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From the Celts to the Industrial Revolution- British History Quick Study Presentation
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From the Celts to the Industrial Revolution- British History Quick Study Presentation


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From the Celts to the Industrial Revolution- British History Quick Study Presentation

From the Celts to the Industrial Revolution- British History Quick Study Presentation

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  • Celts were called the tribal societies that lived in the Iron Age in what was England, Scotland and Ireland, they spoke Celtic Languages, which are death languages today.
    There is no certainty about when did they came to England, but it was probably around 700BC, they traveled from central Europe, or Southern Russia.
    They were an advanced civilization, they knew how to work iron, so their weapons were better than the bronze ones, which were used by the people who lived there.
  • The importance of Celtic People in British History is that they are the ancestors of many people in Highland Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Scotland. And some Celtic languages have been continuously used in some parts since that time.
    Boudicca, also known as Boadicea (budi’siia) was a celtic queen who led an uprising against the occupying Roman Empire
  • The Jutes settled mainly in Kent along the South Coast, and were soon considered no different from the Angles and Saxons. The angles settled in the east and also in the north midlands. While the Saxons settled between the Jutes and the Angles.
    Anglo-Saxon migrations gave the name of England: The land of the Angles.
  • Alfred the Great, King of the Anglo-Saxons. Well-learned man, interested in education, influenced by Romanic culture, Doom book (law codes), vernacular tongue, strategist, won at the Battle of Edington (878AD) against the Guthrum (Danish). Danelaw (1/3) after Alfred died. 1st King of the English.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Kings, Queens and Dynasties in Britain: Kings, Queens and Dynasties Years Celtics 800 years Romans 460 years Anglo-Saxon and Vikings 470 years Norman 150 years Plantagenet 183 years Lancanstrian and Yorkist 86 years Tudor 118 years Stuart 111 years Hanoverian 187 years
    • 2. Celts • • • • • • Tribal Societies/ Iron Age / Celtic Languages Began Arriving around 700BC Central Europe, further East, Southern Russia Iron Works Celts drove existent people to Wales, Scotland and Ireland. Polytheistic Religion / Rites and Sacrifices by Druids
    • 3. Celts • Ancestors of many people in Highland Scotland / Wales / Ireland / Cornwall • Celtic Languages have been continuously used in some areas since that time • Last Arrivals Belgic Tribes. • Boudicca's Rebellion
    • 4. Romans in Britain: 55 BC: Julius Caesar heads first Roman Invasion. 43 AD: Caesar Claudius invades Britain, and Britain becomes part of the Roman Empire. Roman legacy: Education (writing and reading), Architecture (baths, aqueduct, heating) 122 - 128 AD: Emperor Hadrian builds a wall (the Hadrian’s Wall) on the Scottish border; creation of nowadays boundaries.
    • 6. Romans in Britain: • 142 AD: Roman Emperor Antoninus Pous begins to build The Antonine Wall. • Caledonia: Latin name given by the Roman to the land in today’s Scotland north. • 367 AD: The Picts and Scots attack the border. • 409 AD: The Romans withdraw from Britain: Rome pulls its last soldiers out of Britain.
    • 7. Anglo-Saxons • • • • • After 430 AD Germanic Tribes began to settle in Britain. Saxons, Angles, Jutes Warlike and illiterate Farmers, sea farmers, trading, raids. English monk Bede: Ecclesiastical History of the English people.
    • 8. Anglo-Saxons
    • 9. Anglo-Saxons
    • 10. VikingsinEngland
    • 11. The Normans: Norman Conquest – Black Death (1066-1438)  1066 – 1087: William of Normandy  William the Conqueror  Feudalism: Every man had a lord, and every lord had land.  To serve in war for up forty days.  Service and goods. Homage. Military service and rent.  1086: “The domesday book” is compiled, a complete inventory of Britain
    • 12. The Normans: Norman Conquest – Black Death (1066-1438)  1087 – 1100: William II “Rufus”  1100 – 1135: Henry I  Normandy and England were reunited under one ruler.  1135 – 1154: Stephen of Blois
    • 13. House of Plantagenet and the Middle Ages  1154 – 1189: Henry II  Ruler of far more land that any previous king.  Trial by Jury.  1162: Thomas Becket  Archbishop of Canterbury.  1170: Thomas Becket’s death.  1189 – 1199: Richard I “The Lionheart King”
    • 14. House of Plantagenet and the Middle Ages  1199 – 1216: John II “Lackland”  1204: The English nobles lost their lands in Normandy.  1215: Magna Carta: The king promised all “freemen” protection from his officers and the right to a fair and legal trial.  Political freedom.  1216 – 1272: Henry III  1258: Simon of Montfort Earl of Leicester  parliament; council of nobles.
    • 15. House of Plantagenet and the Middle Ages 1272 – 1307: Edward I  Creation of the first “representative institution”  House of Commons.  Conquest of Wales.  Scottish Nationalism; William Wallace, Robert Bruce.  1307 – 1327: Edward II  1314: The Battle of Bannockburn; Scotland defeated England led by Robert Bruce. 
    • 16. House of Plantagenet and the Middle Ages  1327 – 1377: Edward III  A constant period of war. War with Scotland and France. (Economic and authoritarian reasons) Edward III declared war on France in 1337  Hundred Year War (1337- 1453) 1348: Black Death, more than one-third of the entire population of Britain died.  End of serfdom
    • 17. House of Plantagenet and the Middle Ages  1377 – 1399: Richard II Introduction of a new tax payment for every person over the age of fifteen. 1381: The aforementioned tax was increased to three times the previous amount which led to revolt in the richer parts of the country. 1381: Peasants’ revolt led by Wat Tyler. Main ideas of the Peasants’ revolt; Stop enforcing the tax, labour shortage.
    • 18. Lancastrian and Yorkist  Medieval literary works in Middle English:  Geoffrey Chaucer -> The Canterbury Tales  Middle English Bible translation (Wycliffe)  Utopia by Thomas More.  (1422-1491 AD) William Caxton: First British printer, no more Latin or French, spread Renaissance ideas.
    • 19. War of the Roses • Henry VI The last king of The House of Lancastrian  (1455AD-1485AD) War of the Roses: dynastic civil war, Lancastrian (Red Rose) vs. York (White rose). Origin: fighting for the throne. Richard II was overthrown by Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster (1399) Consequences: end of Plantagenet dynasty, Tudor rulers(Welsh) won after Henry VII (father of Henry VIII).
    • 20. The Tudors
    • 21.  (16th Century) The Tudors Henry VIII: Wanted a male heir Founder of the Church of England, Anglican Church  Papal dispensation-> annulment-> 1. Catherine of Aragon PASSED 2. Anne Boleyn FAILED(Clement VII)
    • 22. The Tudors • Thomas Cromwell: Dissolution of the monasteries, propaganda, submission of the Clergy (1533AD) , beheaded A.Boleyn  (1534AD)  Act of Supremacy ‘Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England’  (1536AD)  Henry VIII, the Act of Union joined England and Wales
    • 23. The Tudors • Deaths: Treasons Act - > John Fisher, Thomas More, Anne Boleyn.  1549AD Thomas Crammer set England as a protestant country. imposed the ‘Book of Common Prayer’ in English • Catholic Restoration under Mary I (1553-1558). Spanish influence, Marian Persecutions -> Bloody Mary. Influenced gothic literary movement in the 18 th C.
    • 24. Elizabeth I  1558AD-1606AD  Elizabeth I, ‘the Virgin Queen’. Crowned at Westminster Abbey. Elizabethan Era. • Restore and consolidate Protestantism, expanded England’s power overseas (strong navy) and commerce, defeated the Spanish Armada, Elizabethan theaters were opened to the public. • English Renaissance: William Shakespeare changed many aspects of drama and poetry. • Consequences: Protestantism (Anglicanism, the Book of Common Prayer, influence on the 13th American colonies), strong monarchy, navy (Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Francis Drake) and economy, Tudor English. Collapse of feudalism, nationalism.
    • 25. Stuart Dynasty and the Republican Britain  1603 – 1625: James I  Divine right of kings. Only God could judge him.  Sir Edward Coke  Law  1625 – 1649: Charles I  “Parliaments are together in my power … As I find the fruits of them good or evil, they are to continue or not to be”  Parliament was dissolved.  Civil War  Royalist; Cavaliers v/s Roundheads. Roundheads were supported by the navy, the merchants and by the population of London.
    • 26. Stuart Dynasty  1645: Defeat of the Royalist army at Naseby. 1649: King Charles I was executed. 1649 – 1660: English Council of State, Britain became a Republic  Oliver Cromwell.  God’s kingdom in England.  Law and order maintained by the army. Very unpopular republic; people were forbidden to celebrate Christmas and Easter, or to play games on Sunday. 1658: Oliver Cromwell died and so did the republican administration.
    • 27. Stuart Dynasty and the Republican Britain  1660 – 1685: Charles II  Act of Cromwell’s government were automatically cancelled.  Louis XIV  “The state it’s myself”  First English political parties: Whigs and Tories  1685 – 1688: James II & VII  Algernon Sidney and John Locke; Governments based on the consent of people  The Parliament.  1688: The Glorious Revolution  Deposition of James II (Catholic) and the accession of his daughter Mary II and her husband William III.
    • 28. Stuart Dynasty and the Republican Britain
    • 29. Hanover Dynasty 1606-1714  1707AD  Future monarch must belong to the Church of England. • Act of Union: Unite England, Scotland and Wales as the U.K. • Scottish Enlightenment: 75% level of literacy, age of empiric knowledge and reason, base of science as we know it today. • First major philosopher was Francis Hutcheson. “The greatest happiness for the greatest numbers”. “Essay on the Nature”
    • 30. Hanover Dynasty 1606-1714 • Important Figures: • Adam Smith, “The Wealth of Nations”, first work of modern economic. Father of modern Capitalism • Alexander Campbell, Adam Ferguson, James Hutton, Benjamin Franklin, David Hume, Sir Isaac Newton. • Literature figures: John Bunyan, Jane Austen as a critic (Pride and Prejudice). – Society was conventional, mechanized humans. • Industrial Revolution: Conditions of work, children labor, filthy slums, pollution, materialistic progress, health problems,
    • 31. Hanover Dynasty 1606-1714  1773AD  Boston Tea Party: An organized refusal by Samuel Adams and Boston merchants against the taxes and British monopoly. Patriots dressed as Mohawks, boarder several British tea into Boston harbor.  1776AD  U.S. Declaration of Independence: -> Thomas Jefferson • 1768AD  Act of Union: George III signs it. Add the Kingdom of Ireland to Great Britain
    • 32. Final Activity 1. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. If false explain why. Caledonia was the Roman name for Ireland. Hadrian’s Wall was built by the Normans to protect their territory from the Vikings. The Act of Union of 1707 officially united the kingdoms of Scotland and England. 2. Complete the following statements: Charles I believed in the ______________ right of ______ and struggled with ________ over _______ and __________. The Scottish Enlightenment was characterized by ________ and inductive __________. Outstanding Scottish philosophers were ________ and _______. Henry VIII’s quarrel with ________ had nothing to do with _______. It was because he ________.