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A     STI"]DENTS        ENGLISI{      GRATVIMAR   WORKBOOK           Sylvia Chalker              being a Workbcrok fbrA St...
Addison WesleY l-ongman                  Limited,Ikl i rtbt r rg/.t (|rttc, IIrr rlrttr.I:sst.t ( )XI2O 2./ll, Iirt,ql ru ...
Gontents       Introduction                                                                                ..................
4lntroductionTIr is workbook prov idcs pr-act nrate                      icc               rial lorA Sttrtlcttls () ruttrt...
1 T h e E n g l i s hl a n g u a g e               and disputedgrammar    Prescriptive    Although thcrc is lairly gcneral...
6 TheEnglish           language  3 The doctor clismisscd symptomsand suggested take up a relaxing                        t...
2 A generalframeworkExercise 2 Sentences and clauses [SGE 2.2-31How much dil you know aboutscntence                       ...
B A general frameworkrniscrableanclsli,uhtlyfiightenecl.I sat for ten nrinutes without ntoving, unsure ofw h a t t o d o ....
Word classes ILook at the passageagain (Ercrcise 3) and clccide what function cach of thefbllowingphrases               ha...
10 A generalframeworkExercise6 Word classes:definitions[SGE2.6-11]Complete sentcnce       the     s withthesc             ...
3           Verbsand auxiliariest   Therc arc three nta.iortypcs ot verbs:    I r  rr r { o r l er i c u l v c r h st - eg...
1 2 V e r b sa n d a u x i l i a r i e sExercise9 -ed form: regularand irregular[SGE3.3-10]     In rcgular verbs. the past...
Past form              13E.tunrplc.  I Bad money DIitvEs ut good. (drive)  o     I r l - i n t h c u (  i( r .  l i s t . ...
14 Verbs and auxiliariesExercise13 -edform: pronunciationISGE3.5]                        -r,r/     Thc regular fbrr.n pron...
Primaryand auxiliaryverbs 15 8 MP fights otf deaththreatfrom muggcr. 9 P&O profitsf:rll 22 per centat half-yearl0 Ferry si...
16 Verbs and auxiliaries  5 Ivc bcen llatching the tennis.  t r M y h r o t h c r  r o t t i c k c t sl i r l t h c f i r ...
Primaryand auxiliaryverbs 17Exercise19 lnfinitives[SGE3.12.3.17-l8lCornpletc the fbllowing with a suitable infinitive. Rem...
1B Verbsandauxiliaries(c) usingcrcditcards(d) barteringgoodsfor other goods(e) payingfbr thingsby cheque(f) pay for things...
Voice 19Rewrite the fbllowing. using the subjunctive where appropriate.Make any otherchangcs necessary:E:untple. The govem...
20 Verbs and auxiliariesuill cither ( I I ) ..                           . . . . t h e D e p a r t m e n t  s S t a t e n ...
4        ,n"semanticsof the verb Phrase    Time and tense [SGE4.1-6]    Although vcrb tctrscsoltenrcferlo tirnc rcal tirnc...
22 The semanticsof the verb phraseExercise27 Past simple: when exactly? [SGE 4.1-6]Look at all the instanccsof the past si...
Tense and aspect 23Exercise 28 Present simple and progressive [SGE 47111C o m p l e l ch eI  o l l o w i n g s i n g :    ...
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
A Student's English Grammar Workbook
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  1. 1. A
  2. 2. A STI"]DENTS ENGLISI{ GRATVIMAR WORKBOOK Sylvia Chalker being a Workbcrok fbrA Stucil:nts Grarnnrctr ofthe English Longu,oge bv Sidney Grecnbaum and Randolph Quirk E -"GMAN
  3. 3. Addison WesleY l-ongman Limited,Ikl i rtbt r rg/.t (|rttc, IIrr rlrttr.I:sst.t ( )XI2O 2./ll, Iirt,ql ru ulottrl Assrrcirtletl (lttntltrutits thnttr,qltrtttt the trvtrlrlO S (lhalkct 1t)t)2All riglrts rcscrvccl: ll() l)art o1tliis lltrl:llic:rtiorlnrlrv bc rcproclrt<-ecl, stot-ctl tn :t rctricr:tl syslclll.r ir-,,nsrrriitecl ut-ry lirr ,r lty lrny lttclllts, ele:clr,nic, irrrrrccliunicel, ltotocollying t<orcling, or otllcruiscl, p u v i t l t o t t t l r c p r i o t u t . i t t c n l l c r t r l i s s i o t . < i 1t l r c I ) t r l r l i s h e r s l ll r i r s t P t r l r l i s l t c c l1 9 9 2Scr.rnllt irtil>rcssioll l1)99t l r i t i s l i l . i l r r . r r r O : t t r t l o g t t i t l t li r l I t r l r l i c : r t i o t ll ) : t 1 : t 1A r - l r t l t l o g t l cc t o L t l l i r l t l r i s l l o o l < i s l t r : t i l l l r l t l r o l t l ttlrc llr.itishLrlrrrrrt l:il,N 0 5ll2 08fi l9 t Sct in l.irtotyllt (ilttltrttoltcl l)rintecl in China swl(.,,07
  4. 4. Gontents Introduction ..........................,1I Thc Englishanguage l . . . . . . . . . .5 -.2 A g c n c r afl l a r r c w o r k ............1.l V e r h s r r r alu x i l i u r i e.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r t . . . . . . . . . . .|. |. . .,1 T h c s c n r a n t i c s t h ev e r bp h r a s c. . . . . . . . . of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. . . . . . 25 N o u n s n cc l c t c n n t r t c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a l .rs ..............366 Pronouns................. ..............417 A d . j c c t i v e n ca d v c r b s sa l . . . . . . .- 5 3 ..U T h c s e r a n t i ca n dg r l r n r n ao f a c l v c r b i a.l.s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 0 n s r .t) P r c p o s i t i o n s cp r e p o s i t i o n a l r a s c s an l ph ...........................67f0 T h es i r n p l c c n t c n c c s .............14II S c n t e n cte p e s n dc l i s c o u r s e n c t i o n s y a lu .........................1J212 P n l - l i r r n ra n c c l l i p s i s s l ........... tl6|3 Cloorrlination .........................9314 T h cc o r n p l c s c n t c n c c x ..........99l5 S y n t a c t i a n ds c n r a n l i I u n c l i o no l s u b o r d i n a t c l u s c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.9 c c s cl . 1. .l6 C o m p l c n r c n t a t i o n v c r b sa n c a t l j c c t i v c s f l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .l.2 .|. . .l1 T h c r t o t r n l t r r r s.c . . . . . . . . p . . . . . . . .I. l l .lll T l r c r r c .l i r c u s a n c i n f i r n n a t i o p r o c c s s i n g , l n .....................14219 F r o ms c n t c n c t o t e x t e . . . . . . . . . .l . .5 2 -KIIY S u g g c s t cic n s w c r s tl ..........l-58 ...
  5. 5. 4lntroductionTIr is workbook prov idcs pr-act nrate icc rial lorA Sttrtlcttls () ruttrttrurtl t ht Ert,ql r i.slrltlt,qtru,qc (.S(i[) by Siclrrcy(irccnbaurn lntl Ranclcllplt Quirk. antl rcltrctrccs ltrl t l c v r r r t l e r t i o t t(s 1. ( ; L l t l t g i r t t t . s )fhc wrtrkbook shoultl. howcvcr. provc uscful to othcr aclvattcctlIcarncrs olI l n g l i s h w h o w a n t p r a c t i c cn r a t e r i a l . n d s i r n p l i f i c t lg n t u t t t l t t i c i t lt t o t c sa r c g i r e t t aon p o i r r t sw i t h l v h i c h s u c h s t u r l c n t s n a l b c l c s s l a n r i l i a r .S t t t t l c t t t st t a ; vt l s o l i n t l r t ll t l i c t i o r t a l yu s c ir , r l .T I t c c x c r - c i s c c l o n o l h a v c t o b c r l o n e i n l n l p i t r t i c t t l l t l o r t l c tl r.l t h t t t t g h i t l c c t h c s sv n , o r k b o otk r l l o w s I h c s a n t cg c n c r - l lp l a n u s . ! ( i [ . t h i s t r t c a t t s l t a t s c c t i o n s I a t t d i tI s c r v c u s a n o v c r v i c w . s c c t i o n s3 l l d c a l w i t h h l s i c p r o h l c t t t s a t r t l I t l 9 w i t h . r.r n o r ec o r r r p l c xs l r u c t L r r c s . l r r vc x c r - c i s c s ,s p c c i a l l vi t t s c c l i r l r r i l r c c o t l c c r t t c c l A cw i t h l c r t n i n o l o g y w h i c h i s i n r p o r t a n t i r r a c u r l c n r i c t u t l c t t t st l t t la r r s c f i r a i t l l o a t t . l s l l6 v c l r l l u n d c r s l a l r t l i n g l l h c g r - u n u u a t i c a lv s l c l l t .T h c n r l r . j o r i t o l t h c c x c l e i s , : s o s yarc. irowcvcr. cnl ifc l), plirctical. The 1arc blrsctlrtn tttotlcrttEng I ish. covcr il llf ict-1 1 1 l 1 1 r la i c{ u r - c n t c l l ( l c ( tl o h c l p l c i r r r t c t is c r c a s ct h c i r o w r t t l ) a s t c r y l t . n g l i s h . ttr s i n olhcrc i s u k c y t o l h c c x c r c i s c st r t l h c l r u c k .b u t i t r r t u s th c p o i r t t c do u t l h l t t l l l s o l l t cc a s c sl l t c r c n r a v b c o t h er a c c c l t t l r b l c n s u es . ( i l l t t n n t a r i s t r n t l c n i a t r l yt t t t a l l c l o l u l i lltottg: rightn r l c sa n r ll r - c r p r c n tov" r i g h f l n r l li b u l i t c l r r ta l s ol r c t t r t t l t t t c t - o l lrlltlright u choicc hctwccnIw() ()rnlorc gratntnulicuwavs olsayingsotttctltittg. ld c p c n d i r r u t nt h c c x r t c tt t l e a l l i t l gi t l t c t t t l c t l . < s(I-ondonI 992
  6. 6. 1 T h e E n g l i s hl a n g u a g e and disputedgrammar Prescriptive Although thcrc is lairly gcneral agrccntcnt about what you carl anclcanttot s a y i n s t a n c l a r ctln g l i s h .t h e r ca r ea t ew g r e y a r e a s o f t r t s t t ltt, l ru s a g cw h e r c t rrativc spcakcrsclisagrcc.F-orcxatnplc. can you or call yotl llot sayl All ol tou vtill rrot ruxlcrstutrLl. Sorrrcpcoplc finclthis totally acceptablc:othcrs want to reword il tts Nttt ull t l t 0 t t x , i l l u t u l e r s t u n df t h a t i s w h a t t h c r t t c a n i n s i s . c l a i l n i n g t h i l t t h c i r r r i g i n a ls c r r t c n c c r c a l l yt n c a r r s N r t n t r t f. t t t t u i l l u t r d t r s t t t t r t l . r O t h c r p r o b l c n t sa r i s c h c c a u s ct t f t n t , sH t t "ttv t , r u l c s . s o t t t c t t l t h c r r rc l a t i n g t llrtrn a t i r n e w h c n p c t t p l ct h o u g h tt h a l t r n g l i s hg r i t t lt t l t a rs h o u l dh c l i k c L a t i n g r a n l n a r . T h c s c r u l c s s l t o u l r ln o t r c i t l l y a p p l y t o f t n g l i s h a l a l l . b L r tr r l a n y E n g l i s h p c o p l c h a v r -h e - a r dh c n r a n c l( c l r i t c n t i s t a k c n l y ) t h i n ki t i s w r t t r t gt t r t brcak thcnt.Iixarrtplesof tlrcsc cloublltrlrulcs: [)onl ettcla sclltcltcc with lr prcposiliorl. S a y / t . r / . ( D o n t s r t y/ l . i r i i r . ) P a r l l y a s a r c s u l t o l p r c s c r i p t i v c r u l c s . w c t t l t c t t g c t l l l l l i l { ( o(R N l w hl i c h l ) lt ,( i s p c o p l c s c r i o u s l yr t r i s a p l t l y i n g r u l e. l h u s s o r l l c o t t e l t o l t l t sb c c r lt o l t l t t r a w say lts / ptay gct thc idc.rt hal riir is sorncltow urtgratttttrtt l itt atty posit ion. iclt so tlrcy sttyilttlvttrtltttr ttttti l. A n o l h c r c a u s co l d i s p u t e ttl t s a q c s l l a t t l l a lc h a r l g c . a r r g u i t g c h l n g c s a l l l l r c i L l i r 1 c . P c o p l e w l t o n o t i c c c h a n g c so l t c n o b j c c t 1 o t h c r t t a n d c o t l s i t l c rl l t c t l l w r o n ! 1 .( P e r h a p riin t i n r c l t t t t t , c t t. tt t t u u t t l / w i l l b c l c n c r a l l y a c c c p t a b l c . )Exercise1 Prescriptiverules,disputed usage and hypercorrectionl l c r c u r c s o n r c a u t h e n t i cc r a r n p l c s o f n r o d c r t r E n g l i s h . E l t c h s c t t t c t r c c ( ) l l t l t l l l s cs9r1c kip{ olclispr-rlcd usauc perhups sotncthirtgthat stttttcbotlvwottltl ob.icctttlbccauscit brcaksu prcscriptivcnrlc, or a hypcrcorrcclioll,()rartcwislrtleve lo1-rltlcltt.(-an you spot thc problctlts/ I I u r r i i r n p r c s s c db 1 t h c k n o u " l e c l g e c u r t c l h i s l l - i e n t l ss l t o w o l d i f l c r c n t h g p i v e r s i t i c s n d c o u r s c s. . . l h c y u r c l i t p p c ( li t t l t tl t t t c t w o r k o l i r t t i r r n r a l i o nl.l a clitl not uscclto bc likc tliat. 2 It woulcl havc crtclecl trtluedy. i t i t h a c l n th a v c b c c n f o r l h c c o u r a s c o l t h c rn v i c t i r n . ( P o l i c c t t ff i c c r s p c a k i n go n l c l c v i s i o n )
  7. 7. 6 TheEnglish language 3 The doctor clismisscd symptomsand suggested take up a relaxing the she hobbv. 4 Q: What would you havebeenhad you not beenborn a sportsman/ A: I may havefbllowedrny fatherinto the Servrces. 5 I wondcr if he were indeecl hercvesterclay. 6 A s t o r w c E n g l i s h . w c s h o u l c lr c s i s tt h c t c r n p t a t i o n o r n a k e . j o k e s . t 7 Thc bcautiful stallionswcrc kcpl to onc sidc of thc nrutc arrcl spectatorswcrc us kcot to thc othcr. tl Nearlylirurlinre usnlanygirls in Britlin sullcr s Irorn lsthrnathanin thc 1970s - but all thoscwho cltirn to be aller.uic not suflering arc liorn it. 9 P o c t r y n c c d s l c s s w o r d s . ( P l a y w r i g h t A l a n B c r r r r c t ts p c a k i n go n l c l c v i s i o r r . about tloctrv ancJ rrove ls)l0 Thc carbortclioxidc locks in thc surts heat, likc slass locks hcat into a grecnhousc.l l W r i t i n gr n y f i r s tr u u b yr n a t c h c p o r tu t c c l i n go t u n r e a l i t y i t r n c r hl 2 T h e w o r l c c a nb r c a t h c l i t t l ec a s i c r t t c rt h i sh i s t o r i c u n r r n i l l u a sl 3 You Lrsc dillcrcnlsort ol English in a T ilic.r lcaclcrthan in a convcrsation in a a nub.1 . 1 I f a r e g u l a r c u : i l o n r c l w c r co n t a k ea r r a n g c l n c n t w i t h t h c i r o w n b r a r r c h i,t n l r y t s bc possiblc to nrakc arrangcnrcnlslbr spccdy clcarartcc.l - 5 A s a l c s r n l r n x p l a i n c c lt h a t t h e r n a n u l l s i n c l u c l c dw i t h r n o s l c o n r p u t c r sw c r c c h o p c l c s s T h e v c i t h c r w c r c i n r p o s s i b l eo u n c l c r s t a n c l u l l o f n r i s t a k c sr,l r b o t h . . t t.l6 Nonc of thc bodics so lar rccovcrcrl uvcrc wearin!r lifliackcts.l 7 S a r t r c h u c lo n c o f t h c b c s t c c l u c a l i o n s v u i l a b l et-o u m l r r ro l h i s g c n c r a t i o n aI t l T h e i c l c as c c m e dt a r t o t r c l t r e l t o u c t u u l l l , e r u r y u t ol9 No sooncr arc onc scl ol pcrils sunttortr-ttcd than itnotlrcr lot. cvcn rnorc intraclablc.akc thcir nlacc. t20 Thc Princctestssclrne olthc inventions. inclucling prototypc a sports the of c a r :p l u st h e r e st r e v i e w l l h en r o s s u c c e s s l iu ln o v a t i o nis t c ny e a r s f t h e i o t n n o awarcis.
  8. 8. 2 A generalframeworkExercise 2 Sentences and clauses [SGE 2.2-31How much dil you know aboutscntence structurel Completethe sentenccs bym a t c h i n gh c p r e d i c a t e t (s ) - ( j )t o t h e s u b j c c t sl - 1 0 ) . T h e f i r s ta n s w c r s l c . a ( i I A scntence ( a ) a r eu s u a l l y p t i o n a l . o fhe (b) is thc most important copularverb. 2 sub.ject 3 Thc verb (c) contains subjcctand a predicate. a 4 The prcclicatc ( c l )o n l y o c c u rw i t h t r a n s i t i v e e r b s . v -5 Thc rnainclements of sentencc structure (c) haveto occur rn evcry scntencc. 6 Notall of lhese (f) usuallyconres befilrcthe verb. 7 Objccts (g) fbllow ctrpular vcrbslikc ltc or lxLrtnrc. 8 Cornplcments (h) aresubjcct, verb.object, complctnenl. aclverbial. 9 Thc vcrb bc ( i ) c o n s i s t o l a v e r ba n c p o s s i h l y t h c r s l o cletncttts. l0 Aclverbials (-i) hasto agreewitlr thc subjcct.Exercise3 Sentenceelements:forms ISGE 2.241 Vcrb pllrases. Words arc oticrt .joined togcthcr irt grtlups callcd 1rlrrtrsts. noun phrtses, adverb phrascsand aclicctivephrasestnay consist o1a singlc verb, noun /pronoun, aclverbor acl.jcctivc olscvcral words built arountl ttr hcacl thc worcl. Hcrc arc solttc cxltnrples. vcrb phrascs thittks.nus lttt1titt14, huvtutttulrred ntrtt n<lunphrascs nt(, sottt(()tt(, s()ttt(()tt(elsc, ntv ltttntc, uttttrlrcr ttl thost prttblenrs, u plucc I rttttt risittd irdjcctive phrascs un rt.suul, uitt ttnrurkultlc, vtrt txltl i trdcttl q advcrb phrases rcnrorkultlt, ttttte,ruthcr txltllt Prcpositional phrases arc ralhcr diffbrcnt becausc prepositions clo ntll function on thcir own. A prepositionalphrascttrustcctttsist preposition ola + another word, usually a noult. prepositional phrases uttdcr tlte tultle,tut ntl stu1ttist irt tt trrttttrctrl,Reacl pas:ja-qe thenchoose otld tbrm out in eachsct listedbelow. the ancl theI satdown on a stonc. wasexhausted. anklewasachingandleg nruscles I My thatI ncver knew cxistedwcre beginninslo complain.The sun wi.lscastinclongshadows the silence and worricdme.Thcrewasno signof thc path,andtto tlthert r a i ll o o k e c l t a l l c o n v i n c i n g .c o u l dn o ts c ca s i n g l e o u s et,h e r e e r cn o t a r n i l i a r a I h wlanclmarks, anclthe lndus uas ttnly a glinting trickle far belo"v.Ifelt tirccl.
  9. 9. B A general frameworkrniscrableanclsli,uhtlyfiightenecl.I sat for ten nrinutes without ntoving, unsure ofw h a t t o d o . A l l o p t i o n ss e c m c cc q u a l l y u n a p p c a l i n g . h c n . i r n n t c c l i a t c l y b o v e l T ame, I heard g u n s h o t s O n o t h e r o c c a s i o n s h e n o i s en r i g h t h a v c b e e ns i n i s t e r . o w . t Nthey seemecl welconrinr. alrnost honrcly. I clurnbercd upwalcls,anclsoon lbund at r a c k . F o l l o w i n g i t a r o u n d a b l u f f o f r o c k I s a w t h e s o u r c co f t h c s h o t s :a v i l l a g co f f r a l f - t i m b c r c dh u t s c l i n g i n g t o t h e s h c c r h i l l s i d e . ( W i l l i a n t D a l r y n t p l c : / lXuttudu A Quc.rt)[..tunrplt. stonc rnv anklc cornplain rro sigrr a gunshotsAtr.sutr". Ithc rcst ilrc noulr phrascs] conrplail-rI vcrb phrascs was cxhauslccl llas achin.u w c r e b c g i n r r i l l gl t l c o n r p l a i n c o u l d n o t s r c c rnighthavc bccnI noun phr;.rscs l c g r r t u s c l c sh a l I n c v c r k n c w c x i s t c c l t c a s t i n gl o n g s h a c l o w s n r c n o s i g r ro l t h c p a t h thc s<lurcc lthc shots oI ad.jcctivc hlascs p l i r c c l ,n r i s c r l b l c a n d s l i g h t l y l i i s h t c n e d r . l n s u r o f w h a l t o d o c c l u a l l vu n a p p c a l i n t c a l r n o sh o r n c l y l i r l l o w i n g t t i"1 advcr-bphrases ncvcr llr bclow irnrncdiatclv ovc b now r.lpwilros5 p l c p o s i t i o n u lp h r a s c s o n a s t o l r c f i r r 1 c nr n i n u t c s w i t l r r l r - r tr u v i r r g n o n o t l r c r o c c r s i o n s a l r n o s tl r o r n c l vExercise4 Sentenceelements:functions ISGE2.3-4] W h c n w e t a l k o l p h r a s c s w c a r c t a l k i n g o l i , o R 1 , c a l c g o r i c s- t h c w a y r p h r a s c sa r c f i r r r n c d .W h c n w e t a l k o l s c n t c n c c c l c n r e n t s( s u b . j c c l sv c r b s . , o b . j e c t sc o r n p l c n r c r r ta n r l a r l v c r t r i u l sw c a r c t h i n k i n g o l t h c w a y d i f f b r c r r t , s ) k i n t l s o t f i r r n r a lp h r a s c s , t N ( r r o Nh l r w t h c s i t n t ek i n c lo l p h n r s cc a n c x p r c s s l . diflcrcnt clcrncirts. Ihc v c r bc l c n r c ni{n u s c n t c n cn r u s b cu v c r bp h r a s c . u tt h i sd o c sn o tu p p l y e l b t o o l h e rt i r r n r s n df u n c t i r l n s . o r c x a r n p l c i n t h c p u s s u gic l l x c r c i s c ) : u F ( n 3 N o u n p h r a s c c u nb c : s srrb.jcct T l t t s i i t t rtt . . . ob.jcct ... lworricd) lrr,. ob.icctot prcposition . . . ( o n )( t s t ( ) t t ( . l l s o c o m p l en r c n t (TIre writcr ts) u truvc!lcr Acljcclivc phrascscan bc: coniplcr-ncnt t q uu I I v u t ru1t1ttuI i tt.q P r c p o s i t i o n ap h r a s e s a n l c part of l noun pltrasc (rio sign)ttl thc putlt an aclvcrbial (sat dorvn) ()n u st()n(
  10. 10. Word classes ILook at the passageagain (Ercrcise 3) and clccide what function cach of thefbllowingphrases has.NPs I my ankle SL BJtl(-l ? l c g r n u s c l ets a tI n e v e r n e wc x i s t c d h k 3 long shaciows . 1 a g l i n t i n gt r i c k l c 5 t h cs h e e r i l l s i d c hAcljPs 6 at all convincing 7 tirccl. nrise rablcanclslightlytrightcnctl 8 welconting, altr-tosthorrrclyPPs 9 o l t h cp a t h l 0 l b r t c r rm i n u t c s I I u i t l t o u tl t t o v i n g l 2 o n o t h c ro c c l l s t o l t sExercise5 Words and word classesISGE2.6-11]l l o w r n u c h c l o y o u k n o w a b o u t w r t r d c l t s s es ( p a r l so f s p c c c h ) /C h o o s c t h c h e s t o p t i o t t sT h c l i r s t a n s w c r i s l a . . I W c d i v i d c w o r d s i r . r t o a ) t w o ( h ) t h r c c ( c ) f i r u r b r o a t lc i t t c g o i i e s .l c p c n t l i n g ( c on w h c t h c r t h c s c c l a s s c sl r r c r c l l r t i v c l y l i x c c lo r c o n s t a n t l yc h l r n g i n g . I C l o s c d w o l c l c l u s s c s( l ) h a v c i n r p o r t a r t g r a l n n r a l i c a l i r n c t i o t t s( b ) o l t c ng c t t lcxical ncw w o r c l sa r k l c d ( c ) c o t t s i s ll a r g c l y o l rvotds. --rThc closed clusscsinclutlc (a) lirll vcrrrs Inotlal vcrbs (b) prirnarlr ancllull nttci vcrbs (c) printary artcllnoclitl vcrbs. : l T h c o p c n c l a s s c s( a ) a r c c o n s t a n t l yg a i n i n - ur r c w w o r t l s ( b ) i n c l u c l cn t a i r t l v q r a m r n a t i c alw o r i l s ( c ) i n c l u c l ci t l l v e r b s . gcncric spccitic 5 Thc tcmrs itnrl a l c t p p l i c r l t o t h c n r c a n i t t g l ( l r )a t i v c r h i a l o phrascs (b) noun phritscs c) prcpositional hrltstrs. ( p unrnarkcrlre 6 Thc tcrrnsnrarkcclancl I a t ct o ( a ) i n f l e c t i o to n l y ( b ) n t c l r t i r t { t only ( c ) b o t h i n l l c c t i o na n d t t t c a t t i n { . 7 S t a t i v cv e r b s ( u ) a t ct t r a i r t l yL t s c tiln l h c p a s s i v c( c g : r o / . r cl t r t tr t )( b ) a r c r a r c l v u s c c l r r p r o g r e s s i v c c n s c s( c g : l t c l o t r g ,k t r o u . o v t r()c ) s h o w l l a c k o l t t t o t i o t t i t ( c g : / i c , r c , s t. .t i l ) . 1 3A p r o - l i r r r n i s ( a ) a s p c c i a lk i n t l o f p r o n o u n ( b ) a n y w o r c lt t r l t h r a s c t h l t r e l t r s to aitothcr cxpression without repeating it (c) a covcr tcrtn lirr both prottttt"ttts anclclctcrr-trincrs. 9 Opcrator nreans (a) a finitc verb phrasc (cg: tttuld lruvt.frttgrttttrr) (b) thc auxiliaricsirr a v c r b p h r a s e ( . . . . t r t t r l tllr a l c f i r r g o t t c n ) ( c ) t l r e f i r s t o r o n l v a u x i l i a r y ( . . . . t o u l dh a v c f i r r g o t l c n ) .l 0 N o n - a s s c r t i v e p p l i c st o c er t a i n w o r c l st h a f a r e r c s t r i c t e ci ln u s et o ( a ) n c g l t i v c a questions (b) ncgative statemenlsand questions (c) negative statcrncllts.
  11. 11. 10 A generalframeworkExercise6 Word classes:definitions[SGE2.6-11]Complete sentcnce the s withthesc words: utljectivc: adverbs eonjunctions tlcttrminers nouns prcposiliorrs pronouns verbsI Dt natni c..ftni rc, liil l, tru t r.t t itc al l describc . . y.illl. . . . . . i2 CollcLtiva, courtt. ,qctrititc,l)rolrcrare used in clescribing cutitc, (ontpdrdtitc, sultcrlot it,t, relatc to3 Attri but i te, 1ttcdi4 I)cnrott.rttutitr, itttcrro.qutitt,ltcr.sotrul,rclutit.t describc clill-crcnt kincls of5 ..... . o f t e n t c l l u s I r o w ,w h e n . w h c r c o r w h y s o r n e t h i n g a p p e n c d . h6 Many . . . . . . h a v e r n c a n i n g s o n n c c t c dw i t h p l a c c o r t i r n c .T h c y c o n n c c l c t w o u n i t s o f a s c n t c n c ct o g e t h c ra n c ls h o w a r e l a l i o n s h i p .7 Thc articlcs rrlarranclthc ttc spccial kinds oltt ..... . . j o i l tw o r c l s , h r a s c s n c lc l u u s c st o g c t h c r .S o r n cu r c c o o n l i n a t i n g p u l l n ( l ( , l l t c i l r ( s t r h ( ) r ( l i n i l l g . nExercise7 More about word classes ISGE 2.6-111Choosc thc odcl word out in cach sct thc word that docs nt)t bclons to thatparticuar worrl class. lF,.turtrple.built. door, garclcn,roorn. winclowAtt.tutt". built IThc othcr worcls arc nouns.l lcould rlray shoulcl will want 2 itrc can did has was 3 nrc cvery ouls sorncone thcy 4 atie-r ut during into upwarcls -5 and be-causc or too whcn 6 college cllss gralllnar lcarn tetchcr 7 angry hungry loncly obviously silly lJ causc insist must pcrsuaclc :iuggcst 9 an how nty no whoscl0 afierwards baclly liicnclly now soon
  12. 12. 3 Verbsand auxiliariest Therc arc three nta.iortypcs ot verbs: I r rr r { o r l er i c u l v c r h st - eg : l , t l i t r t , / i l r . . r , l r .t t r t t t l . . . Alntost all vclbs arc irrthis catcgory. cxccpt tor 2 rntrv.rnr- rbs - /rc. r1oarttl I t u t t ve - 3 v o l r , r t . a r - r x i l i a r i c s ( u t t , t o u l t l . t r r r n . r n i , q l t t , t t r r r . s l .s l t u l l . will.vttuldExercise 8 Full verbs: functions of the base form [SGE 3-2-3]l T h c r , r , r slti , r r n o l t h c v c r b i s t l t c r . r t r i r t l l c c l c itr r n i o l a l i r l l o r p t i t l t a t -v c r b , r t l r c l i r r r nl l t a t c o n t c st i r s l i r r a r l i c t i o n a r y l l y ( e s : / ) r 1 i r l t .l i k c . l t t , r i o . B u t N r r t ltr I i cvt,s,I i kcl. lx i n.q.dttrrt). T h c b a s c i s u s c c li n l i v c t l i l l c t c n w a y s : l I o l i c n t o l r r h c r c . [ i n i t c p r c s c l l tl c n s c ( l ) f c s ) l C . t t t t r t lo n c c ! | i n t p c r a t i v c ( i r r r p ) l rl f h c y c l c r n a n c l ctth a t I t t t t t t L t oh c i r .o t f i c c .l s t r l l . i u n t : t i v(c u b .)i] l t s l"hcy w a n l c t l t t t c t o c t r r t t .l i r l f i n i t i v c w i t h l o ( t o - i n l i l r ) l I c a n c o i r r r t o l l t o r r o w i.n l i n i t i v cw i l h o u t r o ( b a r c i n l i n ) ] IF i l c lt h cb u s c i r r r n sn t h cf i r l l o w i n ga n dd c c i c l w h i c hw a yc a c h n ci sb e i n g s c d . l i . c o uF,.tttnrplc. Whcn yorrhavcIlothingto say.say nrlthinsWho saidthatlA t t 5 u , t , t " . l r apc c s ) 1 ) . r ( / . (i t o i n ) . r r n l i r r l pI)B t t tt l o t . s r r r ble c a u s c . l r rirs r l o t (lr / nf . r , rla bascfirrrttI I Listcrcarclully. r 2 If youwont listcn. rn toing. I 3 M y p a r e n t a l w a y si n s i s t c dh a tI l i s t c nt o w h a tt h c y s a i d . s t .tr But why am l supposccl listcnl to 5 A c t u a l l yI a l w a y s i s t e n n Y w a Y . l a 6 If youcantstand hcat, outcttthc thc gct kitchen. larryS Trunran, llll:l- lc.)72. [] I US presidentl 7 Who was he tclling to gct out of thc kitchcn,anclwhyl U lt hasnothingto clowith kitchcns. wassuggesting pcoplcwhtl couldnot He to work undcrpressure they get out and linclothcr wclrk. that 9 O h I g e ti t ll0 I dont know whetheranyoneactuallydid get out as a result.
  13. 13. 1 2 V e r b sa n d a u x i l i a r i e sExercise9 -ed form: regularand irregular[SGE3.3-10] In rcgular verbs. the past tcnsc and the past participle both encl in -crl: I lookcd lpastl, I have lookcd [past participlcl -crlfirnn So the label is ofien used lbr both these parts of the vcrb. cvcn with irrcgulal vcrbs: He .rax He has .rccri. .Cornple{c thc lbllowing passageusing -rrl lbnns ol tlrcsc rcgular ancl irregularvcrbs: cicsccncl clisappear clrop givc lead pcrclr populate risc rouncl say scl stancl wrap Lookl , . r u n p l t . T h a t sr i g h t . s . , r t oh c d o c t o r . t altcr your Irothcr.M y n r o t h e r( l ) . . . . n r e d i r c c t i o l t sl t o w t o r c a c h t l t c c l i s p c n s u l ya n c lI ( 2 ) , . . . . . .o f l w i t h a b o t t l c ( 3 ) . . . . .. inbrownpapcrurtrlcrrrtyilrrn.Ihcroad(.1) ......uphill.throughathickly(-5)..... .poorlocality.aslarasthcbarracks.whichwas(6) . . . . . . o t r l h c v c l y l o p otl h c l r i l l , o v c r t h c c i t y .anrlthcn(1)..... ..t.ttwccnhighwalls.tillitsucltlenlyahtrost(13)i n u s t o n yp u t h .. . . t h a l ( 9 ) . . . . . . s t c c p l y . t c c p l y . o l h c v a l l c yo f t l r c l i t t l c s tr i v c r . . . . a n c l l l t c o p p o s i t eh i l l s i d e . . . ( 1 0 ) ...... to thc gcntly (l l) ...... top.on which ( ll) ... . . . t h c p u r p l c s a r t r l s t r r t c r v c ro l t l t c ocalhcdlal.Exercise10 -edform: functions [SGE 3.3] pust Thc f initc i11tirrrn is usetl lirr: Sirnplc past tcnsc: I ltxtkcd. Wc ,ran T h c n o n l i n i t ccr1participlc is r.rsecl lirr [)crttcl: l h i r v c l t x t k c t l .T h c y h a d . r r c r i i t . P a s s ic : v Yott wcrc .rt,r,r;. Plrtiriplcelause t r c r r l r o n ra d i s t u n c c ,i t i s l o v c l y .Dcciclc whal lunclion thc -crl tirrrns lraclin cxcrcise 9. anclnritrk lhcrn Dasllcnsc( p a s t ) ,o r n o n l i n i t c p a r t i c i p l e : 3 A 1 6 llExercise11 -s form: pronunciationand spelling[SGE3.4-10] The 3rd personsrngular the sirnpleprcscnt of tensc(thc -,s firnn) is pro- ways,accordirrg the souncl nounccdin threedifferent to that it tbllows: vuits lsl weieJt.s lzl vi.sltes lvlCompletc the fbllowing with the -.sfbnn of the verbs indicated.Then arrangethevcrbs into three lists according to the wav the enclingsarc pronouncecl.
  14. 14. Past form 13E.tunrplc. I Bad money DIitvEs ut good. (drive) o I r l - i n t h c u ( i( r . l i s t . 2 Abscnce . . . . . . . t h e h c a r tg r o u l i t n c l e r( l n a k c ) . 3 lts thc carly birtl that ..... . . l l r c w o r t t t .( c a t c h ) 4 Travcl . . . . . . . t h c n r i n c l( b r o a c l c r t ) . 5 Charity . . . . . . . a t h o r n c .( b c g i n ) -lornorrow 6 rtcvcr. ...... (ctrtttc) 7 Hc u,ho . . . . . . . i s l o s t .( h c s i t a t ) e 8 ll ..... . . b c l i e l b u t i t s l r u c .( p t s s ) , 9 It ..... . . t o a d v c r l i s c(.p a y )l0 This powclcr . . . . . . . w h i t c r l h r r nw h i l c . ( w a s h )ll Historl . . . . . . . i t s c l l (.r c p c a t )l 2 A n a p p l ea d a v . . . . . . . t h c c k r c t o irt w a l .( k c c p )ll Powcr ....... to crlrrupl. lcnd) (l - l l n d u b s o l r . t tp ( ) / c r . e . . . . . . l r b s o l t t t c l y( c o r r u l r)l .Exercise12 Past form: regularand irregular[SGE3.5-10]C o m p l c t c t h e l i r l l t t r v i n gw i t h t r r a sttc l t s c so l l l t c v c r b s g i v c t t .M y r r r o t h c r( l w a l c h ) . 1 1 l l l r l ) .t .t r e l i r t t t t h c k i t c h e r t t l o o r u l t y a l t t l I c t t u l t li r u l r r : i l t c h c r k c c n c v c s p i c r c i n g l h c c l o t h o l r t t y bl louuzh c r c t l t c w a t c l t ( 2 r c s t ) ct . . . . . . g u i l t i l yi n r n y p o c k c t . Arc you going on 1 o u rb i k c . t h c n . W i l l l cs. I (3 slry) ....... M o t h c r . . a n d . l c l i n g u r t c o r t t f i r r l a h lrc d c rt h i t t l u tr l i r c c t g u z c . ( - 1l x g i r t ) . . . . . . t o w h c c l t h c b i k c a c r o s s1 h cy l r r . i l . l (5 ...... you 16sa1) .. ... il (7 necd) think)n r c i r r l i r r g r s o t t t c t l r i t r g el i r l c v o u ( l t r i t l c ) o b ...... it ltgairl.) 11s o n l y l l i t t l ct h i n g . I ( 9 l c l l ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l. r c r . l t l b e a l l r i g l r t . l [(lOulvc).. ......soorlbvcand | | pcditl) ( o u t i n l ( )I l l c s t r c c tw l r i l cs h c( l l w u t c h ) . . . . . . n r c .a l i t l l ct l o u b t l u l l iI .( l 3 t h i n k )O n c c o L r t o l s i g h tlo tl c l t o t t s t I ( l - 1t r l ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a l l t l l y s t r c l l l l t l l o r l l h c p c c l a l s l Panrl (15 ridc) . . . . . . l i k c t h c w i n d . N l y g r a n t l l l t h e r s l t o t r s c( l ( r b c ) ...... in onc ol thc oltlcr parts ol lhc town arttl ttty way ( l7 lt-atl) . . . . . . l l r n r u g ha l l t i t z co t c o b b l c cs l r c c t sb c t w c c r tl o r t gr t t w so t h o u s c s . ( l 8 l Ikecp). l lc )s . . . . . u p r n y s P e e r l . c x c i l c r n c n l c o u r s i n g t h r o u g l r u r l ta t h i n k ) . . . . . . o l t h c w a t c ha n d ( 1 0 r c v c l ) . . . . . . i r t t t t y l t a t r . eo l ( r . l w l c y . c-l.lrcn fr-0rriun crltry bclwccn lwo tcrritccs tlf llottsesa tttotlgrcl puppy (21 dalt) . . . . . . i r r l ot h e s t r c e t . 1 2 2p u l l ) I . . . . . . a 1I n y b u c k h r a k c .T h c c i t b l c(2.3snap) . . . . . . w i t h a c l i c k - t h i t l w l t s w h l r t l h a t l ( 2 i, n t c n d ) 1to fix. I (25.janr) ...... or1he thrnt blukewith fhc puppycowcrins firolishly ti n r n y p a t h .J h e b i k c ( 2 6 . i a r ) . . . . . . l o a s t l t n c l s l i l lt,h e b a c k e r r c s u i r t r . t i t t g las though(27 catapult; . . . . . . o / e r t h c p i v o l o f t h c s t a t i o n a r yt i t l n tw h c c land I (2tl go) .... .. ovcr the hancllcbars.
  15. 15. 14 Verbs and auxiliariesExercise13 -edform: pronunciationISGE3.5] -r,r/ Thc regular fbrr.n pronounccd thrccdilferentwaysaccording the is in to s o u n di t f o l l o w s : u islredltl utiglted ltU vuitcd lrcUCio throughall thc rcsular rr1 tornrsin Excrcisc l2 and put fhcrn in thrcc listsl r r e o t t l i r t g l l t ei r p r o t t u r titr t l i o r t : lo[:.tuntltlt: ( I ) vtrtclrtl likc r.rr.rlrcrl/t/Exercise14 Spellingrules and exceptions[SGE3.6-8]C r r r n p l c t c h e t i r l l o w i n g . u s i n g - L t lo r - i t r g l i r n n s o l t h c s c v c r b s : t rlcvckrp dyc lic rnislay occur olllr panic rcpay suc whingcI l n c v c r ( l ) r x l r r t R r r t)o n r e t h a t l r c w a s ( l ) . . . . . . . o r - I w o u l d n t h a v c( 3 ) . . . . . . t o l c n d h i r n t h c n r o n c yi n t l r cf i r s tp l a c c .H c s a y sh e ( . 1 ). . . .n r y l c l t c r . a n d t h a t s w h y h c l r a s n ty c t ( - 5 ). . . . . . n r c . I I c r c a l l y s t a l t c c( ( r ) l . . . . . . w h c l r I s a i c l d t a k c h i r n t o c o u r t .B u t I a r r r c r i o r , r s tl h i n k i n go l ( 7 1 s y . . . . . . h i r r , b c c a u s eI n r I c t lu p w i t h h i s ( u ) . . . . . . o n a b o u th o wu r r k i n c Il a r n a r r ch o w u n l a i r l i f ci s . I l c s a ( 9 ) l . . . . . . i n - t h c - w o o ls c r o u n s c ri l y o u a s k n r c ,w i l h i l n o v c r ( l 0 ) . . . . . . s en s c o l g r i e a n c c . vExercise15 lrregularpast participles[SGE 3.10]Ncwspapcr hcadlincs oftcnusc prcscnt tcllscsto report thc lalcst ncws - it sounrls Irnagine thcse hcacllincsarc in loclays papcr. ancltcll sonrconcnrrlrc inrrnccliatc.what hasbccn happcning.[.lscprcscntpcrfcct tcnscs, nrakingany rninorgranmtllicalchangcs that rnay bc ncccssary.F,.r n t1t c. Art th icvcs stcrl Ciainsborough. u IA t r s v r c r A r t t h i e v c sh a v e s t o l c n a ( p a i n t i n g b y ) G a i n s b o r o u g h . . I Rioting spreadsto city centrc. 2 Drcamcomcslrue ltlr octogcnarian throughpit ordcal. 3 Boy sleeps 4 Tottenham lose out in a differcnt ball samc. strikein dock unrest. 5 Thousands 6 Postalcharges rise again. 7 Madmanshoots 5.
  16. 16. Primaryand auxiliaryverbs 15 8 MP fights otf deaththreatfrom muggcr. 9 P&O profitsf:rll 22 per centat half-yearl0 Ferry sinksin harbour.I I Refugees rencwed flce fighting.l2 Lastolthe retirgees horne. flyl3 Wcst Countrybearsbrulttof galcs. stlrgcry. ctncrgctlcyl4 Ciunvictirnunclcrgocsl-5 Ncw prcssure roup swlllgslllto actl(xl. g lcaclcrbroadcitststo natioll.l6 C,-ounl 7 J e n o r i t s b a c ka t c r i l i c s . hExercise Primary 16 verbs:contractions and auxiliaryl s G E3 . 1 1 - 1 8 1W r i t c t h c a b b r c v i a t c dw o r c l si n f t r l l .L . . r u n r 1 t l D.a r l i n g . t h c y r c p l a y i n g o u r l u l l c . tAtrsnctDarling. thcy arc playing our tunc. ".I Thcrcs no firol likc an oltl ltlol.2 Im only hcrc lirr lhc bccr.3 Dont call us,4 w . ^ l l c a l ly o u .5 l l s t u l n e l o u t t t i c t l t g l t i t t . r6 lcl no idel you carccl7 Whocl havethoughtit/lJ Ive arrivecl,anclltt prove it Int hereExercise 17 Auxiliaries ISGE 3.11-18]Flerc twelverentarks. arc Showyoursurprise asking shortqucstion by a (usingbc. tlo ) pointingout thatyoufiute, or tt modalauxiliary andthcnadda shortstutcttlent.differ from the speaker. I watcha lot of TV.E,runrytle: ...... Do votrlI ooltr. I I dont watchthe newsvery otien,though 2 I cant understand weathermans that accent. J I m i s s e dh e f i r s tp r o g r a m m cn t h u tn c w n l t u r es e r i e s . t i 4 I d f b r g o t t e nt w a so n . . . . . i
  17. 17. 16 Verbs and auxiliaries 5 Ivc bcen llatching the tennis. t r M y h r o t h c r r o t t i c k c t sl i r l t h c f i r t r r l : . s 7 B u t h e n o t i n t e er t e t l i n u h r t r . r n r . . . r i X l r r rg o i n u t o u l t c h t h e l i n u l s( ) n t h ( h ( ) . t ) W c d o r t l l t l r v e h . t . l l r o r tl r th r c i r k l l r s il r u c .. . t ll 0 W c l l p r o b a b l yg i v c u p t e l e v i s i o ni l t h c l i c c n c c l c c g o c s u p a g a i n .| | l d r r r i r :i t t e r r i h l . . ( ) l ( ( ) L l r e .l l W c h u v ( l l -t ! r ) lt l t i . l i .. . . . . .Exercise18 do: auxiliaryor main verb? ISGE3.15] 1 / ) o c a n b c u r ru u x i l i u r v r s i l t I ) o . t t t rir* i l r . a n t l a r n a i n s in lVlrttt t rttr ".rtr,, yrt dti! lltttt tut totr tlrtirrJ! lL l s c r l o ( l s l r u r i l i a r l , o r a s r t t r i r t v c r h ) t o a t t t lg l t t i v c c ( ) n r l r c n t s o r t o l t s k q u c s t i o n s ic as irttlicutcrl. I I c n . j o 1rr t * o r - k . 3 u t w i u r l c x a c l l , v v o u ) . r x r i o r i ; o . ) l l l c l c t h c l i r s t , / , ri s l r n a r r x i l i u r v n r l t h c ( a eL()ll(l t: rt It|iritt r tt lr. i - I (io rrscafch i)h.tvotrr... I I t h i n ki r a r u l i s g o o t lf i r r r o u . "lork W c i l . I s i r p p o sic . . . . ." t rrnvtrrrn l -1 I:iulrnv parcnts ciisul-rpror"crrv u,ork. ol O h s u r ey . t h e l y 5 M 1 b r o t h e s t a y si n b c t l h a l f t h c r l a r . r . . . . . . . .r e l r l l v . 6 H c h a s u r a t h e rp e c u l i l r r . j o b i.l , v o uc i t t t c a l l i t l . j o b Wtrv.What ........,, 7 Wcll. at onc tinrc hc workcrl in colnpr.llcrs. oh. 8 B u t h c t l c c i d e do c i v c t h l t u p . t S ow h a l . . . . . . .a f t c r t h a t / . 9 V a r i o u s h i n g s B u t n o w h c p l a y sh i s g u i t a ri r rt h c s t r c c t s . t . I d o n tb e l i c v ict . H c . .............!.. .l 0 A w f u l .i s n ti t l W c l l I v e g c l t r i n d sw h o . . . e . . . . . l n y t h i n ga t a l l . .)I I Why clontthcy L a z y .I s u p p o s e .h c y . . T . . . . . . a n y t h i n g h e nt h e yw c r c w at schooleither.l2 Maybeone day Illjoin rly brother we could fcrrrn band. - a O h .n o . . . . . . . .Y o u w o u l d n t i k e i t . l
  18. 18. Primaryand auxiliaryverbs 17Exercise19 lnfinitives[SGE3.12.3.17-l8lCornpletc the fbllowing with a suitable infinitive. Remenlber somc vcrbs need 14.,-infinitiveiind sornc nced a barc infinitive. . I I l v o u l c l . . . ! i r ) . | - . . . . . . . n r y . i o b i i I h a c lt h c c h a n c e ll 2 [ w o t r l c ll i k c . . i o . r R . A . 1 : l - . . . . w hIern c l l d e r . n . 3 I w o u l crl a t h c r . . . . . t h a n 1 5Irnay .........tlthoughIought6 7 I hatl trcltcr . lJ I tlulcrtt r) I nccdnt . . . . . i i I ( l o n tw a n tt o .l 0 I d o n tt h i n k[ n r l i k c l y.l l W h a ta r nI . . . . . . . .i l t h c t a s r n c l kll I wus aboLrl rvhelrthc phottc rangExercise2O used to [SGE3.17]I T h c r l a r g i n a l n i i t r l a lr r . r t , lt o . r c l c r r i n gl ( ) u p l l s t [ r a b r t c l r no t t l v b c t i r l l o w t : t l 1 . hy an irrlirritivc W e t t s l r l f o l i r t i n I - o t t c l o t lb t t t w c i l t l n t t t o n . . I ) 0 l r 0 t ! : o n l u s c t l t i s r v i t l i l t r .,,q c lt r , s c t,l r r( n r c u t t i t t g ) ( f q ( l ( t ( ( t t . t r t r r t tItrl t . f l w h i c h i s l i r l i o w c t i b ; . l r r r i r r , g o t t t t o t i l l l o L l l ) l l l i . t s c l P S 0 n r cP c 0 l l i cn c v er ( r / t r . s ( t l l i | , r , q i n i l h i g c i t v . l h c v c i t t t l , 4 t t r , t t t l r t o t : l t ( r r ( ) t ( 1 . .h c v T ,tl?rt .tLt.((() llt(ttl.ll lhcr-c i s r t l s or t r c g t t l i t r - v c r ht , t t w h i c hl r l w l t v sI l t l c t i s t l t o i - r l c c t : t l iirl a knilL. /.stlhis. {( o p r p l c t c t h e s c l t t c n c c sI l ( ) i r r a g r - u n r n r a l i c utl t r t ls c t t s i h l cw l t v b l t r s i r t g t l t c l lc n r l i n g sl . i . h c r c t t t i t yl t c s c v c t - ap o s s i b l ea l l s c r s l I A l u n c t i l t r cn r a n v[ l r i t i s hw o r k c r su s c t lt t t . . . . . . t h t l 1 tl . l l )l i s l l . l I N o " vr t t o s lo l t h c r t th a v e g o t u s c t ll o . . . . . . I T h i s n r e i u l s t ) o s Io l l h c p o p u l a t i o t la r - e t s c t lt t r I t J l t t r e t r . l ly ( i l r : l l l ( ) l o l u : i l l t r c S o t t t s t t l t t " l 5 T h e s c a r c a t t c w i s hi r t v c n l i o r t . I l t c t t r s c t l o . . . . . . t 6 P c r h a p so n c c l i t yo l t r c h i l c l r c t w i l l I r a v cb e c o r l l es o u s e t l[ o . . . . . . t 7 t h a tt h c y w i l l a s k i r ta r t t a z e t l t c t t t , [ ) i t h totu L r s co . . . . . . y [ tt Anddidyoualsousettt ........1" 9 I s h t l l r c p l y n o t( l u i t c r u t h f u l l y W c n c v e ru s c d o t - t l 0 t - i k ec v c r y o n e l s cI w a s u s c ctlo c A rcal old-lirshionecl casltlcss sociclyl( a ) l i v i r r gi n a c a s h l c ss o c i c t Y s(b) havingthcrir ntclney paid into their banks
  19. 19. 1B Verbsandauxiliaries(c) usingcrcditcards(d) barteringgoodsfor other goods(e) payingfbr thingsby cheque(f) pay for thingsby chcque(g) carrymoncy arouncl coinsand things(h) be paid in cashat the enciof thc weck( i ) b e n o s u c ht h i n g(i) usentoncyExercise 2l Yerb phrases ISGE 3.19-22] A verb phrasc may consist of a singlc worcl (lrl/c) or scveral vcrb fbrtns (luttl bcctr vritittg).A verb phrasc rnay bc linitc. anclrefcrto tintc (nrilc.r. wrot() or ttortfinitc H e t k r t s i l ll t l r v c l i r t t c [ o r r | i / r . Writitr.qisnt casy.I c l c n t i t yt h c l i n i t c v c r b p h r a s c si n t h e l i r l l o w i n g . T a k e c a c l t p l r r a s ca s w h o l c - c l onot classify cach worcl scparatcly.Thcn Iind at lcast fivc nonlinitc vcrb phrascs.L . t u m l t l c : r t t i , q hs c t r t( f i n i t c ) . t t t l t l u t r ( n o n l i n i t c ) t rIt rnight sccrnoclclin thc twenticth ccntury to pltn anclcarry out cxpcclilions as ur n c a n s l r r a k i i r ga l i v i n g . y c l I c l b c c nd o i n - e . j u sh a l l o r l h c - a s t1 w oy c a r s .I h a c l n 1 o tt pconsciously choscn such a lifc; it hatl .just workccl oLrtthat way. ln l913. lirur rrronthsbcfirrc I was born. rrry firthcr tlicd ol wounclsrcccivcclItotf i r r n o r t h o 1 M o n t cC i t s s i n ow h i l s t c o n r m l n d i n g a t a t r kr c g i t n c n t .t h c R o y a l S c o t sG r c y s .W h c n I w a s s i x l c c n ,I d c c i d c c1 or r r a k c h c a r r n yn r y c a r c c r[ ( x ) .I c l i n h c r i t c c l l tr n y l a t h c r s i l l c b u t n o l h i s b r a i n s .s o l h c R o y a l M i l i t a r y A c u c l c r n ya t S a r r r l h u r s t twus out. Howcvcr I nranagcdto scmpc through . . . Cladet Sclrool anclinto thc Grcyso n a t h r e e y c a r s h o r ts c r vi c e c o r n r n i s s i o nw h i c h I s p c n tp l o u g h i n ga b o u t( i c r t t t a n y - ,i n t a n k s ,c a n o e i n gl l o n g E L r r o p c a r t v c r s . . . a r r c s k i i n g i n B a v a r i a .A l l t h i s g r v c i l lomc a taste firr travcl. (Ranulph Ficnncs: tltt l,trdstl tltc EurtltlExercise22 Subjunctive [SGE 3.23-241 Theso-callccl mandative is in sub.junctivcusecl //tal-clauscsafierexprcssions (which rnay bc vcrbs,nounsor acljcctivcs) orclering. of recomrnencling, takes basc This subjunctive intcnding. the firrrnof theverb- with no -.rlbrm. and no changes pasttensc: tbr T h e v s u c s e s t e d II ThL- suggestion I that he leaveirnmediately. wls I lt wts cssential I N o t i c et h c n e g d t i v e u b j u n c l i v c : s They orderedthat he not leave. A commcrnalternativeis a verb phrasewith shoulcl.
  20. 20. Voice 19Rewrite the fbllowing. using the subjunctive where appropriate.Make any otherchangcs necessary:E:untple. The govemor directeclthat all prisoners bc closely supervised . .The governor dirccted that all prisoncrs should bc closcly supervisccl lll tirnes. atHc orclcrcclthat all prison officcrs shoulcl strictly observc lhc regulatitlns. [{cinsistccl that they shoulclnot lct any visittlrs snrugglc in we aJtons clrugs.It was orv i t a l . h c s a i c l . h a t t l l v i s i t o r ss h o u l c l c s c a r c h c d . t b Thc prison olficcrsstatccl that t h is has alrvaystrccrtdortc. B ut thc litcl is thrrtthrccprisoncrs r:scapctlott Saturtlay. -fhc n c w r e g u l u l i o r r s t a l ct h a t i 1i s c s s c n t i a t h a t a l l s c c t i o r t s l 1 l t c r i s t l ns l t o u l c l l o pbc scarchccl ntorc licqr,re ntly and nrorc thoroullhly. Thcy also rccotttrttcntlcd thate x l r i l s t u l l a r cr c c r u i t c c s o l h a l n o r t t i t t t c r o u s k i l l i r l t h c l h prisottcrs lc, thcy will an o t b c a b l c t o c s c l r p c . , s i l i t w a s o r t l y l s i n r p l ec l u c s l i o t o l s t a l l i n g l , lExercise23 Passivevoice [SGE 3.25-26 M o s t t r a n s i t i v cv c t - b s a t t b c a c l i v c a t t t l p a s s i v c .1 h c p a s s i v cv o i c c i s t t s c t l c lirr v a r i o u s r c a s o n s .W h c n i t i s t t s c t l u i l h t l L r t l l c t l t i o l l i r t - t h c a g c r l t ( t h c 1 s u b j c c t o t t [ c a c t i v c v c r b ) t [ i s t t t a y l r c b c c i t t - t stc c a g c n t i s t t t r k t t t l w l l9 r h r u 6 i l r p o r l a r t lo r b c c l t L t s tcl l c t t g c l l tw l t l l l s I o a v o i c lr c s p o t t s i b i l i t l o l i t n t a y . ; b c t g c r t t l t l l t s i z ct h c a c t i o r to f t l t c v e r b b y h i . t v i n tl h a t r r c l t rl h c c t r t l 9 l t [ c scntencc. W h c n l l r c i t g c l t l i s t r t c t r t i t t l t c t l i t h a / r . r p l l r a s cl t c l t l t c v e r b t h i s l l u t s t h c w l a g c n t i n l h c i n r p o r l a l l lp o s i t i o r ta t l l t c c t l t l .C o n r p l c t e h c l i r l k r w i n g w i t h s u i t a b l cp a s s i v c s f t h c l i r l l o w i n s v c r b s : t o advcrtisc llltct allow btriltl givc hcar holtl inlirrrn(l) inspecl kccp Irotily obtain placc setrcl tcllln ccllain c irculnstanccs public inquiry rnuy ( | ) Hr,ttt,t-tr a ittttl propositlsput fi)rwardb y t h c D c p a r t n r c n lo l t h c E n v i r o n m c n to r a l o c a l h i g h w a y a u t h o r i t yb c f i r r ca n e wr91d(2) . . . . . . W h c n t h c S c c r c t a r yo l S t a t ct i r r l h c E , n v i r r ) n m c n t r i s i t t l t r - s or o a ( l p r ( ) p o s i l l sh c y ( 3 p u b l i c l y ) t . . . . . . a n d l h c r c i s o P p o r t u n i t yt t t t a i s t -o b i c c t i o n s .w h i c h n t a y l c a c lt o s u c h i t l l i n c l t r i r y . h c I n s p c c l o r i n c h a r g c o l t h c Ti l q u i r y w i l l h c a r v i c w s o f o b . j c c t o r sa n c l o t h c r s s u t h a t M i n i s t c r s n l a y ( r l ) . . . . . . b y t h e l n s p e c t o rt l f a l l m a l c r i a l f a c t s .T h c I n s p e c t o r - 5 ). . . . (all thc relcvant crtrresponclencc lrom ob.jcctorsto the proposals ancl frttrtr othcri n t c r c s t c cp a r t i c s , s o t h a l h e w i l l ( 6 i u l l y ) l ...... whcrt conductingtheinquiry. A copy of thc rulesgovcrning such inquiricscan (7) ...... lrom HerM a j e s t y sS t a t i o n e r y f f i c e .T h e r u l c se n t i t l ep c o p l ew h o ( 8 d i r e c t l y ) . . . . . . Oby the proposals to take part. A p u b l i c a n n o u n c e m e n( 9 ) . . . t . . . i n l t l c a ln e w s p a p e r s o t l a t e r t h a n l 4 nclays befbre the inquiry. People who have obiccted to the road proposals (10) . . . . . . i n d i v i d u a l l y ,a t l e a s ts i x w e e k s b e t b r e t h e d a t e o f t h e i n q u i r y . T h e y
  21. 21. 20 Verbs and auxiliariesuill cither ( I I ) .. . . . . t h e D e p a r t m e n t s S t a t e n r e n to f R e l s o n s . c l r( ll) ... . . . w h c r cs u c ha s t a t c l n c n ta n ( l 3 ) . . . c T h c p r o t : e e d i n g s1 , 1 1 ( . . . . . . A s i r r t i r r n r a a s p o s s i b l e .b u t t h c I n s p c c t o r lnrust k c c p o r d c r .[ : a c hp c r s o nw i l l ( l - 5) . . . . . . t o p u t h i s c a s ci n h i s o w n w a y .A t t c r a l l t h c i n t e r c s t c c la r t i c s ( 1 6 ) . . p . ....thcDcpartnrcntsrcprcscntatiren r a k c sh i s c l o s i n g r c n r a r k s .Exercise24Agents ISGE 3.25-26]H c r - ca r c s o r r c o t t h c a { c l i l s w h o p l a y u p . t r l i n p u b l i c i n c l L r i l i ca b o u { r o a d s : s(a) pcoplc living ncar the proJrosccl w roucl ne( b ) t h c D c p l r t r n c n t o f l h c B n v i r o n n r c n to r l o c a l h i g h u a y a u t h o r i t i c s(c) lawycrs( d ) t h c S c c r c t a r vo 1 S 1 a t ci r r t h c l l n v i r . r ) n l n c nh i n r s c l l l t( c ) a n I n s p c c l o ru p p o i n t c r lb v t h c I ) c p u r l l l r c n to l t l t c [ f n v i r o t t r t t c n tW l i t c o u l l u l l a n s r v e r -ts l h c l i r l l o r v i n gq u c s l i o l r s .u s i n S l r l r : r r r i v e e n s c a n t l u r . t o tagcnl.I W h o h u i l d s n c w r o a r l si n B r i t l i n l [ltcv,rHt, t ] t l . t t ( b ) t r r r , ) t : t , , l i t N n o tI. l l r l t N n t o N N l otlNlt. ( x . t . t ( i n w , t N t i u , t i l t ( ) R ll l l l s .I W h a l s o r t o l p c o p l c r u i s co b j c c t i o n s . ( ) h . j etti t r r r sI W h o c o n d u c t st l r c r l a v t o d u 1 [ 1 i 1 s i 1 l co lsl r t I n t ; u i r y ? s It ....tl l)ocs lnyonc rcprcscnl lhc ot-r.icctors.) T l t ey t l r r t5 W h o n r a k c sl h c f i n u l c l c c i s i o n . ) T l t el i r r l rt ll t e i r i o t tExercise25 Active or passive? [SGE 3.25-26]f o r n p l c l c t h c l i r l l o w i n g i n u s r r i t r r b lu c ti v c o r p a s s i v e c n s c u s i n gt h c v c r b sg i r e n : c lA soldicr ( l shool) rs r(r lnd criticaliv wounclctlasltc ( l sit ) . . sli n h i s c u r o u l s i d ca n a r n r yc a r c c l so l f i c e i n n o r l h [ . o n ( l o r y c s t c l r l a y T w o n r en w l t r r 1 .(3 bclicvcl . . . . . . l o b c r u c t t t b c r so l a t c l r o t . i s to r g u l l i z i t t i o l t , - l (Irpproach) . . . . . . h i s c a r o n l r n o t o r c y c l c . j L t s l a f t cp In r . T h c p i l l i o r r rpusse gcr (-5 run) n . . . . . . l o w i t r r l s l l t c eu r . w h i c l t ( 6 p a r k) . . . . . . o r . r t s i dt h c o l t i c e . H e ( 7 s l t o o l ) c ...... thes o l c l i e r h r c c t i r n c s ,t h c n ( 8 n r n ) . . . t . . . h a c k t o l h c n l o t o r c y c l ea n t l(t) flec) . . . . . . i n t h e r u s l r , l t o u rt r u t I i c .T h e v i c t i m . a a l l - y c a r - o k lrnarricd nran. (10 hit) ...... in lhe chcsl. Hc (ll say) . . . . . . t o b c i n a c r i t i c a l b u t s t a b l cc o n c l i t i o ni n h o s p i t a l . A n t i - t c r r o r i s t d e t e c t i v c sl a t c r ( l 1 c o r c l o n ) . . . . . . o l f t h e a r c a . T h i s a t t a c k ( l 3p l a n w e l l ) . . . . . . a n di t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e o l l i c e ( l 4 t a r g c t ) . . . . .. lbr sometime. A m o t o r c y c l el a t e r ( l - 5 f i n d ) . . .... abancktned bout ten miles aaway.but it ( l6 not know) . . . . . . y e t w h e t h e rt h i s w a s t h e g e t a w a ymachinc.
  22. 22. 4 ,n"semanticsof the verb Phrase Time and tense [SGE4.1-6] Although vcrb tctrscsoltenrcferlo tirnc rcal tirnc in thc worlcl titne ancl tensc are not thc satlc. Tensc is a qratnttlaticalc a t c l l o r y .w i t h v a r i o u sk i n c l s tncanirtg.So prcsctit antl past tcnscs rkl rtot itlways rcftr ttr olgritmtttittical prcscnt anclPast lirne.Exercise26 Presentsimple tense:what time? [SGE4.3-4] Thc sirnplc prescltt tc!tsc carl rcfcr ltl prcscll(, plrst artcl{utttt-ctirltc: I l t r t l i r l r t ; r r i t l r l t . I l p r " * " , . , ts l . l e . S l T l r e y / i l r i t t S t o l l r r t t t lI. rr.rnr,/ lrain. l Inut,lr H I I usually by _ l lc Ircvcr /rrArsa holiclaY.I _t I rcgrtt to slty ... Illrstatrlaneous II l | / r r d | y o u h a v c g o t c n g r t g c d .l P a s t hcrrtl fcccnlly- I)l W l r c n r 1 ot o r r l x , . q i ry o u r n c w . i o b ? t ] lFutur" Fl Cottte alrclscc tl:i llcxt tilllc yorr alr itt ltlwtr. ID e c i d c w h i c h k i n < lo l t i t t t c t h c p l c s c t t ttcnscs itt thc tirllowing relcr to, atrd tttarkt h c n ) S (t a l c) , l l ( L r b i)t. I ( l t s t a l l l a n c o t l)s P ( l s t ) o r .I r ( u t u r c ) . . I likc work. (S).l..tttnt1tlc.D c u rS i r , ( l ) I r n t o l c l t h a t y o u ( 2 ) o r g a n i z c s u u r n r c r c n V i r o t t t l tc ittlltl l P s l i r r p e o p l c t t l l t c l p cw i t h c o n s c r - v u t i ow o r k . a n c lI ( l ) w r i t c t o a s k l i r r l u r t h c r t l c t a i l s . n I n o r n a l l y ( . 1 ) o r k i n n t y v a c a t i o na n c lI p i t r t i c t r l a r l y- 5 l i k c l h e i c l c a l w o r k i n g w ( ) oin thc countrYsiclc. Cor"ilcl you plcasc lct ttrc know: w h c l c t h e s cc t t n p s u s u a l l y ( 6 ) t a k c p l a c c ,- w h c n t h i s y c a r s c a r n p s( 7 ) s t a r t .- whcthcr the current progranlmc (f3)contintrcs to the cncl of thc ycar and also - I (c.)) apologizc firr asking , but I lttn a stuclent- whether vclluntecrs( l0) rcceive any pockct moncy? I ( l l ) c n c l o s e a s t a m p e c a d c l r e s s c c ln v e k r p c t i r r y o u r r c p l y , a n d ( 1 2 ) l t l o k llbrwarclto hearing froin you. I (13) hope very tnuch that you still (lul) havcvlcancies 1or this year, and I will of course lct ytlu kntlw its sootl as possiblcwhatcver I ( I 5) decicle. Yours faithlully,
  23. 23. 22 The semanticsof the verb phraseExercise27 Past simple: when exactly? [SGE 4.1-6]Look at all the instanccsof the past simple tenseherc and decide whether they rcfcrto: An even(E): t Thc Nonnansitrtudetl Englancl 1066. in A habit HAB): ( Theyhrrilr some splcndid cathccfials castlcs. and A stateS): ( Thcy criiolttl fighting.or whcthcr thc past tcnsc is uscd lirr: A n a t t i t u d c( A ) : I tltorr,qht at ... th I n c l i r c c t p c c c h / t l r o u r h( l ) : s t . . . c v c r y o n c f u r c r . ab o u t t h e N o r r n a n s . r Ilypothesis(HY[)) I f W i l l i a m y i . s i t c t]ll a s t i n g st o d a y . . . .[ : t u r t t p l c . | ) w u n r l c r c d( A ) . . . (| ( l I x o t r l t :c r 1. . . . . . w h c t h c r o u ( 2 ) k t t c v t . . . .t.h u t 1 0 6 6i s t h c r n o s ll a r r t o u sl a t c t y . rin E n g l i s hh i s t o r y ? I t t J a r t t r a rly 6 6 t h c o l d k i n g ( E c l w a r d t h c ( o n f e s s o r l ( 3 l l i &.l. . . . . a n d l l a r o k l . 0thc E a r l t r f W c s s c x . ( 4 ) 1 u r t L l t t i r r t.t. . . . . h i r n s c l f k i n g . B u t a c r o s sl l r c C l r a n n c l tlI ) u k c W i l l i i r n t o t N t t r t t t a t t r l( 5 1u t t t r t t t.l. . . . . t h e E r r g l i s h h r o n c .a n i l i r n n r c d i a t c l y y t( 6 ) . s l u t t c. l. . . . . a s s c r n h l i r th i s a r r n yu n d l l c c t . t T h r o u g h o u l { h c s u r t . r r n c[r{ a r o l c l ( J ) l r t o k t d . . . . . . a c r o s s t o F r a n c e . b u l r r oN < r r r r r a n(s1 3 ) r l r i r . . . . . . S h i p s i n t l r o s c c l a y s( 9 ) t t t c r l t , .t .l . . . . w i n d p o w c r . u n t l rc o n t r i l r yw i r r c l s r r ds t o n n s( 1 0 ) d c l u v u l . . . . . . W i l l i a n r c v c n w h c n h c ( | I ) 1 1 . , / r . . . . . . arcarly. A r r c lt h c n i n S c p l c r n b c r a n o t h e r c l a i r t r a r r1 o t h c l l r r - o n c H a r a l d o l N o r w a y , . t ,( 1 2 ) l u t u l u l. . . . . . i n n o r t h c r nL , n g l a n c l n d ( 1 3 ) t u 1 t t u t e t l . . . . .Y o r k . M c d i e v a l a .k i r r g s o f c o r r r s c ( l ; l ) l c d . . . . . . t h c i r o w n a r r n i c s . s o f l n g l i s h H a 1 o l)c t x t k . . . . . . ( r 5 tllris army north. P c r h a p sy o u w i s h t h a t t w c n t i c t h c c n l u r y a r n t i c s ( 1 6 ) r r . l c r l . . . . . .s u c h s i n t p l c (w c a p o n sa s b o w s a n r la r r o w s w h i c h i s w l r a ta l r t r i c s n t h o s cc l a y s l 7 ) / i r r r , q h t . . . . . . iw i t l r b u t t h c y ( 1 8 ) t t t u l t . . . . . . i n f l i c tl a t a l i n . j u r - i cA n a r r o w ( l ( ) ) k i l l c d . . . . . .t h c l s.N o r w c g i a nk i n g . . . Two days later William of Norntandy linally (20) lutrdrd...... in southernEnglancl.a tcw milcs wcst of Hastings on the south colsl ofEngland. Harolcl(21)n t u r c h e d . . . . . .h i s t i r c c la r m y s o u t h ( a r m i e s( 2 2 ) u , u l k c t.l . . . . . c v e r y w h c r c i n t h o s ci l a y s ) . T h c t w o a r m i c s ( 2 3 ) n e t . . . . . . o n4 O c t o b e r . F l a r o l d a n d t w o o f h i s b r o t h e r s l(21) dicd...... lighting.William was thc Conqucrorl T h e b a t t l et h a t ( 2 - 5 ) h u n g e t . . . . . . t h c c o u r s co f E n g l i s hh i s t o r y i s k n o w n a s t h e c lB a t t l e o f H a s t i n g s ,b u t i l y o u ( 2 6 ) u e n t . . . . . . t o H a s t i n g st o d a y y o u w o u l d f i n c la town. To visit the actual battlefield you must go to the village that isbusy seasiclcsimplv known as Battle. AspectISGE4.7-l2l Aspectis a grammatical labelthatcoversp rcgressive andpe(ect.Progressive and perfect look at time in a special tenses way. Progressire(orcontinuous) activity,actionin progress, theretbre stresses and may imply that the actionis incomplete not going to continue long. or fbr Perfett isconcemed with action(s) a statein a periodbefbrenow (or, with or past perfect, before then) and continuing to the presenttime (or until then).
  24. 24. Tense and aspect 23Exercise 28 Present simple and progressive [SGE 47111C o m p l e l ch eI o l l o w i n g s i n g : t u Present simplctense[1 ask,he a.rA.r ...1 or Prescnt progressive utn uskittg,, arc asking...1 ll thevIndicate any places whereboth tenscs possiblc. areThc increasing of pcsticicles otherchcmicals farmersin rccentyears, use and by( l c u r r c n t l y / c a u s e ) r s c . L r R R r - . N r I - y ( A u s r N c i b i r c l s o ftp rc c o o l ctay s i d c l b r h cytun r veurbanarcas. B i r c l so l p r c y ( 2 f t e d ) . ..... on smallmitmmalsso in thc ,c6untryside ( 3 pickup) thcy . . pesticidcs through eating poisoncd g a r d e n i r d .b u t bp r e y .l n t o w n st h e y( 4 e a t ). . . . . t h eo c c a s i t l n a lt h c n t a i nr c a s c l t h c y ( 5 t h r i v c ) n . . . . . . i r ro u r s t r e c t ss s i m p l yl c s s ipollution.Thcirprcsencc(6ernphasize) . . . . . .t h c t r c n d ( ) l w i l c l l i t cto lnovc fiorr thc harassmenl ruralareas of intclcitiesand towns a lrerrcl which( 7 b c s h o w n ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a l s < ly t h c i n c r c a s i nn u n l b e r ) f f o x r - s r t b g ( iLonclon. tt (tl appear) . . . . . . t h a t h c r ea r c n < l wc o n s i d c r a b lteu t l r b c ro f t ssparrgwhawks thc wcll wooclccl in arcas Lontlon.[Jutasa rulethcscbircls not of (9attack) . . . . . . . . 1 h e t l o r c f a r . u i l i ab i r c l s w h i c h ( l 0 n c s t ) t r cltlsc to thcttt A t t h c s a m ct i t r t ct a w n y o w l s , w h i c h n o r n t a l l y( l I t t c s t ) ..... " Intrccsinthccountrysiclc(l2aclapt) .....tocrcviccsintallbuildings. Birds T h e l - o n c l o nW i l d l i f c T r u s t ( l 3 s a y ) ... of prey havci n c r c a s c c li n s u c h n u l n b c r st h a t w c ( l t X I r o w a s k ) .... lorv o l u n t c c r o b s e r v c r st 0 h c l p u s g e t s o n r c i c l c i lo l t h c s i z e t t f t h i s n c w p t l p u l : r t i o n . Exercise29 Presentsimple and progressive[SGE4.3-6,also 4.10-111Contplcte fblkrwingusing prcsent thc thc or progrcssive. sirnplc prescnt Rctllclnbcr tnaythat bothtcnses rcfer thc f uturc. to.lrtlnt. Crn you cotneancl help? What ( I you/clo) ...,}!it.Yl1!r.l}llf!: ....l. l o u t r |. (2 watch). . . . . . T V . I t s M < l n i c a a t l r c sS h c ( 3 g i v c ) J . . . a ctlokcryclcmonstrltiot"t. (4 nlakc) Shc ntennSucs.. l o h t r B u l y o u ( - 5k n t l w ) . . . . . . h o w t o c l ot h e t n .Y o u ( 6 r n a k e ) . . . . . . n r a r vle o u sr n c r i n g u c s . l./ocrr: Yes, these chocolatc but are tneringucs, you(7 know) . and the Bookcrs (u corne) . . " " n e x t S u n c l a ya n d I d l i k e t o d o , somcthing different tbr then.r. Besidcs always(9 enjoy) I w a t c h i n gh c r . I ( 1 0 p r o r n i s e ) ...... Ill come and hclp the m o m e n tt h e p r o g r a r n m el l e n d ) . ( ... It (12 tinish) a t 3 . 3 0 a c t u a l l y . P l e a s e !Y o u ( l 3 i n t e r r u p t ) . . . . . .I ( 1 4m i s s ) . . . . . .h e r . MonituJames: And now we ( l5 whisk) . theegg whitesuntil thev ( 16 stand). .... . up in peaks. And a usefultip to remember

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