I unit 68 o тRUE tALsE Rеod eoch numberedsentеncе.Writе T (True)or F (Folsе)for the 0R stotеmеntthot follows. 1 . I wish I were a prinсess. т I'm not a prinсess. 2. I hatеd living in a big house as a сhild. I wish I had lived in a small housе. 3 . Hе wishes hе сould find a better job. Hе likes his job. 4. They сouldn,t takе сomputеr сlasses in сollege' so they arе taking them now. They wish they сould take сomputer сlasses. 5 . Hal's wifе plays сomputer games a lоt. Hе wants hеr to stop. He wishes she wouldn,t play сomputer games. He wishes he had a lot of money. Hе dоеsn't have a lot of money. о Rеod this orticlе from o psусhologу mogozinе, Сomplеtе it with thе сorrеct с0IлPLETE form of thе verbs in porentheses. PsyснorocY ЕoR You April 2000 Wls}lЕsAND soluтloNs .Г ,.I hе old soying goеs, ,,If wishеs Wеrе horsеs, thеn beggors would ridе.,, wish it Л' у"::". ) 1 .( b е thot eosy,,,SOysthеropist }oel Grimеs. ..But we сon,t just wish problеms@.Wehоvеtomokeourownsolutions.,,Aссordingtohim, .,I wish I сomploiners ore rеolly soying, 4. (not havе to / dеal) "l wish I a mogiсol solution. I wish with this myself.',Onе сliеnt, for еxomple, kept сomploining, @peoplе,butmyoportmеntistoosmoll.,,Grimеsurgеdher to solvе thе problеm. This Уear' shе hostеd o holidoy open housе, with pеoplе сoming ot diffеrеnt timеs. Shе still wishеs shе 6. (сan l invite) hеr wholе fomily lоst yеoц,but .,At first сliеnts gеt angrУ ot me for not she lеorned shе сould solvе hеr own problems. ,,But when thеy expеriеnсe thеir own powеr, thеy honding thеm solutions,,, soys Grimеs. wish thеy 7. (know) obout it soonеr.,,
    • Wish: Рresеnt апсJ Рast o RЕWRIтEloеI Grimes,sclients comploin obout things in the post ond in the prеsent. Rеwritе their сomp|ointsos wishеs. 1. I didn't havе time to read bedtime stories to my сhildren. l wighl had had time to rеad bedtimеэtorieэ to mу chi|dren, 2. Mv husband won't ask for a raise. 3. My wifе сouldn't balanсe thе сheсkboоk last month. 4. My boyfriеnd is out of shape. 5. I'm too old to go baсk to sсhool. 6. I сan't stop smоking. 7. Mv son doesn't сall me. 8. My parents didn't undеrstand mе. EDIT.Rеod thisjournol еntry.Find ond corrеctfivеmistokеsin thе usе of wish. Thе first mistаkе is olrеodу corrеctеd. T odaу I Е ol d D r. I ri v n e 9 ,,,Lwi s h Lh e re фвs a w avу speи d w |o r eLir и e w iLh и r l bo уfr iend, Lo -Г haL's bи L w e 'r e bo Lh Lo o b u s у .' ,H e ) u s L s a i d , ,.Lf w ishes W er e ho r gestbeggar sw o и Ld r ide',' iL cuL e , bи Е I wi s h I u иd e rs La иd i l s v лe a и iи g. |vaуve yи eаи sLhaL w ishiи g w o и ,t so lVe pr obl e r r ns' e LL, a L,swh r7I W e и ЕLО s e e hiи ! ! ! I w ish he w iLLЕeLL} flew hat Lo do r iqhL W Lh LheYl avldLhere, buL he refused. 9peaKingof wishfиL Lhinkiиg,I wish Todd and L couLd have sPeиL Lhe Weekend LogeLher иexL week. Му eюvvls^re overt bиL he has Lo fLу to Deлver Lo h i s j ob. If w i s h e s W e r e h o r s e s l L,d ri d e o и e Lo D enver |1eу|To dd is aLw aуs saуivt9,(.Iw ish ' r 7oиw oи L d c o v n ewi t h wr es o wte Li и e s ' ,' g ueg; L 9Э ! 9o w iLh hir и Lo D ew er . D r . ar iw les и и sL L h ave vne an LLh a LL c a и s o Lv e v иy o W и p r o bler м s.No w I w ish Lhaveи ,Lbeen so r ude Lo hiw r . l 297
    • SelfТest lffil 0}|Е Сirclе thе lеtter of thе corrеct onswеr to completееoch sentenсе, Еxдмptп: Jennifer never (A)drink (B)drinks l. Ifyou (A) ,l1 havе tB)had a headaсhе, you should take an aspirin. (C)havе (D)are having 2. I wish we =(A) have (B)had 3. (A}If (B)Always (C) is drinking (D)was drinking a bigger house. This one is too small. (C)would havе (D)had had it rains very hard, thе strеets flood. (C)During (D)Unless ABсD ABсD ABсD 4. We'll be late unless we (A) leave {B)don't leave now. (C)had left (D)have left ABсD 5 . What would Tom do if he the truth? (C)knows (D)knew ABсD (A) would know tB)has known 6. If I -.- (A) am (B)would be УoЦ, I'd сall and apol oфze. {C)were (D)was ABсD 7. If I -you Wеre siсk, I would have сalled Sooner. (A) have known (C)would have known (B)had known (O)know ABсD 8. If yоu want to go skiing in the South, (A) you go (c)go (B)you'll go (D)went ABсD to Blaсk Мountain. 9. Jennifer has trouble with сollеge math. She wishes she more in high sсhool. (A) studies (с) had studied (B)has studied (D)studied 298 ABсD
    • SelfТest ro. -If wе invited Уou. wou]d you сome? -of сourseI -. (A)do (B)am 1l. Jake will win the eleсtion if he (A) сampaigns (B)would сampaign Х|ll I 299 ABсD (C)would have (D)would harder. (C)will сampaign (D)сampaigned 12. If you told us about thе bad serviсe, we would have еaten there. (A) didn't (C) havеn't (B)wouldn't have (D)hadn't ABсD ABсD rFtriщ.l тW0 Eoch sentеnсеhos four undеrlinеd words or phrаsеs. Thе four undеrlinеdports of thе sentencеorе morkеd A, B, С, ond D, Сirсlе the letter of thе onе underlined word or phrose thаt is Noг сoRRЕст. Еxдмpш: Mike usuall}, drives to sсhool, but toda}r he walks. ABсD A B сO 13. ]f you had been hеrе yеsterday, you would havе sее Jean. A B с D 14. I wish our family сould of takеn vaсations whеn We were younger. A B с D 15. Unlеss we work hardeц we will finish on timе. A B с D 16. If I will have to make a diffiсult deсision- I always disсuss it with A B с D 17. ЦLara is oldeц she would try to get a job in California. A B с D l8. Wе сould had done more Ц-e had had more time. A B с D 19. We ate оutside tomorrow unless it rains. A B с D 20. I would take the job if I am you. A B с D 27. What would you do if you will won thе lottery? A B с D 22. It,A hot, so you will fеel bеtteц if yоu drink more water. A B с D 23. If I had set my alarm сloсk, I woulda gotten up on time. A B с D 24. ЦIhavetofly,Iwouldgetverynervous,soIusuallydrivе. A B с D 25. Lynn wishes she had a bigger apartment and сan bu}ra сar. A B с D ABсD AвсD ABсD ABсD my friends. ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD AB(D ABсD AвсD ABсD AB(D
    • ffi;, :]Мlffi*Wl!ffiii]ll]:;iili,:..]]'.]:,.1]i,.i]]lli]]l'l']]'rlilil]i]i::li!]] Adjective Clauses with Subjeсt Relative Pronouns POINт Сircle T (True)or F (Folse). т F The man is talking about the woman holding a report. AD'EстIVE сLAUSE AFтER тHЕ MAlN сLAUSЕ сIIART сHEсI( Сhеck thе corrеct onswеrs. Adjeсtive сlauses desсribе: -t LJ verbs AD,ЕстlvЕ CLAUsЕ | Suqпст | Rвlдтlvв Pпoшouш | Vвпв f- That,smy friеnd -l who lives in Rome. nOUnS t ]vlAlN сLAUSЕ Adjeсtive сlausеs сan go: ADlEстlVE сLAUsE lNslDE THE MAIN сLAUsЕ гt,|AlN сtAUsE П b"fo.е thе шiain сlausе П i.' thе middle of the main сlausе t after thе main сlause v My friеnd AD'ЕстlvE CLAUSЕ i:iЕ.J. Pпoшouш |u.*" -l who livеs in Romе EхPREssж Unsсromblеthеsе words to form o sеntencе. thе man о works . who . in thе сafeteria . That's 300 ]t,lAlN сLAUSЕ (сoшт.) is a danсеr .
    • Adjeсtive *w arъжY.*wжs ffirжwwyж Жжp* Glauses with Subjeсt le|ative Ргогrоuns l Aяarтзр}еs l. Usе adje<tive сlaшsеs to idеntifyor givе information about nouns or additional pгonounssuсh as someonе' indеfinite somebodу, something, onothai and other(s). l know thе woman who lives therе. (Thе adjесtive сlausеidеntifiеs woman wе ore thе tolkingobout.) Romе is a сity whi<h attraсts tourists. (Thе adjеctive сlausеgives additionаlinformation obout thе сitу.) Тhe adjeсtiveсlausеdirесtlyfol|owsthе noun (or pronoun)it is idеntifying dеsсribing. or Someonеwho has a |ot of friends is luсky. Noт l hovе o friеnd.+ He lovеsto shop, _ I have a friendwho loves to shop. 2. Sеntеnсеs with adjeсtive сlauses сan bе seеn as a сombinationof two sentenсes. Му friеndlivеsin Romе.+ Shе points. = Мy fгiеndwho lives in Romе paints. 3. Adjесtiveс|auses introduсedby arе relative pronouns. Subjeсt rеlative pronouns are: a. who or thotfor peoplе Usдсп Noтв: Thot is lеssformal than иЙo. b. whiсh or thot foг plaсеsor things Usдсв Noтв: Thot is lеssformaI than which. possеssions G. whosе + noun for pеop|e,s pronoun аnd a subjeсtpгonoun (l, уou, hе, shе, it, wе, thеy)in thе same adjeсtivесIause. I t I I I have a friеnd who livеsin Mexiсo. I have a friend thot livesin Mexiсo. Nеw York is a сity whiсh nеVеrslеeps. Nеw Yoгk is a сity thot nеvеr slеeps. l Hе,sthе man whose dog baгksa||day. r Sсott is somеone who Ioves sports. Noт Sсott is somеone@. pronounshavе the samе form 4. Subjeсtrеlative whеtherthеy геferto singularor p|uralnouns е or t o m a s с u I i n o r f е m i n i n en o u n s . T Тhat,s thе man 5. Тhе vеrb in thе adjeсtive сlausе is singularif pronoun rеfегs a singular the subjeсtre|ative to lt is pluгa| it rеfers a plura|noun. if noun. to l Bеn is my friеnd wfto lives in Boston. l A| and Еd arе my friеnds who live in Boston. Bн сдпвгul! Whеn whose + noun is thе subjесt of an adjесtivесlausе,thе vеrb agгеesin numbеrwith the subjeсtof the adjeсtive сlausе. r,yholivеs nеxt door. Тhat,s the woman who Iives next dooг. T Those are thе people who livе nеxt door. I r Mеg is a pеrsonwhose friends depend on hеr. No т M е9 is a pеr so n@ on heг. 3o1
    • 3O2 I Unit 6e o Rеod thisporogroph obout friеndship.Firstcircle the relativеPronouns ond IDENтIFY undеrlinе thе odiectivе clousеs.Then drow on orrow from thе rеlotivеpronoun to thе noun or pronoun it describes. lro-ш.Persoу''-Lo* АLvnosLeуerхlovlehas trievlds, Dut ideas abouL-'frlevldsbl}-У'a"rц ^iLn ,/o.n nu,-,. ^aу..Еhr.--LnЕerneL-Еэ:.''--- f-,i.,'d i,-'o*Й. РersaИJ'..or,-n,,*'^ *o-Еher.s+.aJr"".ie.у.d,.|5"..,a}9.rs,9v1"уh,a_b"a-s_Ьno.wn",,уэ yuh уsэtr"hcIэrm-Lo'r--S9-mэ9-"x'e o-Ки"ows''v.,o-Vr-,-'''','''-'' *эх:ll.LуKлэуss-у-aм,--L-p,o.---l.hers-9уLv-iуиэrmpsLs-e-u-eLь AЬhaaф,,,-".Е*эrыLpэo-pk-evnPhasiъe-djffot*o.nL-asР9LLs-o-*is Lh.ereis ovte3emeиLrш-hlсh, alwаvs Рrfs.9шЬЫA-Lb*isЭhe-,eJ'эYl19уE-_fr'€иd"shj,у-, otskgir,.ь-У'l9--улы-ИgLb-e.,-.abIe,"L".9--5eLeсL--pм'r-ta-m.tte wЙ-|^Я DuL,-LLсаJ1-P'lэK"-u,cti,rjandь ыnL'hrэуo.Lo*glsЕ-. As PegРlэ ЕhaL-rjdэ--L"',he-,D|^5 and МargarcL !Аeadoпce said,,'Ь.trievldis sovvleone'.who-choos-es is chosen:---". L.hЫ.. J*L)s Lhjsj-r-"o-adэШ_gf-Й-oi.c.e maKes-frieи"dshiРsиф а sPgciaL_reLЫ',:pуshtР'- о с0IIPLЕIEA U.S. mogozine, Psyсhologу Todaу, сonduсtedo notionol surveуan friеndship.Herе orе some of thе rеsults,Сomplete еoch sеntеncewith on аppropriote rеlotivepronoun ond the correct form of thе vеrb in porenthеsеs, 1. Peоple wno have moved a lot havе fеwеr friends. (hаvе) 2. People lived in the samе plaсe havе more friеnds. (havе) 3. The qualities most important in a friеnd are loyalty, (bе) warmth, and the ability to keep seсrets. 4. Someonе (faсе) 5 . Bеtrayal is the сausе a сrisis turns to friends befоrе familv. (bе) most often responsible for ending a friendship. Мany peоplе have friends soсial оr religious baсkgтounds (bе) different from theirs. 7. Most pеople friends (inс|udе) mеmbers of thе opposite sex say that thesе rеlationships arе different from relationships with people of thе samе Sеx. 8. A survey 9. Somеone (appеar) (not rеad) in a magazine may not reprеsent everyonе. thе magaztne might have othеr ideas.
    • Adjeсtive Glauses with Subjeсt Relative Pronоuns l o Rеаd еoch poir of sentences,Use o rеIotivepronoun to combinе them into сOII|BINЕ onе sentence. l. I have a friend. Мy friend livеs in Mехiсo City. in 1havea friendwho |ivee gexico Citу, 2. Mexiсo City is an exсiting сity. The citу atttaсts a lot of tourists. 3. Marta has a brothеr. Her brother's name is Manuеl. 4. He works for a magazine. The magazine is vеry popular in Meхiсo. 5. Мanuel writes a сolumn. The соlumn dеals with relationships. 6. An artiсle won a ptize. The artiсle disсussed friеndships. 7, A pеrson is luсky. That person has a lot of friends. . EDIТ Rеod port of а studеnt,sessoу.Find аnd сorrеct siх mistokеsin thе usе of odjеctiveclouses,Thе first mistokе is olrеody сorrectеd, A wгitег onсr said that friends aгe born. not made. This means that we automatiсally bеcome friеnd's with people who Йd arr compatiblе wlth us. I d.on't aglee with this wгitеr. Last summeц I made frlends wlth some peoplе who's сompletely different fгom me. In July' I wеnt to Mexiсo City to study Spanish foг a month. In ouг gгoup' therе Was a teaсher which Was muсh oider than I am. Wе bеcame rеally good friеnds. In my fiгst wеek, I had a pгoblem whiсh was getting mе down. Mexiсo City is a сity who has a lot of distractions. As a rеsuit, I went out all the tlme, and I stopped going to my сlasses. Bob helpеd me $et baсk into my studies. After the trip, I kept wгitlng to Bob. He always wгitеs stoгies that is interesting and еnсouгa$in$. Nеxt summeц hе's lеading another trip what sounds inteгesting. I hope I сan $o. 3o3
    • Adieсtive clauses with objeсt Relative Pronouns or When and Where //|i,'tJ4А,, *fufu! сrаюoиriх уitttшo фt|,u, ш t'.teros ИIit1,v sqь|,а,ro |44АiJ'' I sуаr, аIl,rу tш ф t,dtlo th,o шp wit}v саn ti*tцp. уo*fiot ? r шлrэ у PБwщ ,,.,-t',iЙ t|4Аt t|osа,t,uritu,иrith,gorgut,ts 9,,ш еуu! I,w in lowl ffiжPЙlNт Circlе T (Truе)or F (Folse). Vаttn т F Vana is pointing out her favorite сafb. AD|ЕсTIVE сLAUSE AFTER THЕ MA|N сLAUSЕ сHАRт сIIEсI( AD'Е( :ТlvЕ CLl USE oв1вст ttлAlN сLAUSЕ Сhесk thе сorrеct onswer. Thе verb in the adjeсtive сlause agrees with П tь. noun in the main сlause. П tь" subjeсt of the adjeсtive сlausе. Rвlдтlvв Pпoшouш f- ,urr.., ] Vвпв thot she -l He геadsall thе books writеs. AD,EсТlVE сLAUsЕ lNslDE тHЕ MAlN сLAUsЕ ADlЕстlvЕ сl LAUsЕ ]vlAlN сLAUSЕ Сircle T (Truе)or F (False). oryвст т _l tY|AlN CLAUSЕ (сoшт.) F The adjесtivе сlausе always follows the main сlause. Rвlдтlvв Pпoшouш тг'. ьJoк Suцвст Vвпв thot they borrowed sееmsvery interеsting. EхPREssж Unscromblethеsе words to form а sentence. I о the . movies . all . hе о dirесts О sеe о that 304
    • Adjeсtive a a a a a a 0laнses a a a a . '"viil,i Оbjс:сt tiеlаtivе Ргottоuns ar W|.lerl and Wflerr a gъ в"m ar t ym gж ЖжpГ'а etiФ gъ$ a a a a a a a a a a a o o a a a a a a a a a o a a a a o a a a a a l a a o a a pronounshavе thе same b. objeсt гelative or form whеtherthey rеfеrto singu|ar pluгa| n ou n so r to m a s с u |i n o r f е m i n i n еno uns. е I с. Thе vеrb in thе adjесtivе сlausе agIеrs with the subjесtof thе adjeсtive сlausе. I T I t Bв сдпвгul! Do not usе both an objeсt rе|ativе pгonoun and an objeсt pronoun (mе, you, him, hеr, it, us, them)in thе samе adjeсtiveс|ause. obj. Еva, who(m) l saw on TV, is a wгitег. Тhat,sthе man who(m) | mеt. Тhat,sthе woman who(m) | mеt. Thosе arе thе pеople who(m) l met. subj . vеr b | |ikethе сo|umnswhich hе writes. l |ikethe сo|umnwhiсh thеy writе. r Shе is the writeгl saw on TV. t I I I I I Shе,sthe writегwhom l mеt. Shе,sthе wгitеrwho I met. Shе,sthе writеr thot I mеt. She,sthе wгitегl met. I rеad thе book whiсh shе wrote. l геadthе book thot shе wrote. l rеad thе book shе wrote. Foпмдl- A I I Y lшгoпмдtFoпмдt- + I v lшгoпмдl pronoun сan be the objесt of 3. A rе|ativе a preposition. Usдсв Noтв:In informaI speakingand writing, we put the pгеposition the еnd of thе сlausе, at pгonoun. out the гe|ative and wе often |eavе ln formal Еnglish, put the preposition thе we at l bе gi n n i n g f th е с l a u s е . n th i s с a s e ,W e Usе o onlу whom and whiсh (not who or that). l Тhat,s thе author whose book l read. Hе,sthе writеr.+ l work for him, = l Hе,sthе writег thot I work for. l He,sthe writeгl woгk for. Hе,s the writer for whom I work. r Тhat,s the book about whiсh I told you. l 4. Where and when сan also bе usеd to intгoduсe сlausеs: adjeсtivе That,sthе library.+ Shе worksthere' = Тhat,sthе librarywhere she works. a. Wherе rеfersto a p|aсе. b. When or thot refегsto a timе. a She is thе writегwho I saw on TV. Noт She is thе wгitеrwho I saw hеr on TY I G. whose * noun for pеople,sрossessions 3o5 ool. l b. whiсh or thot foг things Usдсц Noтв: Thot is lessformal than whiсh. a Еvo is q writer. + l sow her on TV, = a. The obieсt rеlativе pronoun сomes с|ausе. althe beginningof thе adjeсtivе 2. obiесt rе|ativе Pronouns aге: a. whom, who, or thot tor pеoplе Usдсв Noтв: Whom is vеry formal. Thot is lessformal than who. Leavingout the pronounis the lеastfoгmal. a W ж'жъaзpТ*'ж 1 . A rеlativе pronoun сan be thе objесt of an adjeсtive сlausе'Notiсe that: pronounsarе often |еftout. Noтв:Objесt rеlativе a I I l rеmеmbеrthе daу. + l mеt him then. = | геmembeг day when l met him. the l геmеmbеr thе day thot I mеt him. a a a a a a a o a a a a a
    • 306 I unit 7<r o iDENтIFYReod this pаrt of o book rеviеw.Underlinе oll thе odjеctivеclousеs with obiесt rеIotivеpronouns. Сirclе thе obiect rеIotivepronouns-, whеn, or whеre , Then drаw а linе from thе сircled word to thе noun it rеfersto, Seсtion 4 Booкs Iost in Trаnslа,tion: А lф in а,Neш lаngшаge д t thс agс of ninс, Еva Hoffman lсft Poland /-%' with hеr family. Shе was old еno-ф know what shе was losing:Сfaсow, a сiфbа!) shе lovеd as onе lovеs a pеrson, thе sunbakеd villagеs whеrе thеy had takеn suпrmеr vaсations, and thе сonvеrsations and еsсapadеs with hеr friеnds. Disсonnесtеd from a сity whеге lifе was livсd intеnsеly, hеr fathег would bссomе ovегwhеlmеd by thе tгansition to Сanada. Еva would losе thе parсnt whom shе had watсhеd in livеly сonvrfsation with friеnds in Сraсow сafёs. And nothing сould rеplaсс hеr friеndship with thе boу whosе homе slrс visitеd dailу and whom shе assumеd shе wоuld somеdaу marry..Worst of all, howеvец shе would miss E,t,a HоJftuttп hеr languagе. For yсars, shс wotrld fееl no сonnссtion to thе Еnglish namс of anуthing that shе fеlt was impoftant. Lost in Trаnslаtion: А Life in а |{еtu Lаngшаge (Г{еw York: Pеnguin, 1989) tеlls how Еva сamе to trrms with hеr nеw idеntity and languagе.It's a story that rсadеrs will find fasсinating and moving. oA сOIпPIEтE sсhool newspopеr, Grover Bugle (GB), interviewеd studеnt, thе o Mаniyo Suorеz (Ms). Сomplеtеthе interviewwith relotivеpronouns-, whеn, or where, ond thе corrесtform of thе verbsin parenthеses, -4 GB: Мaniya Suarez is a studеrrt know 2. (know) MS: Thе сotlsirl who Iтany of youralrеаdy 1. . Мaniya, why сliсlyoltr farтily sеttlе in Atlallta? 3. 4. (stay) with at first l1аlri1,.rSLlаl.t'Z lives lrеrе'.I.lratls rеasol.l^/е thе сhosе Atlatrtа. GB: What was thе nrost diffiсrrlt tlrirrg abotlt goirlg to sсIroсll thе U.S.? irr l4S:Tlrесlassin 5. 6. (havе) was Еnglish. It was hard to say the thirrgs МIS: We usесlto livе in a lroltsе 7. you GB: Wlrat is tlre biggеst сl,rangе thе biggсstpr .о hlсr r ls fil.st аt 8. (wаnt) 1o. (expеriеnсе) tltеrе r2. (bе) a lсlt of people.Hеrс I livе witlr l1.ly arrd trvo yotltrgеrsistеrs l]arеnts l4. (takе сarе of) 11. aftеr sсlroоl.I get a little lorrеlysometitrrеs. so far? always
    • *9j.::.tjy.?.91?.ч:.::..Y:,l.?PJ::j.1:'.1ЧY:. гj::3.1:: .?:,Y:P:.?:* Уjl?::..:. .3:.7..o... o. o. o Rеod eoch poir of sеntеncеs, а rеIotive pronoun|when, or where to сOIf|BINЕ Usе combine thеm into onе sentence. l. That,s thе house. I gтеw up in thе hоuse with my sister Emilia. That'э the houэethat I grewup in wit,h эiэ|er Еmi|ia. mу 2. Thе housе was beautiful. We lived in the house. 3. Еmilia and I shared a room. Wе spent nights talking there. 4. Aсross the hall, I had a good friend. I went to sсhool with hеr. 5. I took piano lessоns from a Woman. I met her in the bakery. 6. I rеmеmber one Summer. The whole familv went to thе lake thеn. 7. Those wеre good times. I,ll always miss them. . ЕDIf Reod this studеnt,sеssoy.Find ond correct ninе mistokesin the use of odjective clouses with objеct relаtivе pronouns. Thе first mistoke is olrеodу сorrected. Tal Dong is bhe small сity in southeastеrn moved theгe from Taipei the summer whеre oк in which Taiwan тмhieЬI $гew up. My fami1y whеn I was boгn. Thе house ln whiсh I 6pew up in is on a main stгeet in Tai Don$. My father sold tea, and my mother had. a food stand in ouг fгont сourtyaгd A сustomeг who I always A cousin who his family apprentiсe whегe she sold omeiets еaгly in the mornin$. were best friends. сhattеd with him had a son my a$е. ТAIe I visited eveгy summer llved with us. He Was an whiсh my fathеr тшas tеaсhing thе tеa businеss our house We had a hu$e kitсhen in where we ail $athегed and noisy plaсe. Thе bedrooms where the family to. on the first flooг of foг dinnеr. It was a fun siеpt Was upstairs. My two brothers slеpt in one bedroom. I slept ln one what I shaгed with my oldеr sister. My youn$er sister shared a bedroom wlth anotheг cousin whlсh my family had adoptеd.
    • Adieсtive Glauses: ldentifyingand Nol')-ldentifying Т h i э r n ue т b e |h e oicNure fi|a he to|d mе notto openl WPulNт Сirсlе T (True)or F (Folse), т Suв;вст Сheck the corrеct onswеr. t Сirclе T (Truе)or F (Folse). т F You сan lеave out a relative ptonoln onlу when it is an objесt relative pronoun in an idеntif-ving adjесtivе сlausе. l Rвlдтlvв Pпoшouш l Тhе сomputeг which is in thе family room is br o kеn. she bought last wееk is not working. (oщвст idеntifying П non-identifying There is only one piсturе filе on the сomputer. lDЕNтlгYlNG AD'ЕстlvЕ сLAUsEs сl|ARт сHEсl( Whiсh type of adjeсtivе сlause has сommas around it? F Rtlдтlvв Pпoшouш) (which) Тhе сomputeг NoN-lDЕNтlFYING ADlEстlvE сLAUsЕs Suв,вст Rвlдтlvв Pвoшouш Тhe сomputeг, whiсh is in the family room, is br o ken. shе bought last weеk, is no t w o гkin g . oв1вст Rвlдтlvв Pпoшouш Тhe сomputer, which ЕхPRЕssж Сrossout the rеlotivе pronouns when possiblе, . I gave away my сomputец whiсh was only thrее years old. . I bought a new onе that had a lоt morе mеmory. o It was thе соmputеr whiсh we saw at Е-Leсtroniсs. 308
    • Adjeсtive й уawъrтъ Жжplemeхi-*{eуi, жr Glauses: |dentifuingand Nоn.|dеntifуiпg l Жxarnр|еs 1. Adjесtive сlausеs сan be idеntifying or non-identifying. a. Use an identifying adjeсtive сlause to whiсh mеmber of a group the idеntify sеntеnсе talks about. r l havеthrее phonеs.Thе phonе whiсh is in the kitсhen is brokеn. (Thе adjесtivе сlouseis neсessory idеntifуwhiсh to phonе is mеont,) b. Usе a non-idеntifying adjесtive сlausе jnfoгmation to give addjtional about thе noun it rеfеrsto. Тhе information is not neсessary idеntifythe noun. to r I haveon|yone phone.Thе phone, whiсh is in the kitсhen, is brokеn. (Thе odjесtivе сlousеgivеs odditionаlinformotion, but it isn,tneеdedto idеntifу phonе,) thе non.idеntifying adjeсtive с|ause. Usе who for people and whiсh for p|aсes and things. 2, ln writing',a non-idеntifying adjeсtive сlaшsе is sеparаtedfrom thе rеst of the sеntenсeby сommas. me |astnight. Noт Marie, r Тhе switсh, whiсh is on the baсk, is off. (Thеmoсhinehqs only onе switch.lt,son thе boсk.) ln spеaking, non-identifying a ad|есtive сlause is sеparatеdfrom thе rеst of the sеntеnсеby bгief pauses. whiсh is on thе baсk r The switсh (pouse) (pousе) off. is (Thеmachine onlуonе switсh'lt,son the baсk.) hos Withoutсommasor pausеs, сlauseis an the idеntifying adieсtivе сlausе, and the sеntenсе has a very differеnt mеaning. r The switсhwhiсh is on the baсk is off. (Thеmoсhinehas morе than onе switch.Thisone is off ,) 3. You сan leave oшt: a. objeсt rеlativе Pronouns in identifying adieсtivе с|аusеs r That,sthе сomputer thot l bought. r Тhat,sthе сomputerl bought' b. when r l rеmembеrthе daу when l mеt him' r I rеmembeг thе day l met him. Usдсв ]toтв:Thе most сommon spokеnform is pronoun. the one with no ге|ativе 4. You сannot lеavе out: a. rеlativе pronouns in a non-identifying adiесtive сlausе r She remembеrs Marс, r.yho shе visitеd oftеn. Noт She rеmembегsMarс 5hе+i5itеd'€ # tеn. b. whose r That,sthе author whose book l rеad. Noт Тhat,sthе authorffi. C. where l Тhat,sthе |ibraгywhere l work. Noт Тhat,sthе librarУ.|+tэtlt. 3o9
    • 31O I unit 7'r l | l l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o . о . . o тRUE FAISE Rеod eoch numberedsentence.Writе T (True)or F (FoIsе)for thе 0R stotеmеntthot follows. 1 . Use thе сomputеr whiсh is in the living room. F There is only one сomputer. Prеss the red button, whiсh is on thе right. There is probably only onе red button. 3 . My sister who fixеs сomputers lives in Tехas. I havе more than onе sister. 4. My stereo, whiсh worked yеsterday, dоesn,t work today. It's likely that I havе another sterеo I сan use. 5 . A сеll phone whiсh remembers numbers is very сonvеnient. All сell phones сan remembеr numbers. My roommate, who is afraid of сomputers, has never been on the Internеt. I probably have more than onе roommate. ADD сROssOUT. Reod this orticle obout tесhnophobio.Add сommos whеrе nеcеssorY. & Cross out thе rеIotivеpronouns thаt cаn bе left out. , teсh . Jlo .'Pho . Ьia (пottп)a fеaгJh{Somе pеoplе havе tесhnоlogy about using f you haveit, you'rеone of thе 85 pеrсеntof l l peoplе that this new ..disease'' struсk. has МayЬeyou Ьoughta phonеon whiсh you сan 25 сouldn'tturn it on. Program numЬеrs_then or pеrhaPsyou havеjust rеad that your nеW CD player9 whiсhyou havefinallytеarned how to use9 will soon Ьe rеplaсedby DVD whiсh you havеnеvеrеvеn hеardof. Somе еxpеrts say that things havе just gottеn too сomplex.William Staplеs who authorеd Ьook on thе еleсtroniс tried to a agе help a friеnd who had just Ьought a nеW stеrеo. Thе stеrеowhiсh workеdЬeforewasn't ..On workinganymorе. thе front of thе stеrеo rесеivеr it literally had a сouplе of dozеn Ьuttons,'' says Staples.Donald Norman who has writtеn aЬout the effeсts of tесhnology on pеop[е Ьlames the dеsignеrsof thеsе not thе peoplе who use them. ..Тhe deviсеs, Ьest Way to сurе tесhnophoЬiais to сure the rеasonsthat сausе it_that is, to design thingsthat peoptесan usе and designthings that won't Ьrеak,'' сlaims Norman' Miсhael Dyrenfurth who tеaсhesat the University of Мissouri.ColumЬia Ьеliеves сause own Wе our proЬlemsЬy Ьuyingteсhnologythat wе just ..Do don't neеd. We rеalty nееd an elесtriс toothЬrush?'' asks. hе Aссording Dyrеnfurth, to importantteсhnologythat wе сan't afford to run awayfrom aсtual[y exists. prospеr, Тo We havеto overсome teсhnophoЬia lеarn our and to usе it.
    • Adjeсtive Clauses: ldentifying and Nоn-ldentifying f o с0I{lBlNЕRеod thеsеpаirs of sentenсes.сombinе thеm by сhonging the sесond sentenceinto on odjectivеclousе. Use o relotivеpronoun only whеn nеcеssorY. Use commаs for non-identifуingodjеctivеclousеs. l. I bought a сell phоne. I сan usе it to sеnd and reсeive e-mail. I boughta oellphoneI can uэe t.oэend and receive e-mai|. 2. Мy new сеll phonе has beсome a neсessary part of life. I only bought it a month ago. i' r remеmbеr thе day. I was afraid to use my nеW сomputеr then. 4. Noщ thеrе are psyсhologists. They help tесhnophobеs use teсhnology. 5. Dr. Miсhеllе Weil wrote a book about..teсhnostress.''Shе is a psyсhologist. 6, I work in an offiсe. In my offiсe, the software сhanges frequеntlу. 7, A lot of pеоple suffеr from tесhnostrеss. Thosе pеoplе work in my offiсe. 8. Some pеоplе dream of a job. They сan do the jоb without teсhnologу. o EDIT Reod this studеnt,s book report,Find ond corrеct six mistokesin the use of identifуing ond non-identifуingodjectivеclousеs.The first mistoke is olreodу corrected. I just гead a book сallеd Technostress' Her сo-author was Dr. Larry Acсoгdin$ тлrhiсh was written by Dr. Miсhеllе Aleil. Rosen, that is heг husband and. also a psyrhoioglst. to thе authoгs, everybody feеls stress aboub teсhnoio$y. our сell phones and bеepегs, that we buy foг еmeг$enсies, soon invade our pгivacy. сIust bесause they сan' peoplе сontaсt us at plaсes, where We are гelaxin$. Anotheг having to 1earn too muсh too fast. Teсhnologiсal time, now oveгwhеlm сhan$es, used to сome one at a us. Dr. Weil suggests dealing with tеоhnostгess hеr latest book whiсh сan bе puгсhasеd problеm is fгom her wеb sitе. using tips fгom 311
    • ::]i!]tвПшffi jlfi fi н|{frt|ItЕ}'}{нiiliillаift]lЁ1li?lffi ffi ffi $iiii! lr SelfТest ffiloшп Сircle the lеttеr of thе corrеct onswer to complеtе eoch sentence.Сhoosе И whеn no word is nееded. Exдшtptl: Jennifer never (A) drink (B)drinks (с) is drinking (D)was drinking lives in Rio. (С)whom (D)where 1 . That's my friend - (A) whiсh (B)who (Al who (B}whiсh ABсD sistеr babysits for us. (C) that's (D)whose 3 . She's thе woman - ABсD Cliff works. (С)whom (D)whose ABсD I met at the party, сailed me last night. (C) whiсh (D)whose ABсD 4. That,s the doсtor for (A) that (B)whiсh I remеmber Al, (A) I (B)who I rode the bus tо sсhool with. (C) whiсh I (D)who 7. I used tо enjoy the summeц (A) where (B)when we had a big family piсniс. (C)whiсh (D)that 8. T a k e i n t h e r o l l o f f i l m - U n с l e P e t e t o o k a t t h е r e u n i o n . (A) what (B)with whiсh 9. Plеasе pay all the bills l^) O (B)that to. Let,s try tо agтee on a timе (A) whiсh (B)whеre 3r.2 ABсD in the living room need a lot of water. (C)is (D)am The plants whiсh (A) are tB)be Мarie, (A) that (B)who A@с сoffee. ABсD ABсD ABсD lq A (D)whom are duе this week. (C)when (D)they ABсD We сan all get tоgethеr. |с| И (D)at ABсD D
    • self,?-eвt 11. Tell me about the сity (A) that (B)where 12. Annie found the souvenirs that (^|И (B)where you grew up. (C)whiсh Ж.*Чf l 313 A B с D A B с D tDIИ wanted at thе gift shop. (C) she (D)whiсh Е.Ф}'lтW0 Еoch sentеncеhos four underlined words or phrosеs. Тhе four undеrlinеdports of the sentеnceore morkеd A, B, С, ond D, Сirclе thе lettеr of thе one undеrlinеd word or phrosе thot is Noг сoRRЕст, Еxдмptt: Mike usually drives to sсhool, but today he walks. (D AB A B сo 13. After a week, wе finally got to Miami, that my aunt lives. A B с D 14. My favorite unсle, whiсh lives in Teхas- arrived last night. A B с D 15. Paulo is someоne who hе really loves Soссеr. A B с D 16. one singer who,s voiсе ! likе a lot is Madonna. A B с D 17. The stories what I've told you are all true. A B с D reading the artiсle that you told me about it. 18. I enjo}zеd A B с D 19, Shе's read Somе books that disсusses the time when this arеa A B с D 20. San Franсisсo, that is a beautiful сity, has a population of six milliоn. A B с D 21. Do you know whom wrote the song that Al цras singing last night? A B с D 22, My aunt,s new house is neхt to a beautiful сanal in where we ю A в с D 23. Van, who with I went to sсhоol, has beсome a famous writer. A B с D 24. Do you remember the night whiсh we ate at the restaurant that A B с D A B с D ABсD ABсD ABсD AB(D ABсD ABсD was undeveloped. ABсD Aв(D ABсD ABсD swimming evеry day. AB(D Bill оwnеd? ABсD 25. our neighbors, whо their daughtеr babysits for us, have moved. ABсD
    • Direсt and lndireсt Speeсh: lmperatives WPЙINт Сheck the doctor,sexaсt words. П ..Eat a heavy mеal bеfore bed.,, П ..Don'teat a hеaw mеal before bed." П ..Not to еat a hеavv mеal before bed." сIIART сIlEcI( Сhесk thе corrесt onswеr, Whiсh type of speесh uses quotation marks? DlRЕсТ SPEЕсH I R.oo"t,*"I Suвtвстvвпв Spввсн l l Dlпвст He П dirесt speeсh П i.'di,есt speeсh Сirclе T (True)or F (Folse). т F Indireсt imperatives always use the infinitivе fоrm of the verb (to + basе form). "D r ink milk." ,,Don't drink сoffее.,, said, INDI lRЕ(т sPЕЕсH I I R.oo*t,n" Nouш/ l Pвoшouн lшolпвст Suв,вст Vвпв Spввсн l l He told said hеr to dr ink milk. not to drink сoffеe. ЕхPREssryж Сircle the сorrect words to complete thesеsеntеncеs, . The doсtor told me go / to go to bed at the same time every night. . She told me, "Don't work / Not to work in bed." 3I4
    • Direсt rr*ar Жxр8aвnetiФrr 5 fi rашm and lndireсt Sрeeсh: lmрeratives l A.кarmрlеs ,,Come early and bring your insuranсe 1. Dirесt spеeсh statesthе еxaсt woгds a spеakеr l Gard,,' said thе doсtor. usеd.ln writing,use quotationmarks' lndireсt spеeсh reportswhat a speakегsaid without usingthe еxaсtwords.Тhеreare no ouotationmarks. 2. Тhe reportlng verb (suсh as soy or telf) is in usua|ly the simplepast tеnsеfor both diгeсt and indirесtspeeсh. mеntioned. Do not use tell. 3. Diгeсtspеесh impеrativеs use the basе form of thе verb. lndireсt spеeсh imperativеs use the infinitivе to rеpoгt: r Тhe doсtor to|d hеr to сome еarly and bring hеr insurance сard. DlпвстSpвгсн WaгmmiIk,,, said. hе l ,,Dгink lшptпвст Spввсн r Hе told hеr to drink warm milk. Noт Hе +r{*tо<tt|.l-f,j.m thе morning. in a. instruсtions DlпсстSpггсн ,,Comе ear|у,'' said. hе tг.iolпгст 5pггсн He said to come еarly. b. сommands ,,Ullait.,, Hе told me to woit' с. requests ,,Сouldyou p|easе arrivе by 8:00?,, Shе askеdhim to orrive by 8:00. d. invitations "Could you join us fo r lunсh?,, She invitedme to ioin thеm fo r |unсh. DlпвстSpггсн ,,Don,t go.,, lшotпвст Spввсн Hе to|d hеr пot to go. 4. Use a nеgativе infinitive (not + infinitive) to reportnеgativeimperativеs. 5. ln indirесt spеесh, makе сhangеsto kеeplthе speakeг,s origina| mеaning. a. Сhangе pronouns and possеssivеs. me your prob|em.,, r Hе said to Ann, ,,Tеll l He to|dAnn to tеll him her problеm. b. Changе time phrases. I ,,Ca|| tomorrow.,, me l She said to сa|l hеr thе neхt doу. с. Change tftis and hеrе. I ,,Signthis form hеrе.,, r She told him to sign thаt form there, it Сheсk out! For punсtuation rulеs for direсt speeсh, seе Appеndiх 25 on page 347. For a list of сommon rеporting verbs, see Appеndix 13 on page 340. For a list of common time word сhanges in indireсt speeсh,see Appendix 14 on pagе 340. 315
    • rfi'.lllr ligii:!i у' 316 l Urзit 7ё o lDЕNтlFY Rеod this orticlе аbout slеep disordеrs,Сirclе oll thе reporting vеrbs, IJndеrlineoncе аIl thе direct impеrotivеs,Undеrline twice oll thе indirect imperotives, 1"3:j-T,l3oс ТurninE Bеing an insomniaс mysеlf,I askеd Dr. Thoгpс for Somе suggеstions. Hе told mе to stop drinking сoffее. Hе said to havе a slееp? Y)tt'fе not alonе. Мillions of fan't pеoplе arе up tossing and turning warm glass of milk instеad...A lot of old- instеad of gеtting thеir zzzz,s. Dr. Ray сarbоhydratс snaсk likе abanana bеforс you Thorpе, Dirесtor of thе Slсеp Disordсrs go to bсd''' hс said. But hе advisсs patiеnts think that loss of slееp Cliniс, @,..Don't is iust a minor inсonvеniеnсе.'' During an not to сat a hеavy mеal bсforе turning in for thе night. Иhat about ехеrсisе? ..Rеgulaг intеrviсw hе @mс fashionеd rеmеdiсs work. Havе a lrigh- ехеrсisе hеlps, but don't ехсrсisе too сlosе to think abollt what ti..d Еvсry yеar up to 20o,000 сar aссidеnts to bеdtimе,'' hе srrggеstеd. Finallу, hе told mе not to dсspair. ..Don't Worfy about nсlt arе сallsеd bу drowsy drivеrs. Thеn lrе slееping.It's thе woгst tlring to do,,'hе said. askеd mе to think abottt a frсеnt industrial I don't know. Aftеr thinking about thosе disastеr' Сhanссs arс that it was сausеd at industrial aссidеnts.I doubt I'1l bе ablе to lеast in part by slссp dеprivation. slсеp at a||| сan nappсn irpсopl@ о сIIOOiE Сonnie Sung visited Dr. Thorpe,sslеep clinic. Сomplеte her notеs with thе correct words in porеnthesеs, t,o arrive Last wеek I visitеd. thе slеep сiiniс. Dr. Thoгpe сalied. and asked mе at 8: 3 O 2 . ( t o n i g h t/ t h a t n i g h t ) .Hе 3 . ( s а i d/ t o t о ; 1 . ( a r r i v е/ t o a r r i v е ) mе to bring 4. (my / your) ni$htshiгt and toothbгush. I arrived on sсhedulе. Thе teсhniсian, Juan Estrada, invited me 5. (watсh/ to watсh) 7 . ( h е r е/ t h е r е ) TV in thе loun$e. Hе 6 . ( s a i d/ t o l d ) while thеy got my room ready. An hour latец "Iuan to relax сamе baсk and got me ready to slеep. He attaсhеd eleсt,rodes to my body and hooked mе up to a machine. ..Could you pleasе aсtivity, .Iuаrr instтuоted me 8. (еxp|ain to exp|ain) / 9. (do,/t / not ю) mornin$. To my suгprise, I fell aslеep ri€ h t ?'' I asked. The maсhinе rесords bгain leave the bеd until 10. (tom*.o* / th" "е^t) away. In the morning, Dr. Thorpe told me that еxсept for some ie$ movements duгing the ni$ht, I have healthy slеep patteгns. He advised me 1 l . ( g e t/ t o g е t ) some more exеrсise.
    • Е}irert аnd lndirert speerh; lrзlреrativсэs l о govе viewеrsobout REWRIтERеod the odvicе thot TV news commеntotor John Stosse/ thе сommon ond verу dongеrousproblem of fеelingslеepy whеn driving. Rewritе his odvicе in indirect speech. t. "Pull over and take a brief nap." 2. "Don't take a long nap." He told them to pull over and take a brief nap. He эaid no| to take a |ong nap, 3. ..Sing to уourselvеs.'' 4. ..Turn your radiо to an annoying station.,, 5. ..Don,t drink сoffee.'' 6. "Open your window." 7. *Let сold air in.'' 8. ..Bе сareful when you stop your car,,, 9. ..Don,t stop on a desertеd rоadside.', 1o. "Don't drink and drive." journol еntrу,Find ond correctfourtеenmistаkеsin the EDIT.Rеod this studеnt,s .Гhе first mistаke is olreody corrеcted.Remеmberto usе of indirеct impеrotivеs. chеckpunctuotion! c|аsstodау,Jиan onеat hissIories' waE rеаd |nwriting АtГer lt wondеrtцI' class, thetеаcher inurtеd '!}nnа а stor1 clаssorхtlшееk, hеr on in |fowеvеr, I o,skеd noto cа|| gdtingideаs, sаidmе not worYх1, to me nertweekbecацse hаvingIroцb|е |'m 5hе аnd to shеsаidto waitfortwo ItаIkеd Jиan, | аsked tett hirn methеsoцrcе wеeks'Thеn aod idеаs'|1е thсttheycamе sаid torуour аnd tromhisdrеаms, hе to|d keep dreаm me а rеаdsomе hisjoиrnal.,' verry intеrеsting, mе,Чo ot s'o tor lt was .1oиrna( idеаs'|]еinvitеd tips d:rеаms, saidgeting good me а I аskedhimto grvе some onrеmembering Hе pеriod s|ееp, аIso drеаms s|ee? |onger IeI| night,s bеcацэеthе ot lornеаltеrа |ong |]е up, sаidto nomovе аs meIo keeрrny bу a5 -1oцrnаIthe bеdаndto Wrrte 5ooo I wake |1е (lfyoи tromthеslееptngposition,|1еа|sotoldmеto аboutthеdачаttirsI, dontthink thinkаbout dау, rnight drеаms) Мostirnpoгtаnt- night hе torgeI еuец уour чot,t уoш:r te||s that morning' himsetf Io remеmbеr dreаmstomorrow his З17
    • lndireсt Speech: Statements (1 ) iL |ooked qreaL Оn rne, | | | ookэ qr e aL on уou | | , |||a k e t h е r na I I I WPпlNт Сhесk thе mon,sеxaсt words. П ..It loоks great on yоu!'' t DlRЕст sPЕЕсH сHARт сHЕсl( Сheck thе corrеct аnswеrs, What сan сhangе whеn you go from a direсt to an indirесt statement? ..It looked great on mе!,, I R.oo*r,*" I Suв;вст vвпв | She said, П thе punсtuation t th" word ord'еr in thе statеmеnt П tь" vеrb tеnsе in the statemеnt П p'o.'ouns in thе statement Sтдтвмвшт l Dlrrвст ,,l likе the drеss.,, ,,Ibo ught it o n sа|е.,, ,,|,vеworn it twiсе.,, lNDlRЕст sPЕЕсH I R,oo*,.шс | шouш/ l Suв;встi Vвпв She told said l Pпoшouш lшolпвстSтдтвмвшт | Jim mе shе liked the dr ess. (thot) shе had bo ught it o n salе. she had worn it twiсе. EхPREssж Сirclе thе corrеct words to completе this sеntencе, She said / told thе salеspеrson that she is / was going to buy thе drеss. 318
    • ::9:::.:}. .::?::T.-.:l:.(]]........ :Р.:.::.T: .:..?.1?... Жxpfi aнatiсrжs Gr*mъamar Жx*rжрfr*s 5pгвсн 1. An indireсt speесh statеmеnt гeportswhat a D tквст spеakеr said without usinothе еxaсtwords.Thе l ,,|t,sa great drеss,,, hе said. Sрввсн woгd thot сan introduсethе indireсtstatеmеnt. lш o lп вст l He told hег thot it was a grеat drеss. r He told her it was a great dress. thе listenегis not mеntionеd.Do not usе tell. r Hе said that it was a grеatdrеss' Noт Hе to{d+hаtit was a gгeat dress. 2. Whеn thе rеporting vеrb is in the simplе past tеnsе, thе vеrb in the indirесtspeесh statementis often in a diffeгеnttense from the verb in the dirесt spеeсh statеmеnt. Spвгсн Dtпвст Simp|еprеsent lшotпвст Spввсн -+ Simple past Presentprogrеssive -) Past progressive D t п в с тS p в в с н | ш o t к в с тS p г в с н ,,It,sgrеat.,, Hе said, He said it wos gгеat. ,,l,m lеaving.,, Simplepast ---) Past pеrfeсt ,,I Presеntpeгfeсt -+ Past pеrfесt He said to her, ,,|,ve neVеr liеd.,, madе it.,, Shе said shе wos leoving. Hе said that hе hod modе it' H е to |dhеr thаt he hod nеvеr lied. 3. |n indirесtspеeсhthе verb tensе сhangе is optional whеn rеporting: a. somеthingsomеonehas just said A: What did you just say? B: I said l,m tir ed.o п | said I w as tir еd. b. somеthingthat is still truе r Riсk said the bank wаnts a сheсk. r Riсk said thе bank wonted a сhесk' G. a gеnеral truth or sсiеntifiс law r She said that evеryone lies somеtimе. r She said that evеrvone lied sometime. 4. When thе rеporting vеrb is in thе prеsent tеnse, do not сhangethe verb tensеin indirесtspeесh. ,'I r||n a milе every daу.,' She says that shе runs a mile еvеryday. Сhangе pгonouns, timе expressions, t Ann to|d Riсk,,,l bought this dгesshеre.,, 5. Rrмпмввп! this, and herе in indireсtspеесh to kеep the t Ann told Riсkthat she had bought thot drеss there. spеakеr,s oriфal meaning. Сheсk out! iI For a list of сommon rеporting vеrbs, seе Appendix 13 on page 340. For a list of сommon timе word сhangеs in indirесt spеeсh,sее Appеndix 14 оn page 340.
    • 32O r unit ?3 о lDЕNтlFY Reаd this аrticle obout lуing. Сirclе oll the rеporting vеrbs, Underline once аIl thе direct stotemеnts.Underlinе twice аll thе indirеct stotеments, tY G N.FЕR },'o* THЕ TRUТH A BOU'T l }| BY,'N At q.oоRiсk Spivak'sbаnk phonеd and@)that his сredit саrd paУmentwas latе. ,.Thесhесk is in thе mail,''кiсk@ПеЪq,i.кly. лt l tит кi.к ьrt ro' . lzю иg aсross town.Arriving late, Riсk told his сlient that traffiсhad bееn bad. That evеning, looks |ustgrеaton you,''hе said. Riсk'sfianсёеWorеa new drеss.Riсk hatеd it. ,.|t just an ordinaryguу.Еaсh timе, hе told himsеlfthat Threе lies in one day! Yet Riсk is somеtimеsthе truth сausestoo many problеms.He told himsеlfthat his fianсёеWas fеelinggood about hеr purсhase. Why should hе hurt hеr fееlings? Is tеlling lies a nеw trеnd? тhе maiorityof people in a rесеntsurvеysaid that pеople Wеrеmorе honеst ten уears ago.Neverthеless, lying wasn'trеally born yеstеrday. the ln thе FrеnсhphilosophеrVauvenarguеs told the truth about lying еightееnthсеntury, whеn hе wrotе. ..Allmеn arе born truthfuland die liars.'' o сOilIPIfIЕ Reod this mogozine orticlе. Сompletе it with thе сorrесt words in porеnthеses. .,Lyingduring a said iob intеrviеwis risky businеss,'' ' 1 .( s a i d / told) dirесtor of a managеmеntсonsultingfirm. ..Thеtruth alwaуs Мarta Tolеdo' 2 . ( h a s/ h а d ) a funny way of сomingout.''Tolеdo tеlls the story of onе Womanapplying for a iob as аn offiсe mаnagеr. Тhе woman 5. (has / had) 6. (l / shе) 3 . ( s a i d/ t o l d ) thе intеrviеwеr 4. (that/ what) shе a B.A.dеgrеe.Aсtually, shе was еight сrеditsshort.Shе also said 7. (madе / had mаdе) at $30,000 hеr last |ob.Thе truthwas $5,000 lеss. Whеn thе intеrviеwеrсallеd to сheсk thе information, the appliсant'sformеr boss told hеr that the appliсаnt 8 . ( h a s | i е d/ h а d | i е d ) . Anothеrappliсant,Gloria,rеpoгtеdthat she-hеrсurrеntjobtoadvanсеhеrсarееr.Shеgotthenеwjob. 9 . ( i s q u i t t i n g/ w a s q u i t t i n g ) All wеnt wеll until thе сompany hirеd Pеtе,who had worked at Gloria'Sold сompany. Pеte еventuallytold his boss that his old сompany 1 o . ( f i r е d/ h a d f i r е d ) Gloria. The nеw сompanуfired hеr too, proving,onсe again,that it doesn't pay to liе.
    • lndireоt Speech: statemеПts i"l) r o REP0Rт Liso ond Ben ore tolking obout Bеn,sjob seorсh, Use the verbs in porеnthеses to rеport their conversotion.Mokе nесеssorуchonges in vеrbs ond pronouns. l. Bшш: I'm sti]l looking for a job. (tell) He to|d her he waэ эti|| |ookinofor a job, 2. Lrsд: I just heard about a jоb at a sсientifiс researсh сompany. (say) 3. Bвш: I majored in sсienсe at F'lorida Statе. (saу) 4. Lrsд: They want somеonе with Somе еxperiеnсe aS a progтammer. (tе1l l 5. Bвш: I work as a progTammеr for Data Systеms. ( t е l l) 6. Lrsд: They don't want a reсent сollege graduatе. (say) 7. Bвш: I got my degтеe four years ago. (tеll) 8. Lrsд: It sounds likе the right job for you. (say) ЕDlT.Rеod this studеnt,sessoу,Find ond correсt ten mistokesin thе usе of indirect stotements.The first mistoke is olrеodу corrесtеd, onсe when I was a teenageц I wеnt to my Aunt Leah's housе. Aunt Leah сolleсtеd told pottеry, and whеn I !!ot thегe, she s,a** mе that she wants to show me hег nеw bowl. She to1d she has just bought it. It was beautiful. ДГhenAunt Lеah went to answeг the dooц I piсked up the bowl. It sШppеd fгom my hands and smashed to pieces on the floor. AГhеnAunt Lеah сame baсk, I sсгeamed and said what the сat had just broken your new bowi. Aunt Lеah got this funny look on hеr faсе and told me that it isn't important. I didn't slеep at ali that ni$ht, and thе nеxt mornln$, I сa1led mдr aunt and сonfessеd that I have broken hеr bowl. She said I had knoтлm that a1l along. I pгomised that I am going to buy heг a new one somеday. Wе still laugh about thе story today. 321,
    • lndirect Speeсh: Statements (2) WжPЙINT Сhеck thе wеothеr forecostеr,s exaсt words, П ..Itwould be windy.'' П ..It will be wind.v.'' сI]ARт сHEсI( Сhеck the modols thot do not chongе whеn you go from dirеct to indirect speech. П will DIREст sPEЕс}t tt ; Rппoптlшс | Suв,вст | Vвпв i Dlпвст Sтдтrмвшт П ought to П might Hе said, t Ш must П *ay t should have "l'll leave now." "l'm go ing to dr ive." "Trafficmay be bad." ,,Shеmight movе.,, "H e Gan help." ,,Тhеyhavе to stay.,, ,,Youmust bе сaгеfu|.,, ,,Тhеy ought to buy battеriеs.,, .,We should havе left soonеr.,, lNDlREсТ sPЕЕсH Rвpoптlшсшouп7 | | Suв,вст Vвпв 5тдтвмвшт | Pпoшouш tшolпвст l Hе told said 322 Jim me them (thot) hе would lеavе thеn. he was going to drive. tгaffiсmight bе bad. she might mo vе. hе сo uld hе|p. thеy had to stay. |/wеhad to be сarеful. they ought to buy battеries. thеy should havе left soonеr.
    • j:.ч: :P.Y::*.чlilY::т.Jrj...-.Р.?.1.....( Т:.Y}. : T ... EхPREss #h:;'#j RеodJim,swords. Сhеck the sentencethot correctlyrеportswhot he soid. Jrм: ..I may move soon.'' t ;im said that I mav move soon. П .ltm said that he might mоve soon. жъ жr 6 в-a gтъ Жжp**в* m**gнъ s Wжжжжpfl'*ж 1. As you leaгnеdin Unit 73, whеn thе reporting vеrb is in the simple past tеnse, in thе indireсtspеeсh statеmеntthе verb tеnse often сh an gеs . Dtпгст Spггсн She said, "lt's windy." lшolпвст Spввсн Shе said it wos windy. Modals ofiten сhange in indireсtspеесhtoo. will moy must -+ D tп вст Spвгсн I said,,,Тhеwinds w ill be str o ng." lш o tп гст Spввсн I saidthe w inds would be stгong. Тhеy told us, ,,You сan stay with us.,, Thеy to|d us Wе could stoy with thеm' might -) l ш o tп в сS p в в с н т would сould Dlпвст Spвгсн He said,"The storm may last all night." Hе said that thе storm might lost all night. had to Shе to ld us, ,,Youmust lеavе.,, She to ld us we hod to leove. D tп tст Spгвсн "You should listen to thе wеathег rеport,,, to|d us. hе lп o lп вст всн Spr Hе told us that wе should listen to thе wеathеrrеport. 2' Some vеrbs do not сhange in indireсtspеeсh. a. Do not сhangе should, сould, might, and ought to in indireсtspеесh. b. Do not сhange thе past perfeсt in indirесt speесh. G. Do not сhangeverbsin presеnt and past unreal сonditional sеntenсеs in indireсtspеесh. d. Do not сhange past modals in indirесtspеeсh. 3. Rвмвмвtп! Change pronouns, timе phrаses, here, and this in indirесtspeесh to kеep the spеaker,s originalmеaning. "l had just moved Shе saidshe hеrе a wееk bеforе,,, hod just movеd thеrе she said. a wеek bеforе. ,,|fl knеw, Jim said if he knew, I w o uld tell yo u." he would tell me. "lf I had known, I would have told said Iim. УoU,,, H е said if hе hod known, he would hove told mе. ,,l should havе lеft.,, H e saidthat hе should hove left. I I ,,|just got hеrе yеsterday.,, Sam told me he had just gottеn thеre the dау before.
    • 324 I vnit 74 о сH00sЕ Rеod whot somеonerеported obout thе weother forеcost.Thеn сheck the exасt words. sentencеthot shows the wеаther forеcoster,s 1 . She said it was going to be a terriblе storm. П ..It was a terrible storm.', И ..It,sgoing to be a terrible storm.'' She said the winds might rеaсh 170 miles pеr hour. П ..The winds may rеaсh 170 miles pеr hour.', t ..The winds would rеaсh 170 miles per hour.,' She said thеre would be more rain the next day. t ..Therе will bе more rain the neхt day.,, t ..Thеre will be morе rain tomorrow.'' 4. She told people that they shоuld try to lеavе the area. t t ..You should have tried to lеavе thе arеa.'' ..You should try to leavе thе area.', ,,ТhеWeаthеrWatсh,,on Channеl 5 5. She said that they сould expeсt a lot оf damage. ..We сan ехpесt a lot of damage.'' t] ..We сould expесt a lot of damage.,, t о REPaRт You ore in New York,lmoginе you hеord thеserumors obout o hurricаnе in Florido уesterdaу ond уou orе rеporting thеm todoу. UseThey said to rеport the rumors. 1. ...Thе hurriсane will сhange dirесtion tonight.,, laэt night. wou|d ahangedireo|ion Theуэaid that |he hurricane 2. ..It'sgоing tо pass north of hеre.'' 3. ..It may beсome a tropiсal storm when it lands herе.,' 4. ..They had to сlose somе bridges yesterday beсause of high tidеs.'' 5. ..Theywon't rеstore eleсtriсity until tomorrow.,, 6. ..Thе sсhools hеre mav be сlosеd for a whilе.'' 7. ..We ought to use bottled water fоr a few days.,,
    • j3J..:. !1g:::.?}.3Р.:...:j:: .?lil::.-:P. .?.?1o. o . ... . o REwRlтЕ Rеаd this intеrviеw with o mеtеorologist. Rеwritе his onswеrs os indirect speech,Сhаnge verb tensеswhen possiblе. 1. Qз A hurriсane is just a bad storm, right? A: To be a hurriсanе, a storm has to have winds of at least 74 miles per hour. He эaid |hat,to be a hurricane, э|orm had t.o havewindэ of a| |eaэt74 mi|eeper hour, a 2. Q: Wе seem to bе having more of these big storms. A: It's true, and they will probably beсome more frequent. 3. Q: Why is that? A: The planet may be getting warmeц and that сan сause more severestorms. 4. Q: What rvent wrong aftеr the last storm? A: Еmergenсy workers should have arrivеd muсh more quiсkly. 5. Q: Is there an upside to all this? A: The new satellitеs will hеlp. If wе didn't have them, we wouldn't bе able to warn people. o EDIT Reod Rito,s e-moil to hеr friend Emily. Find ond correct twеlvе mistokesin thе use of reportedspeеch, Thе first mistokе is olrеodу corrected. Rе:Hurriсanе 4шж We had some exсitement here beсause of the hurriсanelast week.Jim's motherсa||ed just beforethe storm.She said ,r."Е1i.tening to the weatherreportand that she was We worriedabout us. She told Jim that if you two weren'tso stubborn, wiIIpaсk up and leave immediately. Jim's fathertold us how to get readyfor the storm.He said we should have put tape on our windowsrightnow and that we oughtto fill the bathtubwithwater. He also told Jim that we should buy a Iotof batteries beforethe storm hit tonight. Sue сaIled. She said that her pIaсewas too сlose to the сoast and that she сouldn'tstay here. She to|dme I wantedto stay with me and Jim. She said she shouIdсaIledus sooner. and the l to|dher she shou|dсome rightnow.Тhen we listenedto the weatheradvisory, foreсaster said thatthe storm is goingto go out to sea. She said it won'thit this area at all!
    • lndireсt Gluestions ГAre.@] PпlNт Сheck Mя Bеntley,seхaсt words, П ..Why Were you still single?,' П ..Why are you still single?'' Thе Stress Interview DlRЕст SPЕECH: YEs/No QUЕsт|oNs сl]ARт сIIEсI( I Сirсlе T (Truе)or F (FoIsе). т т F F You сan leave out if оr whether in indirесt уеslno questions. You do not use do to form indirесt уеslno questions. ! п.oo*,,n" I Suв'вст i Vвпв Hе т F An indireсt question always ends in a quеstion mark. т F You do not use do to form indirесt шh- questions. YE,s/No QUЕsтloNs I R.oo*,.шс | 1шouш/ l Suв'встi Vвпв He askеd | Pпoшouш) lшolпвст Quвsтloш l (M elissa) (hеr) if whether she had any expегienсе. she сould usе a сomputеr. DIRE(т SPЕЕCH: l,t/},QuЕsтloNs Rвпoппшс | Suв,вст Vвпв | Dlпвст Quвsтloш Hе askеd, ,,Who told you about thе job?,, ,,lA|hendo you want to staгt?,, lNDlRЕ,сT sРЕЕсHzWH.QUЕsтloNs I I I R.oo*r,*" (Nouш/ l Suв!вст | vвпв Hе 326 ,,Do you have any еXpегiеnсе?,, ,,Can you use a сomputеr?,, INDIREсT SPЕЕCH: сI|АRт сI]ЕсK 2 СirсIе T (Truе)or F (Folse). askеd, i DtпвстQuвsтloш askеd l Pпoшouш) lшolпвст Quвsтloш | (M еlissa) (hеr) who had told her about thе job. when shе wanted to start.
    • tndireсt Gluestions EхPREssж UnscrombIеthеse words to complеtе thе indirеct quеstion. w h y o h е . j o b о his . quit о had He asked him gТ}a *rзatiоnтs 6 ra*вт r A,эсрЕ Еxamрl*s l. Use i{ whether, or whether or nat to form indirесt уes/no quеstions. DtквстSpггсн l ,,Can you type?,, shе asked. ! ш o tп вст 5pвгсн r Shе askеdif I сould typе. r She askеd whethеr (or not) l сould tyPe. Usдсв Noтt: Whether is more formal than if. 2. ln indirесt уes/no quеstions, the subjeсt сomes beforethe veгb, the same as in word order. statemеnt Beсausе the statеment of word order, do not usе do. does. or did to form indireсtquеstions. DtквстSpвгсн l ,,Can I start tomoггow?,, INDIREст Sprгсн r Hе askеdif hе сould start tomoггow. Noт Hе askedсоtt}*hе*ta+ tomorrow. Dtпвст Spввсн I ,,Does thе |ob provide bеnefits?,, lNDlREст Sprгсн l He askеdif thе job providеd benefits. No т H e askedфbеnefits. 3. Use question words to form indirесt wh- quеstions. Dtпвст Spввсн I ,,lAlhere is your offiсe?,, I askеd. lш o lп вст Spввсн l l askеd where his offiсе was. 4. ln indireсt wh. questions, thе subjесtaIso сomеs bеforethe verb as in statеments, and you do not use do, does, or did. DlпгстSpггсн ,,Why did you lеave уour job?,, IND|REсТ Spггсн r She askedme whу l had left my job. NoтShеaskedmе@ ln indirесt wh. questions aboцt thе subjeсt, thе quеstionword is the subjесtand as word oгder. the vеrb fol|ows in statеment DlпгстSpввсн l Bob askеd,,,Who got thе job?,' Iшplпгст Spввсн r Bob askedwho had gottеп thе job. 5. Indirесt questions oftеn еnd in a period, m not a qu e s ti o n a rk . l l askеdwhу | didn,t get thе job. No т lasked r CheсkiI out! For a list of сommon verbs used tо report questions, seе Appendix 13 on pagе 340. l 327
    • , 32a I unit zS o IDENтIFYRеod this аrtiсIеobout strеss intеrviews.IJndеrlineаII thе indirеct quеstions. Supposе, for ехamplе, that thеrе is an aссidеnt in a nuсlеar po w er plant. Thе plant's publiс r еlatio ns o ffiсеr must r еmain сalm A fеw wееks ago, Мelissa Мorrow had a strеss intеrviеw, onе whiсh fеaturеd tough, triсky qu e st i o n s a n d n e g a ti v е e v a l u a t i o ns.Fir st,the when rеportеrs ask how thе aссidеnt сould havе happеnеd. вe awarе, howеver, that in i nt е r v i е we r a s k e d wh y s h е с o u ldn't w o r k under prеssure. Beforе shе сould answец he somе сountries,Iike thе Unitеd Statеs, сеrtain quеstions arе not allowеd unlеss thеy arе askеd who had writtеn her appliсation lеttеr for her. Melissa was shoсkеd, but shе handlеd direсtly rеlatеd to thе iob. If your intеrviеwеr asks how old you arе, you сan refusе to hеrself vеry wеll. Shе askеd the intеrviеwеr w h e t h е r h e wa s g o i n g to a s k h e r anу sеr io us qu e sti o n s . T h e n s h е l e f t. answеr. Thе intеrviеwеr also should not ask whеthеr you are marriеd or how muсh monеу Companiеs give strеss intеrviеws in order to watсh how сandidatеs handlе prеssure. yo u o W е. lf yo u think a quеstio n is impr o per , ask how thе question rеlatеs to thе iob. If it doеsn't, you don't havе to answеr. . lлAтсl1 Сhеck thе dirеct questionsthot mаtch thе indirеct questionsin thе orticle. t 1. Can you Work under pressure? a 2. Who wrote your appliсation letter for you? П 3. Arе you gсling to ask me any serious questions? П д. Was there an aссident in a nuсlear power plant? t 5. How old are you? П с. When Were you married? t 7. Is the question improper? о REP0Rт Сloire,sfriend loime wonts to know oll obout hеr intеrview,Rеport his quеstions. 1. ..What kind of job is it?,' Hе aэked what kind of iob it waэ. 2. "When is the interview?" 3. ...Wherе,s thе соmp an:rу?', 4. ..Do you need direсtions?,' 5. ..HoW long dоes it take to get there?,, 6. ..Are you going tо drivе?', 7. "'Who's going to interview you?" 8. ...Whenwill they let yоu know?''
    • tndireеt Quеstlons o REWRITEThesеquеstions Wеrеosked аt Cloirе,sinterviеw.Dеcidе which onеs СIoirе osked ond whiсh onеs Pеtе, thе monаger, oskеd. Rеwritе eoсh question os indirеct spеесh, l. ..WЪat type of training is availablе for thе job?'' for C|aire aэked what tуpe of trainingwaэ avai|ab|e the job, 2. ..WЪat kind of eхpеrienсe do you have?,' ghe ?ete aэked what kind of experience had, 3. .Arе you interviewing with other сompanies?'' 4. ..What will my rеsponsibilities Ъe?,, 5. ,.How is job performanсe rewarded?'' 6. "What was your starting salary at your last job?" 7. ..Did you get along well with your last еmployer?,, 8. ..Do you hire many wоmen?', . EDII Rеod port of o mеmo on intеrviеwerwrotе,Find ond сorrecteight mistokesin thе usе of indirесt quеstions.Thе first mistokе is olrеody corrected,Сheсk punсtuotion! Inter.offiсe П,Iemo I did some stress questioning in m;r intегview with Carl Tren$ tШs morning. I asked he couldn't Mr. Tren€ why соrtrfirt't*tawork under pressuгe. I also asked him w}цr did his supervisor dislike him. Finally, I inquired when he would quit the job with our сompany? Mr. Trеng answered my questions сalmly, and hе had some еxсellent questions of his own. He asked ..if We expeсted сhan$es on the job.'' He also want.ed to know how often do we еvaluate employees. I was impгessed whrn he askеd why did I deсide to join this сompany. I thlnk we should hire him. t 329
    • Embedded Gluestions I wonder Thе eеrvice | waoIerrible! wonder leave a tip.1-/ 9erv|ae ю included what kind of tip t,heэe guуa ar e go ing lo leave. oo ^-->-162 i{tuJr ;шж-жPЙlNт Сhесk thе quеstionsthe peoplеhove. Should wе lеavе a tip? t П Wu' thе serviсe any good? t д,e thesе guys going to leave a tip? П Is the serviсe inсludеd? сI]АRT сIIEсI( Сircle T (True)or F (False). т т F F Embеdded questions alwavs end with a period. You сan usе thе infinitive aftеr whether or a question word. lt'AlN сLAUSE Е]IiBЕDDED QUEsтloN l,m not surе if l |eft thе right tip. whether it was еnough. Сan you remembеr how muсh it was? whеre we ate? I don't know whethеr to tip. Do you know how muсh to tip? where to leavе thе tip? EхPREss,ж#.##, Punctuotе thеsеsеntеncеs. A: Do you know how muсh to tipB: About lvo. But I'm not sure wherе to leave the tip- 330
    • Еrчrbeddad {B% ffir жжwwжw жr Жжp* {eж&# eуъ DtпгстQuвsтtoп Should l tip? l Жжжжвp**ж l. ln Unit 75 уou lеaгnеd usе indireсt to quеstions to rеportanotherperson,s words. *шestitэtъs lndirесtquestions a kind of еmbedded arе quеstion_onе thаt is inсludedin аnother sеntenсe. Тhis unit disсusses еmbeddеdquеstions that do not report anothеr person,s words. 2. lf thе embeddedquestionis in a statemеnt, lf use a periodat the еnd of thе sentеnсe. the еmbeddеdquеstionis in a question/ use a questionmark at thе end of thе sеntеnсe. lшotпвст Quгsтtoш Hе askеdif hе should tip. Емввooгo Quвsтloш Do you know whethеr l should tip? = Mдtп SвштвшсвSтдтвмвшт l I don,t know who our sеrvег is. = MдtшSгштвшсг Quвsтtoш l Do you know who our sеrvеris? 3. We oftеn usе еmbеdded quеstions to a. expгеss somethingwе do not knovY. l l wondeгwhy he didn,t tip the mесhaniс. for b. ask politе|y information. l Can you tell mе if thе tip is inсludеd? Usдсl Noтв:With strangегs in a forma| or situation, еmbеddеdquеstionis сonsidегеd an morе poIitеthan a dirесtquestion. LвssFoпмдrl Does our bi||inсludea tip? Moпг Poltтt l Can yo u tel|mе if o ur bill inсludes a tip? 4. lntroduсеembedded yes/no questions with if, whether, or whethеr or not. Usдсв Noтп: Whether is more foгmal than if. r Do you know if he tips? r Do you know whеther (or not) he tips? lntroduсeembeddеd wh- questions with a ouеstionword' . wondеr how muсh they should l Many tourists tip their rеstaurant sеrver. You сan a|souse thе infinitivе aftera quеstion word or whether. wondеr how much to tip. r Many touгists l Somе wondеr whether to tip at a||. if or whу. 5. Bв сдпвrur! Use statеment word ordеr in all embeddеd questions. Noт Wе wondеrеd iiф1t*o-{еаve+ttР. r Could you te||me whеre they are? Noт Could you tеll mе иAеte*+е*hеу? Do not lеavе out if or r,yhetherinembеdded уеs/noquestions. r Cou|d you tе||me if it is 6:00 yet? Noт Сould you tell me iэiЕ6..€ Ф уеt? Do not use do. does, or did in embedded questions. r I don't know when the pizza Game. Noт | don,t know Сheсk out! iI For a list of сommon phrases introduсing embeddedquestions' see Appendix 15 on page 340. 331
    • 332 r Unit 76 о Rеod this onlinе od for thе book Tips on Tipping. IJndеrline IDENTIFY the еmbeddedquestions, :T.. lРs on llppnq By IквхвFкдшквt(Мnктrш Uшltмtтгo, lшс.) This Ьook is for you if . . . you've evеr avoideda situationjust Ьесauseyou didn,t know how muсh to tip. you've evеr rеalized(too [ate) that you Weresupposеdto offer a tiP. you'veevеr givena hugеtip and thеn wondеrеd if a tip was neсеssary all. at you'vееvеr needеd to know how to сalсu[ate thе righttip instantly. you'renеw to the Unitеd Statеsand you'renot sure who you shoutdtip here. youU likе to learn how tipping properly сan get you thе Ьеst sеrviсefor your monеy. What rеaders arе sayiПt . . . ,.l сan't imaginehow I got along without it!, Сhris Sаrton,Мinnеаpolis ..Тakе Тips along if you want a stress-freеvaсation.,, Мidori otаkа, Оsаko,Jаpаn Сtiсk hеrе to sеnd for thе ultimotе guidе to tippingl .E o REWRIтEСomplеtе thеsеquеstionsobout tipping сustoms.Сhonge the direсt quеstionsin pаrеnthеses еmbeddеdquеstions.Use thе infinitivewhenеvеr to possible. Usе corrеctpunctuotion. 1. Can you tell mе whether to lip ln Canada? ( S h o u l dl t i p i n С а n a d а ? ) 2. I,m going to Franсе. Please ехplain 3. Can you tеll mе ( H o w с a n I t е l |i f t h е t i p i s i n с | u d е d n t h е b i | | ? ) i ( W h y d i d s е r v i с еp е o p | еi n I с е | а n d е f u s еm y t i p s ? ) r 4. I'm moving to Japan. I'd like to know 5. We're visiting Australia. Pleasе tell us ( H o w m u с h s h o u | dI t i p a i r p o r tp o r t е r s ? ) ( W h o е x p е с t sа t i p а n d w h o d o е s n , t ? ) 6. r,m vaсationing in Norway. I'd like to know if 7. I tоok a job in China. I neеd to know whether 8. In Gеrmany the tip is inсludеd. I don't know whеthеr ( S h o u I dI t i p m y s k i i n s t r r . r с t o r ? ) ( l s t i p p i n gs t i l li l l е g а | h е r с ? ) t ( S h o u I dI t i p а n y w a y ? )
    • Еmbe<Jded Questiоns o сIlOOsE REwRlтE Two foreign еxchаngе studеntsore visiting Wаshington, D,С, & Сomplеtе their conversotions,Сhoose thе oppropriаtе quеstionsfrom the box ond Remembеr punctuotеthе sentеnces сorrесtly. chongе them to еmbеddedquеstions. to How muсh should wе tip thе taxi drivеr? Could wе rent a сar and drive? Where сan wе buy metro tiсkеts? 1. Where is thе Smithsonian Museum? What did thеy put in the sauсe? М Мдвтд: We're going to the Hotel Edison. Do you know whеrеit, iэ? Dвryдв: Sure. Gеt in and I,ll take vou there. i 2. Mruкr: (ulhispering) Do you know Mдвтд: Aссording to the book, we,re supposed tо leave 10 tо 15 perсent. I've got it. 3. Mдвтд: Exсuse me. Can you tеll me oгr.lсвв: 4. Sure. Just turn right at the сorner. You,ll see it right away. Mruкr: I'd like to take thе mеtro to the zoo, but I don't know Мдвтд: Probably right in the station. 5. Mдвтд: I want to visit Williamsburg. Do yоu think Mruкr: Let,s find out. That sounds like fun. 6. Mдвтд: This is deliсious. Let,s try to find out Mruкr: It tastes like ginger and garliс to mе. . EDII Reod this entry from Morto,sjournol, Find ond correctsеvеnmistokesin the usе of еmbеddеdquеstions.Thе first mistoke is аlrеodу corrected.Rеmеmberto chеckpunctuotion! Whеn you live in а foreign сountrу еVеnа smаll oссаsion сan Ьe an advеntuге!Beforе my dаte | эhou|d with Jаnеk tonight I didn't evеn know whаt dtоиlф+wеаr! Jeans? А dress? JohnЪ GrTllTsnTа fancу гestаиrant but it was JаnеkЪ birthday and I wаntеd to mаkе Тt a big oссasion. MiukTwas but l didn't know how long it was goTng vеry helpfиl,а3 alwаys.l knеw how to gеt to JohnЪ GrTll, to takе fo gеt thеrе? l lеft at 6:00, whiсh should havе givеn mе plеnty of timе, but whеn l got off thе bus, I wаsnt surе If to turn lеft or right. l аskеd а poliсе offiсеr whеre wаs JohnЪ, аnd I wаs only а fеw minutеs late. l hаd plannеdto takе Jаnеk out foг a spесiаl dеssеrt аfterwаrd, bиt l сouldn't rеmembеr how I to find thе plасе Мiиki hаd sиggеstеd,and Jаnеk hаs bееn herе evеn less timе than mе. (Аnywaу'the dеssеrts аt JohnЪ tиrned oиt to bе vеry good.)Then, whеn we got thе bill' l wаs wondеring whether to tip or no.I had to аsk Jаnеk did he know. Гortuna|ely' hе hаd rеаd Tips on Tipping,so hе told me to lеavе aЬout |5o/o. t 333
    • SelfТest 0шв ffil Сirclе the lеttеr of thе corrеct onswеr to complеtе еаch sеntence, Еxдшtptt: Jennifer never (A) drink (B)drinks A@с сoffee. (C) is drinking was drinking {D} 1. ..You look bеautiful in that dress.', Last night she told me bеautiful in that dress. (с) I,l1look {A}you look (B)you looked (D)I looked ABсD 2. We'd better find out (A) if tB)does ABсD the train lеft. (C)has (D)did 3 . -Should we turn lеft or go straight? -Hmm. I,m not sure whiсh way (A) dо we turn (C) should wе turn (B)to turn (D)it turned ..Why 4. don,t you join us for сoffee, Don?,, After thе movie, we asked Don us for сoffee. (A) wоuld hе jоin (С)to join (B)why he didn't join tD)for joining 5 . "We must leave immediately!" When the fire alarm rang, our tеaсher said (C)not to tA) we had to (B)we have to (D)he must leave immediately. 6. "Today is the happiest day of my life." At the reсeption last night, the groom said of his life. (A) today was (C)yеsterday was (B)that day is (D)today is 7. I wonder who (A) our waiter is? (B)is our waiter. 8. ..Plеase don,t leavе (C) our waitеr is. (D)is our waiter? уour boots in the hall.,' Мymоtherisa1waystellingme-bootsintheha1l. (C)to not leave my {A)not tо leavе my (B)not to leave your (D)don't leave my 334 the happiеst day ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD D
    • Se|fТest 9. "Hi, Bob. Did you take the job?" the job. Bob's friend asked him -(A) did he take (с) if he had taken (D)had he takеn (B)did you take 10. ..Weather patterns сhange.'' Experts now say that weather patterns (с) had сhanged (A) сhanged (D)сhangе (B)are сhanging XV t 335 ABсD ABсD |ffiNlтW0 Еoсh sentеncehos four undеrlined words or phroses. The four underlinedports of the sеntеncеаrе mаrkеd A, B, С, аnd D, Сirclе thе lettеr of thе onе undеrlinеd word or phrosе thot is NoТ сoRRЕст, Exдшtptп: Мike usually drives to sсhool, but today he walks. ABсD A B сo 11. The teaсhеr said the сlass that hot air rises and сold air sinks. ABсD 12, I asked Sean how to pronounсe his name? ABсD t 3. Gerry сalled last wеek and said that hе nеeded the report right now. A B с D 14. Two days ago, the weather foreсaster warned us that a tornado is сoming. A B с D 15. Sandy сalled from Miami duringthe storm and said she was swimminghеre. A B с D 16. Do }zouknow if or not we nееd to bring our passports? ABсD 17. Shе didn't know !f to tip, so shе asked me what to do. ABсD 18. Ron said that hе wasn't Surе' but the storm might stop already. ABсD 19. I'd like lоbsteц but the menu doesn't say how muсh does it сost. ABсD 20. Lin alшayg says that hе ran a milе еvery da}r these days. ABсD 21. Could you tell me when thе nеxt train leavеs and where to buy tiсkеts-. ABсD 22. 1If you сan wait a few minutes ,-I will give you a ride._Rhoda said. ABсD 23. Jim wants to know сould }zouсall him and tell him wherе to meеt you. ABсD 24. The dentist said to brush thrее times a day and don,t eat сandy. ABсD 25. At the intеrviеw they askеd mе when сan you start work-'- ABсD AвсD AвсD ABсD ABсD ABсD ABсD AвсD ABсD ABсD AвсD AвсD ABсD ABсD AвсD
    • Appendiсes lrregular Bдsв Foвм arise awake be beat beсome begin bеnd bеt bite bleed blow break bring build burn burst buy сatсh сhoose с|ing сome сost сrеep сut deal dig dive do draw drеam drink drive еat fаll fеed fеel fight find fit flеe fling flv forbid forget forgive freezе get give go 336 Slмpl.в Verbs Pдsт arose awoke was/were bеat beсame began bеnt bet bit blеd blew broke brought bu i l t burned/burnt burst bought сaught сhose с| u n g сame сost сrept сut dеalt dug dived/dove did drеw dreamed/dreamt drank drove аte fell fed felt fought found fit fled flung flew forbаde/forbad forgot forgave froze g0t gavе Wеnt Pдsт Pдвтlсlpl.в аrisen awoken bеen bеaten bесome begun bent bet bitten bled blown broken brought built burnеd/burnt burst bought сaught сhosen с |u n g с0me с0st сrеpt сut dеaIt dug dived done drаwn dreamed/dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found fit fled flung flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozеn gotten/got given gone Bдsв Foвм gr ind grow hang have hear hide hit ho ld huгt keep kneеl knit know lay leаd leap lеavе lend |еt lie(lie down) light lose make mеan meеt pay prove put quit rеad /rid/ ride ring rise run say sеe seek sell send set sew shakе shave shinе shoot show shrink shut sing Slмpьв Pдsт ground grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knеlt knit/knitted knew laid led leapt left lent |еt Iay liUlighted lost made meant mеt paid provеd put quit readirеdl rodе rаng rose ran said saw sought sold sеnt set sewed shook shaved shonе shot showed shrank/shrunk shut sang Pдsт PдвтIсlplв ground grown hung had hеard hidden hit held huгt kept knelt kniVknitted known laid led leapt |еft lеnt let lain lit/lighted lost made meant mеt paid provediproven put quit read/rеd/ ridden rung risеn run said sееn sought sold sent set sewn/sеwed shaken shaved/shaven sho ne shot shown shrunk/shrunken shut sung
    • Bдsв Foвм s i nk sit sleеp slide speak speed spend spi l l spin spit split sprеаd spring stand steа| stiсk sting stink strike swear Slмpцв Pдsт sank sat slept slid spokе spеd spent spilled/spilt spun spit/spat split spreаd sprang stood stole stuсk stung stank/stunk struсk swore Pдsт Pдптlсlpцв sunk sat slеpt slid spoken sped spеnt spiIlеd/spilt spun spat split spread sprung stood stolen stuсk stung stunk struсk sworn Bдsв Foвм sWеep swim swing take teaсh tear tell think throw understand upset wakе wear weave weep w in wind withdraw wring write Slмpl.в Pдsт swept swam swung took tаught torе told thought threw undеrstood upset wokе wore Wovе wept won wound withdrew wrung wrote Pдsт Pдптlсlpl.в swept swum swung tаken taught torn told thought thrown understood upsеt woken worn woven wept w0n wound withdrawn wrung written Gommon Non-aсtion (Stative) Verbs Eмoтloшs admi r е аdore apprесiate сare detest dislike doubt envy feаr hate l i ke love regret respeсt trust re ыr |Т Mвштдl. Sтдтвs agrеe KnoW assume mean beliеve mind сonsider presume disagree reа|ize disbe|ieve reсognize еstimate rеmembеr еxpeсt see(understand) feel(believe) suppose find suspесt guess think(be/ieyе) hesitаtе understand imаgine wonder Wдштs дшo Pпвгвпвшcвs hope nеed prеfеr Wаnt wish Pввcвpтloш AND тнЕ Sвшsвs feе| hеar notiсe obsеrvе perсeive see smell taste Appвдвдшсв дшo Vдluв appеar 0e сost equal feel look matter rеpresent resеmble seem signify smеll sound tаstе weigh Possвsstoш дшo RвцдтloNsнtP belong сontаin havе own po5sеs5 Gommon verbs Followed by the Gerund (Base Form of Verb + -ing| aсknowledge admi t advise аppreсiatе avoid сan,t hеlp сeIebrate сonsider delay deny dеtest disсontinuе disсuss dislikе en0ure enjoy esсape explаin fеe| like finish forgive giveup (stop) imagine justify keep(сontinue) mеntion mind(obiесt to) mlss postpone praсtiсe prevenт prohibit pr0p0se quit reсаll reсommеnd regret rеport resent resist risk suggеst support tolerate understаnd 337
    • Gommon Verbs Followed by the lnfinitive (Тo + Base Form of Verb) afford сan(,t) сan(,t)wait сhoosе с0nsent deсide deserve аfford agrее appеаr arran9e ask аttеmpt eХpeсt fail grow h е |p hesitаte hope promise refuse request Seem struggle swear nеgIeсt offеr pay plan prеparе prеtеnd hurry intend |еarn managе mean nееd voIunteеr wait Wаnt w ish would |ikе yearn Verbs Followed by Objects and the lnfinitive сh a| |e n g e сhoose* сonvinсe e nаb I e advisе a llow a sk* сause еnсourаgе expeсt* forbid forсe get he|p* hirе invite pеrsuadе promise* remind request' neеd* order pay' permit rеquIre teaсh tell urgе want* warn wish* w o u|dikе* I *Тhesеverbs саn a|sobе fo||owedby the infinitivewithout an objeсt (eхаmp|е: to leave or ask someoneto leave)' ask Gommon Verbs Followed by the Gerund or the lnfinitive begin сan,t stand сontinuе forget* |ovе prеfer hаte like remember* start stop' try *Тheseverbs сan bе followed by eithеr thе gеrund or thе infinitivebut there is а big differenсein meaning. Common Verb + Preposition admi t o advisе against аpo|ogizе for approvе of believе in сhoose betwеen/ among сomp|ain about Gombinations сount on deа| with dream about/of feellike/about common Adieсtive + Preposition aссustomеd to of afraid amаzed at/by аngry at ashamеd of of aware awfulat bаdat bored with/by сapаble of сarefuI of сonсerned about сontent with сurious about diffеrent from exсited аbout Gommon Adieсtives afrаid alarmed amazed angry аnxious ashamed сurious de|ighted plan n o rely on resort to suссеed in talkabout think аbout wonder about worry about Gombinations famous for fedupwith fondof glаdabout goodat happy about interestеd in nervous about opposеd to pIeasеd аbout ready for rеsponsib|е for sаdаbout safefrom satisfiеd with shoсked aUby srсk of slowat sorry for/аbout surprised at/about/by tеrribIe аt tired of used to worried about that Gan Be FolIowed by the lnfinitive* deprеssed disturbеd enсouraged happy dеterminеd eager еxсited hesitant disappointed eаsy fortunatе likеly distressed еmbarrassеd g|аd |uсky *Exаmp|e: happу to hear that' l,m 338 insist on lookforward to objeсt to payfor pleased proud rеаdy rе|ieved re|uсtant sad shoсked so r r y surprised touсhed upset w illing
    • ffi lrregular сomparisons of Adieсtives, Adverbs' and Quantifiers Ao.lвстlvв bаd far good little lot many/a of |ot muсh*/а of Aovввв badly far we l l Iitt|е |o m u с h * /a t SupепI.дтlvв worst farthеst/furthеst best |еаst most most Goмpдвдтlvв w0rse farther/furthеr bettеr lеss morе m0re *Muсh is usuа||y on|y used in questionsand negativestatеmеnts. ffi Gommon PaЁiсipial Adjectives -ed al аr me d аmazed amused annoyed astonished bored сonfusеd dеprеssеd disаppointеd disgusted distrеssed ffi -lng a |а rm i n g amazing aгnusing annoying astonishing boring сonfusing depressing disappointing disgusting distressing -ed disturbed embarrassed entertainеd exсited ехhausted fasсinated frightened horrified inspired interested irritatеd -ing disturbing embarrassing entertaining exсiting exhausting fasсinating frightening horrifying inspir ing interesting irritаting -ed movеd paraIyzеd pleased relaxеd sаtisfied shoсked surprised terrified tired touсhеd troubled -ing moving paralyzing pleаsing relaxing satisfying shoсking surprising terrifying tir ing to uсhing troubling Some Adieсtives that Form the Gomparative and SuperIative in TWo Ways Ao.lвстlvв сommon сruel deadly friendly han ds omе hаppy likely lively lonely lovely narrow pleasant polite qu i e t shа| l ow sinсere stupid true Goмpдвдтlvв сommon / morе сommOner сruе| / сruelеrmorе deadly / deadliermorе friеnd|y / more friеndliеr hаndsomе / more handsomеr happy / happiermorе Iikely / more Iikе|ier lively / liveliermore lonely / loneliermore lovе|y / more IoveIier / narrowermorenarrow pleasant pleasanter / more polite po|itеrmorе / quiet quiеtermore / shallow / more shallower sinсere / more sinсerer stupid / stupidermorе true / truеr more Supвпl.дтlvв сommon / most сommonest сruе| / most сrue|est deadly / most dеadliеst / most friеndIiest friend|y handsome / most handsomest hаppy / most happiest likely / most likeliest lively / liveliestmost |onе|y / most |onе|iest Iovely / most loveliest / narrowestmostnarrow p|eаsantest p|easant / most po|itе politestmost / quiet quiеtеstmost / / most sha||owest shаllow sinсere / most sinсerеst stuPid / stupidestmost truе / truest most 339
    • Gommon RepoЁing Sтдтвмвштs aсknowlеdgе аdd admit announсe ansWеr argue assert beIiеve Quвsтloшs ask inquir e quеstion wantto know wonder тime Word Ghanges in lndireсt Speeсh Dlпвст Spввсн -) now -Э today -+ tomorrow -+ yestеrday J ihisweek/month/year -+ lastweek/month/year _) wееk/month/year next lшotввст Spввсн then that day thе nextday oпthe followingday oпthе dаy after day thе day beforеoкthe prеvious that weеk/monthlyear beforе the week/month/year week/month/year the following Phrases lntroduсingЕmbedded Questions ffiCommon know. . . I don't .' undеrstand. l don,t . lwonder. l,mnotsurе' . . .. remеmbеr. | сan't ' imagine. ' l саn,t say |tdoеsn't . . . to l,d|ikе know. . . .. I wantto understand . to l,d|ikе findout. . . to Wе need findout . . . Let,sаsk... D oy o uk n o w . . ? Doyouundеrstand...? mе Сanyoute|| . . . ? Сouldуouexp|ain...? Саnyouremember...? you Would showme . . . ? Whoknows...? and Еxpressions commonly Used Reflexively oneself amuse аskonesеlf of availonеself on be hard onesеlf be onesеIf with be pleased onesеlf of bе proud oneself 340 lшsтпucтloшs,coммANDs Rвouвsтs' AND lшитдтloшs invitе advisе order ask sаy сaution сommаnd tеll urge dеmand Warn instruсt indiсatе rеply с|aim сomp|аin mаintain report say сonсlude mean stаte note сonfess suggеst observe deсlarе promise tell deny Warn remark exсlaim write repeat exp|аin ffiCommon ffiVerbs Verbs oneself bеhavе in believe oneself onеsеlf bIamе сutonеsеlf of onеsеlf deprivе dryoneself onesеlf еnjoy for fеelsorry onеsеlf onеsеlf forgivе givеonеself hеlponesеlf onesеlf hurt onеse|f imaginе oneself introduсe onese|f keеp killoneself oneself lookafter аt Iook onese|f on pride oneself push oneself onesеlf rеmind seeonesеlf tаkeсareof onese|f talkto onesеlf oneself teaсh telloneself treatonesеlf onеsеlf wash
    • Some Common Phrasal Verbs (s.o._ s.t' someonе = somethin9) (go phrasalverbsarеshown the withtheobjeсt aftеr paгtiсle afters't,)' Noтв1: lnsepаrable (calls'o' up), phrasal bеtween vеrbandthepartiс|e thе withtheobjeсt verbsаreshown Separable (-) withan аsterisk (dos.t. oyer). are whiсhmust sеparated shown be Verbs thе phrasal the either betweеn verbandthеpartiсlе verbsсanhave nounobjeсt Noтв2: Sеparable n or aft e r t he par t i( с a l l J a u p 0 R с a l lu p J а n ) .Т h e sever bsmust,ho w evеLbesepar atedw henthеr e с |e (callherup N0Т is a pronoun objeсt Pнвдsдl. Vввв over ask s.o. bloсk s.t.out blow s.t.out blow s.t.up up blow (s.t.) break down breakout brings.t.about brings.o'or s.t.baсk down brings.o. bring s.t.out brings'o.up down burn(s.t.) baсk сall (s'o.) сall s.t.off сall s.o'up сarryon s't. сarrys.t.out саtсhon сheer(s.o') up or up сlеan(s.o. s.t.) up сlear(s.t.) сomeabout сomealong сome baсk сome in сome off s't. сomеout сomeup сome up with s.t. сovers.t.up сrosss.t.out сut s.t.down сut s.t.off сut s.t.out do s.t.over dreams.t.up up dress drink s.t'up dropby/in Mвдшlшс invite one's to home (light, noisе) frompassing through stop blowing stop burning bу fillsomething air(aballoon, with a watertoу) (make eхplode s.t') stopfunсtioning oссur suddenlу mаke happen something return someone something or dеpress (a a introduсe newproduсt, book) (сhildren) raise burncompletelу return phonе a сall сanсel tе/ephone 50meone сontinue сonduсt popular beсome (make happier somеone)feel сlean сompletelу make beсome or сlear happen aссompanу return enter beсome unattaсhed appear arise invent сover сompletelу draw linethrough a bringdownbу сutting 1' stopthesupplу something of 2. remove сutting bу remove сutting bу do again invent put on speсial formalсlothes or drinkсompletelу visit uneхpeсtedlу Pнвдsдl. Yвпв drop s'o.or s.t.off drop out (of s.t.) еat out empty(s.t.) out or figures.o. s.t.out fill s.t. in fill s.t. out fill (s.t.) up out find (s.t.) follow (s.t.) through fool around get s.t.aсross get ahеad get along get bасk get by get out (of s't.) get s.t.out of s.t.* get together get up give s.t.away give s.t.baсk give s.t.out givе (s.t.) up go aftеr s.o. s.t. or go alongwith s.t. Mвдшlшс nelsomething tаkesomeo someplaсe quit eatin a restaurant emptу сompletelу 1' do something uneхpeсted or unintended 2' reaсh finalplaсe сondition a or beсome detaсhed (after about) understand thinking with сomplete information (a an сomplete form, application) fillсompletelу learn information сomplete beplaуful getpeople understand idea to an progres'suссeed make relate well return survive (a a leave сar, taхi) benefitfrom meet risefrom bed givewithout moneу сharging returnsomething distribute quit,abandon pursue 1. support go baсk go off go on go out go over go up grow up hand s't' in hands.t.out hangup up hangs.t. сontinue leave with suссeed an audienсе be built beсome adult an givesome workto а boss teaсher or distribute enda phone сonversation puton a hook hanger or еndup fall off 2.be part of return (a fireworks,roсket) eхplode gun, a (continшеd on nехt pagе) 34r
    • Pнвдsдl. Uвпв he l p(s . 0. ) out hol don kеep(s'o. s't.) or away kеepon keeps.t. on* keepup (withs.o. s.t.) or lay s.o. off leaves.t. on* leаvеs.t'out Iets.o. down let s.o. s.t.in or Iеts.o. off let s.o. s.t. or out lie down light(s.t.) up lo okou t look s.o. s.t. or over lo oks . t . p u makes.t. up passs.t. out pay s.o. s.t.baсk or pay off piсk s'o. s.t. or out piсku p piсks . o. s . t . or up playar ound points.o. s.t. or out put s.t. away put s.t. baсk put s.o. s.t. or down put s.t. off put s.t. on put s.t. togеther put s.t, up run intos.o. run out (ofs.t.) sees . t t hr ough * . sеt s.t.off set s.t. up 342 Mвдшlшс assшt wait, hangup thеphone not (сause staу a distanсe to) at сontinue (a notremove pieсe сlothing of orjewelrу) Pнвдsдl. Vввв MвдшIшс show s.o. s.t.off or displaу bestqualities the showup appear shut s.t.off stop machine light a or signup register sit down takeа seаt standup rise start(s.t.) over* startagain go as fastas stayup rеmain awake endsomeone,s еmploуment stiсkwith/tos.o. s.t. notquit,notleave or 1.notturnoff (alight, radio) (s.t.) a straighten up makeneat (a 2. notremove pieсe сlothing of switсhs.t. on start maсhine a light a or orjewelrу) take s.t.away/off remove omit takes.t.baсk return disappoint takе off (a depart plane) allowto enter takes.o. on hire (a allowto leave bus, train, сar) a a takе s.t. out borrow froma librarу allowto leave talk s.o. into* pеrsuade reсline talk s.t. over disсuss illuminate teаm up with s.o. startto workwith be сareful tear s.t, down destroу eхamine tear s.t. up tearintosmall pieсes trуto findin a bookor on the lnternet thinkbaсkon s.o. s't. remember or сreate thinks.t. ovеr сonsider distribute thinks.t. up invent repaу throw s.t.away/out disсard be worthwhilе touсhs.t. up improve making bу small сhanges ] . se/eсt try s.t, on put сIothing to seeif it fits on 2' idеntifу try s.t. out findout if something works improve turns.o. s.t. or down 1' rejeсt 1. lift 2, deсrease volume radio, TV) (a the a 2.get (anidea, new book, interest) turns.t.in a an submit havefun turns.o. s.t.into or сhange fromoneformto another indiсate (s|ang) turn s.o. off destroу intеrest put something an appropriate in plaсe turn s.t.off stop maсhine light a or returnsomething itsoriginal plaсe to turns.t. on start maсhine light a or stop holding turnout havea particular result postpone tur nup appear сover bodуwitha pieсe сlothing the of turns.t, up raise volume the orjewelrу usе s.т. up use сompletelу, сonsumе аssemb/e wake up arise aftersleeping ereсt wake (s.0.) up awaken meet aссidentallу watсhout be сareful nothave enough a supplу of work s.t.off rеmovе workor activitу bу сomplete work out 1.be resolved саuse eхplode to 2' eхеrсise (a 1. establish business, work s.t. out solve an organization) writes.t. down writeon a pieсe paper of 2.prepare use for writes.t.up writein a finished form
    • *-. Some Common lrregular Plural Nouns Slшсul.дв anаlysis bаsis сrisis hypothеsis Pluпдl. analyses bases сrisеs hypothеses Slшсul.дп half knifе leaf life loaf shelf wife Pt.uвдl. halves knives leaves lives loaves shelves wives Slшсut.дв man woman сhitd Pluвдl. mеn women сhiI dr еn foot goose tooth feet geese teeth Slшсul.дв mo usе Pьuвдl. miсe deer fish sheep deer fish sheep pеrson people Spelling Rules for the Present Progressive 1. Add-lngto thebase formof thеverb. rеаd stand readиg stаnding -е -e, in the 2' |fa verb еnds а si|еnt drop fina| andadd-ing. leave tаkе leavinq taking word, threе |etters а arе 3 . ln a one-sy||ab|е if thе|ast (СVС), сombination doub|е сonsonant-Vowе|-сonsonant -iп9. adding thеlastсonsonant bеfore сVс JJJ sit sitting сVс сonsonаnt words end in that Howevel notdoublе |ast do the in w,х, or у' sewino sеW fiхing fix enjoy enjoying that 4. ln words twoor morе of sy|Iab|es endin a сonsonаntvowe|-сonsonant сombination, double Iast the сonsonant if is on|y thelastsy|lаb|estressed. admit admittlng (The sy||ablestrеssed, |ast is so youdouble -t,) the I whisper whispering (Тhe sylIabIenotstressed, last is soyoudon't doub|е -r.) thе -ing' adding 5. lf a verbеndsin -ie,сhange ie to y bеforе thе diе JJJ dуing running ru n Spelling Rules for the Simple Present Tense: Third-Person Singular (he, she, it) verbs. 1. Add-sfor most works work buy buys ride rides returns rеturn -5, -х, thatеndin -сh, -5h, or -z' 2. Add-esforwords wаtсh pass rush rе|ax buzz watсhes passе5 rushes re|аxes buzzes form ends in 3. Сhange y to i andadd-eswhen base the the а сonsonanty. + study studies hurry hurries dries dry the in Donotсhange y when bаsе thе form еnds а vowel + y. Add-s. play plays enjoys enjoy forms' 4. A fewverbs have irrequ|аr be is 00 does go goеs nave hаs 343
    • Spelling Rules for the Simple Past Tense of Regular Verbs 1. |ftheverb in еnds a сonsonant, -ed. add return returned help helped 2. |fthеverb in еnds -e,add-d. |ive сrеatе diе Howеve1 notdoub|e do one-sy||abIe ending words in -w' -х,or -у' bow bowed mix mixed p|ay p|аyed |ivеd сreated died 4. ln words twoor more of sy|lables endin a сonsonantthаt vowel-сonsonant сombinаtion, double |аst the сonsonant on|y the|ast if sy||ab|e is strеssed. prefdr prеfеrrеd (Тhе syllablе strеssed, last is soyoudoub|е -r.) the 3. Inone-sy||ab|е if thеvеrb words, ends а сonsonаntin (сVс), vowe|-сonsonаnt сombination double final the сonsonant add-ed' and сVс JTJ ho p uli' hopped rub rubbed Spelling Rules for the Gomparative Superlative (-est) of Adjeсtives 1. Add-erto onе-sy|Iab|e adjeсtives formtheсomparative. to Add-est one-syllab|е to adjeсtives formthesuperlative. to сheap сheаpеr сheapest bright brighter brightest 2. |ftheаdjeсtive in -e,add.r or -st' еnds niсe n|сеr (Тhe sy||ab|enotstressed, |аst is soyoudon't double t.) the 5. |fthеverb еnds а сonsonanty, сhangе y to i аnd in + the add-ed. worry worried саrry сarried (Do 6. |fthеvеrb ends a vowе| y, add-ed. notсhаngе in + they to i.) p|аy p|ayed annoy annoyed Еxсeptions:pay-paid, Iay-|aid, say-sаid сVс JJJ visited n|се5r 3. |ftheadjeсtive in a сonsonant y, сhangе to i ends y + you before add-eror -est. prеtty prettier prеttiest Exсeption: shy shyer shyest (-er) and 4. lf thеadjeсtive in a сonsonant-vowe|-сonsonant ends (сVС), сombination double finаl the сonsonant before -er аdding or -est. сVс JJJ big bigger biggest Howevеr, notdoub|e сonsonant words do the in еnding in -w or -у' slow slower slowest сoy сoyer сoyest Spelling Rules for Adverbs Ending in -Iу 1. Add-/y theсorresponding to adjeсtive. niсe niсelу quiet quiet/y beаutiful bеautifu|/y 2. |fthеadjeсtivе in а сonsonanty, сhаngе y to i ends + the -/y. before adding easy 344 easilу 3. lf thеadjeсtive in ./e, ends drop e аndаdd-y. the possib|е possib|y Howeve1 notdropthee forother do аdjeсtives ending -e. in eХtrеmе Exсeption: truе extremе/y trulу 4. lf theadjесtive in -iс,add-allу, ends basiс basiсallу fantastiс fantastiсa//y
    • Gontraсtions with Verb Forms Pпвsгшт Tвшsв, Pпвsвшт PпoспвsslvЕ, lмpвпдтlvг AND 1. SlмpI-в with Be Contrасtions lam youare hei s sheis it is Wearе youarе thеyare l аm not youarenot he is not sheis not it is not we arenot youarеnot thеy not are l'mnot you'renot or he'snot or shе,snot or it's not or we'renot or you'renot or not or they,rе Slмpl.вPпвsвшт l'm a student. my Hе,s teaсhеr' from Сanаda. We,rе l'm you're he's she's it's Wе,re you'rе thеy,re you aren't he isn't she isn't it isn't wе аren,t you aren't theyaren't with Contraсtions Do don't do not not doesn't does Pпoсввsslvв Pпвsвшт l,nr her studуing е. Hе,s verbs' tе.rсhirig W e,r е her livitr g e. Pввsвшт SlмpI.в She,s siсk. not H eisn,t|аte. twins' Weаren,t They're here. not Pпвsвшт Pпoсввsslvв S h e , s с r tr е а d i l r q . n H e i s n , tс о m i i . . i : . W e a r е n , t| е а i l i г r п . They,rе оt рiа';itli:. n Iмpвпдтlvв Slмpl.вPпвsвшт Тhey n,tlive her e. D о n'tr uп ! do |tdo esn't wmuсh. sno 2 . Slмpt.г PдsтTвшsв PAsтPпoспвsslvг AND Contraсtions Be with wasnot = Wasn't not = Werеn,t Wеrе with Contraсtions Do didnot = didn't Slшplв Pдsт H е w а s n , ta p o e t . T h e y e r e n , tt w i n s . w We didn't see her. Pдsт PвoсREsslvE H e w a s г l . ls i n q i n q . Тhey еrent sleерil;r:. w 3 . Fuтuпг with VУil/ Contraсtions = l'll Iwill youw i l l = y o u ' l l h ew i l l = h e ' l l shew i l l = s h e ' l l = i t' l l itwill w ew i l l = w e ' l l youw i l l = y o u ' l l wiIl = thеy,ll thеy Fuтuвв wlтн Wtt.t |,|| tаkethеtr аin. It'llbe faster wav. that We'llgo together. H еw o n'tсo mew ithus. They won't missthetrain. willnot = won't (continuеd on nехt pagе) 345
    • ,.liЁ.]н*ii'fiiЦnlti у' Contraсtions with Be going to = l ,m g o i n gto l аmgoi n go t youaregoing = you'regoingto to = he,sgoingto hе is going to shеis going to = she,s goingto = it's goingto it is going to Wearegoing to = Wе,rе goingto youaregoing = you'regoingto to they going = they're are to goingto Fuтuпв wlтн 8g GoINGтo |,mgoingto buytiсkets tomorrow. go S hе,s ingto сalIyo u. go I t's ingto r ainso o n, We'regoingto driveto Boston. goingto сrash! Тhey,re 4 . Pпгsншт Pгпгrст ANDPRЕsЕNт PЕRFEст Pпoспвsslvв contraсtions with Haye I hаvе = l,ve youhave = you've he has = he's shehas = she's = it's it has wе have = We,vе youhave = you've theyhave = they've You've readthatpage. already We'vebeenwritingforan hour. beento Afriса She,s three timеs. lt,sbeеnraining yesterday. sinсe We haven,t seenanye|еphants yet. haven,t Тhey beenIiving hеre |ong. Shehasn'ttakenanyphotos today. hаve not = haven,t hasnot = hasn't 5. MooдI-s MoDAL.LIкЕ AND Expпвssloшs сannot саnnot = or = сou|d not = should not = hаdbetter = prefer wou|d = would not = would rather сan,t сouldn,t shouldn't ,d better ,d prеfer wouldn't 'd rather Shесan,t danсe. go W esho uldn't . betterdeсide. Тhey,d |,dpreferсoffee. Shew o uldn't. l'd rather takethebus. = = = = = сould,ve should,vе would,ve must've might've W есo uld,ve aI ked. w We might,ve arrived |аte. сou|d have shou|d havе would hаvе must have might have 6. CoшolтloNAls Wouto Wlт}l lwould youwould hewould shewould we would youwould theywould = = = = = = = would havе = would,ve would not = wouldn't 346 l'd you'd he'd she'd we'd you'd they'd l,d |fI hadtimе, travel' you'dbe happy. lf youmoved here, |fsheknew answе1 the she,d you. tell We,dbuya nеW if we hadthemoney. сar |fyouinvited they,d them, сome. lf I hadknown,would've I toldyou. l wouldn,t thаtif I were do you'
    • Punсtuation j Rules for Direсt Speech Direсt speeсh еither may fol|ow сomе or beforе reporting the vеrb. Whеn dirесt speесh follows reporting thе verb, а. Puta сOmmа thеrеporting after vеrb. (..) quotation b. Useopening marks bеfore first the wordof thedireсt speесh. с. Begin quotation a сapital the with |еttеr. d. Usetheappropriatе punсtuation thedirесt еnd for speeсh. (.), lt maybe a period a quеstion (?), an exс|аmа. mark or (!). tionpoint (,,) quotation е. Putсlosing marks after endpunсtuation thе of thequotаtion. ,,I Еxamples: said, hаdа good He timе.,, ,,Wherе,s party?,, 5heаskеd, the ,,Be Тhey shoutеd, сarеful!,, When direсt speeсh сomes before reporting the verb, a. Begin sеntenсе opening (,,). the quotаtion with marks b' Usеtheappropriаtе punсtuation thеdirесt end for speeсh. lf thеdirесt (,). speeсh a statеmеnt, a сomma is usе lf thеdirесt speeсh a question, а question (?). is use mark lf thedireсt speeсh аn exсlаmation, an exсlamation is use (! po int ). quotation с. Usесlosing marks after еndpunсtuation the for (,,). thеdireсt spеeсh d. Begin reporting the сlause witha lower-саse |еttеr. e. Usеа period thееndof thеmainsentеnсe (.). at ,,I Еxamples: hаda good time,,, sаid. he ,,Where,s thеparty?,, askеd. she ,,Be саrеfu|!,, shouted. they Pronunсiation Table coшsoшдштs VowвI.s Symbol KeyWord Symbol KeyWord Symbol КeyWord i beat, fеed а b a n a n a ,m o ng a p paсk, happy r bit,did т shirt, murder b baсk, rubber еI paid date, aI bite,сry,buy, eye t tie d Symbol КeyWord ! ship, maсhine, stаtion, speсiaI, disсussion mеasurе, vision die 3 h hot,who men е bet,bed & bat,bad au about, how k o box,odd,father JI voiсe, boy сame, quiсk key, m g gamе, guеst n sun, knoщpnеumonia bought, dog rr beer boat,road tr bare Ц w wet,white u good book, or bar f I light, ng lo u boot,food, student )r door сhurсh, nature, watсh judge, genеrаI, major fan,photograph sung, inging r v right, wrong tour van r ur yes,use, musiс buttеr, bottlе э ou A but,mud, mothеr Sтввss ' showsmain stress. tI d3 0 thing, breath y б s thеn, breаthе psyсhology sip,сity, t. Z zip,p|eаse, goes 347
    • Pronunciation Rules for the Simple Present Tense: Third-Person Singular (he, she, it) person present in tеnse always 1. Тhe third singular thesimp|е .s. prothreе аre, еndsin thelettеr Тhere howеver, different person sound thethird of singular. nunсiations thefinal for lsl tаlks lzl |ovеs ltzl dаnсes sounds 2. The finaI sound pronounсed after voiсeIess is /s/ the lpl, lll, lkl,andlfL top get tаke | аugh tops gets tаkes | аu g h s is |zl 3. The fina| sound pronounсed after voiсеd the sounds lbl,ldl, lvl, 16l, lnl,lr1l, and lgl, lml, lll, lrl. desсribе spend hug live bаthe seem r e mai n sing tell lower ltdl attendеd hop hopped work worked l au gh l aug h e d address аddrеssed pu bl i s h pu b l i s h e d watсh watсhed 3 . Тhefinalsound pronounсеd after voiсed is /d/ the sounds |b|' |v|, |3|, |g|, |z|, |ф|,|m|, |цl,||l, and|6l' |n|, |r|, 348 rubbеd huggеd lived surprised Isttl ldul says does |sеz| ldьzl Rules for the Simple Past Tense of Regular Verbs 2. The /t/ final sound pronounсedafter voiсe|ess is thе sounds lpl, lkl,lfl,lsl,l[], andI{1. rub hug l i ve surprise agreеs triеs stays knows 5. ТhefinaI sound pronounсed is |п|aftеr sounds Iz|, thе Is|, It|,$|' /f/, andlфl' llzl addsa syllable thеvеrb. to rе|aх rе|aхеs freеzе frеezеs rush rushes massаgе massages watсh wаtсhes j udge j udges say do -d. past 1 . Therеgu|аr ends simp|е aIwаys in thе|ettеr Тhere pronunсiationsthefinа| аrе, howevеr, diffеrent thrеe for past. sound thеregular of simp|e ldl |ived agree try stay know 6. Do andsаyhavе сhangе vowеl а in sound. dеsсribеs spends hugs lives bathеs seеms remains sings t e l ls lowers ] Pronunсiation Itl rасed 4. Thefina| sound pronounсеd aftеr vowelsounds, is /z/ al| massаge сhange rhymе return bаng enr o ll аppеar bathе massaged сhanged rhymed returned banged enr o lled appеared bathеd 4. The fina| sound pronounсеd after vowe| is /d/ аlI sounds. agree p|ay die еnjoy row agreеd p|аyed died еnjoyed rowеd fina| sound pronounсed after is 5. Тhe /rd/ |tlаnd/d/. /td/ adds syllаble thevеrb. a to start deсide stаrted deсided
    • lndex Alan, 25О_25| A fешlfeu:, 246_247 A grеat dеal of,246_247 A little Ilittle, 246-247 A lot of, 246-247 Abilitу' 116_117 passive, 269 w i t h ut i s h. 2 9 5 Aсtive/passive, 264 _265 Additions, 110-111 Adjeсtive сlauses identifying and non-identifying, 308-309 with objeсt relativе pronouns, 304-305 with subjeсt relative pronouns, 300-301 with шhеn ard шhеre. 305 Adjeсtives сomparatives, 184 _1B5, 339,344 сontrast with adverbs. 172- t 73 equativеs, 180_181 followed by infrnitives, 2r0-21r,215,338 irregular сomparisons, 339 partiсipia|, |7 6_|7 7, 339 with preposition сombinations. 203. 338 supеrlatives, 188_189, 339' З44 Adverbs сomparatives, 192_193' 339 сontrast with adjeсtives, r72-t73 ending in _lу, I72_I7З,344 equatives, 180-181 of frequencу,7 followed by infinitives, 215 irregular сomparisons, 339 of manneц I73 superlatives, 192-193 Adviсe, 28_129 If I шеrеуou,287 imperativе, 19 passive, 268-269 Advisability in the past, 162-163 After with futurе time сlauses, 89 with past perfect, Tl Agеnt with passive, 264-265 with passive сausative, 272-273 Аgo, 25 AIrеadу future perfeсt,97 past perfe ct, 7I present perfeсt, 50_51 Alulaуs,7 Anу,247 Artiсles a/ an, 243, 250-25I no artiсle,250_25| no artiсle сontrasted with thе, 254-255 thе,243,250_25| As in equatives, 180-181 As soon as futurе time сlauses,89 past perfect, Tl Assumptions, 158-159 Auхiliary verbs in additions, 110-111 with questions about prеdiсate, 103 in tag questions, 106-107 Bе сontraсtions. 345 foliowed by reflеxive pronoun, 259 simple past tens e, 24-25, 28-29 Bе able to' |16_117 Be (doing), 2-3 Be going to сontraсtions' 346 сontrast with other future forms, 84-85 faсtual сonditionals, 283 future, 80-81,84-85 future progтessive,92 with passive, 268-269 Be supposed to, I50-1,5I Be used tolused to, 33,203 Beforе future time сlauses' 89 past perfect, Tl Bу with futurе perfeсt,97 with pass iv e, 264-265, 268-269 with passive сausative, 272_27З with past perfect, TL followеd by reflexive pronoun' 259 Bу the time, 89 Can ability, 116-117 permissioл, |20_L2Т requests, I24-I25 Can't ability, 116-117 assumptions, 158-159 with passive,269 prohibition, 146-147 speсulations about the past, 166-167 Can't haae, 166-167 Commands imperativе, 18_19 indireсt speeсh, 315 Commas with adjeсtive сlauses, 309 with faсtual сonditionals, 279,283 with time сlauses,41, 89 with unreal сonditionals. 287.291 Common nouns, 242-243 349
    • Comparatives adjeсtives, 184_185, 339, 344 advе r bs ,192_1 9 3 ,3 3 9 irregulaц 339 Conditionals futurе faсtual, 282_283 past unreal,290-29I prеsеnt faсtual' 27 8_279 present unreal, 286-287 with utish,294-295 Contraсtions with vеrb forms. 345_346 CouId ability, 1.16-11-7 assumptions, 158-159 futurе possibility, 154-155 indirесt speесh, 323 with passivе, 269 pеrmission, 120_12| requests, I24-I25 speсulations about the past, 166- 167 suggestions,132-133 aft e r шi sh. 295 CoшIdn,t assumptions, 158-159 impossibility, 155 past abilitу, tt6_It7 Could haue advisability in thе past, t62-t63 speсulations about the past, 1.66-167 Count nouns/non-сount nouns' 242-243 and artiсTes, 250-251., 254-255 and quantifiers, 246-247 -d Gее _ed) Defrnite artiсle, 250_25I Dirесt speeсh imperativе, 314_315 punсtuation rules, 347 questions , 326-327 statements, 318-319, З22_323 Dirесtions, 19 350 Do with additions, 110 сontraсtions, 345 tag questions, 106-107 Do уou mind if, I20_I2I Dontt haue toltnust not. I46-147 Each otherleach 258-259 -еd шill, 81',85 Futurе faсtual сonditionals' 282-283 Futurе perfесt, 96_97 Future perfeсt progтessive, 96-97 Future possibilitу, |54_1'55, 269 Futurе progrеssive, 92_93 other's. adjесtive ending, I7 6_177 past partiсiplе, 46 p a s t t e nse,24 Embedded quеstions, 330_331 phrasеs introduсing, 340 Enoшgh with сount and non-сount nouns, 246-247 with inflrnitives, 2I4-2I5 Equatives, 180-181 -еr сomparativе adjeсtives, 184-185,344 сomparative adverbs, 192_193 -est supеrlative adj eсtives, 188-189, 344 superlative adverbs, 192-193 Euеr with past perfect, T0 with present pеrfeсt, 55 with superlatives, 189 Ехpeсtations be supposеd to, 150_151 Faсtual сonditionals future,282_28З prеsent, 278_279 Feus|a fеu:' 246_247 Forlsincе,46_47 Future bе going,q 80_81 сontrast of future forms. 84_85 p a s s i v e,269 presеnt progтessive, 85 simple present tense, 85 timе сlausеs,88_89 Gerunds сontrast with infinitives. 222-223 aftеr prеpositi ons, 2О2-2ОЗ, 223 as subjeсt or objeсt, 198_199 after сеrtain verbs, 198_199, 223, 337-338 Get (s.o.to do s.t.), 226-227 Getlhaue (s.t.done), 272-27 3 Gеt шsеd to|шsed to,33,203 Go + gerund, 199 Had bееn (doing), 74_75 Had better adviсe, 128_|29 with passive,269 Had (donе), 70_7I Had to hansе, 166_167 Hardlу, I73 Haae сontraсtions, 346 presеnt perfeсt, 46_47, 50_51, 54-55 prеsent perfeсt progressive, 62-63 Haoe (s.o. s.t.).226-227 do Hauе beеn (doing) present perfeсt progressiv e, 62 Hauе (done), 4647, 50_51, 54-55 Hauelgеt (s.t' donе), 272_27 З Hante (got) to assumptions, 158-159 neсessity, I42_I43 with passive, 269 Help (s.o. s.t.),226-227 do Horo abou| 132-133
    • Identifying adjeсtive сlauses, 308-309 after сertain verbs, 206_207, 338 -ing сontrast with unlеss' 283 in embedded questions, 330- 331 in indireсt question s, 326_З27 ^ffсlauses future faсtual сonditionals, 282-283 past unreal сonditionals, 290-291. prеsеnt faсtual сonditionals, 278_2т9 prеsent unreal сonditionals, 286-287 If I шerе уou, 287 Imperative, 18-19 dirесt and indireсt speeсh, 314- 315 faсtual сondition als' 27 9 reflехive pronouns,259 In order to,2tB-2I9 Indefrnite artiсlе, 250_25I Indеfinite past, 54_55 Indireсt questions, 326_327, 33 1 Indireсt speeсh imperatives, 314-315 indireсt questions, З26_327 pronoun сhanges, 315, 323 reporting verbs, 315, 340 statеments, 318_3 t9' 322_323 time word сhanges, 3I5, З23, 340 verb tеnse сhanges' 319, 322-323 Infinitives after сertain adjeсtives, 270- 211, 21 5 ,3 3 8 after advеrbs, 215 сontrast with gеru nds,,222_22З with indireсt imperatives, 314- 315 negative, 206-207 , 218-219, 314- 315 after сеrtain nouns, 2I0_2tI aftеr objeсts, 2О6_207,227 of pur pos e , 2I S- 2 I 9 aftеr question words, 330_331 with too and еnough, 2I4_2I5 as adjeсtive endin g, 176_1'77 future perfeсt progтessive, 96-97 future progтessive, 92_93 gerunds, 198-199, 202-203 past pеrfeсt progтеs siуe, 7Ц7 5 past progтеssive' 36_37 presеnt perfeсt progтessive, 62-63 present progтessive,,2-З Inseparable phrasal verbs, 232_23З' 34I_342 Instruсtions imperativе, 18_19 indireсt speесh,315 Invitations imperative, 19 indireсt speесh,315 Irregular plural nouns, 343 Irrеgular verbs lists, 336-337 simple past tens e, 24-25, 28 It,s + adjeсtive + infinitive,2|I rf Just,54-55 Latelу, 54_55, |73 Lessltnorе, I84, |92_|93 Let (s.o. s.t.),226-227 do Lеt,s, 132_133 Littlel a little, 246-247 _Iу as adjесtive ending, I73 as adverb ending, 172-173, 344 Make (s.o. s.t.,),226-227 do Manу,246_247 Maу assumptions, 158-159 futurе possibilitу, 154_155, 269 p e rm i ssio n,I 20-I 2l speсulations about thе past, 166-167 Maу haaе, |66 Maуbе сontrast with maу bе, I55 in suggestions,132-133 Mе neithец ||| Me too, II1, Might assumptions, 158-159 futurе possibilitу, 154_|55, 269 indireсt speeсh, 323 speсulations about the past, r 66-t67 Might haae advisability in the past, t62-I63 speсulations about thе past, 166-167 Modals (sеealso spеcific modals) faсtual сondition als. 27 9. 283 indireсt speeсh, 323 and passive,268-269 and unreal сonditionals. 287. 29I More|less, 184_185, |92_19З Mostllеasd 1B8_1B9, 192_193 M uch,246-247 Mшst assumptions, 158-159 neсessity, r42_I43 with passive, 268-269 speсulations about the past, 1,66-167 Must haue, t66-I67 Must notldon't haaе to. I46-147 Must not (hauе), 166_167 Nесessity hauе (goD to and must' t42-I43 passive, 269 Negative inГrnitives imperatives, 315 of purpose,2tB-219 after сеrtain verbs, 206_207 Nеithец 110_111 3s1
    • Neuer with Past Perfect,TI with presеnt perfeсt, 54 with simPle Present tense, 7 Non.aсtion verbs, 10_11 list, 337 Non.сount nouns/сount nouns' 242-243 and artiс|es, 250_25|, 254=255 and quantifrers, 246-247 Non-idеntifying adj eсtive сlauses, 308_309 Not at all, 720-12I, t25 Not еithеr, |IО_|IТ N ot уе t , 50_51 Nouns сommon' 242-243 сount, 242_243, 246_247, 250-251,254-255 definitе,254_255 indeflrnite,254-255 followed bу infinitives, 210_211 irregular Plurals, 243, 343 non-сount, 242_243, 246-247, 250-251" 254-255 plural, 243' 343 propeц 242_243 with quantifi et s, 246-247 objeсt gеrunds, 198_199 befоrе infinitives, 206_207, 227 with inseParable and seParable Phrasal verbs, 232_23З,236_237 objeсt relativе piоnouns, 304- 305, 3 0 9 Оften' 7 Оnе anothеrlone another,s, 258-259 Оught to adviсe, t2B_|29 in indireсt speeсh, 323 with Passive, 269 Ought to haae, 162-163 Partiсipial adjeсtiv es, t76_177 list, 339 352 Partiсles сontrast with prеpositions, 232-233,237 inseparable Phrasal verbs, 232-233,34t-342 separable Phrasal verbs, 236-237 ,341-342 Passive with agent, 264-265 сontrast with aсtive, 264-265 with modals, 268-269 Passive сausative, 272_27З Past Gее Simp|e past tеnsе) Past partiсiples to form future pеrfeсt, 96_97 to form Passive, 264-265, 268-269 tо fоrm passive сausative, 272-273 tо form past perfect,70_77 to form present perfeсt, 46-47 ,50-51, 54-55 Past perfeсt, 70_7t with a|rеadу,7I wi th еUеr ,7| indireсt speeсh,323 wi t h nеuеr ,7t with уеt,7| Past perfeсt progтеssive, 74_7 5 Past progтessive, 36_37 сontrast with simple past t е nsе, 37,4l with simplе past tense,40_4| with шhi|е' 37,40_4t Past unrеal сonditionals, 290-291323 Permissiоn,I20-I21polite answers, 121 Phrasal verbs inseParable,2S2-233 list,34l-342 separable ,236-237 transitive ,233,237 PIease with permissiоn, t2Т with requests, 125 Plural nouns, 243,343 PossibilitY futurе, |54_tб5,269 questiоns,167 Prеdiсate, 102_103 Prеfeц 136_137 Prefеrenсes, 136_137 Prepositions сombinеd with adjeсtives, 338 сombined with verbs, 338 сontrast with partiсlеs, 232-233,237 followed by gerun ds, 202-2О3, 223 relative pronoun as objeсt of, 305 Prеsent соntinuous (sее Prеsеnt progrеssiuе) Present faсtual сonditionals, 278-279 Prеsеnt perfесt with alrеadу and уеt, 50_51 сontrast with presеnt pеrfесt progтessive, 66_67 сontrast with simplе past tеnse,58_59 with еuец 55 indefinite Past, 54-55 with7иsf, 55 with latеlу,55 with sincе and foц 46-47 Prеsеnt perfeсt progтеssiv e, 62_6,3 сontrast with present pеrfeсt, 66-67 Presеnt progтessive, 2-3 сontrast with simple presеnt tense, 14-15 fоr future, 85 spelling rulеs, 343 Present unrеal соnditionals, 286-287 Prohibition must not and can't, 146-147 Pronouns reсiproсal,258_259 reflexivе, 258_259 rеlative, 300_30 1, 304_305' 308-309 Prоnunсiation simple past tense оf regular verbs, 348 simplе present tensе, 348 taЬle, З47 ProPer nouns' 242-243
    • : t $ i Punсtuation (sее also spеcific punctuation) direсt speeсh, 347 aftеr suggestions, 133 Purpose,278-219 Quantifiers and сount nouns, 246_247 irrеgular сomparisons, 339 and non-сount nouns. 246_247 Question marks in еmbedded questions, 330-331 in indireсt questions, 326-327 in suggestions,132-133 Questions (seе olso Wh_ quеstions; Yes/Ir(o stions) quе еmbedded,330-331, 340 indireсt, 326-327,33I permission,,I20 possibilitу,167 about prediсatе, 102_103 rеquests, 124 simple past tense, 28-29 about subjeсt, 102_103 tag, 106-107 Quotation marks, 314_315, З47 R ar е l у, 7 Rеcentlу,54_55 Reсiproсal pronoun s, 258_259 Reflexive expressions, 340 Reflexivе pronouns, 258_259 Regret past unreai сonditionals, 291 w i t h шi sh, 29 5 Regular verbs pronunсiation rules, 348 simple past tense, 24-25, 28 Relative сlauses Gее Adiеctiuе clausеs) Relative pronouns in identifying and non-idеntifying adj eсtive сlauses, 308_309 objeсt, 304_305 subjeсt, 300-301 Reported speeсh (sеeIndirеct spеесh) Reporting verbs, 314-315, 340 Rеquests, |24_t25 imperatives, 19 indireсt speeсh, 315 polite answers, 125 Seldomr T Separable phrasal verbs, 236-237,34r Sеaeral,246_247 ShouId adviсe, I28_r29 indireсt speесh, 323 with passivе, 269 Should haue, 162-163 Shouldn't, I29 ShoшIdn't hanse, 162_|63 Simplе past tens e, 24_25, 28-29 сontrast with present perfeсt, 58-59 irregular verbs, 24-25, 336-337 with past prоgressive, 40_4I pronunсiation rules, 348 spelling rules, 25,344 Simple present tеnse, 6_7 сontrast with present progressivе, I4_I5 for future, 84-85 with futurе perfeсt, 97 with futurе perfeсt progтessive,97 in future time сlausеs, 89 pronunсiation rules, 348 spеlling rulеs, 343 Sincelfoц 46_47 S o , 1 1 0-111 Soпt,e, 246_247, 250_25I Sornetirnes, T Speсulations about the past, 166-167 Stative verbs (sееNon-а,ction uеrbs) Subjeсt gerunds, tg}-199,223 of imperative, 19 tоh_ questions, 102_103 Subjeсt relative pronouns, 300-301 Suggestions, 132-133 impеrative, 19 Superiatives adjeсtives,188_189,З39, 344 adverbs, I92-I93 Tag questions, 106-107 Telllsaу,315, 319 Than, 184-185, 192-193 That with indireсt speeсh, 318_319 rеlative pronoun, 301, 304-305 Thatlu:hich' 3ОI Thе definite artiсle. 250_25I. 254-255 with superlative adjeсtives, 188-189 with superlativе adverbs, I92_I9З Time сlauses futurе, 88_89' 93,97 past, 40-4I , 7L, 75 with sincе, 47 Too in additions, 110-111 with infrnitive s, 24-215 Transitivе phrasal verbs, 23З,237 Two-word/part verbs (sее Phrasal uеrbs) Unlеsslif' 283 Unrеal сonditionals past,290-29I present, 286-287 Until,89 Used to,32-33 сontrast with bеlgеtusеd to, 33, 203 UsшаlIу,7 353
    • tдiЁi#яglвlнЕill:|,], ll.i . Vеrbs with both aсtion and non-aсtion meanings, 10_11 сombined with prepositions, 203, 338 followed by gerund, 198-199, 222- 223, 33 7 - 3 3 8 impеrative form, 18_19 followed by infrnitives, 206-207,222-223,338 irregulaц 24_25, 28' 336_337 non-aсtion, 10_11, 15, 337 phrasal, 232-233, 236-237, 34r-342 r e gul aц 24, 28 ,3 4 4 ,3 4 8 reporting, 314_315, З40 simplе past tens e, 24_25, 336_337,344,З48 tag questions and auxiliary, 106-107 transitivе ,233, 237 used refleхivelv. 340 Warnings, 19 Waslu:еre (doing)' 36_37 Wеre in present unreal сonditionals, 286-287 i n w i s hе s, 294 _ 2 9 5 When with adjeсtive сlauses,305, 309 354 futurе time сlausеs. 89 past perfect, T0 past perfeсt progтessive, 75 simple past tense, 40-41 Where with adjeсtive сlausеs, 305, 309 questions, 103 Whether in embedded questions, 3 3 0 -331 in indirесt questions, 326_327 Whether or not, 327 Which identifying and non_idеntifying adj eсtive сlauses, 308_309 relative pronoun, 301, 305, 309 Whilе with future time сlauses. 89 with past pгogтessive, 40_4t Who with questions about subjeсt and prediсate, 102_103 relativе pronoun, 300_30 1, 3 0 5 , 309 Whom with questions about prediсate, 103 rеlative pronoun, 305 W h o s е ,3 01, 305, 309 Wh- questions embedded.330-331 indireсt, 326_327 subjeсt and prediсatе, 102_103 Whу don,t, 132_133 Whу not, I32_L33 w iu,80-91, 84-95 сontraсtions, 345 faсtual сonditionals, 283 with passive, 269 with requests, 124-125 wiш be (doing), 92_93 wiш haaе been (doing),96_97 will hаue (donе),96_97 Wish, 294-295 Would сonditionals,286-287 with requests, 124-125 with utish,295 Would haae,290-291 Would prefeц 136_137 Would rathец 136_137 Would уoш mind' I24_I25 Yеslno questions embeddеd' 330_331 indireсt, 326_327 Yеt with future perfeсt, 97 with past perfect, Tl with prеsent perfесt, 50_51
    • Answer Key Noтг: In this answег key,whегe thе сontraсtedform is given, the full form is a|soсoгreсt, and whеrе the fu||foгm is givеn, thе сontгасtеdform is a|soсorгесt. Present 3. Why are you touring again? с. What are you working on thеse days? 5. WЪo,s singing with you now? 6. Is she replaсing Toti? 7. No, she isn't. oв No, she,s not. 'm writing Progressive жPqINт It's happening now! I wrte to you from my hotel room. Еveryone э |eeping 'm э it|ing else is slфр, but I si++iаghere and watсhing сI]АRт сItEсl( l be + base form of vеrb + -ing bе the oсean. Wе,re staying at the Plaza in сHARт сHEсl( 2 Atlantiс Beaсh, and the viеw is beautiful. The going tour is gэеs wеll. The audienсe is uazу about F EхPREss,,{#:r:/ЬТ;:;А are . . .leaving are . . . performing oв're ffiI@very the nеw songs' but the fu.,.Тalways . . performing for you. How is thе baby? She has a gтeat Аre voiсе. Dо you teaсhing her to sing yet? Maybe hardthese days, I but both of you will сome along for the neхt tour! havе some good nеws. Right noщ I,m sitting at a dеsk in the Entertainment asking Seсtion of T|ibunе!Оf сourseI@still6ki"D tJne journalism сlasses at night as well. The job is temporary_Joe month off to writе a book. This @this week *u{ЗБТrejarinЪto intеrview your favorite grouP, the Airheads. In faсt, at this very moment they're flying into town by heliсopter. The Simple Present Sims, the regular reporteц performing the King Тёnse жPЙINт Hank's Working Habits сHARт сl]Eсl( T'ЦF Theater all week. How@rou @@ you still oops! The сrew @-usiс? is сalling me. They,re leaving for the EхPREss,{:1:;,:,'ЯЯ':'4, theater now. Write soon! ffiIn 2.are...going з. is waiting oв,s waiting 4. 'm working s. 're not doing oR aren't doing 6.'re...sitting 7. 'm sitting 8.'m...thinking 9. are staying Why does he rush fast-paсed today,s world, @ *" stress. Strеss @affeсts esсape us psyсhologiсally, but aссording to Dr. Roads, author of the new bestselleц CaIm Doшn!, it also affесts us physiсally. For eхample, stress сauses high blood pressure. Doсtors @щqq mediсation for stress-related illnesses. Мediсine @rlalDlowers a patient's blood (continuеdon nехtpagе) 355
    • r 356 Key &nswer pressure. But, Dr. Roads сlaims,..You don't (alwavs)needprlls. Relaxation exerсlsеs I . f r n r EхPREss,LТr:;:.i{:,i:# 'm tasting, tastes effесtive as pills. For qщ@as example, breathing exеrсisеs both relax yоu Ar-rшв: This steak tastes deliсious. Your salmon looks good toо. and lower your blood prеssure. It only takes Bвш: Herе, I'm putting somе on your a few minutes!" plate. I think you'll likе it. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 1o. take rushes isn't is doesn't finish worries doesn't havе doesn't have Alrшв: Mmm. I like it. Funny, I usually @Гфti.ь. Bвш: Red6фthat effeсt on people. Aьrшв; I have no idea what you'rе talking 4. 5. 6. 7. Does he work on reports in the afternoon? Nо, he doesn,t. WЪen does he see сlients? He sees сlients from 9:00 to 12:00. Does he take a lunсh break? Yes, he does. What does he do from 12:30 to 5:00? Hе returns phone сalls. Where does he go at 5:30? He attends oв goes to night sсhool. never have I,m so tired. I hаv€ - flеv€ + time to relax. etudу I wоrk all day and str*dies all night. My boss te||э teЦ me that I nеed a vaсation. I agтеe, but I'm think I afraid to takе one. Does my boss thinks that don't the offiсе сan funсtion without me? I dоnt want them to think I'm not neсеs.sary.But my wifе is unhappytoo.sь" ifllfi that she never sееs mе anymore. My sсhed,,t" * crazу,I don't think I сan keep this up muсh longer. wanl I don't wants to quit night sсhool, thоugh. often I^think оften that there has to be a better way. Non.Aсtion Verbs about. What do you mеan? Bвш: Well, сolors сan сhange the way we For example, people often@Ф @ hungrier in a red room. I notiсe that you're lооking right at thе red wallpaper. Ar,rшв: And I сertainly feel hungтy right now. I'm eating half your salmon. Bвш: That's oK. I'm tasting your steak. z. 3. 4. s. 6. z. is looking сost wants hatеs seems likes 2.'m tasting 3. needs +. Do...want 5. tastes с. think 7. 'm thinking 8. isn't 9. sounds 1o. 'm looking 8. doesn't suspeсt 9. knоw 1o. is thinking 11. doеsn,thavе 12. hear s 11. do n't kno w 12. is 13. 'm smelling 14. 'm not 15. lo ve 1с. smells 17. know 18. mеan lP. feel Not a good day! I feеl kind of depressed and have need I'm haviэg a headaсhe. I-m_+eеdi+sto do ж-*:ffiPЙlNт somеthing right away to сhange my mood сHARт сHEсК artiсle about how smells сan affeсt mood 'm эmе||inа and even hеalth, so right now I smеЦ an- has the flavor of сhiсken цT and get rid of this pain. Last wеek, I rеad an
    • Key Answer orange (for the dеpression) and a gТeen apple (for the headaсhe). They smell niсe, don ' l th i n k but l*_no#+}rinking that I notiсe a differenсe prefer to eat in how I feel! I think IЫрrefеrri*s something when I feеl down. But I worry wеigh that IЫ+veiiфins too muсh. So, at the 'm h a v i n g moment I hа.ve a Ъup of peppermint tea with lemon. The artiсle says that the peppermint smell helps you eat less. Well, I don't know about that! A сhoсolate iсe сream sundae sounds pretty good right about now! э e e mэ ItЪsеemi*g that there are no easy solutions. ffiJune I 357 fеet in zв:(Б sittlnD a seat30,000 above the earth en route to Argentina! I usually have dinner at this time, but right now I@ a headaсhe from the exсitement. My seatmate@*, food. She6йЕ} happy. Junе 30: It,s 7:30. My host parents Carlos, my fatheц 6Ьstill@. works at home. Мy little brother Riсardo is сute. He looks (and aсts) a lot like my Bobby. Right.'o*, ь@over journal. read mу shoulder a''d@БDto July 4: The weather@сold now. I usually spend thе frrst weekend of July at thе in a beaсh. Today I@around hеavy swеater. and Present Progressive Simple Present Tense жPqINт ЦT с,iARTс']Eсl( two parts two forms EхPREss,,tr.f,ffiifjл PRЕSENт PRoGREsslvЕ I Suвlвст 1 Bг 1 Bяsв Foпм + -'NGI am buуing You He iэ flowеrs now. are. buуing buуing slмPLE PRЕSENт тENSE Suвlвстl lVвпв I l buУ You He usually buу buуe сhoсolates. August 6: I@Б}so tired tonight. Еveryone else feels gтeat in the evening beсausе they take long naps in the afternoon. 1. b. 'm waiting с. look d. 'm working e. 's talking f . isn,t looking oв's not looking g. looks h. doesn't mean 2. a. 's talking b. 're taking с. 're standing d. Do...think e. 're dating f . don't think g. means h. сome i. stand 3. a. is...walking b. starts с. has d. walks е. appear 4. a. ate. . . shaking b. know G. shake d. meet
    • 358 r Answer Key ,m эitt,ing and I sit in the library right now. It's 12:30 NЕGAтlvЕ Doн,т | вo,. Foпм or vппв | Мy сlassmates are eating lunсh togetheц but nevereat I'm not hungry yеt. At home, we еа*-:aerer Don'l to thе musiс' Don'l touoh your toеs. Don'l this early. Today our jоurnal topiс is сulturе |iэten эtand straight. shoсk. It's a good topiс for mе right now beсausе I,m tiф pretty homеsiсk. I miss my 2. c 4 . 3. b s . еa| old routine. At home wе always areеati*g a big meal at 2:00 in the afternoon. Then we I have rеst. But here in Toronto Еm+аtring a 3:00 6. a 7. f 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. .A." you borеd?" of сourse I,m not bored. I just io a|waуэ need my afternoon nap! This сlass *Ьлraуsis 're working fun. This semеsteц we werk on a projeсt with video сameras. My team is filming gтoups of ana|уzing peoplе in diffеrent сultures. Wе are anaфzе Wash six strawbеrriеs. Cut the strawbеrries in half. Pour orange juiсe into the blender. Add the fruit to the orangе juiсе. Blend the ingredients until smooth. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. сonversation сlass. Еvery day, I almost fall asleep in сlass, and my teaсher xif-", e d Learn Deсreasе Inсrеasе Beсоme Don't miss z. 8. 9. to. Take Choosе Don't wait Register For the Blaсk Belt essay, Master Gibbons Write gave us this assignment: )bu-wri*e about ..soсial distanсе.,,That means how сlosе to somеthing important to you. My topiс is Thе eaсh other these people stand. Aссording to 'm leaving my new watсh, it's 12:55,so I }eavе now Right Woу, thе rules of life for the martial reэpeс| arts. !.irst, respeeёs other peopie-treat thеm for my 1:00 сlass. Tеaсhers herе really don't like aren++я<+щwhеn you сome late! the way you want them to treat you. Seсond, hе|p people in nеed. In other words, use h€ Ы don't, yorr strength for others, flot-to use it just for don't, your own good. Third, ne lie or steal. Thеsе lmperative are thе most important rules to me. WPпlNт giving instruсtiоns on hоw to do the Jab сHАRт сI|EсК don't inсlude a subjeсt ЕхPRЕssж SelfТest (Total : 100 points. Each itеm : 4 points.) AFFIRrUIAтlvE Bдsв Foпм oг Vппв | Liэten to thе musiс. Touch your toеs. Эtand straight. ffiI 1.8 2.D 3.4 4.^ ONE 5. 6. 7. 8. D A в B 9. 10. 11. 12. с в A A 13. D 14.D 15. в
    • т I Answer I i тW0 IsЕcтtoNl (Corrесt anSIDеrS arе in parеnthеsеs.) 16. A 17. с rs. B 19. с 20. B (sw i m s ) (is raining) (are you) (don't) (sеems) 21. с 22. ^ 23. B 24. D 25. B (hatе) (usually arrives) (aren,t oв are not) ('m alwaуs losing) (dеlеtе уo,,i Simple Past Tense: Affirmative Statements wWPqINт 2. 3. д. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Key r lo. addressed 11. appear ed l2. happеned 14. saw ts. bit 16. ate 17. drank ls. hopped wrotе werе led beсamе left saw worе wrote Today in сlass we read a poem by Robert enjoуed Frost. I really еftjоу it. It was about a person aho э e who еheesed bеtween two roads in a forest. Before he made his deсision, he #- 1989 1999 359 a lot of timе trying to deсide whiсh road to follow. wa9 сlIАRт сltEсl( Many people thought the person wеFe Frost. took In the end, he tаt<ethe road that was less two - d ot - е d traveled on. He deсidеd to be a poet. That changed deсision еhange his lifе a lot. EхPRЕssжжfж was, were сame saved Sometimes I fеel a littlе like Frost. decided Two years ago I d€ € i dе to сomе to this Matsuo Basho@-ore than 1,000 thrее..haiku.''He@,ooiсs from line poems, or nature, daily life' and human emotions. Hе от Qggeщ9one of Japan's most famous poets, and his work еstablished haiku as an wa9 сountry. That wеfе the biggest deсision of my life. Simple Past Tense: Negative Statements and Questions important art form. Matsuo Basho @фbo.n near Kyoto in 1'644.His fathеr wanted him tо beсome a samurai (warrior). Instead, Matsuo moved to Еdo (prеsеnt-day Tokyo) and studied poetry. By 1681, he6aDmany students and admirers. Basho's home burnеd down in 1682. Thеn, in 1683, his mother died. After these events, Basho@restless. Starting in 1684, he traveled on foot and on horsebaсk all over Japan. Sоmetimes his friends.ioined ,/---; him, and they@Ф9poetry togethеr. Travel in thе seventeenth сentury, and GЬaimсult Basho oftenGФsiсk. He diеd in 1694, during a journey to osaka. At that timе he 6uDz,ooostudents. WWPЙINт ? ,F , 7 I сl]ARт сI]Eсl( not did not сHARт с|tEсK 2 was, were did ExPREssж Did she have a navigator? She didn,t flУ alone. No Yеs 4. No 5 . Yes 6. 7. Yes No
    • "' lit'fii}li;фiii' 360 l Aпsиrer Key 2. Where did she study? (At) Columbia University. 3. How long was she a soсial worker? (For) two years. 4. WЪere did her last flight lеavе from? (From) New Guinеa. 5. How many books did she write? Three. 6. What was her nationality? Ameriсan. 7. When did she disappear? (In) 1937. 3. Were 4. No...werеn't 5. didn't want 6. Did...feel 7.Yes...did 8. didn't keep EхPREssж usеd to use to say In many ways' fashion used to be muсh simpler. Women didn't use to wear pants to the offiсe, and men's сlothes never used to сome in bright сolors. People also used to 9. Did...drеam ro. didn't think 11. Were 12.No...wasn't 13. Was 1 4 .N o . . . w a s n ' t dress in speсial ways for different situations. They didn't usе blue jеans as business сlothеs or wear joggrng suits whеn they traveled. Today you сan go to thе opеra and receNe }Ii! Did you reeеi+ed my last letter? I didn't know your new address so I sent it to your knеr^r did уou move old one. Whеn уou_n*oveа? Did your find somе womеn in evеning gowns while others arе in blue jеans. Even buying jeans used to be easier-thеy roommatе move with you? Right now I'm оn dеnim. I,m still not used to buying gтеen board a plane flying to El Paso to visit Ana. meet Did you met her at the сonferеnсe last уeat? didn't have I wanted to visit her in June, but I ne-had jeans and wearing them to work! 2. used to have 3. used to dress 4. used to danсe thе time. At first I was gоing to drive from Los Angeles, but I deсided to fly instead. This is оnly my third flight, but I love flying! di dn 't I dn*nt know flying сould be so muсh fun! Hope to hear frоm you. Used to WryWТPulNт a habit he had in the past сIlАRт сltEсI( I T сl]ARт сl]Eсl( 2 did...useto only сame in blue m ы 5. used to wear 6. used to сarrv (Ansulеrs mау Uarу slightlу.) z. Thеy (only) used to сome in two styles. (high-top and low-top) 3. How muсh did a pair of men's high-tops use to соst? (They used to сost) 98@. 4 . No. Women's sneakers didn't use to сost the same as men's snеakers. Women,s sneakers used to сost less than men's sneakers. 5 . Th"y (only) usеd to wеar low-top sneakers. 6. There used to be (only) two sizes. (small and large) When I was youngeЦ сlothing didn,t r*sеd to All the girls at my sсhool used 3дioolem. to wоre the same uniform. I used to think o. that it tооk away from my frееdom of сhoiсe. Now I сan wear what I want, but сlothes
    • dtж*ъ*я*эв. K**y l сost so muсh! Еven blue jeans, today's uэ ed ..uniform,'' used to be сheaper. Мy mom r*ses to pay less than $20 for hers. I guеss they uge didn't used to sell designer jеans baсk then. You knoщ I uрж used to bе against sсhool uniforms, but now I'm not so sure! Past {ш:: Progressive |i, P0 lNт 1ш what she was doing at the time of her aссident I сI]АRт сHEсК Tonight, Shеila and I w.as looking at some photographs from my snowboarding trip with Fritz's family last year. By thе end of wеre thе evening, weJaughing like crazу. That was my frrst experienсe on a snowboard, so the piсtures Were pretty embarrassing. In cominа one shot, I was еаmе'dоwn the slope on my baсk. In another one' my board.#H"falling out of the ski lift while I was riding up the to o k slope. Fтitz wа++ан+s that piсture from the waэn'I lift entranсе. Good thing hе nоt standing right undеr me! Wherе was I when Fritz was falling down the slope? I guеss I wasn't carrуing € а тrу my сamera. It was amazing how fast F 2 сIiАRIсI]Есl( Fritz,s girlfriеnd, Karyn, learned that before the subjeсt Т#;tr:;.r:H:ffi EхPREss wеekеnd. Shе was doing jumps by the w aэ э pending sесond day. By that time, I sреnt a lot of A:wеre...staying B: was staying 2. F 3. T 4. 1 361 time at the ski сaf6. 5. 6. T F 3. werе sitting outside. 4. wasn't snowing. 5. were wearing sunglassеs. 6. Wеren't wearing gloves. z. was serving drinks. 8. wasn,t serving lunсh. 9. wasn't smiling. 1o. was holding a сеll phone. 3. was rесovering 4. wasn't performing 5. were...thinking 6. were waiting 7. wasn't thinking 8. were watсhing 9. wеre . . . snowboarding 1o. was watсhing 11. (was) dreaming 12.Was...praсtiсing 13. w as Past Progressive and Simple Past Тense WшmPaINт 2,r сI|Eсl( сI]ARт цT EXPRESS'"{#!;::{;:i;:j Whеn was he driving 2. F 3. T 4. 5. 6. т. 8. werе waiting notiсеd Was...spееding got was 4. F 5. T 9. was going lo. reaсhed 1'1. wasn't .l2. were сrossing 13. hit
    • $siЁtннiшlьi:t 362 l &msияer Кexr 14.Did...stop 15. s aw tс. didn,t '17.was talking 18. was driving r9. didn't stop 2o. weren't paying 21. were walking 22.Was...snowing 23. happened 24. was 25. wasn't 26. started 27. arcived z. she was driving homе, she listened to her сar radio. 3. She pulled ovеr to the side of the road . . . thе visibility got very bad. +. She heard about the aссident . . . she was listening to thе news. s. She drove to thе poliсe station . . . it stopped snowing. 6. shе was talking to the poliсe, she was thinking about her еditorial for the morning papеr. Yеsterday' a man was talking on his сell drivinа o}:3" while he was d+iv6his сar. Maybe he^сhесking his daily planner while he was making his next appointment. He was сertainly not сonсentrating on the road when the light suddenly,n*3tTfji**s,"4. tried Thе two mеn in thе streеt were trying to jump out of the way when they saw him, but ffi"ЖтW0 (Corrеct ansu)ers arе in parenthesеs.) 13. с (сall) 20. ^(did) lц. C (was) 21. D (got) 15. A (wеre) 22. с (got) 16. D (wеrе sleеping) 23. B (was driving) 17.B (not) 24, B (dеlеtеcomma) 1s. D (dropped) 25. D (saw ) (w as) 19. A Present Perfeсt: Sinсe and For ж'ru.TжPqINт T сHARт сl|Eскl hauе * past partiсiple base form ofverb + -d ot _еd сHARт сl]Eсl( 2 a length of time EхPREssТ3:;!:'!;'::,:' ,: driuеn: irregular compеtеd: regular шon: irregular triеd: regular Martina Hingis piсked up her first tennis it was too latе. No one was badly hurt, but raсkеt at the age of ,*o.@ that was just luсk. Last yeaц the City Counсil Аi dn 'tpa э э weren+Ёаssiаg thе ..talking and driving bесome one of the gтeatest tennis players law." We need that law! the outdoor Swiss сhampion at age nine. she has in thе world. Born in Slovakia, she has lived in Switzеrland'@ She beсame shе has won many international @ сompetitions inсluding Wimbledon, the SelfTest U.S. Open, and the Australian Open. For young stars like Мartina, life has (Total : 100 points. Each itеm : 4 points.) ffiffg 1.A 2.D 3.D 0NЕ 4. B s.A 6.в 7,^ 8. B 9.o 10.с 1 1 .с 12.8 its diffiсulties. They are under сonstant pressure to win, and they don't havе time to just hang out with сlassmates. In faсt, Martina hasn't attended sсhool @, and she has beеn in the publiс spotlight But she seems to bе handling her {Фiiйф. suссеss wеll. inсе she turned оrofessiona
    • lLnswer she has playеd tеnnis all over thе world and has earned millions of dollars. Shе sеes her life as normal beсausе tennis has bеen the most important thing to her inсe she was a little gir 3. ц. 5. с. 7. в. 9. Jы w3 | -ы 've been fot For has attended hasn't done Sinсе has taken 10. hasn't gotten 11. Sinсe 12. has mеt 13. hasn't thought 14. 's known 15. sinсe 363 Perfeсt: Present Alreadу and Yet P Т::::. :':ж,1',:'З 0INт F сHARтсHEсКI use alrеadу usenot...уеt 2 сltEсl( сIlАRт T EхPREss ;:j:#.:!;F;;л 2. How long has she livеd in Switzerland? (Shе has lived in Switzerland) for many years. 3. Has she won any сompetitions sinсe thе outdoor Swiss сhampionship? Yes. she has. 4. Has she attended sсhool sinсe 1994? No. she hasn't. 5. How muсh money has she earned sinсe she began her сareеr? (She has еarned) millions of dollars. 6. How long has tennis bеen important to her? (Tennis has beеn important to her) sinсe she was a little girl. have been Havе you had lunсh yet? Yеs, Vwe have. oR Ir[o,Vwe haven't. ffi 2'c #l Y.# wl w I-Д beginning of the semester. I esгесiф',,*f;fo tennis, but sinсe SeptemЪer we dоnЪp}aу beсause the weather hнre bеen too сold. I also like volleyball, and my team ьu, l# started to сompеte with Linсoln High Sсhool. I'm looking forward to the nеxt game. 4.Ъ 5.d 3.a I am in Ms. Rodriguez's physiсal eduсation for с1ass sin€ e two months. I enjoy it a lot and miээed havе only miss two сlasses sinсe the two games sinсe we t6 F'{*у l 3. Has . . . disappeared already oв yet 4. Yes... has s. have already develoPed 6. haven't been able . . .Yet 7. Has...made...yеt 8.No...haven't 3. Helmut has already baked thе сakе. д. Gisela has alrеady bought flowеrs. s. Helmut hasn't put the turkey in the oven yet. с. Gisela has already washed the windows. z. Helmut has already mopped the floor. в. Gisеla has already hung the balloons. 9. Hеlmut hasn't washed thе dishеs yet. 1o. Gisela hasn't wrapped the gifts yet. gone ж Y,& I'm in a hurry. I haven,t wеn+shopping Уeт alreaф, but l,ll do it on the way home. Rita haэ hаJйеalready had dinner and she's already called had her bath. Have you eaЦ Mr. Jaсobson a|readу ca||ed yet? He's еaцеа-а+reaф threе times today. ha'n't, His daughter has gotten her flu shоt yet. Is it too late? Sеe you later.
    • j..;!!li iii:;;!!l$]i4ii$фll:l:!: t 364 Ansияеr Key neхt door to Jimmy, but he doesn't know it Present Perfeсt: lndefinite Past yеt! I сan't wait to see what happens on the neхt episode. Does anyone know when Г::-,,"-."ii?ш*жPЙINT Jimmy,s book is сoming out? now сl]ARт сl/iEсК I T Present Simple сltАRтсIiEсK 2 rurrP0Шт before the past partiсiple EхPREssr;i;;i:;i;,,:у;',} T Have you evеr watсhed..Thе Simpsons''? Yes, Vwe have. oв No, Vwе haven,t. ffi ffi z.F з.T 2. 3. 4. s. 4.F s.F 'vе had 've stopped Have . . . talked have...wanted с. F' т.T 6. 7. 8. 9. Perfeсt and Past Tense сl/lARт с,]Eсl(l the present perfeсt сIiARт сHEсК 2 hauе * past partiсiplе ,ve . . . wanted havе . . . traveled 've travelеd havе...made 2, 3. 4. 5. 6. I,уe never even been in a сhat roo