Celts were called the tribal societies that lived in the Iron Age in what was England, Scotland and Ireland, they spoke Celtic Languages, which are death languages today. There is no certainty about when did they came to England, but it was probably around 700BC, they traveled from central Europe, or Southern Russia. They were an advanced civilization, they knew how to work iron, so their weapons were better than the bronze ones, which were used by the people who lived there.
The importance of Celtic People in British History is that they are the ancestors of many people in Highland Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Scotland. And some Celtic languages have been continuously used in some parts since that time. Boudicca, also known as Boadicea (budi’siia) was a celtic queen who led an uprising against the occupying Roman Empire
The Jutes settled mainly in Kent along the South Coast, and were soon considered no different from the Angles and Saxons. The angles settled in the east and also in the north midlands. While the Saxons settled between the Jutes and the Angles. Anglo-Saxon migrations gave the name of England: The land of the Angles.
Alfred the Great, King of the Anglo-Saxons. Well-learned man, interested in education, influenced by Romanic culture, Doom book (law codes), vernacular tongue, strategist, won at the Battle of Edington (878AD) against the Guthrum (Danish). Danelaw (1/3) after Alfred died. 1st King of the English.
1. Kings, Queens and Dynasties in Britain:
Kings, Queens and Dynasties
Anglo-Saxon and Vikings
Lancanstrian and Yorkist
Tribal Societies/ Iron Age / Celtic Languages
Began Arriving around 700BC
Central Europe, further East, Southern Russia
Celts drove existent people to Wales, Scotland and Ireland.
Polytheistic Religion / Rites and Sacrifices by Druids
• Ancestors of many people in Highland Scotland / Wales /
Ireland / Cornwall
• Celtic Languages have been continuously used in some areas
since that time
• Last Arrivals Belgic Tribes.
• Boudicca's Rebellion
4. Romans in Britain:
55 BC: Julius Caesar heads first Roman Invasion.
43 AD: Caesar Claudius invades Britain, and Britain
becomes part of the
Roman legacy: Education (writing and reading),
Architecture (baths, aqueduct, heating)
122 - 128 AD: Emperor Hadrian builds a wall (the
Hadrian’s Wall) on the Scottish border; creation of
5. ROMAN BRITANIA
6. Romans in Britain:
• 142 AD: Roman Emperor Antoninus Pous begins to build The
• Caledonia: Latin name given by the Roman to the land in
today’s Scotland north.
• 367 AD: The Picts and Scots attack the border.
• 409 AD: The Romans withdraw from Britain: Rome pulls its
last soldiers out of Britain.
After 430 AD Germanic Tribes began to settle in Britain.
Saxons, Angles, Jutes
Warlike and illiterate
Farmers, sea farmers, trading, raids.
English monk Bede: Ecclesiastical History of the English
11. The Normans: Norman Conquest – Black
 1066 – 1087: William of Normandy  William the Conqueror
 Feudalism: Every man had a lord, and every lord had
 To serve in war for up forty days.
 Service and goods.
Military service and rent.
 1086: “The domesday book” is
compiled, a complete inventory
12. The Normans: Norman Conquest – Black
 1087 – 1100: William II “Rufus”
 1100 – 1135: Henry I
 Normandy and England were reunited
under one ruler.
 1135 – 1154: Stephen of Blois
13. House of Plantagenet and the Middle Ages
 1154 –
1189: Henry II
 Ruler of far more land that any previous king.
 Trial by Jury.
 1162: Thomas Becket  Archbishop
 1170: Thomas Becket’s death.
 1189 – 1199: Richard I “The Lionheart King”
14. House of Plantagenet and the Middle Ages
 1199 – 1216: John II “Lackland”
 1204: The English nobles lost their lands in
 1215: Magna Carta: The king promised all
“freemen” protection from his officers and the right
to a fair and legal trial.  Political freedom.
 1216 – 1272: Henry III
 1258: Simon of Montfort Earl of Leicester 
parliament; council of nobles.
15. House of Plantagenet and the Middle Ages
1272 – 1307: Edward I
 Creation of the first “representative institution” 
House of Commons.
 Conquest of Wales.
 Scottish Nationalism; William Wallace, Robert Bruce.
 1307 – 1327: Edward II
 1314: The Battle of Bannockburn; Scotland defeated
England led by Robert Bruce.
16. House of Plantagenet and the Middle Ages
 1327 – 1377: Edward III
 A constant period of war.
War with Scotland and France. (Economic and
Edward III declared war on France in 1337 
Hundred Year War (1337- 1453)
1348: Black Death, more than one-third of the
entire population of Britain died.  End of serfdom
17. House of Plantagenet and the Middle Ages
 1377 – 1399: Richard II
Introduction of a new tax payment for every person
over the age of fifteen.
1381: The aforementioned tax was increased to
three times the previous amount which led to revolt in
the richer parts of the country.
1381: Peasants’ revolt led by Wat Tyler. Main ideas
of the Peasants’ revolt; Stop enforcing the tax, labour
18. Lancastrian and Yorkist
 Medieval literary works in Middle English:
 Geoffrey Chaucer -> The Canterbury Tales
 Middle English Bible translation (Wycliffe)
 Utopia by Thomas More.
 (1422-1491 AD)
William Caxton: First British printer, no more Latin
or French, spread Renaissance ideas.
19. War of the Roses
• Henry VI
The last king of The House of Lancastrian
War of the Roses: dynastic civil war, Lancastrian
(Red Rose) vs. York (White rose).
Origin: fighting for the throne. Richard II was
overthrown by Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of
Consequences: end of Plantagenet dynasty, Tudor
rulers(Welsh) won after Henry VII (father of Henry
20. The Tudors
21.  (16th Century)
Wanted a male heir
Founder of the Church of England, Anglican Church
 Papal dispensation-> annulment-> 1. Catherine of Aragon PASSED
2. Anne Boleyn FAILED(Clement VII)
22. The Tudors
• Thomas Cromwell: Dissolution of the monasteries,
propaganda, submission of the Clergy (1533AD) , beheaded
 Act of Supremacy ‘Supreme Head on Earth
of the Church of England’
 Henry VIII, the Act of Union joined England
23. The Tudors
• Deaths: Treasons Act - > John Fisher, Thomas More,
Thomas Crammer set England as a protestant country.
imposed the ‘Book of Common Prayer’ in English
• Catholic Restoration under Mary I (1553-1558). Spanish
influence, Marian Persecutions -> Bloody Mary.
Influenced gothic literary movement in the 18 th C.
24. Elizabeth I
 Elizabeth I, ‘the Virgin Queen’. Crowned at Westminster Abbey. Elizabethan
• Restore and consolidate Protestantism, expanded England’s power
overseas (strong navy) and commerce, defeated the Spanish Armada,
Elizabethan theaters were opened to the public.
• English Renaissance: William Shakespeare changed many aspects of
drama and poetry.
• Consequences: Protestantism (Anglicanism, the Book of Common Prayer,
influence on the 13th American colonies), strong monarchy, navy (Sir
Walter Raleigh, Sir Francis Drake) and economy, Tudor English. Collapse of
25. Stuart Dynasty and the Republican Britain
 1603 – 1625: James I
 Divine right of kings. Only God could judge
 Sir Edward Coke  Law
 1625 – 1649: Charles I
 “Parliaments are together in my power … As
I find the fruits of them good or evil, they are to
continue or not to be”  Parliament was
 Civil War  Royalist; Cavaliers v/s
Roundheads. Roundheads were supported by
the navy, the merchants and by the population
26. Stuart Dynasty
 1645: Defeat of the Royalist army at Naseby.
1649: King Charles I was executed.
1649 – 1660: English Council of State, Britain became a
Republic  Oliver Cromwell.
 God’s kingdom in England.
 Law and order maintained by the army.
Very unpopular republic; people were forbidden
to celebrate Christmas and Easter, or to play
games on Sunday.
1658: Oliver Cromwell died and so did the
27. Stuart Dynasty and the Republican Britain
 1660 – 1685: Charles II
 Act of Cromwell’s government were automatically
 Louis XIV  “The state it’s myself”
 First English political parties: Whigs and Tories
 1685 – 1688: James II & VII
 Algernon Sidney and John Locke; Governments
based on the consent of people  The Parliament.
 1688: The Glorious Revolution  Deposition of
James II (Catholic) and the accession of his
daughter Mary II and her husband William III.
28. Stuart Dynasty and the Republican Britain
29. Hanover Dynasty 1606-1714
 Future monarch must belong to the Church of
• Act of Union: Unite England, Scotland and Wales as the U.K.
• Scottish Enlightenment: 75% level of literacy, age of empiric
knowledge and reason, base of science as we know it
• First major philosopher was Francis Hutcheson. “The
greatest happiness for the greatest numbers”. “Essay on the
30. Hanover Dynasty 1606-1714
• Important Figures:
• Adam Smith, “The Wealth of Nations”, first work of
modern economic. Father of modern Capitalism
• Alexander Campbell, Adam Ferguson, James Hutton,
David Hume, Sir Isaac Newton.
• Literature figures: John Bunyan, Jane Austen as a critic
(Pride and Prejudice).
– Society was conventional, mechanized humans.
• Industrial Revolution: Conditions of work, children labor,
filthy slums, pollution, materialistic progress, health
31. Hanover Dynasty 1606-1714
 Boston Tea Party: An organized refusal by Samuel
Adams and Boston merchants against the taxes and
British monopoly. Patriots dressed as Mohawks,
boarder several British tea into Boston harbor.
 U.S. Declaration of Independence: -> Thomas
 Act of Union: George III signs it. Add the Kingdom of
Ireland to Great Britain
32. Final Activity
1. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. If false explain
Caledonia was the Roman name for Ireland.
Hadrian’s Wall was built by the Normans to protect their territory from the
The Act of Union of 1707 officially united the kingdoms of Scotland and England.
2. Complete the following statements:
Charles I believed in the ______________ right of ______ and struggled with
________ over _______ and __________.
The Scottish Enlightenment was characterized by ________ and inductive
__________. Outstanding Scottish philosophers were ________ and _______.
Henry VIII’s quarrel with ________ had nothing to do with _______. It was because