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Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
Britishstudyguide
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Britishstudyguide
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Britishstudyguide

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  • 1. GEOGRAPHY OF THE BRITISH ISLES (see map)The British Isles are divided in two big islands: Great Britain and Ireland.The union of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland forms the United Kingdom. Its flag is called"The Union Jack". Its important to point out that Ireland is divided in four provinces, one of them Ulster.Ulster is then divided in 9 counties, 6 forming Northern Ireland and the other three belonging to the Republicof Ireland.The first thing to take into account when studying British geography is the importance of the sea in itsHistory. Since the British Isles, as islands, are surrounded by the sea, they are isolated. The sea acts then as agood frontier and allows an independent life. Sea can be a way of getting into the British Isles (before 1.066they suffered lots of invasions), but it is also a natural defensive barrier (nobody was able to invade the Islesfrom 1.066).In relation with its geological history (which is important to consider when studying its History), till 5.000BC Ireland and Great Britain were united to the continent, but then Ireland separated from Great Britain andlater on, both islands separated from the continent, till they reached their present configuration. The facts thattake us to this conclusion is the presence of animals both in the British Isles and in the continent and theabsence of, for example, snakes on Ireland (since this specie couldnt cross the land before the division).Its important to remember its position between two political blocks (Europe and America), and the strongrelation with America (since it had been a colony, with lots of people emigrated there when colonisationtime).When studying the physical map, one can realise how the natural division between Highlands (Scotland,Wales, Northern Ireland) and Lowlands (England, Ireland) has influenced the division of countries. TheHighlands is a more difficult place to live in, since it presents a harder climate; this made Lowlands a moreattractive place to live in or invade (thats the reason why this part suffered more invasions). So, Lowlands hasmore population and that makes it have more weight in politics (especially England, although now the rest ofthe United Kingdom is searching for more independence).Main cities:• London. It is the political centre of the United Kingdom. The main reason is that it has always been a commercial centre, since its located near the continent. London was first made capital by the Romans, but it had been a commercial centre since long time ago.• Birmingham. It acts as a link between London and the industrial North, formed by a belt of cities and towns as Manchester or Liverpool.• Manchester, Liverpool... They are important industrial cities (mainly of iron or textile industries) that help in making England wealth in the XIX century. The goods manufactured there are then taken to London, and later on they are exported. Train is still the main way of taking those goods; the radial system in which the railway its configured has to do with the location of the manufacture and the deliver of the goods: • From London to Birmingham and then to the belt of industrial cities. • From London to western ports: from Bristol the products are taken to America; from Southampton they are taken to the East (India).In Scotland and Ireland this radial system is imitated: 1
  • 2. • In Scotland: from Edinburgh to Saxon Shore (then to France) or to Glasgow (it is both an industrial centre and a port). • In Northern Ireland: Belfast is both an industrial centre (shipbuilding) and a port with connections with America.• Another cities like Cambridge and Oxford are educational centres. They are situated near London because of the political weight of England caused by the more dense population.Physical accidents and divisions.The Solway Firth and the Tyne River act as a natural frontier between Scotland and England. Romans in factmade a wall to divide both countries following this natural line. It was later on called the "Celtic Fringe",since England was romanized but Scotland wasnt (it remained Celtic); that causes important differences inculture.The Cambrian Mountains are also a natural frontier between Wales and England. This isolated position ofWales made the country a land of refuge after invasions. That was because the invaders (like Romans),generally coming from the continent, pushed Celtic people towards the West.The conclusion we can obtain about these facts is that natural elements have an important influence in Historyand in cultural differences.There is also a secondary division we can observe through the suffix "−shire" in the name of some places.This division comes from the Vikings times; a shire was a kind of county which is important when studyingBritish History (medieval divisions). Every shire had a shire−reeve, that was a man who collected taxes andonce a year took them to London. Then, shire−reeves from all England put the money on the top achequered−cloth. When all the chequers of the cloth were full, the Queen said the collection had beensuccessful.BASIC CHRONOLOGICAL DIVISIONS in the History of the British Isles.1066 AD. Battle of Hastings. Normans invaded the British Isles. Its an important point in the History of theIsles because it was the last invasion they suffered.25000 BC. Paleolithic covers a huge range of years.12000 BC. It was the start of Mesolithic. The Melting of the Ice took place round this time, which allowed aneasier life in the British Isles, although clime remained quite cold. It isnt known if there was any human lifebefore this point in the Isles, but there may be some hunters. From this time on, we had groups of hunters andgatherers moving to this region, but they didnt settle down (they were nomads). We have very littlearchaeological rests from this time, excepting some small tools called "microlites".4000−3000 BC. In these years, Great Britain and Ireland separated from each other. So, they were no more soaccessible as they had been before, and the only way of approaching the Isles was with good navigation skills.3000 BC. It was the beginning of Neolithic. A revolution took place: it was the appearance of farming, whichallowed people to settle down in a concrete place. These farmers who came from the continent followed twomain routes. One was following the valley of the river Rhine and then cross the sea towards the Isles. Theother one came from the Iberian Peninsula and sailed towards the North to reach England or Ireland (legendstell that Iberian people founded Ireland). In the Orkney Islands there was an important settle down at this time.2000 BC. The British Isles suffered a foreign influence from new groups coming from the continent. The 2
  • 3. main innovations they brought in were the use of bronze and a more elaborated pottery. At this time there wasa strong culture established in the centre of England, the "Wessex Culture", which built up monuments as thestone circles "Stonehenge". This culture remained important until 1000 BC.1000 BC. The Wessex Culture disappeared. The Southern coast became the centre of attention and big stonewalls (called "Brocks") were built with a defensive objective. The Celts were then trying to invade the Isles.Celt people were not a pure race, but a group of people from different places that shared culture and language(because they came from a group that had spread along Europe and developed their own particularities). Celtsintroduced the use of iron, which made them stronger at battles. Some legends deal with a fear to iron thatobliged people to hide in the mountains, which has a relation with these historical facts.Celts finally occupied the whole area in 700 BC. In some parts of the British Isles they absorbed the previousculture (even using earlier monuments), but in others they pushed population to the west. The result of this isthe presence of a human type across the western coast of Ireland which has an Iberian origin and aspect(although some people think its a consequence or the "Invincible Army" disaster, theyre wrong).Celtic culture was later on destroyed by Romans, who described Celts as wild and uncivilizated people. Onthe contrary, Celts were a very sophisticated culture and it was brilliant in some features that nowadays canstill be noticed in language and culture; they were also excellent farmers. During the Celtic period womenmay have had more independence than they had again for hundreds of years; two of the largest tribes wereruled by women (like Boadicea, who fought against Romans and after some victories, was defeated and kill).55 BC. A brief Roman expedition leaded by Julius Caesar arrived to the British Isles. The Romans invadedbecause the Celts of Britain were working with the Celts of Gaul against them, and they realised that the onlyway of conquering Gaul was attacking from the north. Once Romans won the war, they forgot about theBritish Isles for some years.AD 43. Romans finally settled down, imposing their language, culture, laws and tradition, destroying theCeltic roots. Using the oral transmission, the Celtic druids tried to keep their cultural memory alive throughgenerations, but Romans destroyed druids to make an easier imposition of Roman culture. So, we dont havemuch information about Celts.Scotland (Caledonia) and Ireland were areas excluded from the Roman invasion. Romans separated Scotlandfrom England by means of an artificial wall from coast to coast: the "Hadrians Wall" (later on called the"Celtic Fringe").Romans brought the skills of reading and writing to Britain, and soon Latin and Roman traditions wereaccepted, especially by town people. Latin disappeared when the Anglo−Saxons invaded Britain.The most obvious characteristic of Roman Britain was its towns, which were the basis of Romanadministration and civilisation. Many of this towns were at first army camps; the Latin word, castra, hasremained part of many towns names to this days with the endings chester, caster or cester (Gloucester,Leicester, Winchester, Chester, Lancaster). They were connected by an excellent system of roads, whichbecame the main roads of modern Britain. The biggest change during the Roman occupation was the growthof large farms, called villas.AD 430. Three Germanic tribes invaded the British Isles: the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes. The first twowere strongest, so they are known as the "Anglo−Saxons". They had important differences with Romans: • Romans were urban (they created a radial system of roads and founded Londinium), modern and Christian (since the age of Constantine in AD 318) • Anglo−Saxons had a Northern Mythology (with gods as Tig, Thor, Wodin, Frei that are the origin of 3
  • 4. the days of the week...) and they imposed a new language, culture and religion. Christianity was then pushed to the west (Ireland). Anglo−Saxons also brought a new agricultural system: they used a heavy plough only suitable for long straight lines across the field (it was difficult to turn corners with it), but very useful for hard soils. So, each village land was divided into two or three large fields, then divided again into strips; each family had a number of strips. Anglo−Saxons also had a social division based on alderman (local officials, then warlords), manors (kind of local administrator)... this is the origin of a class system, made up of kings, lords, soldiers and workers on the land.The first Anglo−Saxons who came to the Isles were mercenaries; they were paid by Southern inhabitants todefend from the pressure of the northern tribes (Pits and Scots) that had taken force after Romans left.Anglo−Saxons found England a good land to settle down, and being superior in war to the inhabitants, theyinvade it.Anglo−Saxons didnt have one single kind, but several. This caused the division of England in 7 differentkingdoms (its known as the "Period of the Heptarchy"). It was the origin of places like Wessex (WesternSaxons), East Anglia (Eastern Angles)... In fact, the name of England was originally Angleland (land ofAngles). This was not a peaceful period due to the hard competence between kingdoms.The crisis came at the end of the 8th Century, with the appearance of Vikings.AD 865. The term "Viking" apparently means "inhabitant of the fjords", but in fact they were not called thatway at the time because they were Danes, Norwegians and Swiss. All three came from the North, followingdifferent routs that can be summarised in three: • Norwegians followed a West−South line and reached Ireland. They discovered Iceland, Greenland and North America (Erik "The Red"). • Swiss followed a line towards the East, and got into Russia (establishing the capital in Kiev) and maintained relations with Constantinopla. • Danes. Their only alternative was following to the South, navigating both shores of the Isles. They were responsible for attacks in the French coast and Iberian Peninsula; they even crossed Gibraltar and attack the Roman Empire.As a result of the position of the British Isles, they suffered attacks from the three invaders. The first attackstook place in the 8th century, and they were very quick. England was then a Christian land, with monasteriesalong the coast which were often destroyed by the Danes. Around AD 540, the Isles suffered huge expeditionswith the idea of settling down. All Anglo−Saxon kingdoms fell with the exception of Wessex, dominated byking Alfred "The Great". It was the time when most of the British land was under the "Dane Law".King Alfred "The Great" started then the "Reconquest of the Dane Law". Since he initiated the emerge ofEngland, he is considered the first king of England. The reconquest took several generations, and itculminated with a mixture between Anglo−Saxon and Viking elements and population. This racial blend isvisible in the case of king Cnut, which was from Viking origin.1066. England was then a successful blend of Anglo−Saxon and Viking people, but it then suffered anotherinvasion: the Normans. Normans came from the Duchy of Normandy, in the Norman France. They had aViking origin, because France let Vikings settle down progressively in their own lands to protect themselvesfrom the attacks.William, who was Duke of London, is the responsible of the successful Norman invasion of England. Hebecomes king of England: William I "The Conqueror".For understanding the reasons for the Norman invasion we need to go back in time. Before 10066 the king in 4
  • 5. England was Edward "The Confessor" (who started the building of many cathedrals like Westminster), buthe died without leaving heir. Traditionally, kings were elected by the "Witan", which was an institutionformed by a group of free men. Normally the system for choosing a new king was following the heritage line,but in the case of Edwards succession, Witan must follow a different rule. The main candidate that Witanthought about was Harold Godwinson, who was the strongest man in the land; he finally became KingHarold I.But there were two other candidates who argued that they had rights to the crown. One of them was HaraldHaardrabe, who was connected to the old Viking line of King Cnut. The other one was William ofNormandy, who claimed that with a past marriage, an Anglo−Saxon link had been established with hisfamily.Since Witan had yet decided to choose Harold Godwinson as king, two attacks took place in 1066. First,Harald Haardrabe attacks Harold I in the Battle of Stanfordbridge, but the king defeated him. Later on,William of Normandy fights against Harold I in the Battle of Hastings: William kills Harold I and becomesthe new king of England.Although William I had a small army in comparison to the Anglo−Saxon population, it was more a colonistexpedition rather than a military one. Men of all ranges (soldiers, nobility...) formed this army, and in abouttwo years they got all the titles of Anglo−Saxon nobility because William had divided all the lands heconquered among his army members. This was the way of introducing feudalism, and it allowed William tobe the supreme feudal master. Each man owning a feud must be in service to the king with taxes (money) andsoldiers for the war. Feudalism was a system that gave benefits both to the king and the nobility, but the onessuffering the bad consequences were the people in the lower classes, who must work the land withoutobtaining any benefit ("they were bound to the land").Another reason for the Norman victory was that they were very well military trained. They imposed horrorand they bring a strong weapon: the castle. Castles were the centres of power and terror, and they allowed thedomination of the land around. So, the first thing after winning at Hastings or at any other place was alwaysbuilding a castle; it was build in wood in one day, and later the wooden walls were replaced by stone wallsand other elements were added.Normans imposed their law, culture, power and language (old English becomes the language of the poorpeople and it is culturally relegated; the language of the new aristocracy were Latin and French).The problem of Normans was that they had divided loyalties: since they had lands both in Normandy and inEngland, they had duties with the French king and with the English king, William I, and they didnt knowwhether to defend England of France.Even William, who was also Duke of Normandy, was then subjectof the French king. Thats the origin of theconflict between the two crowns.With feudalism, the king needed to know how much their lands produced so that he could impose taxes with acertain degree of justice. Taxation appeared; it was a system by which royal officers went through the countiescollecting the taxes. The "Doomsday Book" was the book in which they took note of the taxes. It was called"Doomsday Book" because for some of them it was their last day.When William died in 1087, he left the Duchy of Normandy for his elder son, Robert, and England forWilliam, but his youngest son Henry didnt receive anything at all.When Robert went to fight the Muslims in the Holy Land (the crusades), he left his brother William II incharge of Normandy. But William II died in a suspicious hunting accident in 1100. He had not married and 5
  • 6. didnt have any heirs, so Henry decided to take the English crown. Since his brother Robert was coming backfrom the crusades, Henry, who had been with William a t the time of the accident, acted quickly and wascrowned king: Henry I. His brother Robert tried to invade England, but it was a completely failure and hereturned to Normandy. But Henry I knew that lots of the nobles want to win back their Norman lands, so heinvades Normandy and captured Robert. Normandy and England were reunited under one ruler.Henry I solved the quarrel about investitures between the State and the Church, and he did his best to keeppeace between Normandy and England. There were many ups and downs during this time. Henry Is mostimportant aim was to leave everything to his daughter Matilda (who was married to the Duke of Anjou, inFrance). There had been no queens in England before because it was a male universe. The nobility rejectedMatilda as a queen and defended the candidature of Stephen of Blois, who was Henrys nephew and was inBoulogne, nearer England. It was the beginning of a period called "The 19 Winters" because most of the yearswere dominated by a civil war between Stephen and Matilda. Finally, in 1153, both sides agreed that Stephencould keep the throne but only if Matildas son, Henry, could succeed him. Stephen died the following yearand England and the lands in France (Normandy, Anjou) were united under Henry II.Henry II was probably the strongest king in medieval British history. He was just 19 when he received thecrown. By his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine, he obtained much more possessions south of Anjou. Anyway,Henry II was still a subject of the King of France, although he was stronger.Henry II was a great political organiser. Thanks to him England had a well judicial system organisation: hemade the "Assize of Clarendon", which was the origin of the "Common Law"; it guarantied justice to all thesubjects.The only problem was that the religious figures possessed their own Common Law. Thomas Beckett defendedthe rights of the religious to have their own law, but the king killed him. This problem wont be solved duringHenry IIs reign.Historically, Ireland has been very much a marginal land. The Church punished Henry II withexcommunication for murdering Thomas Becket. Henry II had to pay a fine consisting in receiving 100 lashesin public, and he was offered to command an army on crusade, which he did against his desires. Ireland wasoccupied and it became a duchy. This was the first state of colonisation, and thats the reason why there aremany Irish surnames (like Fidtgerald) with a Norman origin.What we know as the "Irish problem" started then, in the XII Century. When Henry III died, the land had tobe divided: the throne was first for his son Richard I ("The Lionheart") and then to his other son John("Lackland").Richard I only spent six months in England, a fact that shows how disastrous he was. John was worst thanhim and all his decisions were terrible for England; he was called "Lackland" because he lost all his fatherspossessions. Nobility also lost many territories, so they fought against John and forced him to sign the "MagnaCarta" (also called the "Charter of English liberties"); thanks to it the rights of the crown were regulated. ButJohns son, Henry III, didnt accept the terms of the "Magna Carta" and he founded the Parliament.The Parliament brought a time of splendour for the British Empire. Henrys descendants, Edward I andEdward II tried to conquer Wales and Scotland, (but both suffered an enormous defeat in Scotland).This was the time of "The Hundred Years War", which was a period dominated by the struggle betweenEngland and France. It was, in fact, a time with many periods of war. Englands troubles with France resultedfrom the French kings growing authority in France, and his determination to control all this nobles, becausethose who had lands in England (even the king of England) refused to recognise the French kingsovelordship. This war can be divided in two parts: the first half of the XIV century and the second half. 6
  • 7. The first part of the struggle started during the reign of Edward III. Those were years of victory for Britain(battle of Poitiers), and England conquered many new territories from France. War became a business formany people.The reason for this success is mainly military training. Some years ago, England had learned terrible lessonsin Scotland and Wales, when England tried to dominate them. In the case of Wales, England had succeeded,but not in the case of Scotland (battle of "Bannockbum"); Scotland and England had become then enemies.After this defeat, England developed a new kind of war (being lightly armed and quickly in movement wascrucial), which was very effective in France. Its most important weapon was the Welsh longbow, used bymost of the ordinary footsoldiers. But when the French army learnt these techniques, things changed.Another important reason for Englands success was the changing in the feudal services of the early days(taxes and men for the war), that were in fact a deficient system because the men for the war werentprofessionals. Then the king decided to collect more money instead of men for the war. With this money, hecould pay professional soldiers, who were entirely dedicated to war.In the second part of the XVI century, France adopted new military techniques, and it was united as a nation.Soon France conquered back all the territories that England had won during the first part of the straggle,excepting Calais. Its the time of the French splendour, because France is fighting at its own territory, it isunited as a nation and it has new tactics of war.From 1348 to 1349 war was interrupted due to the "Black Death" (bubonic plague), which was a devastatorillness which could killed half the population of a country in one year. In the case of England, the effects wereterrible, causing a grave depopulation. After the "Black Death", the nation was weaker than France, which hadrecovered better and faster. This was another reason for the emerge of France.The moment that England started to suffer defeats, the initial unity between crown and nobility collapsed,which the brief exception of the reign of Henry V (who had some success). Theres a panorama of disruptionwhich causes a civil war in England, "The War of the Roses" (its called like that because the roses were inthe emblems of the houses of York and Lancaster, the two leaders of the straggle). It began with a "coupdetat", and the crown changed from the York house to the Lancaster house. Lancaster thought they could dobetter at France, but for they couldnt, York fought back. All the houses of Britain fought in the two blocks.This period was closed in 1485 in the battle of Bosworth, fought between Richard III (York) and Henry VIII(Lancaster), where Richard III was killed and Henry VIII became the king. Later, Henry VIII married to aprincess of the house of York to bring peace and unity to both houses. It brought a new dynasty of kings, theTudor, which will last more for more than a century.The beginning of the Renaissance in Britain is marked by the battle of Bosworth. The most important kingsand queens during this time (1485−1603) were Henry VIII (first part of the XVI), Mary (central XVI) andElizabeth I (last years of XVI).The situation of England at the beginning of the XVI century is the following: it had suffered a civil war, itwas surrounded by enemies (Scotland and France) and it was very weak in Europe. In the XVII century,England started the expansion overseas and colonise America, becoming a colonial power. Its in the XVIIcentury when the United Kingdom is founded, including the adhesion of Scotland. And it is also a culturallyimportant time (Shakespeare,...).Henry VIII was, at the beginning, a defender of the Catholic Church (he even wrote a book against MartinLuther). But this changed with the problem of his succession: Henrys first wife, Catherine of Aragon, gavehim no male heir but a daughter, Mary. Henry wanted a boy desperately so he tried to persuade the pope toallow him to divorce from Catherine. But the pope was controlled by Charles V, who was king Holy RomanEmperor and king of Spain, and also Catherines nephew; for both political and family reasons he wanted 7
  • 8. Henry to stay married to Catherine. In 1527 the pope was caught and locked in the castle of Sant Angelo inRome, and so he was forced to forbid Henrys divorce.Another problem was the financial situation, which had deteriorated along the years. Henry had too manybusinesses to pay, while the English Church was rich (it possessed a fifth of all the wealth at the country).Henry took then the decision of creating his own Church, and be the head of the Church to gave to himself thedivorce. He created then the Anglican Church, widely Protestant, of which Henry VIII was the supreme head.Everyone in England was obliged to make the Oath of Supremacy: they had to swear that they wanted Henryas the supreme head of the Church. When he gave himself the divorce, he married Anne Boleyn. He alsomade the dissolution of the monasteries, which meant that all the lands of the Church went to Henrys hands.This was a tremendous tragedy for thousands of people who worked as religious figures (most of thembecame beggars), and despite the fact that the population accepted Henry, a number of catholic ritualsremained (Northern regions of England suffered the Pilgrimage of Grace, because they went against Henry).England became again a very wealthy kingdom thanks to the appropriation of the richness of the Church.Anne Boleyn gave Henry a daughter, Elizabeth, but not a male child. It was his third wife (Jane Seymour)who gave him a boy, Edward, but she died during the birth.When Henry VIII died, in 1547, there were three legitimate candidates for the crown: Mary, Elizabeth andEdward. Edward became king simply because he was a man. Edward VI followed the line of his father, butthe two girls were different, since Mary was a catholic (because her mother was it) and Elizabeth was aprotestant. There was then an uncertain future in religious terms.Politically, Edward VI was the supreme ruler of England, and he had plans for expansion that would nevercome true. He was very young and sick, and he finally died in 1553, provoking a problem of successionbecause or the different religion of the legitimate heirs (Mary was Catholic and Elizabeth was Protestant).Mary was crowned queen, and she made England return to Catholicism. She imposed this religion in a verycruel manner; thats why she was called Bloody Mary. It was a time of instability, in the point of a civil war.Mary died in 1558, and her sister Elizabeth becomes queen of England the following year.Elizabeth I represented the union of the two roses, Lancaster and York. For years, she never showed clearly ifshe supported Catholicism or Protestantism, which brought peace and stability to the country.Elizabeth I became a kind of Goddess in Earth thanks to the official propaganda. She was the symbol of purityand virginity. Some historians consider that she occupied the place that the elimination of Virgin Mary intimes of Henry VIII had left. Even the official pictures of Elizabeth I are perfectly studied: they dont have anyshadow and show a queen who never becomes elder. This propaganda allowed a feeling of unity and stability.At given times, Elizabeth I was shown to the public in processes along the reign, to make the population feelthat they were seeing a living goddess. These were very elaborated rituals with the idea of promoting herimage.The reason for this propaganda was fear. It wasnt in fact a golden age (excepting the cultural life) as somehistorians say; England had serious problems. The state elaborated the myth of Elizabeth I to keep peoplequiet and united around her figure. There were two main reasons for the English fear: Europe and the problemof religion.For understanding the fear of Europe we need to go back in past. The Spanish possessions in the LowCountries had became rebelled in 1556, and Spain wanted to defend Catholicism and to recover the controlover them. The king of Spain, Philip II, needed then to send troops and money to the Low Countries, but therewas a part of the sea dominated by France (which was an enemy). Philip II, by his marriage to the Englishqueen Mary, had achieved the guarantee that his ships could take refuge in England. But when Mary died and 8
  • 9. Elizabeth I came to the throne, she declared Protestantism and, gradually, Spain became an enemy. Spanishships had to follow then a larger and more expensive route, the Spanish route (Cartagena>Naples>Milan>LowCountries). Thats why Philip II decided to invade England, which is the origin of the English fear in times ofElizabeth I.Another reason for fear was the question of religion. Although Elizabeth I had declared Protestantism, theywere lots of Catholic people. From 1568 the queen of Scotland, Mary Stuart, who was catholic and legitimateheir to the throne, had been kept prisoner in England by order of Elizabeth I. Soon the Catholics, assisted bySpain, decided to kill Elizabeth I so that Mary could heritage the throne, but hey failed in the four occasionsthey tried. In 1587 Elizabeth gave the order of executing Mary Stuart; this was a disaster not only for EnglishCatholics, but for Spain also. As a result, in 1588 Philip II decides to invade England and then catch thethrone with the enterprise of The Armada. It was a complete failure, which marked the starting point of theSpanish decline and the English growth. But the problem had not still been solved, and Philip II tried it againand again, although he never succeeded.The new Spanish strategy was using Ireland as a back door to attack and conquer England. At that time,Ireland was a tribal society, divided into clans in which the majority was Catholic. The idea was to promote aninternal acceptation of the Spanish invasion to then jump into England. Since this situation was extremelydangerous for the country, England was forced to take an action in Ireland: the immediate colonisation ofIreland. It was a brutal and savage colonisation, in which Irish Catholics suffered a lot. When Elizabeth diedin 1608, England had planted new people in two conflictive areas: the Ulster plantation (North) and theMunster plantation (South). That meant that lands belonging to Catholics had been given to Protestantfamilies, so Catholic population was expelled and a new artificial Protestant population was created. Thats theorigin of the Irish problem.At the end, although the propaganda Elizabeths counsellors had been effective to success in the crisis, theentire thing collapsed when the queen died, giving birth to the civil war that had been postponed for years.The tension between Spain and England, which hadnt finish with the failure of The Armada, decreased in1604, because both Philip II and Elizabeth I had died; from that time onwards, there is peace between the twocountries.Since Elizabeth I had died without leaving any heirs, a new dynasty came to the throne: the Stuart. Elizabeth Ihad executed Mary Stuart (queen of Scotland), but she had a son who was alive. He was James VI ofScotland, who became King James I of England. The Stuart dynasty is going to dominate the XVII century,which can be divided in 3 periods: • James I, Charles I • Civil Wars • Charles II, James IIOne of the characteristics of the Stuart Kings was that they gradually became inclined to Catholicism. James Iwas totally protestant; Charles I was protestant but married a catholic; Charles II was secretly a catholic andJames II was openly catholic. Religion is then one of the great problems of the Stuart dynasty, because theirinclination towards Catholicism made them little popular. Although in times of James I the Catholic Churchwas considered an enemy, the later inclination to Catholicism was probably due to political interests;Catholicism was the faith of European absolutist monarchs, so Stuarts saw in this religion a support forabsolutism.Another common feature was their tendency towards absolutism. It the case of England, absolutism waspractically impossible, because the decisions of the king were always controlled by Parliament. But Stuartdynasty came from Scotland, where the king was the absolute ruler, and therefore they wanted to declare 9
  • 10. absolutism.The situation went worth as the time passed. James I had accepted the supervision of Parliament, but CharlesI decided to rule in his own and closed it. The result was the First Civil War, in which King Charles I andParliament were confronted. Parliament won the struggle, and Charles I was executed. This was the fistofficial execution of a king, because he hadnt respected the rights of Parliament.But this execution provoked a convulsion in the population, because it was popularly believed that James Iand Charles I had a sort of miraculous nature. This instability provoked the Second Civil War, whichconfronted those who wanted to go ahead without a monarchy (called Puritans, Roundheads or Republicans)and those who wanted a restoration of the monarchy (called Realist Parliamentarians). This second war haddevastating effects, and the winner were the Puritans or Radicals, commanded by Oliver Cromwell. He gavehimself the title of Lord Protector of the Commonwealth. Thats why England is called Protectorate underhis rule.In 1568 Oliver Cromwell died. A minority wanted to declare his son new Lord Protector, but the majoritywanted Charles II (Charles Is son) to come back from France where he was refugee. So, in 1616 themonarchy is restorated with Charles II: its the Restoration.The Whigs were a group of MPs who were afraid of an absolute monarchy, and of the Catholic faithconnected with it, so they didnt want Charles as a king. They were opposed by the Tories, who upheld theauthority of the Crown and the Church, although they believed that kings authority depended upon theconsent of Parliament.Charles II was politically fool and he followed the style of his father. He secretly supported Catholicism andput some catholics in his government, which implied corruption. He wasnt in fact very popular to the people.When Charles II died, the crown passed to his brother James II, who was openly catholic and wanteddesperately to declare Catholicism in England. It was the most unpopular measure in English history, and in1668 he had to abandon the country by popular demand and take refuge in France. This event is called theBloodless Revolution or Glorious Revolution, because it was pacific and popular.A new king is then called to the country: William de Orange, who was king of Holland and was married toone of James IIs daughters. He was also the official defender of Protestantism, so in Ireland, which had beentraditionally catholic, there were people ready to fight against the new king (the Jacobites, defenders of JamesII). There was then a Jacobite rebellion, but they were defeated by the protestants (defenders of William deOrange) in the Battle of the Boyne.The XVII th century its the first time in which we can talk about the United Kingdom. The idea of the UnitedKingdom comes from the past, but its in the XVII th century when there is a real political union representedin the new king, James I, who was at the same time king of England (including Wales and Ireland) and ofScotland.But in fact there was not a total political union, because there was division caused by the problems of religion:England and Wales had become Anglicans, England was still very Puritan, Scotland was Presbyterian andIreland was Catholic. This diversity of religions caused problems (like the expulsion of Catholics fromIreland) and were the seed of later problems (problem of Northern Ireland).Another important question in the XVII th century was the expansion and growth of colonialism, that hadbegan in times of Elizabeth I (with the first colonial voyages by Sir Walter Ralegh and Francis Drake). Withthe Stuart monarchy, the foundation of the first British Empire takes place (by the end of the XVII th century,England has 13 colonies). But across the Atlantic, there was the same religious division that there was in the 10
  • 11. U.K. There were three main reasons for starting the race of colonialism: wealth, population and the officialpropaganda. • Wealth. Spain was at that time a colonial force, and it was the mirror everyone looked at, because thanks to its colonies it had obtain tremendous economical benefits. America was then a kind of golden cake where Europeans searched for gold and silver (e.g.: legend of El Dorado). • Population. By the beginning of the XVII th century, England was overpopulated. This implied a growth in crime, unemployment and housing necessity. Colonialism was then seen as an answer to these problems: colonies we the place for those people who were out of society (criminals, religious dissenters...). • Official propaganda showed colonies as place where a new beginning was possible to everyone who worked hard. This propaganda attracted many people at the U.K. who had nothing at all, and could search for a new status in the colonies. Thats the origin of the American dream: anyone can build himself a new life, independently from his origin. So, both the government and the people in search for opportunities didnt matter if there were any natives in the land.The problem with colonialism was the location of the new colonies. When Britain started the colonialist race,Spain controlled South America, some places of North America and the old possessions of Portugal in theEast. So, the only place where Britain could place its colonies was the empty lands of North America. Theystarted then in Rhode Island, in the coast. But this provoked several fights against Spain, because it wasconsidered that America was only for Spain (the Pope had given the land to Spain in the Tratado deTordesillas). Most of the struggles in Europe in the XVII th century had a colonial reason, because England,France and Holland were trying to start a colonial empire, and Spain defended its territories (e.g. War of theThirty Days). In these wars, England gained more colonies, like Jamaica (occupied by Cromwell).The question of colonialism in the XVII th century is also the cause of latter struggles between England andFrance (e.g.: Napoleonic wars as Trafalgar), because they both had an increasing power (since Spain andHolland were in decline).The First Civil War is the reason of the cultural tragedy of the XVII th century. When Puritans won this war,all the theatres were closed, and it was the end of the golden age of Shakespeare and Marlowe. With theRestoration in 1616 there was a revival in culture, although the level in drama was not the same as before. Butthanks to Charles II there was a second golden age in music, architecture, painting, literature, and science.From the year 1714 onwards the Hanover *dynasty would rule England. This dynasty had a German origin,and it is known as the dynasty of the Georges. The XVIIIth century was characterised by the expansionismand the lost of colonies.By the year 1773, England was the first colonial empire in the world. The whole century would be full of warsbetween France and Spain (the Bourbon Dynasty) and between England and Holland. In both cases, one of theblocks is catholic, whereas the other one is protestant. Wars of the XVIIIth century are different than before:they are long campaigns, with many different battlefields, and they become international. Wars are fought inEurope and in the colonies; they are highly positive for England. • In the case of the Spanish Succession, England captured the territories of Minorca, Gibraltar and Canada. • In North America, England occupied 13 colonies (all the eastern coast) and Canada (war of Spanish succession). As a result, by the year 1773 England was the only power present in North America. • In Central America, England got the Caribbean Sea (Jamaica, Trinidad, Barbados), which was a very strategic place. • In South America, there was an agreement with Spain, called the Asiento, by which England merchants could sell products to the Spaniards. This trade with South America allowed England to 11
  • 12. sell slaves in America. • In Asia, since the Spanish colonies disappeared, England got India, Sri Lanka, and some commercial links with China. • In the Mediterranean Sea, England occupied Minorca and Gibraltar (war of Spanish succession), which were of commercial importance. • In Africa, it occupied commercial positions like the Cape of Good Hope and St. Helena. These were strategic territories that guard the rout to India. • In Australia and Tazmania, Captain Cook took some territories.But in the year 1773, the loss of colonies started and it culminated in 1776 with the declaration ofindependence in America. That was a terrible loss after a war between the colonies and the Mother Country,sort of a civil war. There are three main reasons for this quarrel: • Structure of the Empire. The whole British Empire was organised centrally, from London. England imposed hard conditions to the colonies about farming, industry and taxes, and none of them had degree of autonomy. All the products were taxed in England, so this tremendous taxation was good for England, but not for the colonies. As a result, the claim of the colonies would be No taxation without representation. • Absence of danger. The danger of France for the colonies had been expelled by 1773, so American colonies had a degree of security. • George IIs policy decided not to let such liberty to America. This was a royal mistake, and the idea of the Empire disappeared.The loss of the American colonies marked the end of an age and the beginning of another. One of theconsequences was an important reversal in economy. The other one was the French Revolution (1789). TheFrench Revolution took the example of the American colonies and their democratic principles (the idea offighting the inequality of American citizens in respect to their metropolis). The idea of get independencewithout an unfair king or system was a bomb that influenced the French Revolution. It was the end of anancien regine and the emerge of a new figure, Napoleon. This would be the period of the Napoleonic Warsbetween France and England.The XVIIIth century marks also the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. By the time that the NapoleonicWars ended (Waterloo, 1815), England was fully industrialised. It was a gradual develop due to variousreasons:• The demographic growth in second half of the century meant a bigger market than ever before and plenty of cheap labour. This growth can be explained by the improvement of life conditions, although there were in fact great differences between England and Ireland. The real reason for this demographic growth seems to be the bigger birth rate, caused to a mayor availability of goods (and allowed this by the Agrarian Revolution).• The previous Agrarian Revolution > more births > Industrial R. The boom in science in this century caused the introduction of new crops, breading experiments, change in techniques of manure...and all of this made the agrarian production increase.• The Transport Revolution was necessary for transporting the production. A new net of roads were built thanks to private companies (turnpikes). Citizens had to pay a toll for using those roads. For the fist time, all the industrial centres were communicated by a radial system with centre in London. In this time, also a new huge net of canals were built to allowed an easier transport of products. The people who built these canals, the navvies, constructed later on the railway. These new roads and canals transformed the English landscape, and the system was exported to the colonies and other countries.• The Technical Revolution transformed the means of production. In England, it affected the most important industrial sectors: textile and iron.• In the textile sector, the introduction of the Spinning Jenn (a spinning machine operated by one man that 12
  • 13. made the work of 12 men) allowed a bigger production. But then more cotton was needed, and the commerce with the USA was re−established. At the end of the XVIIIth century, England became the main producer and exporter of cloth in the world.• In the iron sector, the steam engines and the use of coal as new source of energy made the production of iron increase; England became the first producer in the world.Industries were to be found in the North and West of England, where a number of towns increased theirpopulation (Liverpool, Sheffield, Newcastle...). They were the backbone of the Industrial Revolution; in thiscities industrial slums (suburbs) appeared, where people lived in miserable conditions.As a result, the wealthiest country in the world at the end of the XVIIIth century had a part of its population inmiserable life conditions. Distances between poor and rich people increased enormously and the clime was ofunrest, which was the seed for a possible social revolution. But before, there are several questions to take intoaccount.The battle of Waterloo (1815) was very important for England, because it meant the final defeat of Napoleon,the end of Napoleonic Wars (which had started in the final years of the XVIIIth century) and it marked theconsolidation of the second English Empire. There were three main reasons for the English victory inWaterloo:• Napoleon own mistakes guided by his ambitions. Both the Russian and the Spanish campaign had been disasters that weakened Napoleons power.• Crucial role of the English navy, commanded by Nelson (death in the battle of Trafalgar). The well situation of the navy allowed England to be present in different stages and to make a naval blockade. This naval blockade was proved to be very effective to maintain the international trade by sea, whereas trade in France was restricted to the land.• The industrialisation of England, which allowed a massive production of coal, iron and cloth. These products were in many cases exported, and they gave an enormous profit although those were times of war. By 1851 England was fully industrialised.England was then the wealthiest and more industrialised country in the world. These was shown to the rest ofthe world during The Great Exhibition (1851, Victorian times), which took place at The Crystal Palace inLondon. It was a symbol of English industrial power: even the Crystal Palace was an industrial revolution,since it was the first pre−fabricated building.But this had a terrible dark side behind: millions of inhabitants of the wealthiest country were the poorestpeople in the world. These people worked in terrible conditions, because work and production was based onthe effort and suffering of many people who worked for low rages, all days of the week (except Sundays) andwith a terrible schedule.The pressure of working masses obliged the government to make a new law in 1842 to introduce newmeasures in working conditions: The Great Reform. This law not only provoked changes, but it also showedthe miserable working conditions and life (e.g. children from 5 years old were working for 60−70 hours aweek in mines, there were no hygienic conditions...). Some of the changes of The Great Reform were: • No children under nine could work in mines. • No children under ten could work in textile factories. • Hour of working was limited to 55 hours a wee.This law opened the way to many Reforming Groups which were trying to improve working conditions. Themost important of them was Chartism; this group produced a document called The Charter of Rights whichwas not accepted by the government. Some of the petitions were: 13
  • 14. • Universal male suffrage (at those times, only men who could prove they had a regular income could vote, so workers were excluded). • Representation in Parliament (to be an MP men had to prove they had a high income, so only high classes could be members). • Right of association (workers needed to associate to get improvements in their conditions, but it was forbidden; the bobbies as a special police force created at those times to control worker reunions, specially in industrial towns). • Redistribution of seats in Parliament (each city had a given number of seats, but the fast growth of population in industrial areas provoked that cities as Manchester had less seats than another ones less populated; the solution to this unfair situation was then to give more seats to the more densely populated areas).The social pressure was then very strong, and it could have been a social revolution if it hadnt appear therailway.The railway not only made distances smaller and travels faster, but it also caused the creation of employmentthat alleviated the social pressure because millions of people could then get a job (even when the railway wasexported). So, it can be said that the railway saved England form a social revolution.But the workers situation wasnt the same in all places belonging to the English crown, especially in Ireland.Between 1845 and 1850 Ireland lost three million people: 1.5 or 2 million emigrated, and 1 or 1.5 million diedfor starvation. These were called in Ireland The Famine Years, because the basic diet for most Irish in thosedays were potatoes (because they didnt have money for anything more). And the worst thing came when in1845 the potato crop is destroyed by a killer fungus, so there was nothing to eat. There is important to takeinto account that Ireland was in fact a great producer of milk, butter, cereals, etc., but they were not given tothe Irish people because the production was given to commerce (following the policy of laissez faire). As aresult, millions of people died from starvation and those who had an opportunity emigrated.This policy was the biggest English mistake in Ireland, and it is still remembered as a great attack to Irishpeople. This situation explains the presence of Ireland in USA and Canada (New York is called in Ireland thenext parish).This terrible event caused the born of secret societies which were given money from abroad to prepare theindependence of Ireland, most of them were catholic, like the I.R.B. or Irish Republic Brotherool (later on theIRA).But apart from violent groups as the IRB, there were also some political groups in the second half of theXIXth century that searched for a peaceful answer to the Irish problem. The idea was to get the Home Rule,which was a kind of self−government, but it was denied during all XIXth by England. This situation explainsthe origin of Sinn Fein (Ourselves Alone), a political group that defended the Home Rule.The question of Home Rule has to do with the Famine Years, because after that terrible situation, Irish peopleconsidered that, since they didnt get any advantage from being part of England, it was better to beindependent.The question of Ireland shows the two faces of England during the XIXth century: although England was themost powerful nation in the world, the problem of Ireland was still there.The world during the second half of the XIXth century was in a very complex situation, full with conflictsdue to a colonial reason. The situation of England as the most powerful country made the internationalrelations very difficult, and the English colonial empire suffer lots of conflicts: 14
  • 15. • The Opium War, the Far East (1840s), which confronted England with China. England had at those times some commercial stations in China, but wanted to improve the trade, using opium as currency (China had at those days a great demand of it although it was not legal, and England could grow it in other parts of the empire). When Chinese authorities tried to stop the illegal trade of opium, the confrontation with England started.At the end, both nations got to an arrangement: England wouldnt use opium as currency, but it got morecommercial stations. • The Crimean War, Africa (1854), which confronted England with Russia. This war had its origin in the problem of the declining state of the Turkish Empire, because then a number of nations wanted to gain some territorial gains with its collapse. Russia was the most important of them (it was known as The Bear), but if Russia got strategic territories, the situation for some English colonies would be very dangerous. When Russia got Afghanistan (in the Peninsula of Crimea), India (the Jew of the Crown for England) was then in a very serious danger of being attacked by Russia. The confrontation started then: England, with the support of France and Turkey, fought against Russia.The Crimean War was a failure for England and it had a terrible cost. It proved that English army need tochange its tactics and techniques, which hadnt changed from times of Waterloo.It was also the first war in which the figure of the war correspondent appeared, and that allowed the Englishpublic to be more concerned about the suffering of their troops. This increasing concern was the reason whyFlorence Nightingale, Flo, created the first group of military nurses, which later on would became the RedCross. • The Indian Mutiny, 1857. India was the principle English possession, where English rule was extended all over the country, even beyond places like Khabul and Jallalabad (Afghanistan). The territory was massive, so England couldnt control it using only its own troops, and it was obliged to form a native force; the result was of 40 thousand English troops and 500 thousand native troops.England had already started to westernise India, which included, for example, the imposition of English as theofficial language, the massive construction of railways and the suppression of native traditions and customsthat the English considered savages. This imposition provoked a gap between the English and the Indiansocieties, which exploded in 1857 with a rebellion of native troops, The Mutiny.England suppressed the mutiny but the cost was high, and distances between both populations growth.England started a new policy of imposition of power, because India was a possession that the governmentwanted to keep at all costs. • Conflict of Afghanistan, 1880s. England was very aware of the Russian expansion, which had got very near to the Indian frontier. England then extended the British rule to the North of India, Afghanistan, to stand the line of defend far away from India. Another reason was that Afghanistan produced lots of opium, of which England could make use to commerce with China.But it was a very difficult area to maintain, and in the Kabul disaster (1883) the city was taken by the nativepopulation, so England had to retreat its frontieres. • Africa was the great cake of those years, waiting to be divided among the colonial powers, although there was already some European presence. Basically, the whole continent was unknown, and the religious or reporters expeditions (e.g. Livinstone) began to discover its richness in natural resources like rubber, gold, diamonds, agriculture... 15
  • 16. The division of Africa was made peacefully in the assemblies of the Partition of Africa, and the results were: • Congo was given at personal title to the king of Belgium (a little important colonial power), so private companies could operate freely. • German, who wanted to be a colonial power, got some territories. • The partition didnt take into account the native population, which was a tribal society. This artificial partition created great problems between tribes that still have effects in our days. • England occupied a good position both in the North and in the South, forming a belt of territories. They were very strategic areas: South Africa (capital Cape Town) and Egypt (the Suez Canal, whose control allowed a shorter voyage to India).By the partition of Africa (1878−1914), Great Britain added 12,173,000 Km2 to their possessions. So, it wasthe greatest imperial power at the time, with most of their possessions placed in Africa. The basiccharacteristics of British presence in Africa were:• The presence is much more extended in the east than in the west, with the establishment of commercial companies (East Africa Company, directed by Gen Mackenzie).• A division between north and south can be made, although the supreme interest of Great Britain was to create a belt of territories to unite north and south. That division was due to the presence of Germany, which had increased its colonial power by the end of the XIXth century.Germany, in order to establish a connection with the Turkish Empire, created the Germane−Turkish railway(from Berlin to Baghdad). But this was a threat to the British empire.• The massive presence of Great Britain in the south of Africa encouraged the creation of the South Africa Company, commanded by Cecil Rhodes.The only territories in the south that didnt belong to Great Britain were two islands (Transvaal and OrangeFree State), that belonged to Holland. The inhabitants of those lands were called Boers, and their society wasbasically agricultural.The problem arose at the end of the XIXth century, because of the discover of diamonds and of gold mines atthose Dutch territories. De Veer (Dutch) argued that Holland should firmly maintain the monopoly ofdiamonds, but Great Britain was very much interested in annexing those territories.This situation provoked the Boer War, won by Great Britain. Consequences: • It was a serious war that caused sufferings and loses. • Germany proved to be an active imperial power. • Great Britain annexed the territories, although British and Boer societies agreed to co−rule the land. But this leaded to another problem, the exclusion of the black society: the Apartheid system. Great Britain is then the responsible for the building of concentration camps in South AfricaThe colonial question was the main factor which provoked a destructive event in history: THE I WORLDWAR, 1914−1919.Origin.The colonial question had to do with the development of Germany as a colonial power during the end of theXIXth century. Germany, in order to expand and have an empire, started a process of re−armament. TheGerman objective was to conquer lands in the Turkish Empire, so the country took action in the Balkans andNear East, which were crucial territories. 16
  • 17. But Germany became a threat for England when they occupied some places in the Low Countries, too near theBritish Isles. England decided then to jump into war against Germany.The I World War had been announced through all the conflicts of the XIXth century, and people like Engelshad tried to avoid it with their texts (XVIIIth century).In fact, the war was something that a number of nations were looking forward. For example, the text of Engelsshows those were times of general happiness, that has to do with the national pride of England and Germany.The war was then a way of showing which country had the supremacy. It was an example of theNeo−Darwinism or survival of the fittest, applied to the human society.In the I World War, it is important the influence of industrialisation. All industries were put in service to war,making new weapons like tanks or gas. Their effects were devastating to all nations, and practically ageneration disappeared in this war.There was also a general state of bankruptcy in Europe, due to the relations established between the countriesin conflict.The Treaty of Versailles put an end to the war. It was agreed by the winners of the war that the debt should bepaid by Germany, the looser. Terrible conditions were then imposed to Germany, that suffered the worstinflation in the history of the world. In the long run, it is a fact that explains the II World War.In the Treaty of Versailles Germany lost the Alsace and Lorraine, its colonies, and territories in Poland,including some productive areas. Germany lost 6500 km2 of its possessions.Concerning the army, Germany could not maintain an army superior to 100000 men, with no artillery, notanks and no submarines, just light infantry.In this treaty, a the principle of war guilt was imposed, so Germany had to pay to the winners as acompensation for the war (100000 million marks in gold). This money was not paid regularly, so in a fewyears the Valley of the Ruhr, which was the most industrial area of Germany, was taken.As a consequence of the Treaty of Versailles, the German inflation increased in the 20s, so Germanpopulation suffered miserable conditions. There was a feeling of hurt pride that made the Nazism appear. TheMein Kampf and Hitlers figure emerged with the support of millions of German people. These were ideas ofracial superiority, need of expansion, national pride and unity... a message that the country wanted to hear.Nazism gave hopes to the Germans, so the development of this group by the late 30s was tremendous and itcouldnt be stopped.The prize that England had to pay for the war was high: many colonies assisted England during the war andthey wanted recognition. Its the case of Ireland, where the Home Rule Bill had to be studied again. Englandthen gave a partial independence, making a partition of the Irish island in two halves: Northern Ireland and theRepublic of Ireland. The partition in fact was problematic from the very beginning. The ones who wanted theunity were basically the Protestant population of Northern Ireland (unionists), which were a majority in thatarea. They wanted to stay united to England because they were a minority in the whole Ireland.The majority of this area was due to the plantations made in the XVIIIth century, the Munster and Ulster. TheMunster was a territory that never had got progress, so they wanted a union with England. On the contrary, themajority of the Irish people wanted the Home Rule Bill. England gave independence to the whole country, butthen the Unionists fought against it and finally, Ireland got a partial independence.But in the south of Ireland, a civil war started between Unionists and Independents. One Independent was 17
  • 18. Michael Collins, who created the IRA. It was a terrible war for Ireland, which suffered many miseries.The idea of setting London as the operational centre of a Club of Nations (being the Queen or King its topfigure) took form at those years. The ancient English Empire turned into the Commonwealth. Its principleswere equality between nations and helping each other to maintain the empire. That was the prize that Englandhad to pay for their mistakes in Ireland, Australia, etc. The financial and economical effects were good,because still nowadays New Zealand depends on the United Kingdom, and the Queen of England is also, intheory, Queen of Australia.THE II WORLD WAR (1940−1945)The conflict was more international than the I World War. The Allies (England, France, Russia and USA)were confronted with the Axis (Germany, Italy and Japan).The cost of the war (toll) was great: millions of civilian lives were lost, and this war showed its most horribleaspect in tragedies like Hiroshima, the bombing of London, Nagasaki...The consequence of the II World War as a world disrupted. Economically, it was even worst. Roosevelt,Stalin and Churchill became the leaders after the war. It was also the end of the imperial dream, because itwas evident then that it was an enormous paradox. England was not an empire ever after.By 1945 the world was divided between USA and the communist Russia: these were the years of the cold warbetween the two contenders.RELIGIONThe predominant religion through British History is Christianity, which was first brought by the Romans. TheRoman emperor Constantine was the first one to give Christianity as the official religion of his empire, and itwas one of the great legacies of the Romans. By the time they left, in the IVth century, part of the British Isleshad been christianised.But before the IV th century, there were several religious beliefs to take into account.• THE EARLY TIMES (BEFORE IVth)The earliest occupations were as a rule of small groups of hunters and gatherers moving from place to placeand leaving few traces. Probably, they venerated the sun and the moon. Also, as Robert Graves argues, theyprobably venerated a mother goddess, because many archaeological rests in Europe represent a female figurewith a prominent womb, which can be seen as a cult of fertility. In the case of Ireland, this female figure isstill present in its name, Erin, which derives from Erinia, their mother goddess.The first archaeological traces appear when the hunters and gatherers settle down. Then, the cult of the deathappears, bringing the first burial monuments with it. In the case of Britain, the first burial monuments are whatwe call the Round Chambers, which were cameras surrounded by walls of stones and covered with earth.There are two kinds of chambers: simple round chamber (spread in Maes House) and round chamber with acorridor or passage (spread in Newgrange).These structures have to do with early beliefs. In the case of the round chambers with a corridor, morecomplex than the simple ones, the chamber is illuminated by the sun once a year during a moment, in thesolstice of winter. The conclusion is that this early people had some astronomical knowledge. When talkingabout these first inhabitants, we are talking about Iberians, which must have had some knowledge ofnavigation to reach the British Isles. Then, when they settled down, this astronomical knowledge remained in 18
  • 19. their cult.These monuments made of stone are typical of megalithic times, similar to the dolmens in the IberianPeninsula. • Stonehenge and the Stone Circles.We know few things about these monuments. In a way, they are connected with the Round Chambers, buttheir purpose was not burial. The case of Stonehenge is still very mysterious, because in fact it is formed bytwo circles.This mysterious form has caused several definitions of Stonehenge through history. • A visual monument of Dracontia (XVIIIth century), because it should represent the shape of a snake. This theory has been rejected because there are no evidences. • It had to do with the Circle of King Arthur and the legend about Merlin petrifying giants who had come from Ireland (Medieval times). But we have stone circles also in Ireland, generally facing the Atlantic, and very close to the coast (maybe because they were made by early navigators). • A place of sacrifice for the Celtic Druids. It is true that Celts made use of Stonehenge, but it had been built in 3000 BC, long before they arrived to the British Isles. • Now it is considered a calendar, which can be seen by observing the situation of the stones: they seem to be aligned to represent the solstices so they could celebrate their ceremonies. And this takes us to the cult of Sun and Moon. But that doesnt explain their circular shape, or why the stones were brought from miles away. This may have to do with some primitive dances which certain places of Europe still possess, a kind of dance of the giants. This idea of circle is very ancient in human history: a movement in a circular shape has a rotation to the right (positive, dance of fertility) and to the left (associated with the worst, like war or death dances). The ritualistic dances might then have something to do with Stonehenge as a place of ceremony. • The Celtic religion.Most of Celtic tribes venerated the figures of the heads with three faces, which represented love, life anddeath.Most rituals of the Celtics were agrarian and time cults.Due to their veneration to the Sun and Moon, the Celtic calendar was divided in thirteen months of 28 dayseach, according to the thirteen lunar phases. The last month, which made the number 13 in their calendar, wasthe month of the death, which is the origin of the negative idea associated to this number. Each lunar phasecan be divided into two fortnights (13 or 15 days). The thirteen months of the Celtic calendar are divided theninto four parts: • 1 November or Shamhain (cult to the deaths) • 1 May or Beltane (day of purification; it represented the day in the life) • 1 February or Lugnassad • 1 August or OimelcIn the agrarian cults, the Celtic goddess of fertility was Brigid, associated with the tribe of the Brigantes inGreat Britain. The image of Brigid soon developed into a representation of the three faces.Historians have got to the conclusion that there was a totemic tree for each month (Robert Graves, The whitegoddess). There were a series of tree which were thought to have magic−religious properties: 19
  • 20. • The oak (dpús in Greek, where the name of druids derived), whose fruits, the acorns, gave the power of seen the future. • The apple trees were the trees of wisdom and knowledge. • The yew tree (tejo) was the tree of death.The Epic was soon used for the Celts to transmit orally the achievements of their divinities (like the cycle ofCuchulain). In the epic cycles of their divinities there is always a maritime travel to the underworld (el másallá) from which the divinity comes back. Later on, Christianity will adapt the story of Cuchulain to convert itin the story of St. Brendan, who was told to have come back from a travel to hell. This idea of going to theunderworld or world of divinities with the idea of bringing something to the mortals is also present in mythsof other cultures (like Prometeo in the Greek mythology, who brought the fire from the gods).But in this mortal world, the person in charge of preserve all this rituals was the druid or great priest.The role of Druids was basic in Celtic culture. The word druid probably derives from the Greek dpús (oak),which may have to do with the magic properties of acorn. Some of the characteristics of druids were:• Diviners, seers.• Sacrificial priests.The little we know about them comes from Roman writers, whose connotations were usually bad (theyconsidered Celts as savages). We then know that animals sacrifices was carried out, with the idea of seeingthe future. This divination was also present in the Roman culture, where the organs of animals were examined.We also know this because in some regions like Ireland, which was a very backward region till the XVthcentury, many of the Celtic customs were maintained till very late in history. In medieval times, the figure ofthe fili or bards occupied an important place in society; maybe they were the inheritors of the druids.• Recorders of history (memory of the clan).We know that bards in medieval times were important members of the clan, which probably happened alsowith druids in Celtic times.Druids were also political advisers, which might explain why people like Julius Caesar hated them so much.Since druids represented the roots of the Celts, Romans wanted to destroy them to destroy then the society.The medieval bards were also the founders of schools, but they were usually handled by Christian monks.This may explain the 4th role of the druids.• Teachers of other druids.In the case of bards, they were extracted from aristocratic families. Probably the same happened with druids,who were brought from druidic families. Druids were responsible for the oral transmission of the history ofthe clan to the next generation. These Celtic stories were later on written down in medieval times by monks.One of this medieval books is Leabhar Grabhála or Book of Invasions, which narrates the foundation ofIreland. The story maintains that there had been four invasions, but only the one coming from the IberianPeninsula (commanded by king Hiberus) was successful. From this time onwards, Ireland began to develop.In fact, the Book of Invasions fit perfectly the real history of Ireland, in which the final Celtic invasion pushedthe Iberians to the west.There were also druidic schools, like in the island of Mona (Anglesa), which seems to have been a centre ofknowledge; other examples are Tara and another one in France. 20
  • 21. • Judges.Julius Caesar wrote that druids acted in public justice. Going to the medieval time, there were importantpeople in society called the Brehons, who developed a system of justice called The Brehon Laws whichexisted till the end of the XVIth century. The Brehons differentiated three kinds of categories in law: murder,private property and inheritance.The Brehon Law is connected with the druids, of which they had taken their inheritance. Brehons followed therule of compensation in their laws.Historians have also come to the conclusion that druids must have played the role of international referees orarbiters between different tribes or even nations. Druids were very respected figures through all the Celticworld, so they could move freely (for example, they had the power of stopping a battle).• Official poets or bards for the king and court.Medieval bards could even be very aggressive in their poems or songs without being punished; this role mightbe related with druids.As a rule, druids were men, but it is thought that there were also druidesses (like Morgana in Arthurs legend),although we cant be sure.Druids made use of herbs, of which they had a profound knowledge.• THE ROMAN WORLDWhen the Romans finally settle down in Great Britain (43 AD), Britain jumped into the western civilisation.Romans are not only responsible for creating a system of roads or for bringing Britain closer to the continent,but also for the impose of Christianity in Britain.But Christianity wasnt brought by the Romans till the end of their occupation of Britain. We can make then adivision in time:• Pre−Constantine years• Constantine (IVth century AD)• Post−Constantine yearsConstantine was the first Roman emperor who made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire inthe IVth century AD (Edict of Nicea), a measure that also affected Great Britain.But the imposition of Christianity in England didnt meant a quickly and final elimination of other religions,but a time of coexistence between the great variety of cults in Britain together with Christianity: • Celtic cults (a background which never disappeared in Roman times) • Cult of Mythras (this cult had come from the East and it was even followed by many Roman soldiers; Christianity in fact inherited many aspects of Mithraism).The fall of Rome (476 AD) was an event with tremendous consequences for religion. The main reason for thefall of the Roman Empire was the invasions, which needs to be explained.The Roman frontiers (specially the Rhine and the Danube) were broken and the whole Roman Empire in theWest was over run by a number of barbarian tribes coming from many places outside the empire (like Goths, 21
  • 22. Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Franks, Germans, Vandals, Slavs, Huns, Jutes, Saxons and Angles). The occupation ofRoman territories was made gradually. The movement of these tribes was due to a chain effect of one grouppushing another, till the final push went against Rome.The Huns (from the Far East) made the first push of this chain. They were expert in mobile war combinedwith the use of terror. They created an enormous fear in many people outside the Roman frontiers, who feltthen unprotected.These unprotected groups saw then Rome as a place that granted security, since Roman civilisation wasconsidered superior and admirable. The groups of barbarians wanted then to take part in the Roman Empire,but that was a time in which the Roman status quo was falling. The push against Rome was the final attackthat made the Roman Empire fall.After the fall of Rome, there were two great cultural islands in Europe where the Roman culture survived,but which remained isolated for many years:• Central Europe, Italy, France (bigger part)• Wales, Ireland, ScotlandThe Church was the only Roman institution that survived in this period of general confusion. A sort ofintegrity was maintained in the Christian church, which kept on using the Roman policy methods for its ownobjectives and organisation.The Church as the survival institution of the Romans remained only in the areas 1 and 2, because:• Central Europe, Italy and France were limited: • To the North with Vikings • To the East with Slavs • To the South with Islam • To the West with Angles, Saxons and Jutes• Wales, Ireland and Scotland were separated from 1 by Anglo−Saxons. These groups had yet pushed the native population of Britain to the West.The existence of these two isolated areas takes us to understand the reason why there were two differentchurches in the British Isles: • The Celtic Church, which was the institution that survived in Wales, Ireland and Scotland • The Roman Church, which was the institution conserved in Central Europe, Italy and France. They considered the Pope as a kind of emperor. • See texts 7 and 8 of Sourcebook on British CivilisationThe coming of the Roman Church to Scotland was made in 563−5 AD and to England in 597 AD.These texts, written by the monk and historian Venerable Bede, tell about the first coming of Roman Churchto England, although it had happened first in Scotland. The reason for this manipulation might be a desire ofestablishing a rank of importance, so the event to take in mind was the coming of Christianity to England(because Bede was English and also a Roman Christian monk).In the final clash between the Celtic and the Roman churches, the Roman church was chosen in the Synod of 22
  • 23. Whitby. The Synod of Whitby took place at Northumbria, and it was carried out by the orders of its kingOswy, who wanted to decide a religion. He finally decided to accept the Roman branch, and sinceNorthumbria was the most important kingdom of that time, it influenced the rest of England.But which steps lead to the Synod of Whitby?The Romans had left England around 407 AD to defend the south of their empire, leaving the Britishpopulation without any defend from invasions of Jutes, Saxons or Angles. In 500 Ad, in a manuscript aboutthe battle of Mons Badanious, it is told about a king called Arthur that won this struggle against the invaders,which is the origin of the legend.The new waves of invaders pushed the native population to the west. Between 430 and 460 a monk called StPatrick (now the patron of Ireland) christianised Ireland. He might be from Wales or Cornwall, but waspushed into Ireland due to the new waves of invaders.The Celtic church was monastic and exported missionaries to other areas. An example of this travellingchurch is the legend of monk St Brendan, who was supposed to have travelled into the Atlantic, coming acrossland in the middle of the ocean. What we know for certain is that someone called St Columba, was the monkresponsible for taking Christianity from Ireland to Scotland. Columba was the founder of the first Christianmonastery in Scotland, Iona (563−565).In 597 AD the Roman Church sent a new mission to England. The Roman Church was the only institution ofthe Roman Empire that had survived after the collapse. The mission sent to England was commanded bymonk Augustine, who arrived at Kent. The king of Kent accepted the establishment of the Roman Church,offering them Canterbury as a gift (it would become the religious capital of England). Later on the RomanChurch set in Canterbury began to expand, which inevitably took to a collide with the Celtic church.Its important to mark the differences between these two branches. The Celtic church had developed for yearsmaking a process of amalgamation with the pagan or druidic world. Celtic monks took elements from thenative believes to explain the Bible, like the Adans apple (apple was the tree of knowledge for Celts), StBrigida (Bridgid was a Celtic goddess). Easter was celebrated differently from the Roman Church. Celticmonks shaved their heads like druids did, whereas Roman monks made themselves the tonsure.The clash between the Celtic and Roman churches took place in Northumbria. The king Oswy decided then tochoose the Roman branch (Synod of Whitby), leaving the Celtic church in the north−west of Britainseparated from the Roman church in the south−east. But why this Anglo−Saxon replaced his own religionwithout any violence?The reason why Oswy chose the Roman church was the prestige of the Roman culture and civilisation,because Anglo−Saxons didnt possess that knowledge of organisation that Romans had (libraries, education,taxation...) that Anglo−Saxons needed so much to organise their reigns. The Roman monks were thenconsidered useful by the kings, so the imposition of Christianity was made from top of society to bottom.The Roman monks were well received at Kent because the kings wife was Christian. They presentedthemselves as good utensils to organise the political life in Britain. But missionaries not only offeredknowledge, but also life after death if Christianity was accepted and the punishment of hell if their religionwas not accepted.The Celtic church continued existing for centuries, although the Roman Church had won. When Ireland wasinvaded by England (XIIth c, Henry II) one of the reasons for invasion was religion. This campaign took thenthe characteristics of a crusade, supported by the Roman Church of England, which was interested ineliminating the Celtic church. This invasion meant the elimination of the Celtic church appart from the 23
  • 24. destruction of the Celtic life and culture.The importance that the Celtic Church had can be seen in the splendour of their architecture and manuscriptslike the Book of Kells.The Celtic monasteries were in fact simple communities with no commodities. Celts were also very skilful inthe illumination of manuscripts that contained Christian and pagan elements, representing the perfect blend ofthe Celtic church in those times. The same blend of ornamentation is present in coffers, chalices, stonecrosses...The western culture was conserved thanks to the Celtic monks and their manuscripts. The lost of the pastknowledge in the rest of Europe is the reason why this period is called The Dark Age.From the Synod of Whitby onwards, both king ad church worked together for centuries. This strong link wasdemonstrated in the territory of the Franks, an event with tremendous effects for the whole Europe.Franks was one of the tribes moving to the west when Rome collapsed. One of their early kings, Clovis (Vthcentury), divided the territory of the Franks among his children. This was the beginning of the dynasty of theMerovinghan kings. But later on, they became very weak, because the nobles that supported their feudalsystem were becoming much more stronger that the king himself.One of this strong nobles was the major−domo Charles Martel, who had a son called Pepin the Short. Pepinwanted to make a coup détat (753−4) to become king, so he then presented a petition to the Pope: the Popewould bless the coup détat and in exchange, Pepin would defeat the Lombards, taking their lands and givingthem to the Pope. Thats the origin of the Papal Domain, and the first evidence of church and state workingtogether.The confirmation of this co−operation arrived when Pepins son, Charlemagne, inherited the throne of theFranks. When the Pope was been threaten again by the Lombards, Charlemagne fought against them anddefeat them as his father had done in the past. In exchange, the Pope gave him the title of Holy RomanEmperor (800AD). The church got then an army to be defended. Charlemagne became a sort of semi−sacredfigure, so he won political stability. And the right of inheritance became a sacred thing, blessed by the Church.But the problems in the stability of western Europe soon arrived.The Carolingian territories were surrounded by enemies: • Mediterranean and most of the Iberian Peninsula: Islam • North: Vikings • East: Slavs and MagyarsCharlemagne was for the first time able to organise his government, because he was rounded by scholasticpeople belonging to the Roman Church that supported him.Thanks to Charlemagne, the church got scholastic schools, abbeys and a revival of culture (althoughCharlemagne never learned to read or write, he was very concerned about the importance of culture).Thanks to the support of the church, he was able to centralise his power, setting a new patron that would soondevelop into the feudal system. He was the central figure of the empire, with the lands divided among thenobles (dukes and earls). The pyramid of society was characterised by a total absence of a middle class:King 24
  • 25. Nobility Religious figuresServesThe church is responsible for this state of society because: • They had converted the king in a semi−sacred figure • They helped him with the government and laws • They helped him in maintaining the central government and the nobility.Charlemagne created a series of emissaries or missi dominici, who were usually religious figures who visitedareas of the empire to then report it to the king.In a minor scale, the same happened in England, although it didnt belong to the Carolingian empire.Anglo−Saxon kings gradually adopted Christianity and a new way of government supported by the church.In fact, when the second generation of Roman monks (commanded by Theodore of Tarsus) arrived toCanterbury, the city had yet converted in the religious and cultural centre of England. • See text 8The first remarkable thing of this text is that it is a written promulgation of laws, something that was veryunusual before the arrival of the Roman monks.Examining these laws, we can see a blend between the Church and the Angle−Saxon culture:• The church could suffer no taxation at all, and they would pray for the king without compulsion. By this, the church is establishing itself as an element superior than the king and as a free institution. It shows the enormous power that the church had got in only one generation.• The punishments for crimes against church and king are equal.• The 3rd law proves that the church excluded anyone who didnt follow them. Church wanted to impose moral principles on the whole community, dictating social rules. Altough these ideas were new to the Anglo−Saxon population, they had to follow them by force, because the church had the support of the king and the nobility. With the growing prosperity of the church, it soon became wealth and powerful.The growing power of the church soon provoked problems in the union with the state. These problems had todo with the notion of power in early medieval times. All feudal monarchs tended towards absolute power andcentralism (like Charlemagne did), but they needed subjects to increase their power. Then, the kings derivedtheir power from two sources: God (king were anointed by God, they were sacred figures) and their subjects(taxation to get material power).Due to this aspiration of power the feudalism was born. To obtain money, the king divided his country amongnobles who must respond before him. Nobility could govern their lands but they had to give the king some ofthe benefits.But what role did church occupied in this system? Church was becoming wealth and they were owners of vastamounts of lands. The Church wanted to be a free institution, which was not subject of the king because itonly responded before God. This early friction would soon grow due to the increasing power of the Church,which was becoming dangerous for the kings government. This is called The Fight of Investitures.IV. THE VIKING PERIOD. The Normans 25
  • 26. The first Viking raids had a tremendous effect on the Anglo−Saxon government and society.Some of the earliest Viking attacks went against monasteries (like Iona, Lindisfrane, and Jarrow), so religionsuffered a great impact.Vikings imposed their own faith, but they became Christian the moment they settled down in the place. Oneof the reasons for this is that Vikings had had contact with Christianity long before they arrived to England.Another reason is that the labour of Christian Anglo−Saxon figures was very important.The Viking attacks had then a great impact on religion, but in fact, the Anglo−Saxon Church was then in agolden period, full of great cultural activities like The Anglo−Saxon Chronicle. There were hundreds of littlechurches all over the country, so the Christian Church was strongly connected to the people. For example, theSt Peters Pence was a costum by which everyone paid a pence to the Church on St Peters Day, and part ofthis money was send to Rome. It was a very respected custom not only by the common people, but also by theAnglo−Saxon kings, who were the ones that had imposed it. The strong connection between Church andpeople was also due to the usage of the same language, the Anglo−Saxon English, instead of the differentlanguage (French and Latin) that Normans would impose with their arrival.The Norman invasion provoked then great changes in the Anglo−Saxon Church.First, the Norman invasion had been blessed by the Pope: even when William I fought in the Battle ofHastings (in which he won Harold Haardrabe and got the throne), he wore a banner of the Pope. The Battle ofHastings was then a kind of crusade, but why?The reason has to do with the Pope of those times, Gregory VII. He made one of the first reformations of theChurch, called The Gregorian Reform, which consolidated the Church as we know it nowadays. Before thisreformation, many religious Christian figures were married and had children that inherited their charges andthis was a problem for the Church. Gregory VII imposed then the Cannon Law, which forbid religious figuresto marry. Probably, Gregory VII saw in William I the possibility of spreading the Reform through England, ashe did after the Battle of Hastings.The Norman invasion provoked also a tremendous change at the head of the Church. In the course of 15 years,all the Anglo−Saxon religious figures were replaced by Norman figures or people under Norman control.William I used William Lanfrank to impose the Gregorian Reform, which changed the Church in England.Some of the changes were, for example, the introduction of the Cannon Law and that the religious crimes (orcrimes which had to do with the Church) would be judged only by the Church.William Lanfrank is also responsible for the imposition of the French Style or French Culture. This explainswhy the monks of the order of Cluny (the Cluniacs), who had a French origin, became so relevant in England,establishing big Cluniac monasteries in the place. The French Style affects also the architecture: instead of thelittle churches of Anglo−Saxon times, new big cathedrals and temples were built.But the cathedrals are not only a symbol of the increasing power and wealth of the Church, but also a sign of anumber of drawbacks. The big stone cathedrals contrasted enormously with the normal houses: there was thena gap between Church and peasants. The Norman Church was miles away from the common people, insteadof the strong connection that the Anglo−Saxon Church had had before. The Norman Church had become anaristocratic institution, which only spoke French and Latin. This difference in language made that English wasrelegated in all cultural and religious aspects; English became the language of the poorest and it grew freely, afact that may explain the anarchy of the English Grammar.The final break between Church and government arrived at times of William II, due to the role of Anselm ofBec. Anselm was a prominent religious figure and an intellectual, who had come from the continent and had 26
  • 27. became archbishop of Canterbury. He was absolutely resolved to maintain the Gregorian Reform introducedby Lanfrank and to keep the Church as an independent institution. But Church was an important part of thefeudal system because it had vast amounts of land. The religious figures (bishops and abbots) were then twothings at the same time: religious figures and feudal lords. And as feudal lords, they were vassals of the king.Everyone accepted the double condition of the religious figures, which still had a strong union with the king.When a bishop died, the king was responsible for appointing a new bishop and gave him his attributes (a staffand a ring). This ceremony, called the Investiture, made the Church looked as if it were beyond the king, andthe time of crisis arrived because the king wanted to keep his right of Investiture so he could maintain hispower over the Church (and because his was supposed to emanate from God).The struggle between the State (civil law) and the Church (religious law) started, commanded by William IIand Anselm of Bec respectively.There was a bitter strife between Anselm and William II, but finally Anselm had to quit England and return toRome, where he was supported by the Pope.In the meantime, when the Archbishop of Canterbury died, the king decided not to appoint a new Archbishop.So, William II received all the revenues from Canterbury during four years, a manipulation that the Churchwould resent. As an answer, the Church decided to excommunicate William II, which implied that his subjectscould do with him whatever they felt like.The first solution for this crisis between Church and State arrived with Henry I. He reached a kind ofcompromise about investitures, by which the king would maintain the right of appointing bishops but theattributes would be given by the Church. There was also a hidden compromise, by which the king wouldntkeep the sees of the Church. This gave the Church a kind of independence in the eyes of the people.The second big question that had to be faced was the question of law. The political power developmentculminated in times of Henry II. He developed a machinery of state, by which the question of taxes wasresolved and the law was applied to everyone in the land.One of Henry IIs ambitions was having a full control of the kingdom, which included taxation, law anddefence. Henry II applied then the Common Law to the whole land. It is called so because it is based ontradition, so the state recorded the cases and when a similar case happened, they related to past cases (thecases made jurisprudence). But since the Church had its own law (the Cannon Law), the problems soon camewhen considering who must judge a religious figure if he commits a crime. The State and the Churchquarrelled, causing the assassination of the religious Thomas Beckett, probably instigated by the king himself.The problem was solved by a compromise: certain cases (heresy, questions against morality) would beexclusively examined by the Church using the Cannon Law, whereas the criminal cases would be judged bythe State with the Common Law. Cannon Law was in many cases softer than Common Law, although theexecution of the punishment (the public ceremony) was delivered by the king, who was the final administratorof justice. In a way, the king announced with this compromise that the State would be finally on top ofreligion. • Question of Church and culture in medieval timesFrom the age of Henry II onwards (that is, from the XII century) till 1348 (the Black Death) we can assist tothe golden years of the Church as an institution. This period is important in many aspects, because many ofthe rituals and dogmas of the Church as we know them nowadays were established then as an answer to theneeds of that time, like the idea of purgatory, the cult of relics and the pilgrimages. 27
  • 28. The idea of purgatory appeared as an answer to the problem of money. Usury (which implies interests) wasvery usual in those times, but the Church forbade it because money was a dead thing, and then it couldnt birthmore money. Commerce needed usury to develop itself: at the beginning, usury was only practised by Jews,but soon the emergent commercial class began to practise it. Since the commercial class was a benefit tosociety and to the Church (they gave money to build cathedrals), the Church created the Purgatory to avoidsending those people to Hell.The establishment of the cult of relics and pilgrimage (whose centres were Rome, Compostela and Jerusalem)implied a movement of people. This movement generated a cultural connection among nations, although thefraud soon appeared with false relics all over the place (because pilgrimage had become a business).The Church was also the institution for the poor and the sick. It is responsible for the creation of a net ofhospitals all over Europe, usually under the control of religious orders (the Franciscans, the Dominicans andthe Augustinians).These religious orders, especially the Franciscans, became and example for society due to their labour withthe poor.These orders, especially the Dominicans, are also central in the development of education. The XII centurywas the time of the emerge of universities, usually related with some religious orders. The precedence ofuniversities seems to be the Scholastic of Bologna, and it was followed by the University of Salermo, andlater on Montpellier, Salamanca, Paris, Oxford...Why the Church created universities in that precise moment?The XII century was a time of expansion because the danger of invasions (Muslims, Vikings, Magyars...) wasover. In this security trade could develop without any risk, so there was a great movement of money andpeople. It is the origin of the middle class, the burghers, who were usually commercial people. These peoplegradually began to need training (maths, writing, reading, arithmetic...) for their commerce, but only theChurch, who was the possessor of knowledge, was able to teach them. That is the reason why Universitiesappear, after an evolution in which University was the final step:• Petty Schools were places besides a church in which children were taught some basic prayers and maybe some letters.• Chantry or Song Schools: together with prayers, a number of religious songs were taught, which implied a basic Latin.• Grammar Schools: Latin (reading and writing) was a fundamental subject in them, which was a tool needed in University.• Universities: the subjects were divided into trivivm or qvadrivivm.University was a urban institution usually connected with a cathedral. It is structured following the structureof guilds: • It has its own place in town (the difference between town and gown), which provided it with independence. • It is structured following the steps of any other guild: apprentices school (a period of 7 years), then a final evaluation to become a Master or Magister (M.A), and finally they could reach the grade of excelence or Doctors (PD, Philosopher Doctor). Academically speaking, these are still the levels of University.In medieval times there were very few universities responsible for teaching on the whole continent. Those fewwere then Universities of Nations, with colleges formed by groups of students of the same origin or country. 28
  • 29. As Universities developed, they became specialised: Bologna in law, Salamanca in Philology, Montpellierand Paris in medicine... But soon (XVI and XVII centuries) they became independent form religions power,especially medical universities because religion was a barrier for their studies.The connection between Church and University lasts even to our days. The creation of universities played acrucial role in the later cultural panorama: the literacy increased at the end of the Middle Ages, which explainsthe cultural explosion of the Renaissance. Renaissance was the time of discovers and scientific attitude, andall the great centres of culture of those years coincide with the universities of medieval ages.Universities were the great academic support of the middle class, whose trade allowed the expansion ofEurope.Universities played also an important role in the question of nationalism, which arose at the end of the MiddleAges, thanks to the support of the national languages in universities. But all universities in Europe taughtLatin, so students could move easily around Europe. Gradually, the national languages began to be used inuniversities, coexisting for a long time with Latin. • The crisis of the ecclesiastic power: the Black Death (1348)The Black Death (1348) affected society and changed the Church radically. The Black Death was a diseasecame from the East that affected practically whole Europe: within a year, Europe lost 20 or 25 million ofinhabitants, with towns and cities completely disappeared. At that time, it was an event that no one couldunderstand, so people began to look for explanations. The most natural explanation (due to the strongreligious influence) was that the Black Death was a punishment for sin sent by God.Fanatism, desperate religious fever and violence against other races (the Jews as enemies of Christ) was oneof the reactions.Another reaction as the Carpe Diem reaction: if we are all going to die, lets enjoy the day.There was also a theoretical reaction that needs to be explained in detail. The Black Death had more visibleeffects in places where there were big groups of people: towns, cities and also religious congregations. Thetransmission was then easy in religious orders, which also attended the sick people. The toll of deaths inreligious orders was very heavy; if the Black Death was a punishment of God, he was also punishing theChurch because it had become a sinful institution. An important grade of criticism appeared then in thechurch, also due to the vast economical resources that Church had whereas the rest of the population was inabsolute misery.The Black Death changed the mentality of people in the way they saw the Church: it was no longer a holy andinnocent institution.In the British Isles, a theoretical movement called Lollardy appeared, leaded by John Wycliffe. The Lollardywas an intellectual movement that believed in a personal interpretation of the Holy Scriptures. That meantmaking the Scriptures available to everyone, translating them to their own languages (the first translation toEnglish was made by Wycliffe in 1396). The Lollards became heresies because the Church would then lose itsabsolute control as interpreters of the Bible. Kings and Church tried to eradicate Lollardy, but it survived insecret. In fact, this criticism was spread all over Europe and it lasted for a long time.Lollardy and other critics were the origin of the religious revolution that would take place later on: theReformation.V. THE REFORMATION 29
  • 30. The official date of the Reformation is 1590, when the Christian friar Martin Luther nailed his 95 thesis onthe cathedral of Wittenberg. But this religious revolution was an explosion due to the unrest generated formthe Black Death onwards. In fact, Martin Luthers questions coincided with what Wycliffe (the leader of theLollards) had been asking for: personal interpretation of the Scriptures and personal faith, which implied thetranslation of the Bible into the different national languages (M. Luther himself made the first translation intoGerman, a language of which he is considered the father).Another fact that provoked the Reformation was the question of geography and economy. By the time theReformation took place, America had been discovered and the world had been divided by the Pope into twohalves: Spain and Portugal were then masters of the world, separated by the line of demarcation (Treaty ofTordesillas, 1494). By this treaty, the Pope had excluded the rest of the nations of the colonial race. Althoughthe benefits at the beginning of the colonial race were few, they soon became huge. The rest of the nationscriticised this system of division, which also implied the idea of religion underlying the colonialism (thecolonialism as a way of christianising savage lands). Finally, the reaction of the excluded nations was to breakrelationships with the Church, so the Pope would no longer have an authority.One consequence of the Reformation was the tremendous religious division in Europe between the ProtestantNorth and the Catholic South. In the South, the Counter−Reformation was created to fight against theReformation. Europe became a battlefield in the XVI and XVII centuries.In England there was a double reaction: at the beginning, Henry VIII took the path of Catholicism, but soonhe changed his mind towards Protestantism.Initially, Henry VIII maintained England Catholic due to several reasons: Henry VIII had been given the titleof Fidei Defensor by the Pope and supporting Catholicism was also politically convenient. England had stronglinks with Spain from times of Henry VII, who had married his eldest child Arthur with Catherine of Aragonto seal the link. When Arthur died, Catherine married Henry VIII. But why was this union with Spain soconvenient for Spain? • Spain was beginning to have benefits with its colonial race, so Henry VIII thought that the great possibility of trade was opened to him. But he soon got disappointed because America became a monopoly of Spain. • Tradition, by which Henry VIII was himself a Catholic and wasnt psychologically ready to abandon his believes. A break with Rome would be seen as a sin. • The Henry VIII of the beginning of the reign was a political figure who had no financial problems, so there was no economic reason to act against Catholicism.From the 1530s onwards, things changed dramatically and Henry VIII became officially a Protestant. Therewere a number of reasons for this transition: • The financial situation was not as solid as it had been before, because the king himself was extravagant and made expensive military campaigns. By the XIII century he was, in fact, bankrupted. As a solution, he became protestant, which converted him in the Supreme Head of the English Church. This situation of power implied that he was a political and religious figure at a time, all the patrimony of the Catholic Church was his and all the monasteries were dissolved and converted in private properties. • The populations strong feeling of anticlericalism supported the decision of the king. The people at large were not against the Catholic Church, but against its corruption, the excessive number of clerical figures to maintain with taxes and the absence of freedom for religious interpretation. People resented the fact that religion was not a personal interpretation: they couldnt even understand the word of God at mass because it was said in Latin. This anticlerical feeling and the will of knowing typical from the 30
  • 31. Renaissance supported the change of Henry VIII, when new translations and interpretations came to light, allowing a personal interpretation. • The intellectual elite, located especially in Cambridge but also in Oxford, supported the new religion because it made things easier for them. • The question of divorce. Henry VIII had first married Catherine of Aragon, who had give him a female child (Mary, later on known as Bloody Mary). But the king wanted a male child about all, so he thought in a new marriage. Divorce was something usual in those days, but Catherine of Aragon was the aunt of the emperor Charles V. Henrys divorce was then a great issue, because Charles V had a tremendous influence about Rome and he wanted Mary to become the catholic queen of England. The only possibility for Henry VIII was then to break with Rome and give the divorce himself. • The New World had been divided between Spain and Portugal in the Treaty of Tordesillas by the Pope, excluding the rest of the nations out of the colonial race. By Henrys breaking with Rome, the Popes decisions had no longer effect on England so they could participate in the New World. Henry VIII didnt start the colonial race although he had it in mind: thats why he ordered the rebuilding of the Navy, which would be important in later events like the Armada. It was Elizabeth I, his daughter, who started the British colonial race.The Reformation was made gradually through the promulgation of several laws. In 1531 Henry VIII made thePromulgation of the Oath of Supremacy, which obliged the subjects to admit the king as the Supreme Head ofthe Anglican Church. In 1534 the Rejection of Papal Authority was declared. • Consequences of the Reformation• Public oppositionIn fact there was not a great degree of opposition and even the majority of the population accepted the changewith optimism. But there were two areas where there was a strong opposition: the North of England andIreland.In the North of England, the rebellion was suppressed with cruelty in the called Pilgrimage of Grace.The situation in Ireland was indeed very complex and it can be considered as the origin of the Irish Question.For centuries, Ireland had remained isolated as an unknown and mysterious land for England, whichconsidered Ireland a marginal land. When the Reformation arrived, the majority of Irish clans rejected the newfaith because they were Catholic and considered it a heresy. In that situation, the clans looked for support inSpain; that was a connection that lasted for years. Henry VIII, who was Lord of Ireland, adopted then animportant policy: Surrender and Regrant. By this new policy, the king took himself the title of king of Ireland,so Ireland was officially obliged to follow his decisions on religion. Anyone who didnt follow it would beconsidered a traitor (like Thomas More). Basing on the old feudal system, which meant that all the Irish landswhere now of Henry VIII and the old Gaelic titles for the possession of the land did not count at all. After that,Henry VIII forced all the chieftains of the clans to surrender their own titles and then gave them that titlesback but with an English name: that was the way to convert the Irish chieftains into English nobility (e.g.ONeill converted into Earl of Tyrone). In other words, this was a method to convert the Irish clans intosubjects of Henry VIII, a situation that obliged them to accept the new religion. The majority of the clansaccepted the new conditions to avoid problems although secretly remained Catholic, but some other clansbecame Anglican. This was the first division in Ireland bases on religion questions, which would lead to theIrish conflict.• Social division 31
  • 32. Lots of the population continued being Catholic in secret although they externally admitted Anglicanism.There was a social break between Catholics and Anglicans of important consequences in the future.Many people knew that when Henry VIII died, there was a possibility of coming back to Catholicism thanksto his daughter Mary, who could be the new queen. Others wanted to avoid this succession so there could beno possibility of a return to Catholicism. The question of religion is now mixed with politics. The panoramaof possibilities considering Henrys children was: • Mary Catholic • Elizabeth ??? • Edward AnglicanSo the crucial question was the succession of Henry VIII. Before dying, Henry VIII promulgated a law andnominated Edward as his successor because he was a man and represented the survival of Anglicanism. Inprinciple, his sisters Mary and Elizabeth were excluded from the throne, although later they were acceptedagain.When Henry VIII died, his son Edward became king. That was an age or splendour for Anglicanism, but amiserable time for Catholics.After Edwards death, Mary became queen of England. She fully Catholic, so those were the years of the burntof Anglicans and the introduction of the Inquisition.• The people on the margins: the PuritansSome people maintained that Henry VIII had not gone as far as possible in the Reformation becauseAnglicanism resembled Catholicism too much. Those were the Puritans, who wanted a purer faith. Puritanswere a minority during the reign of Henry VIII, but their number soon grew. The spread of Puritanism all overthe British Isles would explain the quarrel against the Presbyterian Scotland, the civil war of the XVIIIcentury and the success of Oliver Cromwell in deposing the king.• GeographyWhen England situated itself in the Protestant Europe, it stood in opposition to the great Catholic powers,leaded by Spain. This is the origin of the tension between England and Spain in the second half of the XVIcentury. Both nations fought the questions of faiths and colonialism. The final clash between the two blockswas the Battle of the Armada in 1558.• ColonialismThe colonial race was now opened to England, because they no longer accepted the authority of the Pope. TheEnglish colonial race didnt take place till the reign of Elizabeth I, although Henry VIII planted the basis for it.VI. THE XVII CENTURY:THE STUARTS AND THE PROTECTORATEThe reign of Elizabeth was dominated by a masterly inactivity: the queen put aside all the problems ofEngland although she was able of ruling England.James I inherited all the previous problems, including the question of religion. The Reformation of Henry VIIIhad created a social split that had became sharper in times of Elizabeth I. As a result, there were three 32
  • 33. different faiths coexisting in the British Isles: • Anglicanism (official; majority) • Catholicism (persecuted; minority) • Puritanism (persecuted; minority)James I had to face the confrontation between Anglicanism and the dissenters (group of Catholics andPuritans). He tried to unify religion in England by signing a peace with Spain in 1604 and trying to solve theproblem of dissenters. But his method was a failure, and the situation became even worse. The situation inEngland was an echo of the religious wars between Catholicism and Protestantism in the rest of Europe.James I affronted the religious question from different angles: • He was officially a true Anglican, so his Catholic familiar background disappeared. In 1605 the Catholics tried to assassinate him in the Gunpowder Plot, but they failed. • In 1611 the first translation of the Bible into English appeared (it is called James Bible). In the literary aspect, it was a very important work because it made of English the standard language. Officially, James Bible was a defence of Anglicanism. • He lived during the beginning of the colonial age in which the first American colonies were settled down. As a solution, James I thought in sending dissenters to the New World. Thats the reason why there were different faiths in the American colonies (e.g. Maryland was Catholic whereas Virginia/Plymouth Plantation was Puritan). America became then a land of exiles for beggars, prostitutes, criminals and also religious dissenters.But James I also had to face the problems of Presbyterianism in Scotland and Catholicism in Ireland.In Ireland colonialism was thought as a solution. It was made through two successive plantations: Ulster in theNorth and Munster in the South. By this method, Catholics were deprived of their lands, which were given toprotestant people. Thats the reason why nowadays there is a majority of Protestants in Northern Ireland. Butthis solution converted the Irish Catholics into marginal people (the born of the Irish problem) and a strongdivision between Catholics and Protestants appeared.In Scotland, the solution only arrived with Charles I, who officially imposed Anglicanism over thePresbyterian Scotland by a military campaign of devastating effects.From Charles I onwards, there was a gradual political inclination towards Spain and France, which were bothCatholic countries. Charles I was interested in establishing links with France and Spain because he shared thesame political attitude; in other words, he had never been comfortable in the English Parliamentary systemand he preferred the absolutist regime.The population considered the gradual establishment of alliances (by marriages) with France and Spain aninclination towards Catholicism. That inclination, together with many other mistakes, created the oppositionof Parliament. The situations exploded in a Civil War between Charles I and the Parliament. The strongestvoice in Parliament corresponded more and more to Puritans, and finally the political conflict turned to be aconflict between Anglicans and Puritans. The result in the Second Civil War was that Puritans won, themonarchy disappeared and a Republic ruled by Oliver Cromwell was created. That meant that in the centralyears of the XVII century, Puritanism became the official religion.In the literary aspect, Puritanism brought the closure of theatres that made the magnificent age for drama ofShakespeare and Marlowe disappear.The imposition of Puritanism as the official religion had also tremendous consequences in Ireland. The 33
  • 34. majority of people in Ireland was Catholic, so they suffered their worst period of history under the rule ofOliver Cromwell. Cromwell not only organised military campaigns of devastating effects on the Irishpopulation, but he also imposed the Penal Laws against Catholics. Those laws made of the Catholic Ireland amarginal society that practically had no rights (they couldnt have education or private property). In the end,the great consequence of the imposition of Puritanism was the hatred against the English: for the first time,violent secret societies appeared in the countryside (which in the XX century would convert in paramilitarygroups as the IRA).VI. THE RESTORATION AND THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTIONThe Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell lasted till 1660, when the Stuart Dynasty came back: it was theRestoration (Charles II and later James II).The Stuarts inherited many religious problems: Puritanism was not supported for the majority of thepopulation, and Catholicism remained marginal. In addition, the Stuarts were inclined towards Catholicism(James II was openly a Catholic), an attitude that divided the nation into an Anglican country and a CatholicKing. Religion turned to be then a political problem.The solution came in 1668 with the Glorious Revolution: James II was expelled from the Government andWilliam of Orange, thanks to his promise of defending Anglicanism, became the new king. In England,William of Orange fully imposed Anglicanism and he was the great religion unifier of the UK. From thatpoint onwards, Anglicanism was the faith of the majority and it was directly associated to power: the religionquestion was no longer the central issue.William of Orange brought again times of suffering for the Irish population. The Irish Catholics had supportedJames II because he was also Catholic, so William of Orange suppressed them violently, especially in theBattle of the Boyne, in which the Irish army was devastated. Until the XIX century, Anglicanism was theofficial religion in Ireland and the Catholics remained in a marginal position.To a certain extent, William of Orange was a tolerant king in religious terms. He promulgated the TolerationAct (1689) to impose an order in the religious variety of the UK. Form the Civil War onwards, many littlereligious groups had appeared (the Bapters, the Quakers). Most of them were persecuted, treated as criminalsand transported to the New World. When William of Orange arrived, those groups were tolerated providedthat they accepted the Principle of Uniformity: England had only one religion, Anglicanism, which was theonly one that the state would take into account. The Toleration Act gave stability to England and put an end tothe religious quarrels. But that law completely excluded Catholicism, which remained still as the greatestenemy: Catholics could then be persecuted and transported to America.Catholics played an important role in Ireland and Scotland. In both areas there was a great support for theJacobite Cause (James II). After the arrival of William of Orange, James II continued being the king in exile,where he had a son (Bonnie Prince Charles) who continued with the Jacobite Cause. Since Catholicism wasthen an enemy for the new king, it was completely excluded from the Toleration Act.To solve the problem of the Jacobite Cause in Scotland, William of Orange ordered the Highland Clearanceswhich annulled the Catholic clans (like McDonald) or transported the Catholics to the New World (many ofthem to South Caroline). This was a tragic episode in Scottish history: the symbols of the old clans (the kilt,the tartan) were forbidden, so Scotland lost its national identity.In Ireland the situation became even worse. James II had landed in Ireland, but he was defeated by William ofOrange in the Battle of the Boyne. Irish Catholics began to be considered as traitors and enemies of England,so they were not included in the Toleration Act. The new king re−enacted the laws of Oliver Cromwell: landswere confiscated and their people evicted (usually to the New World). 34
  • 35. The New World became the destiny for many dissenters (Catholics and other religious groups). But in lessthan a century, England lost its American colonies, probably due to the religious question. Those who hadsettled down in America had been thrown out from the UK, and America became a melting pot of religions.That created a situation that explains the lost of the colony: • The lack of cohesion between the American colonies probably due to religious differences. • The distance between the colonies and the metropolis. Apart from other reasons, religious was a crucial factor: the majority of the early settlers were not Anglicans, although their religions were very important in their lives.There was then no element of cohesion to maintain the American colonies united to England. The arrival ofthe Hannover Dynasty (George III) produced the final clash that took to the American Declaration ofIndependence.From that time onwards, England will live a religious stability (although not Ireland and Scotland). InAmerica, the different religions of the early settlers will explain the future.COMMON LIFE IN BRITAINThere are two great revolutions in the British Isles with respect to the common life: the Neolithic (the birth ofthe modern human being which introduces sedentary life) and the coming of the Romans.THE NEOLITHICBefore the Neolithic, the British Isles were uncomfortable lands with hunters and gatherers moving in theforests. People didnt begin to stay long until the Neolithic.In the Neolithic, the man introduced the agriculture, which allowed the growing of crops to make an easierlife. The cult of the Dead appeared in that precise moment, because people were afraid of the Dead. For thefirst time, burial places appeared because people could stay in a given place for long periods of time.But in this period there was also a massive deforestation, because people wanted to gain ground foragricultural purposes. This was very important in the Midlands, which gradually became the most productiveagricultural area.The man transformed the land in order to survive. The picture of Hillfort (South of England) shows the wayman had transformed the landscape before the arrival of the Romans. In the Celtic England, people followed asimilar method of survival: the rural society and the organisation into clans (hunters, farmers and warriors).The tools were improved through the ages of stone, bronze and iron.Constructions as the represented in the picture of Hillfort were characteristic of the Neolithic. Within a hill, acircular fort was erected by building to pales. This model would be repeated for centuries until the Romanscame. The place was inhabited by 500 people. These forts were erected in the countryside, where peoplefound not only an easier life but also a need of defence: farmers had to defend themselves from other clans,which provoked rivalry or disputes about the resources. These early settlers also had to defend from peoplecoming from across the sea: the Celts.The Romans conquered England easily because the Celtic society didnt have professional warriors since theycouldnt dedicate all their energies to war (they had to cultivate the land). Nevertheless, its true that Celts hada cult of war that can be observed through their artistic manifestations: 35
  • 36. • Celtic helmets: in some cases, they had a great degree of ornamentation depending on the rank of the man who wore them. • Shields: ornamented. • Swords: reconstructed handles.The Celtic castra where defensive places. The weapons for the war were also decorative objects, so we canconclude that war was a central element in their lives.The arrival of the Romans, who occupied England for four centuries, brought long periods of peace andstability, unknown in Celtic times.Celts had also a cult of Nature. For example, statuettes of boars were very common in the Celtic culture. Theyare almost abstract figures, without naturalism, detail or realism. Celts were interested in the spiritual art, as away of being in communion with Nature. The representation of Nature in full detail would come with theRomans.ROMAN ENGLANDThe Romans are responsible for the division into rural and urban worlds, which implied a great degree ofcivilisation.Romanisation started from the I century onwards. Romans transformed the land that hadnt changed much inCeltic times. The emperor Claudius started the romanisation of the British Isles, which would develop insteps:• 43 AD − 61 ADThis was the time of the military conquest and the clash between the two civilisations. In 47 AD Romans wereexploiting the mineral resources, so they could send not only tin and iron, but also silver to Rome. The Romanelite subjected the people in the country by brutal military campaigns. Two different worlds were then visible:the Celtic population (the majority) and the Romans. During this period, England became a provincia ruled bya procurator, who was in absolute power of the area.• 61 AD − 122 ADIn 61 AD, the queen of the Iceni, Boudica, revolted against the Roman army but was defeated. This was thelast native rebellion. From this time onwards, a period of peace began to emerge.• 122 AD − 367 AD122 AD was the year of the construction of the Hadrians Wall. It was a period of expansion, in whichBritannia was no longer a province but two: Britannia Inferior and Britannia Superior. Romans could neverconquer Scotland and Ireland. The division into two provinces was marked by the amount of military forcesthat were needed in each one; then there was a peaceful south and west (Britannia Inferior) but a conflictivenorth and east (Britannia Superior).During this period, Romans used the army and the city as methods of romanisation: • In the army, the legionary soldiers were never born in Britannia (so there could not be any conflict of feelings), whereas the auxiliary troops were native people trained in Roman civilisation. • This period was dominated by the foundation of two kinds of cities: municipiae (centres of administration like London) and coloniae (towns inhabited by soldiers and veterans). The municipiae 36
  • 37. were usually in the peaceful south, whereas the coloniae were in conflictive areas.Many Roman towns in the north and east coast of Britannia had walls, ramparts and fortifications, although itwas an exception in the Roman world. They were trying to garrison from two attacks: the Picts from theNorth, and the outside invaders from the continent. Thats the origin of the Count of the Saxon Shore.The year 367 AD was the beginning of the end. It was an age dominated by productivity, intense trade (silver,tin, iron, animals, and slaves), commercial expansion and farming. England was known as the grannary of theNorth.The situation created a division in society into the honestiores (the wealthy traders) and the hummiliores (thepoor people). This social division was new, because now wealth was the term to consider instead of thecitizenship.This was also the time of the appearance of Roman Villas. In the entire Roman world, urban growth was indecline, whereas rural areas were growing. The reason was the beginning of political instability that brought adecline in trade, which strongly affected the cities. The villa appeared as a self−sufficient centre. But they alsobrought the appearance of thecoloni or bound to the land, as a pre−feudal system.When the instability of the Roman Empire grew, England began to be isolated in the map. The worst camewith the Barbarian Conspiracy, in which many places in England were attacked and town life disappeared. Weno longer have a province, but different territories ruled by contes who organised the defence. This was thetime of the legend of King Arthur, who was probably one of those contes. Finally, in 367 AD, when Romewas attacked and the troops were needed in Italy, all the troops in Britannia were taken away, leavingBritannia alone.THE ANGLO−SAXON AGEWhen the Anglo−Saxon arrived to the British Isles, they collided with the previous Roman civilisation.England exchanged the Roman Empire for an Empire of the North, with which England had maintainedcommercial links from ancient times.Anglo−Saxons were, first of all, mercenaries, although they also had commercial links with the North of thecontinent. Their world of warriors could be seen in their culture and way of living, which were based in thewar.But Anglo−Saxon society was also a world of loyalties between the king and his thengs, which allowed agood function of the society. At the same time, the connections between the individual and his king wereessential for society: individuals were nothing without a family and a lord.The conquest of England was carried out by moving in family groups, having in mind their king (because wecan see it in names of places like −ington, ingham, −ings that refer to familiar or loyalty connections).The Anglo−Saxons were people who didnt belong to an urban civilisation. In general, they were rural peoplewho let cities die and developed skilled agriculture. Yet, many Roman towns continued with a certain degreeof commercial activity. Again, this fact can be observed in name of places in −wic, −wich like Norwich,Lindon−wic (London)...Anglo−Saxons took advantages that Romans had left. Thats the case of the old Roman fortifications orcastrae (−chester). 37
  • 38. The countryside was the home of Anglo−Saxons. The old boundaries of the territory that Romans haddisposed disappeared. The first Anglo−Saxon organisation of the territory that we know about is bases on ameasure called hundred, which covered between 50 and 100 miles2. In the middle of the the territory therewas a tun, which was a kind of central place of government where the king and his thengs lived. The tuncontained the great hall, were decisions were taken and the warriors united. This primitive organisation wasvery similar to what the Normans would do later with castles. Every hundred was subdivided into plots ofland or hides.At the top of Anglo−Saxon society were the king and his warriors. But apart from this ruling class, thepeasants or ceorl formed a big and important group, because survival depended on them. Ceorls were freemen, although slavery existed in the Anglo−Saxon world.Slaves were in many cases the old inhabitants of Britain. They were called wealh and usually were captured inthe West, where they had tried to hidden. Thats why the word derived into welshman.There were four ranks in Anglo−Saxon society, very similar to the system of medieval times (without middleclass): • Lord (free) • Thegns (free) • Ceorls (free) • Slaves (non−free)Their code of justice was bases primarily on the wergild or price of honour. The punishment depended thenon the wergild of the murdered: the highest honour he had the hardest punishment to the murderer.The Lord and the thengs were responsible for the election of the king, which took place in the Witan. TheLordship and Kingship were not hereditary, although this would be changed with the arrival of the Church.This system of election was a familiar aspect, so it provoked several tribal quarrels and the division of society.........................During the reign of Alfred the Great, the Anglo−Saxon king of Wessex, things began to change gradually.He opposed a fierce resistance against the Vikings; for many, he is the first king of England.To start with, Alfred was a benefactor of the Church and introduced learning into society. He also organisedthe territory on a national basis: thanks to him, a territory known as Angle−land began to take shape. It wasthe first notion of a national entity. The old world of clans gradually changed into a system of loyalty of thenation towards the king.Alfred was a great promoter of commercial activity because he was a city builder. And by the building ofcities, he found a great weapon to oppose resistance to the attacks of Vikings. He was the first Anglo−Saxonking to build burhs, which were basically fortified towns that were built following a given model. A documentcalled the Burghal Hidage tells that about at least 30 of these burhs were erected in Alfreds times.The early burhs developed into big towns, which were not only a sign of urban attitude, but also a militaryadvantage. The later towns were fortresses (military purposes), ecclesiastic centres (when the church arrived)or commercial cities.THE VIKINGS (they came from Normandy, Sweden and Denmark).The Vikings were brutal pirates, but they had a reason for their attacks: starvation and internal wars in the 38
  • 39. North pushed forced them to search for new lands.They were also traders who had made commercial links between North and South. Cities like York (Jornic forthe Vikings) or Dublin became business centres.The Vikings were very skilful navigators, which allowed not only conquests but also trade. They had achieveda great technique of shipbuilding that was unknown in the South.Vikings began to settle down at the end of the 9th century. They occupied England (the Danelaw), Ireland andNormandy (in France).In the case of England, the settle down provoked the fighting against the Anglo−Saxons, but gradually bothcommunities mixed in a single one.The Vikings adopted the Anglo−Saxon language. They became Christians and abandoned their Nordicmythology (Thor). They gave a new system of division to the land into shires, which proved to be so efficientthat it lasted to our days (Yorkshire...). England was a rural society.At the end of the Anglo−Saxon age, kings were either Anglo−Saxon or Vikings (like king Cnut). England wasthen a mixture of the two races, unified in a single country.In the case of Normandy, the Vikings settled down when they were given a piece of land to avoid attacks.Normandy began to prosper, although the development was different to the one in England. Within someyears, Normandy became a warrior society dominated by a military elite, maybe because it was a frontier landthat needed protection. Soon, the system of feudalism developed in the territory.When William the Conquer attacked England, leading the Norman invasion, he constructed stone buildingslike castles and churches instead of the wooden buildings of the Anglo−Saxons. The Tower of London is oneof the first examples of Norman architecture: it was built in London because it meant the control of thecountry.Westminster was the first Norman cathedral, but it had been started by the Anglo−Saxons (Edward theConfessor, who had been brought up in Normandy).But the most powerful tool of control was the castle, which has a sophisticated architecture built near strategicplaces. They began to be built between the 9th and the 10th centuries. When the Normans conquered a land,they immediately built a wood castle that allowed to have a rapid and effective control. The first element to bebuilt was the tower (or donjon) for basic things (soldiers, weapons, food...) and later, expanding walls werebuilt. Finally, the wood was gradually replaced by stone.2002−04−23LATE MEDIEVAL PERIOD (14TH− 15TH CENTURIES)The late medieval period was an age dominated by two events of tremendous consequences for all the people:the Black Death and the development of the 100 Years War.THE BLACK DEATHThe Black Death provoked a strong psychological impact in all the population (it even affected religion) andalso a tremendous decrease in the number of population. 39
  • 40. Before the Black Death, England and Wales had 4 million people, which was an excessive number tomaintain. The years previous to the Black Death (14th C) were then very disastrous for most of thepopulation: they were known as The Calamities Century. In the long run, the Black Death was a blessing indisguise because it reduced the number of people to 2.5 million within a year.The world after the Black Death offered more opportunities to people, which in the long run provoked the fallof feudalism. It was the first step in the development of capitalism and the emerge of a working class: servileduties were exchanged with money.The appearance of a working class and capitalism allowed the development of a pre−industrial society. By the15th century, there is a well−established middle class, which is economically strong and very active. Themoment there is a class with cash, a possibility appears: purchasing or buying property. In the case ofEngland, land became a crucial element: the 15th and 16th centuries are dominated by a land hunger. Butwhy?• Some people had money to buy land• Land was seen as a new perspective, which considered it as a highly productive item: the land was not a death thing because it could produce benefits in agriculture and in sheep breeding.In agriculture, new methods were employed.In the case of sheep breeding, sheeps gave wool, which was in high demand. By the end of medieval times,England and Spain were the greatest producers of wool. The industry of wool became the most important, andit was in hands of many people (not only of the aristocracy). The industry of wool is responsible for theappearance of a middle class in England. But this needs to be explained in detail.In the past, the cities were surrounded by open fields that were divided into strips and used by labourers. Butwith the land hunger provoked that this common fields were gradually replaced by enclosed land: it was theorigin of the private property and the system of enclosures. The effects of enclosures were double:• Economically, the enclosures were highly productive for those who had bought land.• Those who had no money to buy land, who had been users of the open fields, suddenly saw themselves with nothing in their hands. They found difficult to live in the countryside, and became wandering people moving from place to place. • Characteristics of the 15th and 16th centuries: • Movement form the countryside to the cities. Cities grew and accepted many destitute people from the countryside, but the number of beggars was very high. • Great economic activity in the countryside: despite the number of destitute people, the countryside was richer and more productive than ever before although it only benefited the landowners. • New growth in population that would be always growing till the 16th century (5 million people).At the end of the 16th century, England was full of contrasts between those who had land (new opportunities,social mobility) and the destitute people in a desperate position. An example of this is London: at those times,there was a wealth strong middle class and many people in misery (living in great slungs).THE 100 YEARS WARAs the Black Death, the 100 Years War (1337−1453) had tremendous consequences for England. It was a warof colonialism, fought because England needed markets in Europe. At the beginning it was highly beneficial,but it ended up being disastrous. It affected many generations during more than one century. 40
  • 41. When the war finished, England could only retain Calais (in France) of all the territories they had before.Calais became the English door to the continent.The end of the 100 Years War provoked a tremendous sense of loss. The loss of all the territories that Englandhad possessed in the West of France allowed the birth of the nation. England closed in itself and becameisolated from the rest of the world, with even anti−continental or anti−French feelings. But this sense was in away beneficial: • In the question of language, French was relegated and English became the language of the nation for the first time. The accent that became standard was the Middle Land accent because it was the accent of London and of the emergent classes. • The lesson of the war was well learned. By the 16th century colonialism was not a new thing for England, which developed a new feeling of expansion in search of the great Empire they had lost. The most famous books at those times were those dealing with history, as a way of promoting colonialism (what we have been, let us being it again).The first part of the 16th century was marked by transition and rapid changes that affected the population atlarge.The end of the 16th century was a pre−industrial era, full of economic vigour and the start of the colonialcareer, but many people had to pay a high prize: poverty.16th and 17th centuriesThis was a period marked by expansion and growth. London and Paris were the two biggest cities in Europe.By the year 1650, the growth of population reaches a kind of balance.Many people suffered the consequences of this tremendous growth: beggars and wanderers in Englandincreased a lot. Justice was cruel and death penalty was applied freely. In times of Queen Elizabeth I, Londonhad 18 prisons, an asylum (Bedlam) and the Tower (for political crimes). The time of growth was onlyenjoyed by the middle classes, whereas the low classes suffered it.The expansion was connected with the question of growth, which depended on two factors: the agrarianrevolution and exports (England was still rural but the trade was very important).In the question of the agrarian revolution, the approach to the soil changed with the property of the land. Theland was exploited as much as possible, introducing new crops, new techniques (the rotation system) and theuse of land for breeding purposes (sheeps). As a result, in 1592, England was not only self−sufficient, but alsoable to export agrarian products (e.g. Spain to the Baltic Sea).The product that dominated the exports was wool (and also cloth). England became the first exporter of wool.But this was possible because there were markets. Napoleon said that the Englishmen were a race ofshopkeepers. The English Empire followed commerce. In time of Elizabeth I there were three merchantcompanies: • The Merchant Adventurers (against the Hanseatic League) were responsible for the opening of markets in Northern Europe. • The Muscovy Company kept commercial relations with the Tsar; they moved more towards the North and established relations with Moscow; they traded with fur, grease and wood. • The Cathay Company kept relations with the Far East with spices and silk; this company gave way to the East India Co. (early 17th C) that had links with India and China. 41
  • 42. England also established relations with Morocco and with the sultan of the Turks. This was an attitude ofmercantile expansion: when England tries to found colonies the reason is trade. But this commerce had anegative aspect: the question of competitors (Spain was the most powerful of them). The places in whichEngland traded were not in contact with Spain (Morocco hated Spain deeply), so England established trade inthe Protestant countries in which Spain was not allowed.During this time the question of passages was crucial. The idea was to find a passage through navigationtowards the markets, but in the middle there was America. There were then two options. The first one was theNorthWest (going through America but finding the Spaniards), which implied finding a passage whereSpaniards were unknown. England exploded then Canada and Northern USA, which would take them to thefoundation of colonies from Virginia towards the North. The second option was going across the Northeastpassage.The two options failed, but they allowed the foundation of colonies and trade companies. A lot of people wereaffected, because the whole population was part of a chain. Stories about Drake or Hawkins are in fact mereanecdotes.The moment colonies were founded, everything changed: colonies were markets, prisons and a solution tovagrancy.DOMESTIC SITUATION DURING THE 17TH CENTURYThere is a marked difference between the first half f the 17th century and the end: the beginning was full ofproblems, but not the end.Before 1650, the number of people had been in constant increase, but then it reaches stability (6 millionpeople). This is important because some of the greatest crises are linked to an excessive growth in the numberof people, so that the stability in the 17th C was responsible for the better situation at the end of the century.Reasons for the stability:• Family life changed.• Late marriages were the rule: the average age was 4−5 years more than in Elizaberian times (20−21, so the years of fertility in women were less than before. The late marriages have to do with the difficult for obtaining an economic basis to start familiar life, due to the higher inflation (between 1600 and 1650 the prizes of food multiplied by 8, but wages only by 3). As a result, the number of children in times of Elizabeth I (5 but also high mortality) was reduced to 2,5.• Revolution in contraceptives.• Celibacy increased a great deal in certain areas, maybe due to the development of the navy in which men had to be single (homosexuality was very common at the navy of those times).• In the economic situation there was a great degree of uncertainty that had to do with work. The textile industry in the 17th C supported only 200.000 workers. Agriculture only provided seasonal works. Even in the cities, the number of emigrants was so huge that there was not job for all of them: 10% of all the population in England and Wales lived in London (it was bigger than the next 50 bigger cities in England together). In the cities, this excessive growth caused the appearance of slungs and suburban areas.• Inheritance also changed. Since land was the most valuable thing, only the eldest male member of the family could inherit it without dividing it (to avoid losing its value). The rest of the members usually had to emigrate.• Emigration and immigration.England had been a country of immigration till the 16th C. In the 17th C, for the first time in history it becamea country of emigration. Between 1630 and 1650, more than 250.000 people left the country towards the newcolonies. The destinations were mainly the West Indies, Northern America and Europe. The colonial 42
  • 43. expansion became then a solution. In the case of the emigration to the continent, many men (especiallyCatholics) became mercenary soldiers for other countries (e.g. for Spain).From 1650 onwards, lots of things changed:• Economy.England was structured around local economies; this implied the existence of tolls to sell within the country.But by the end of the 17th C, there is for the first time a national economy (the term national refers to theUK). There was then free economy in the inside without any economic barrier. The reason for this neweconomic state was the colonialism.England became a country of shops (before there were only market stores) that supplied the population withcolonial products. There was a great demand for a new type of product from across the sea: thats the born ofthe ultramarine shops, which gave big benefits.• Two statuses: social status (nobility) and economic status (middle class).The gap between the two groups at the beginning of the 17th C was huge, but by the end there was a reversal:nobility found more difficulties than before (taxes, loss of lands in the civil war, loss of power) whereas themiddle class possesses cash but no lands nor titles. By the end of the century the middle class is the mostpowerful in society. This explains the origin of the arranged marriages of one class with another: noblesoffered a tittle and the middle class offered cash.• National Scheme of Poverty.Despite the good times, many people found difficulties to survive. The government took relieve measures likethe creation of public deposits of grain kept by the Crown, which were open when prizes went so high that thepoorest people couldnt afford it. This was a symptom that the benefits were only for a few people.________________Paintings: Hoggarth (satire and social critical; master of caricature)THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONThe industrial revolution has not a concrete year of start; anyway it can be said to born in 1815 (Battle ofWaterloo) although the conditions for it can be seen since the 18th century. From 1740 onwards, things beganto change in England: • Growth of the population. By 1800/1801 (first census) the population in England and Wales was around 11 million people, which was a spectacular increase (in 50 years the population increased in 50%). But why? • Number of wars (e.g. Napoleonic war) affected very little the population because England fought mainly by sea. By earth, it fought by coalitions with other countries (as in Waterloo) so the majority of soldiers were not English. • Mass immigration: thousands of people came into England to work because the conditions were better than in other places. • General life conditions: many hospitals were built and medical techniques improved (use of antiseptics), so the death rate decreased. • The agrarian revolution provided enough food for the majority of population. 43
  • 44. • Location of the growth. While some areas increased spectacularly, many rural areas were depopulated. Mining and textile industries were created in the north; London and its peripheral area became highly populated (1 million souls). But authorities couldnt cope with so many immigration and miserable areas developed in disorder: slums began to appear in London and other industrial centres. • Life conditions in the slums were terrible and the sanitary conditions did not exist at all, so tifus and colera were very common. • Families tended to have many children because they were working hands: child employment began to take place (children of only 5 years used to work in mines). • Wages were very low.This was a time of change, transformations and tremendous social gaps. At the top there were thearistocracy (landowners, occupying places in government) and the emergent middle class. At the bottom,millions of people in industrial areas lived in absolute poverty, with conditions similar to slavery. Evenauthorities saw the need of helping the poor with public founds, so they decided to supplement wages by asystem of finance: the Sppenhamland System. But this system had to faces: it was a humanitarian tool, butwages were reduced for a long time. Taxes, meanwhile, were in constant increase: a quarter of wheat in 1750was 45 shillings, but in 1800 it was 150 shillings. As a result, the wealthy middle classes made even moremoney because the production was cheap.England was at this time a place of transformations and contrasts: there was a rural world disappearing and anemergent industrial world. Painters and writers reflect clearly this situation: • Gainsborough and Constable romantic idea; the landscape of the past • Turner painter of the future; first painting of a train; movement; abstractionThe Industrial Revolution is the origin of the industrial world of our days, but it had terrible humanitarianconsequences. England would be the greatest empire in the world while millions of its inhabitants were inabsolute poverty. By the beginning of the 19th C there were few wealthy people but many others had nothingto eat. In the long run, it would explain why many people escaped to the colonies in search of opportunities.PERIODS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • From 1815 (Battle of Waterloo) till 1851 (Great Exhibition). Chartism was the most influential movement concerning the working class; it asked for:• Manhood suffrage (not women)• Secret ballot (secret vote)• Equal electoral districts• Abolition of property qualifications for MPs• Payment of MPs• Annual ParliamentsThe Chartism was unsuccessful, but it illustrated the life of the working class. The working class was avoiceless social group because it wasnt allowed to have representation. First, they were excluded fromParliament and suffrage because they lacked property qualifications. Meanwhile, the price of bread hadbecome a crucial issue because it was the basic diet for many, together with tea and potatoes. Secondly, theworking class lived in places that were also excluded because the electoral districts hadnt changed since the16th century. Around 1820 the population was higher in towns and cities than in rural areas, but many of theurban areas could not give MPs. Thirdly, MPs didnt receive money, so workers couldnt afford to get into thepolitician life. 44
  • 45. In general, the first stage of the industrial revolution was very negative for the working class, which was in adesperate situation: economy of survival, wages maintained as low as possible, no sanitary conditions,hunger... although there was no revolution as it had happened in France. • From 1851 till 1914 (First World War): recovering in the situation, due to:• State control against the working class.• Political reforms in the 30s and 40s that caused great controversy but certain improvements in working conditions.• Appearance of railways, which made unemployment disappear (excepting in rural areas).• Trade Unions, which gave voice to the workers.• System of public education; it became fully effective in the second half of the 19th century. Thanks to it the majority of newspapers appeared, because there was then a wide public that could read. The newspapers became also a school that was crucial to illustrate workers.• The Laissez−faire philosophy (or free market). It derived from Darwinism and the survival of the fittest. Although it was highly debated, in the long run it had good economic effects. By the second half of the 19th century wages went up and many workers had even money for leisure (they did not want more children so birth rate fell). It was the first time that workers enjoyed a holiday, moved to different places on free time and had money for mass entertainment (the first football teams were created in industrial centres; the matches were attended mainly by workers).But there were still many people excluded from the new state: the rural class. The laissez−faire philosophycaused a fall in agriculture because the same products could be imported for lesser money from America. As aconsequence, the rural population moved towards the cities (London reached 7m people). The romantic viewof the countryside faded away, although artists kept on representing the rural England as an Arcadia.In painting, there were two reactions: • Ideological painting: glorification of working, prosperity, pamphlet of the State • Evasive art (pre−Raphaelite school): ideal vision, recreation of past or imaginary worldsThe most important machines that were introduced during the industrial revolution were the Spinning Jean(textile sector) and the steam power by Watt (navigation, industry, mining...). At first, workers received thenew machines with violence because they saw them as the cause of unemployment. Later on, it was seen thatthey allowed more work because production was bigger.During these years the first factories appeared. Some were industrial mills, where machines worked non−stopand reky system for workers was terrible.In Ireland, those were the Famine Years: although Ireland had plenty of food, only an elite could make use ofit while many lived in misery.Women began to access to work, but it wouldnt become consolidated till the First World War.The lack of housing provoked the creation of slums with no sanitary conditions. In the second half of the 19thcentury, the State became responsible for a public housing policy (rented houses) that improved the situation.Education also improved by the creation of primary schools financed by the state.THE YEARS BEFORE THE I WORLD WARQueen Victoria died in 1901: the Victorian Age ended and the Edwardian Age began. 45
  • 46. A good number of people in the UK lived with relative affluence (secure economical situation), though thelaissez−faire philosophy had left many outside of it. The State made then reports on the conditions of thelowest classes, which gave catastrophic results: by 1901 the 30% lived in a state of poverty and of them, 10%lived in primary poverty. The East−End in London was one of the most affected areas, although London wasthe wealthiest city. That forced the State to search for a solution. At the same time, many workers had goodconditions: they had light in their houses, they went to mass spectacles (football), to pubs...The Government introduced a number of measures that took to the born of the well−faire state (estado debienestar).• Delivery of daily food at schools (especially in marginal areas)• Old−age pensions (before, those who could not work anymore didnt have money at all)• Insurance System for workers, basically dedicated to health (it was paid by three parts: the worker, the State and the impresario).• Growth of Trade Unions (from 2m affiliated in 1901 to 4m by 1914). They formed the Labour Party (1893), which became one of the greatest parties in England.But these measures interfered with the laissez−faire philosophy and whats more, they needed state founding(money). The Government have to possibilities to obtain money: either indirect taxation (unfair for thepoorest) or taxation of the upper classes (confronting with the powerful ones).The Government finally decided to impose taxation on the upper classes, but in 1909 the House of Lords (whorepresented the upper classes of old times) imposed a veto on the National Budget (that is, they didnt acceptthe proposal). This precipitated a national crisis and the convocation of general elections. The newgovernment (leaded by Lloyd George) decided that the veto could only be maintained during two years,taking to the gradual decline of the House of Lords.By the time the I World War exploded the conditions of the working classes were better than ever before. Butthe National Debt was a serious problem: together with the internal measures, England had to face the war. Bythe end of the war the National Debt had increased enormously (from £700m in 1914 to £7800m in 1919);that was the reason why the measures imposed to Germany were so strong.THE FIRST WORLD WAR (1914−1919)In spite the millions of dead men (6 million) and the suffering, the conditions in England improved during thewar: • There was full employment not only for men but also for women, because the business had to be as usual. This high demand of workers took to the emancipation of women, who could now get to a new range of jobs. Later on, in 1918, women over 30 were given the right to vote, and in 1928 to the women over 21 (as men). The life for women changed fully: Puritan clothes were abandoned, they could smoke and drive in public... Their role in keeping the country alive during the war was basic for the nation. • Trade Unions pressure. Wages increased a great deal because workers were more needed than ever, so Trade Unions could impose their demands by threatening with a general strike. For the first time in history lots of primary schools were created, the national Health System improved, the State made a Housing Scheme...These were times of need, but for many the war improved their situation. The problem came at the end of thewar: the reconstruction. 46
  • 47. THE RECONSTRUCTIONAt the end of the I World War, England had lost 6 million of men, and the colonies that had helped in the fight(Australia, New Zealand, Canada...) asked for a reward: a change in the Imperial Status.At home, it was a time of need and difficulties due to the increase of the National Debt, so new changes weremade to solve the situation (creating unrest):• The pressure of the Trade Unions became weaker, and coal mining and iron industries, which had worked for the war (e.g. making ammunition) saw their production reduced.• Public money needed to be reduced to save money as much as possible. This situation affected workers because many improvements gained in the past were cut or reduced. The unrest took to the General Strike in 1926.• Industries that had been controlled by the State during the war were privatises to save public money. As a consequence, many workers of railways, mines, coal industries... were made redundant.• Pensions were reducedAgain, there was a marginal sector of society (specially the rural class) going through difficult years. In fact,the distribution of wealth did not improve at all: by 1930, a 10% of the population had in its hands 2/3 of thenational wealth.However there were signs of recovering in the 30s: by 1935, England went through a phase of stability thanksto the appearance of new industries (e.g. car industry), which provided wealth and employment.But in 1935, Hitler won the general elections in Germany and the next year he occupied the Rhineland,violating the Treaty of Versailles. It was the beginning of the II World War, which was even more brutal thanthe previous one.THE IMPERIAL EXPANSIONAlthough the English imperial expansion started at the end of the 16th century, it can be said that its originswere place in medieval times, when England became an expansive nation. The first step was made by HenryII with the invasion of Ireland.THE INVASION OF IRELANDIn 1171 Henry II arrived in Ireland; he was the first English king to set foot in the place. But the Normanmilitary campaign had started in 1161, when Richard de Clare (Earl of Pembroke, Strongbow, born inBristol), one of Henry IIs Barons, occupied Wexford and Dublin.REASONS: • ReligionThe religious question was in part a punishment that the Church had imposed on Henry II for the murder ofThomas Becket. The invasion took then the form of a crusade, that is, a military campaign blessed by thePope.There are evidences to think that in 1154 the king had considered the possibility of the invasion of Ireland. Heasked the Church for permission, and the Pope Adrian IV blessed the invasion by the promulgation of a Bull.This issue is highly debated because we are not sure if that Bull was a forgery, a fake (it has no date orsignature). Yet, what the Bull says its important: the Church accepted the invasion because it considers that 47
  • 48. Ireland should follow the authority of Rome (the two churches had broken in the Synod of Whitby). The Bullwas then a supreme example of the blending of politics and religion. • LandNormans were an aristocratic elite in search of land (they imposed the feudal system). De Clare was a feudallord in Bristol, which was not a very wealthy area, and aspired to the conquest of new lands to obtain benefits.Since England was possession of the king and its lands were divided, new lands needed to be conquered. Theinvasion of Ireland was then a feudal movement. The system of invasion was similar to the one used in theinvasion of England in 1606: the encastellation of the land and the imposition of terror. Thats the reason whymany castles were built in strategic places of Ireland (e.g. Dublin castle). Within a few years, the wholeterritory had been conquered and divided with the exception of Ulster. • Dermot MacMurroughHe was an Irish Lord, a garlic chieftain who was in bitter trouble with other chieftains and went to the court ofHenry II asking for help. Ireland was then divided into tribes and clans and there is great internal rivalry. Inreturn of the mercenaries, he offered lands. Henry II gave him permission to hire the forces of Declare, whotook advantage of the situation. The conquest was easy because they found division and rivalry and they werethe best knights in Christendom.THE CHANGEThe occupation of Ireland was quick. The son of Henry II, King John, became Lord of Ireland and was thesecond king to visit the place and exercise his Lordship.But later on, in times of Richard II, things had changed in Ireland. He carried out a military campaign but wasdefeated. When he came back to England, the crown was taken by the Henry IV (Lancaster House). But why?When Richard II got to the throne, a great length of time had elapsed since the conquest of Ireland. In thatinterval, England had become more preoccupied with other questions (Wales, Scotland, France...) and Irelandbecame a minor issue. As a result, the old Norman families settled down in Ireland had become more Irishthan the Irish: they did not longer spoke French or English, but Irish. They have mixed with the native people,they had adopted Irish names (e.g. de Burgo became Burke). The Old English people had rejected their originsand to the English eyes, this was a supreme betrayal to the extent that the crown promulgated the Statutes ofKilphenny (14th century). These statutes forbade marrying the Irish or adopting their language and customs.The mixing with Irish was considered a sin by the English Church. The Irish society didnt pay attention tothese statutes, but by the 16th century, Elizabeth I converted their disobedience into a reason for a newinvasion.During the reign of Henry II there was stability and England was ready for colonialism. But with the questionof succession of Henry II (Richard or John), the work of the times of Henry II was destroyed in the course oftwo generations. As a consequence, the movement of expansion could not develop in such a situation.Edward I achieved internal stability, so a second wave of colonialism took place. He was politicallyintelligent, so he knew that Parliament and Crown should collaborate. Then, the efficient machinery of Stateallowed the basis for a colonial expansion.Colonialism took a double course that was not very evident with Edward I, but with Edward III: the questionof France and the UK.With Edward III the political energies of England were directed to the conquest of Wales and Scotland. The 48
  • 49. idea was to unite the three lands in a single country, so that there was a centralised system dominated byEngland (one king for the Isles). England wasted then a great amount of money, but only in the long runthings began to work. Wales was annexed in 1536, and Scotland in 1603 (with James I).The reason for these efforts in constructing a single nation seems to be the national formation. In fact, in timesof Edward I, II and III we cannot really say there is a country called England. It is in the Renaissance that thenations were psychologically formed (Spain, France, England...). This process of formation took centuries, butit was discussed in times of the Edwards, who wanted to create a nation as powerful as possible. The idea ofthe UK began to be forged then.In the question of France, the issue must be explained considering the force of the market. There was nocolonial expansion in England without trade, so the Hundred Years War became a way of acquiring land(feudalism). Due to their Norman origin many nobles had French roots, so France was their second countryand they interests in it. As a political solution, Henry V decided to maintain the nobility together. The momentthe Hundred Years War ended (officially 1453), a civil war started in 1455: it was the War of the Roses.At those times, the national wealth depended on wool (at the end of the 15th century there were enclosures forsheep breeding). The market could not be local, so markets abroad had to be found. But markets were difficultto find because there was a great degree of competence (Spain), so England had to go as far as Moscow andAsia to find markets for their cloth. Thanks to the Hundred Years War, practically all the Western coast ofFrance was annexed, which secured a formidable market for England.When England lost all those territories there was a great economic crisis, provoking years of unrest. At least,Calais was maintained as a door through which wool could be exported.By the beginning of the 16th century England had achieved nothing imperially speaking. It remained acountry now, but the idea of an UK conformed by Ireland, Scotland, Wales and England had not beenachieved. It was all a failure: Ireland had been left aside so the first conquerors were more Irish than the Irish,Scotland had looked for the help of France and only in Wales a degree of annexing could be contemplated(1536).When Henry VII (Tudor) came to the throne, things began to change. He came from Wales, so for manyWelsh people there was a chance in the court. The question of France had ended by the end of the 15thcentury.Henry VIII decided to solve the economic crisis by taking the wealth of the Church. During his reign,competitors like Spain and Portugal began to be successful in the colonial race; there was an enormouscolonial gap between them and England. • By the 1520s things in England remained the same, whereas in 1522 Spain circumnavigates the world, reaching South America, Central America and modern Texas and California. By the 1560s Spain dominated the whole South America, Central America and the Southern modern USA and it had started and ocean route linking Jamaica with the Philippines (it was el imperio en el que no se pone el sol). • The Portuguese traded in the Indian Ocean, and they had commercial stations in India and Southern China.Tudors wouldnt gain political stability till times of Elizabeth I.Elizabeth I (crowned in 1559) ruled over less territories than many other monarchs had done before. Whenshe died in 1603 England had not grown still, but an improvement had taken place. 49
  • 50. Richard Hakluyt the younger was a compiler of narratives of exploration at the end of the 16th century(Hakluyts voyages, 20 volumes in 1965) and a promoter of colonialism.The Empire came after trade, because English merchants had established traffic with distant areas of theworld.The first remarkable voyages must be attributed to John Hawkins. At the end of the 15th century, England hadcod fisheries in Newfoundland (across the Atlantic) so there were some early contacts in America in the early16th C carried on by John Cabot and Sebastian Cabo, but with no consequences. Hawkins belonged to animportant family (his father had started a successful trade with the Canary Islands in the past). John Hawkinsis responsible for a number of voyages; the most important ones to the West Indies (Caribbean Sea) in 1562,1564 and 1568. The cargo was of black slaves, so the ships parted from England towards Africa and thentowards Spanish America, where the slaves were sold. The first two voyages were very successful, but thethird one was catastrophic because he was defeated by the Spaniards at the port of San Juan de Ulloa. ButHawkins work was continued by his cousin, Francis Drake.Francis Drake is responsible for the first English circumnavigation (1577−1580) of the world. It marked thebirth of the English colonial travelling, and it gave knowledge of distant parts of the world. It produced a greatamount of money: Drake had investors behind them (including Elizabeth I) and after the circumnavigation, 1pound had given a benefit of 4,700 pounds (the average salary was 6−7 pounds a year). The money came fromrobberies on Spanish cities and galleons, that could be now attacked from the pacific coast. Thats whySpaniards consider Drake a pirate, whereas in England he was made knight by the queen.During those years England realised how wealthy was Spain and how much wealth America contained (Spainreceived 60−80 tons of silver and gold a year). England changed its position, and soon Martin Frobisher madevoyages of exploration in North America.Between 1580 and 1640 there were three choices about colonialism: plantations, the trading posts and theEnglish settlements.Plantations were made in the Caribbean sea, where a small number of English settlers were in charge of areasworked by salves, dedicated to one product (e.g. tobacco).Trading posts were the first steps in the establishment of commercial colonies. By the 1550s, there were theMuscowy Co and the Turkey Co (Mediterranean) and Venice Co, which in the 1950s became the Levant Co.By 1600 it gave birth to the East−India Co. This one had investors behind and was responsible for all thetraffic to the East, even in India and Chinal.English settlements that ended up being colonies were of two kinds:• Virginia started in 1584 thanks to a voyage of exploration with a great investor behind (Sir Walter Ralegh) that made the first contacts with natives. Due to the question of the Armada, a new voyage with more men to plant was made in 1586.In 1589, a new voyage discovered that the early settlers had disappeared (the lost colony). This tragic eventshowed to England that the land could produce enormous benefits. In 1606 The Virginia Co was created and itestablished a settlement in Jamestown (it was the first English town in America), where a number of familieswas planted to grow tobacco (in increasing demand). John Smith was responsible for the development of thecolony because he imposed a military regime that was successful for a time. Order was maintained, but soon acivil assembly was made (a system adopted later on by other colonies). From the beginning this assembly wasindependent from England, only linked to the mother country by the taxation. However, Jamestown suffered aterrible blow in 1682, when the Indian Rising took place and thousands were massacred, showing that the 50
  • 51. peace between the two communities had broken. The Virginia Co was dissolved and only in 1626 Charles Iallowed an official creation of a colony, which continued in expansion.• Religious colonies, where the moving factor was a religious exile provoked by the religious divisions in England in the 16th C (Henry VIII was first Catholic and then Protestant). Later on, England would be divided into Puritans, Protestants and Catholics.Virginia was settled in origin by Anglicans. Other colonies were dominated by dissenters. The most importantexample is Plymouth colony, founded by radical Puritans (later known as the Pilgrim Fathers) in 1620. It wasthe first permanent English colony in America with no interruptions in the settlement, although half of theearly settlers died in one winter. Puritans had a character of their own that provided them with independencefrom England. Plymouth is also important because it is the first root of Puritanism in America, which is still aquality in certain areas of American society. Late in the century, the colony was absorbed by Massachusetts(capital at Boston) and the Puritan cell expanded.America became a land of religious freedom, so Catholics soon decided to settle there. The chances of successin life and keeping Catholicism were great, so they found Maryland (in the South). The settlement wasdominated by a faith, but doors were open to all religions provided that Catholicism was accepted (opposite toPlymouth). Within 7 or 10 years, the colony developed.These colonies survived mainly by exploitation of natural resources (tobacco) and through piracy againstSpanish interests in the Caribbean Sea. In Boston, the currency was not English, but Spanish (Pieces of eight,reales). The symbol of the dollar $ represents the two Pillars of Hercules on a shilling.When the colonies were on the go, the annexation of new territories was a matter of time and politicalinterests. Clashes were inevitable against the rivals (the Dutch and the French) but sometimes they resulted inappropriation of territories.In 1664 New Amsterdam was occupied by English settlers, being re−baptised as New York. It was the firstterritory occupied after a military clash. In time, New York became a jumping board towards other territories.William Penn received permission to expand from New York, and he got to Pennsylvania (Philadelphia).In the North there were commercial possibilities (animal furs) so a new company was created: the HudsonBay Co. The Co dealt with beaver (castor) fur that lived along the River Hudson, dealing also with Indians.With Georgia (the last colony nº 14) England dominated practically the whole Eastern Coast of modern US.Plantations were in the West Indies (the Caribbean Sea). Those were little inhabited islands that had beenpractically neglected by the Spaniards, but that offered possibilities. Groups of few English people importedblack slaves to the place, and soon the pattern of black−white population appeared. The percenteships keep nobalance: 80% of black population, 20% of English. These colonies depended on one product alone, usuallytobacco or sugar, but also on piracy (they had links with Massachusetts).The first plantations were made in the 1620s: St. Christopher Island (later St. Kitts), Barbados, Atigna andMontserrat.In 1655 the English captured Jamaica, which converted itself in the capital of the English Caribbean Sea.The most negatives aspects were: • The slave trade was carried out at the beginning by the Dutch. Later, England rejected the Dutch and began to carry out the business themselves (the Royal Africa Co) so they made a lot of money. They made a serious penetration in Africa, where some of the present tragedies (the tribal warfare) are of 51
  • 52. their doing. Africans themselves became sellers of slaves, so tribal enmity was created by the English. • These colonies depended only in one product so, if prices fell, the life of the community resented. But their economies are still depended on one product nowadays: it is the disastrous consequence of how imperialism started to operate in those years. Sugar was a highly luxurious product in England in the 17th C (before, honey was used instead of sugar), but England couldnt cultivate it.Other nations followed a similar course as England. One of them was France, which had its own colonialinterests but in many cases they clashed with the English. During the 17th and 18th centuries there were sevenserious confrontations with France not so much because of religion, but because of colonial affairs. It wasbitter struggle through which England arose triumphantly. France lost practically all the colonies, but the sizeof the English Empire had expanded enormously.COLONIALISM: 1690 − 1815 (from William de Orange to Waterloo)During this period England lost the First British Empire but it gained another. By 1815, England was the mostimportant colonial empire so in the long run this is a period of benefits.France became the great rival, because the confrontation with the Dutch diminished thanks to William deOrange (he was from Holland) and France was the second colonial empire.THE LOSS OF THE COLONIES.The conflict started in 1773 with the Boston Tea Party, and it culminated with the Declaration ofIndependence in 1776. The confrontation can be considered a civil war due to several reasons.Firstly, Americans were dissenters of England who fought against the mother country.Secondly, there were supporters of independence and supporters of the mother country inside America.It was then an internal fight that wasnt positive for any of the parts, because England had nothing to gain andthe war was very expensive. Reasons for the conflict:• The 14 colonies had a population that a reached the number of 2m people, due to the improvements in the system of transportation from England. In many cases, the death penalty in England was exchanged for transportation, so America became the destination for many convicts (30,000 a year). The opposition to the mother country was then very strong.• Expansion is another reason. The Americans needed land to expand and get benefits, so two routes were taken: towards the west (facing the Indians) and towards the north (facing the French). In both cases the expansion was difficult, and England soon realised that it was a very expensive expansion that meant war.The first clash came in the north. Englands dominions extended to the River St. Lawrence, but Frenchoccupied the territory known as the French Arcadia. The French were expelled and Americans settled down,but when later Canada and Quebec had been captured, England was spending much money in the maintenanceof soldiers in the place. At the beginning, Americans paid 100,000 pounds of the total 300,000, so the decisionin England was that much of the cost should be paid by Americans. So, new taxes were imposed on productsthat had no tax before (e.g. tea), which meant an increasing of 100%. The problem arose then: Americansthought they didnt need to maintain the troops; furthermore, they had no representation in the EnglishParliament to defend their interests. England didnt negotiate and finally imposed the new taxation, whichprovoked that in 1765 the governors of all American colonies joined in New York to discuss the situation. Forthe first time, England had to negotiate with a block of colonies, which had come together in spite of theirdifferent origins. The concept of America had born. 52
  • 53. • The limitations imposed by England in trade and industry.The concept of free trade did not exist for the colonies, which needed to import the supplies they needed fromabroad. The English rejected the free trade, so every import or export went through the hands of England(getting benefits from it). As a result, products were far more expensive in America than in England.America had important natural resources (raw products like cotton), so the colonies saw that an industrialdevelopment would be highly beneficial. But England prohibited the industrial production in the colonies, sofor example cotton was taken to England where cloth was made, and it was re−sold to the Americans. By thissystem Americans were absolutely limited and could only buy what England obliged them. Erroneously,England didnt allow the industrialisation because it thought that it would meant more competition and badeconomic consequences.The hostilities broke out and the French co−operated with the rebels. The struggle finished in 1751. Englishpolitics never realised the potential of America. The war was a failure for the English: keeping the army so farfrom home was difficult and expensive, so the long duration of the war was an advantage for the Americans.The English Empire in America was lost, excepting Canada. Many Americans who had fought for England(the royalists) emigrated to the North, producing an increase in the number of population. Later on, people inCanada moved towards the west, as Americans were doing (the first to cross the US from coast to coast is saidto be Alexander Mackenzie, who used Canada).Despite the lost of the First English Empire, the balance could be maintained because other territories weregained: India and Australia.INDIAThe East−India Co had been working there since the beginning of the 17th C using trading stations. Duringthe 18th C, the situation changed when the Mogul Empire in India collapsed (their internal wars had causedthe disintegration). There was then no centralising power in India, where internal fighting was common andthere was no political union. The East−India Co became a military company, which occupied vast extensionsof territories (the most important of them was Bengal).By the time the 18th C finished, England possessed three major areas in England (practically the whole Southand part of the East) and planned to conquest the whole territory.The annexation of those new territories produced the expansion to other markets like China. China had beenpractically closed to foreigners and England was interested in this commerce, so India became a middlestation.There was a massive introduction of opium in India because England wanted to convert it into currency withwhich to penetrate Chinese markets (so China became dependent on opium) and it was cheaply grown inIndia. The tragic result was the Opium War.The end of the Napoleonic Wars liberated energies in many ways. In order to win, England blockaded France,which cost a lot of money, so the end of the war implied the liberation of economic energies. The end of thewar caused also the liberation of human resources. Although the war had swallowed lots of men thepopulation was still huge (11m in 1790; 24m in 1830) due to a boom in the birth rate. As a consequence, a lotof people were no longer necessary at home and England was overpopulated. The situation at home wasdesperate, so the only solution was emigration. Between 1815 and 1914 about 20m people emigrated tocolonial areas. It is the case of Australia. 53
  • 54. AUSTRALIAAustralia was by 1815 a prison for convicts (in the area called Botany Bay in Sydney). There were two groupsof people in the place: the convicts and the officers of the crown. One of the first governors of Sydney wasCaptain Bligh, who suffered two mutinies in the navy due to his character and brutal methods.Within a few years the situation changed. In 1820, 5000 new settlers appeared in Australia, starting the fullcolonisation of the place. By 1850, the division of society was complicated: convicts, officers, free−convicts(prohibited to come back home) and exclusives (emigrants of their own will).The moment Australia became a colony, certain means of survival were needed. Australia became then thefirst sheep breeder in the world (the sheep were from Spain −pure−merino wool). But Australia still needed tobe explored (Sydney or the bush), but in 1850 the bush had already been explored. The consequence was anecological disaster.Australia became a base for exploration of other areas. New Zealand and Tasmania (Van Diemens land) wereexplored during the 19th century. New Zealand offered great land for sheep, whereas Tasmania was poor andbecame a prison. This was made at the expense of the maori population, which was pushed and lost its rights.INDIAEnglish presence in India had been weak. It was a subcontinent with 600 languages. England took advantageof the Moguls Empire disintegration, but the presence of nations as Holland and France complicated things.Areas as Ceylon or Sri Lana were dominated by Portuguese or Dutch, so England was the minor power in theplace.A crucial process of Westernitation took place in England. The state took charge on things by establishing aState policy which included the use of only one language (English) and the abolition of native practises (e.g.the suti or widows who were burnt with their husbands; infanticide of no−wanted girls). English tried tomodernise the country because commercially speaking, India was the jewel of the crown (spices, tea, cotton,opium, etc.) which leaded to the Chinese markets, and needed to be maintained at all costs.England realised that France and Russia were very interested in India. The aggression of France come in thefirst place, when Napoleon attacked towards Egypt (near India). If France established a base in Egypt, tradewould be affected, so England decided to took control of Egypt (vital when the Suez Canal was built).The expansion of the Russian Bear was another threat so India grew towards the sides to stop their expansion.Thats why Punjad and Khabul (Afghanistan) were occupied.There were two religions in India: Muslims and Hindu. There was also a geographical division. By addingareas in Afghanistan, there was a mixture of both religions that created a clash. India then separated fromPakistan.THE AFRICAN PARTITIONAfrica was the last colonial cake because it could supply raw materials for the industrialised western world.The British penetration took two forms: abolition of slavery and the control of the maritime traffic.Africa had been a supplier of slaves since Hawkins travels. By 1815 the size of slave trade carried out by theBritish was vast and gave them enormous benefits, because their plantations in the West Indies needed slavesto survive. But after 1815 there were new moral views in society (mainly religious groups) that criticised theslave trade. 54
  • 55. As a consequence, England abolished the slave trade (but not slavery). The measure provoked unrest in theWest Indies, but they were allowed to use slaves. The British government gave them a compensation ofmoney so the plantations could survive. The problem was that other nations like the Dutch or the Americanscontinued trading with slaves. To avoid this trade, the British created a slave squandrom to intercept all shipscarrying slaves to their plantations. Thanks to the liberation of many of those slaves Sierra Leona was born (itwas not an English colony, but a free land to return slaves).In respect to the control of maritime traffic, England tried to occupy key points to control the traffic withIndia. Capetown had been originally Dutch (the Afrikaans) but as a result of wars, it became English. TheDutch population was not expelled, so there was a mixed society living together for a time. But soon thedifferences arose. The Afrikaans exercised the apartheid (authoritarian regime that separated black and white),but at least in principle, English law defended the equality of all men.The separation grew to the extent that the Afrikaans moved towards the north and created the Orange FreeState. At the end of the 19th century the problem derived into the Boer War. England encircled the Afrikaansby annexations, so the Dutch didnt have any exit to the sea. But the Dutch found an access to the sea byjoining the German colonies to the East (by alliances).EGYPT had no great colonial interest for England, till they realised that it was a strategic place due to thepossibility of building a canal (it allowed a shorter voyage to India). England established then political controlon the area, although it was not its colony.When England got dominions both in the north and the south, they though in creating a belt of territoriesuniting both areas (the English dream of building a Transafrican Railway). But other countries like Germanywere also interested in the centre of Africa.In the case of England the penetration towards the interior was carried out by commercial companies (theEast−Africa Co and the South−Africa Co), which wanted to obtain the mineral resources of central Africa.The advance was made quickly along the river Congo, but the fight culminated when the wealthiest area (thebasis of river Congo) was put in neutral hands, the king of Belgium (although the companies were allowed towork in the place).By the end of the 19th century Africa was divided among the colonial powers, but the strongest of them wasGreat Britain (see Joseph Conrad, The Heart of Darkness).Its called "Celtic Fringe" by some people. The problem of this name is that in the past all British Isles, as therest of Europe, is Celtic, although its true that in the Highlands remain more Celtic traditions.The word "sheriff" comes from this shire−reeve.Thats why the minister of economy is called the "Exchequer".Recolectores.In 597 the monk Augustine was send to England to re−establish Christianity. He first went to Canterburybecause kings wife had come from Europe and was Christian. Christianity was accepted by several families,but not so for the ordinary people. The Celtic bishops coming from Wales, Ireland and Scotland soon reachthe courts of kings and had success with ordinary people, but Roman Church extended its authority and wasfinally the most important. Church got much power in political questions, and was used for kings to suggestthe idea that they were chosen by God. New monasteries as Westminster offered education to literate men tohave a bigger influence in politics. The Anglo−Saxon kings also preferred the Roman Church for economicreasons, since it increased local and international trade. 55
  • 56. The origin of King Arthurs Legend takes place in this context. King Arthur is supposed to be an inhabitant ofEngland that tried to defend the country from Anglo−Saxons. The name of Arthur appears in a chronicle of awar in the year AD 500."Witan" can be seen as an antecedent of Parliament, but since it didnt accept any men, it was not a democraticinstitution.Subject = SúbditoIt means "libro del día del juicio final"Edward III > Richard II > Henry IV (division of York and Lancaster houses) > Henry V > Henry VI >Richard III > Henry VIIlongbow = arcoHenrys break with Rome was purely political. He had simply wanted to control the Church and to keep itswealth in his own kingdom.Pilgrimage = peregrinaciónProcesses = procesionesLa Armada InvencibleThere were 2,5 million of people in the XVI th century > 6 million in the XVII th century.* When Queen Anne, the last of the Stuarts, died (1714), George of Hanover became king. Since the Torieshad defended James IIs son as candidate to the throne, George I allowed the Whigs to form his government.One of the ministers was Walpole, who is considered Britains first Prime Minister. He was a good economist,and he had created in the XVIIth century the Bank of England to allow the governement to borrow money inorder to pay for the war with France. He also made sure that the power of the king would always be limited bythe constitution.The official explanation for the mutiny was that the introduction of a new rifle, for which bullets were kept inanimal flat and had to be bitten to use them, had provoked a refusal in Muslim troops.It is more exact to say, as some historians defend, that they were not two different wars, by a long war withperiods of peace, because the I and II World Wars are very closed linked.Revenue = rentaGuild = gremiosin = pecadoThe Stuart Dynasty: James ICharles I(The Protectorate)Charles IIJames II (till 1668)statuette=estatuillas boar=jabalí3 56

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