A Student's English Grammar Workbook
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    A Student's English Grammar Workbook A Student's English Grammar Workbook Document Transcript

    • A
    • A STI"]DENTS ENGLISI{ GRATVIMAR WORKBOOK Sylvia Chalker being a Workbcrok fbrA Stucil:nts Grarnnrctr ofthe English Longu,oge bv Sidney Grecnbaum and Randolph Quirk E -"GMAN
    • Addison WesleY l-ongman Limited,Ikl i rtbt r rg/.t (|rttc, IIrr rlrttr.I:sst.t ( )XI2O 2./ll, Iirt,ql ru ulottrl Assrrcirtletl (lttntltrutits thnttr,qltrtttt the trvtrlrlO S (lhalkct 1t)t)2All riglrts rcscrvccl: ll() l)art o1tliis lltrl:llic:rtiorlnrlrv bc rcproclrt<-ecl, stot-ctl tn :t rctricr:tl syslclll.r ir-,,nsrrriitecl ut-ry lirr ,r lty lrny lttclllts, ele:clr,nic, irrrrrccliunicel, ltotocollying t<orcling, or otllcruiscl, p u v i t l t o t t t l r c p r i o t u t . i t t c n l l c r t r l i s s i o t . < i 1t l r c I ) t r l r l i s h e r s l ll r i r s t P t r l r l i s l t c c l1 9 9 2Scr.rnllt irtil>rcssioll l1)99t l r i t i s l i l . i l r r . r r r O : t t r t l o g t t i t l t li r l I t r l r l i c : r t i o t ll ) : t 1 : t 1A r - l r t l t l o g t l cc t o L t l l i r l t l r i s l l o o l < i s l t r : t i l l l r l t l r o l t l ttlrc llr.itishLrlrrrrrt l:il,N 0 5ll2 08fi l9 t Sct in l.irtotyllt (ilttltrttoltcl l)rintecl in China swl(.,,07
    • Gontents Introduction ..........................,1I Thc Englishanguage l . . . . . . . . . .5 -.2 A g c n c r afl l a r r c w o r k ............1.l V e r h s r r r alu x i l i u r i e.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r t . . . . . . . . . . .|. |. . .,1 T h c s c n r a n t i c s t h ev e r bp h r a s c. . . . . . . . . of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. . . . . . 25 N o u n s n cc l c t c n n t r t c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a l .rs ..............366 Pronouns................. ..............417 A d . j c c t i v e n ca d v c r b s sa l . . . . . . .- 5 3 ..U T h c s e r a n t i ca n dg r l r n r n ao f a c l v c r b i a.l.s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 0 n s r .t) P r c p o s i t i o n s cp r e p o s i t i o n a l r a s c s an l ph ...........................67f0 T h es i r n p l c c n t c n c c s .............14II S c n t e n cte p e s n dc l i s c o u r s e n c t i o n s y a lu .........................1J212 P n l - l i r r n ra n c c l l i p s i s s l ........... tl6|3 Cloorrlination .........................9314 T h cc o r n p l c s c n t c n c c x ..........99l5 S y n t a c t i a n ds c n r a n l i I u n c l i o no l s u b o r d i n a t c l u s c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.9 c c s cl . 1. .l6 C o m p l c n r c n t a t i o n v c r b sa n c a t l j c c t i v c s f l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .l.2 .|. . .l1 T h c r t o t r n l t r r r s.c . . . . . . . . p . . . . . . . .I. l l .lll T l r c r r c .l i r c u s a n c i n f i r n n a t i o p r o c c s s i n g , l n .....................14219 F r o ms c n t c n c t o t e x t e . . . . . . . . . .l . .5 2 -KIIY S u g g c s t cic n s w c r s tl ..........l-58 ...
    • 4lntroductionTIr is workbook prov idcs pr-act nrate icc rial lorA Sttrtlcttls () ruttrttrurtl t ht Ert,ql r i.slrltlt,qtru,qc (.S(i[) by Siclrrcy(irccnbaurn lntl Ranclcllplt Quirk. antl rcltrctrccs ltrl t l c v r r r t l e r t i o t t(s 1. ( ; L l t l t g i r t t t . s )fhc wrtrkbook shoultl. howcvcr. provc uscful to othcr aclvattcctlIcarncrs olI l n g l i s h w h o w a n t p r a c t i c cn r a t e r i a l . n d s i r n p l i f i c t lg n t u t t t l t t i c i t lt t o t c sa r c g i r e t t aon p o i r r t sw i t h l v h i c h s u c h s t u r l c n t s n a l b c l c s s l a n r i l i a r .S t t t t l c t t t st t a ; vt l s o l i n t l r t ll t l i c t i o r t a l yu s c ir , r l .T I t c c x c r - c i s c c l o n o l h a v c t o b c r l o n e i n l n l p i t r t i c t t l l t l o r t l c tl r.l t h t t t t g h i t l c c t h c s sv n , o r k b o otk r l l o w s I h c s a n t cg c n c r - l lp l a n u s . ! ( i [ . t h i s t r t c a t t s l t a t s c c t i o n s I a t t d i tI s c r v c u s a n o v c r v i c w . s c c t i o n s3 l l d c a l w i t h h l s i c p r o h l c t t t s a t r t l I t l 9 w i t h . r.r n o r ec o r r r p l c xs l r u c t L r r c s . l r r vc x c r - c i s c s ,s p c c i a l l vi t t s c c l i r l r r i l r c c o t l c c r t t c c l A cw i t h l c r t n i n o l o g y w h i c h i s i n r p o r t a n t i r r a c u r l c n r i c t u t l c t t t st l t t la r r s c f i r a i t l l o a t t . l s l l6 v c l r l l u n d c r s l a l r t l i n g l l h c g r - u n u u a t i c a lv s l c l l t .T h c n r l r . j o r i t o l t h c c x c l e i s , : s o s yarc. irowcvcr. cnl ifc l), plirctical. The 1arc blrsctlrtn tttotlcrttEng I ish. covcr il llf ict-1 1 1 l 1 1 r la i c{ u r - c n t c l l ( l c ( tl o h c l p l c i r r r t c t is c r c a s ct h c i r o w r t t l ) a s t c r y l t . n g l i s h . ttr s i n olhcrc i s u k c y t o l h c c x c r c i s c st r t l h c l r u c k .b u t i t r r t u s th c p o i r t t c do u t l h l t t l l l s o l l t cc a s c sl l t c r c n r a v b c o t h er a c c c l t t l r b l c n s u es . ( i l l t t n n t a r i s t r n t l c n i a t r l yt t t t a l l c l o l u l i lltottg: rightn r l c sa n r ll r - c r p r c n tov" r i g h f l n r l li b u l i t c l r r ta l s ol r c t t r t t l t t t c t - o l lrlltlright u choicc hctwccnIw() ()rnlorc gratntnulicuwavs olsayingsotttctltittg. ld c p c n d i r r u t nt h c c x r t c tt t l e a l l i t l gi t l t c t t t l c t l . < s(I-ondonI 992
    • 1 T h e E n g l i s hl a n g u a g e and disputedgrammar Prescriptive Although thcrc is lairly gcneral agrccntcnt about what you carl anclcanttot s a y i n s t a n c l a r ctln g l i s h .t h e r ca r ea t ew g r e y a r e a s o f t r t s t t ltt, l ru s a g cw h e r c t rrativc spcakcrsclisagrcc.F-orcxatnplc. can you or call yotl llot sayl All ol tou vtill rrot ruxlcrstutrLl. Sorrrcpcoplc finclthis totally acceptablc:othcrs want to reword il tts Nttt ull t l t 0 t t x , i l l u t u l e r s t u n df t h a t i s w h a t t h c r t t c a n i n s i s . c l a i l n i n g t h i l t t h c i r r r i g i n a ls c r r t c n c c r c a l l yt n c a r r s N r t n t r t f. t t t t u i l l u t r d t r s t t t t r t l . r O t h c r p r o b l c n t sa r i s c h c c a u s ct t f t n t , sH t t "ttv t , r u l c s . s o t t t c t t l t h c r r rc l a t i n g t llrtrn a t i r n e w h c n p c t t p l ct h o u g h tt h a l t r n g l i s hg r i t t lt t l t a rs h o u l dh c l i k c L a t i n g r a n l n a r . T h c s c r u l c s s l t o u l r ln o t r c i t l l y a p p l y t o f t n g l i s h a l a l l . b L r tr r l a n y E n g l i s h p c o p l c h a v r -h e - a r dh c n r a n c l( c l r i t c n t i s t a k c n l y ) t h i n ki t i s w r t t r t gt t r t brcak thcnt.Iixarrtplesof tlrcsc cloublltrlrulcs: [)onl ettcla sclltcltcc with lr prcposiliorl. S a y / t . r / . ( D o n t s r t y/ l . i r i i r . ) P a r l l y a s a r c s u l t o l p r c s c r i p t i v c r u l c s . w c t t l t c t t g c t l l l l l i l { ( o(R N l w hl i c h l ) lt ,( i s p c o p l c s c r i o u s l yr t r i s a p l t l y i n g r u l e. l h u s s o r l l c o t t e l t o l t l t sb c c r lt o l t l t t r a w say lts / ptay gct thc idc.rt hal riir is sorncltow urtgratttttrtt l itt atty posit ion. iclt so tlrcy sttyilttlvttrtltttr ttttti l. A n o l h c r c a u s co l d i s p u t e ttl t s a q c s l l a t t l l a lc h a r l g c . a r r g u i t g c h l n g c s a l l l l r c i L l i r 1 c . P c o p l e w l t o n o t i c c c h a n g c so l t c n o b j c c t 1 o t h c r t t a n d c o t l s i t l c rl l t c t l l w r o n ! 1 .( P e r h a p riin t i n r c l t t t t t , c t t. tt t t u u t t l / w i l l b c l c n c r a l l y a c c c p t a b l c . )Exercise1 Prescriptiverules,disputed usage and hypercorrectionl l c r c u r c s o n r c a u t h e n t i cc r a r n p l c s o f n r o d c r t r E n g l i s h . E l t c h s c t t t c t r c c ( ) l l t l t l l l s cs9r1c kip{ olclispr-rlcd usauc perhups sotncthirtgthat stttttcbotlvwottltl ob.icctttlbccauscit brcaksu prcscriptivcnrlc, or a hypcrcorrcclioll,()rartcwislrtleve lo1-rltlcltt.(-an you spot thc problctlts/ I I u r r i i r n p r c s s c db 1 t h c k n o u " l e c l g e c u r t c l h i s l l - i e n t l ss l t o w o l d i f l c r c n t h g p i v e r s i t i c s n d c o u r s c s. . . l h c y u r c l i t p p c ( li t t l t tl t t t c t w o r k o l i r t t i r r n r a l i o nl.l a clitl not uscclto bc likc tliat. 2 It woulcl havc crtclecl trtluedy. i t i t h a c l n th a v c b c c n f o r l h c c o u r a s c o l t h c rn v i c t i r n . ( P o l i c c t t ff i c c r s p c a k i n go n l c l c v i s i o n )
    • 6 TheEnglish language 3 The doctor clismisscd symptomsand suggested take up a relaxing the she hobbv. 4 Q: What would you havebeenhad you not beenborn a sportsman/ A: I may havefbllowedrny fatherinto the Servrces. 5 I wondcr if he were indeecl hercvesterclay. 6 A s t o r w c E n g l i s h . w c s h o u l c lr c s i s tt h c t c r n p t a t i o n o r n a k e . j o k e s . t 7 Thc bcautiful stallionswcrc kcpl to onc sidc of thc nrutc arrcl spectatorswcrc us kcot to thc othcr. tl Nearlylirurlinre usnlanygirls in Britlin sullcr s Irorn lsthrnathanin thc 1970s - but all thoscwho cltirn to be aller.uic not suflering arc liorn it. 9 P o c t r y n c c d s l c s s w o r d s . ( P l a y w r i g h t A l a n B c r r r r c t ts p c a k i n go n l c l c v i s i o r r . about tloctrv ancJ rrove ls)l0 Thc carbortclioxidc locks in thc surts heat, likc slass locks hcat into a grecnhousc.l l W r i t i n gr n y f i r s tr u u b yr n a t c h c p o r tu t c c l i n go t u n r e a l i t y i t r n c r hl 2 T h e w o r l c c a nb r c a t h c l i t t l ec a s i c r t t c rt h i sh i s t o r i c u n r r n i l l u a sl 3 You Lrsc dillcrcnlsort ol English in a T ilic.r lcaclcrthan in a convcrsation in a a nub.1 . 1 I f a r e g u l a r c u : i l o n r c l w c r co n t a k ea r r a n g c l n c n t w i t h t h c i r o w n b r a r r c h i,t n l r y t s bc possiblc to nrakc arrangcnrcnlslbr spccdy clcarartcc.l - 5 A s a l c s r n l r n x p l a i n c c lt h a t t h e r n a n u l l s i n c l u c l c dw i t h r n o s l c o n r p u t c r sw c r c c h o p c l c s s T h e v c i t h c r w c r c i n r p o s s i b l eo u n c l c r s t a n c l u l l o f n r i s t a k c sr,l r b o t h . . t t.l6 Nonc of thc bodics so lar rccovcrcrl uvcrc wearin!r lifliackcts.l 7 S a r t r c h u c lo n c o f t h c b c s t c c l u c a l i o n s v u i l a b l et-o u m l r r ro l h i s g c n c r a t i o n aI t l T h e i c l c as c c m e dt a r t o t r c l t r e l t o u c t u u l l l , e r u r y u t ol9 No sooncr arc onc scl ol pcrils sunttortr-ttcd than itnotlrcr lot. cvcn rnorc intraclablc.akc thcir nlacc. t20 Thc Princctestssclrne olthc inventions. inclucling prototypc a sports the of c a r :p l u st h e r e st r e v i e w l l h en r o s s u c c e s s l iu ln o v a t i o nis t c ny e a r s f t h e i o t n n o awarcis.
    • 2 A generalframeworkExercise 2 Sentences and clauses [SGE 2.2-31How much dil you know aboutscntence structurel Completethe sentenccs bym a t c h i n gh c p r e d i c a t e t (s ) - ( j )t o t h e s u b j c c t sl - 1 0 ) . T h e f i r s ta n s w c r s l c . a ( i I A scntence ( a ) a r eu s u a l l y p t i o n a l . o fhe (b) is thc most important copularverb. 2 sub.ject 3 Thc verb (c) contains subjcctand a predicate. a 4 The prcclicatc ( c l )o n l y o c c u rw i t h t r a n s i t i v e e r b s . v -5 Thc rnainclements of sentencc structure (c) haveto occur rn evcry scntencc. 6 Notall of lhese (f) usuallyconres befilrcthe verb. 7 Objccts (g) fbllow ctrpular vcrbslikc ltc or lxLrtnrc. 8 Cornplcments (h) aresubjcct, verb.object, complctnenl. aclverbial. 9 Thc vcrb bc ( i ) c o n s i s t o l a v e r ba n c p o s s i h l y t h c r s l o cletncttts. l0 Aclverbials (-i) hasto agreewitlr thc subjcct.Exercise3 Sentenceelements:forms ISGE 2.241 Vcrb pllrases. Words arc oticrt .joined togcthcr irt grtlups callcd 1rlrrtrsts. noun phrtses, adverb phrascsand aclicctivephrasestnay consist o1a singlc verb, noun /pronoun, aclverbor acl.jcctivc olscvcral words built arountl ttr hcacl thc worcl. Hcrc arc solttc cxltnrples. vcrb phrascs thittks.nus lttt1titt14, huvtutttulrred ntrtt n<lunphrascs nt(, sottt(()tt(, s()ttt(()tt(elsc, ntv ltttntc, uttttrlrcr ttl thost prttblenrs, u plucc I rttttt risittd irdjcctive phrascs un rt.suul, uitt ttnrurkultlc, vtrt txltl i trdcttl q advcrb phrases rcnrorkultlt, ttttte,ruthcr txltllt Prcpositional phrases arc ralhcr diffbrcnt becausc prepositions clo ntll function on thcir own. A prepositionalphrascttrustcctttsist preposition ola + another word, usually a noult. prepositional phrases uttdcr tlte tultle,tut ntl stu1ttist irt tt trrttttrctrl,Reacl pas:ja-qe thenchoose otld tbrm out in eachsct listedbelow. the ancl theI satdown on a stonc. wasexhausted. anklewasachingandleg nruscles I My thatI ncver knew cxistedwcre beginninslo complain.The sun wi.lscastinclongshadows the silence and worricdme.Thcrewasno signof thc path,andtto tlthert r a i ll o o k e c l t a l l c o n v i n c i n g .c o u l dn o ts c ca s i n g l e o u s et,h e r e e r cn o t a r n i l i a r a I h wlanclmarks, anclthe lndus uas ttnly a glinting trickle far belo"v.Ifelt tirccl.
    • B A general frameworkrniscrableanclsli,uhtlyfiightenecl.I sat for ten nrinutes without ntoving, unsure ofw h a t t o d o . A l l o p t i o n ss e c m c cc q u a l l y u n a p p c a l i n g . h c n . i r n n t c c l i a t c l y b o v e l T ame, I heard g u n s h o t s O n o t h e r o c c a s i o n s h e n o i s en r i g h t h a v c b e e ns i n i s t e r . o w . t Nthey seemecl welconrinr. alrnost honrcly. I clurnbercd upwalcls,anclsoon lbund at r a c k . F o l l o w i n g i t a r o u n d a b l u f f o f r o c k I s a w t h e s o u r c co f t h c s h o t s :a v i l l a g co f f r a l f - t i m b c r c dh u t s c l i n g i n g t o t h e s h c c r h i l l s i d e . ( W i l l i a n t D a l r y n t p l c : / lXuttudu A Quc.rt)[..tunrplt. stonc rnv anklc cornplain rro sigrr a gunshotsAtr.sutr". Ithc rcst ilrc noulr phrascs] conrplail-rI vcrb phrascs was cxhauslccl llas achin.u w c r e b c g i n r r i l l gl t l c o n r p l a i n c o u l d n o t s r c c rnighthavc bccnI noun phr;.rscs l c g r r t u s c l c sh a l I n c v c r k n c w c x i s t c c l t c a s t i n gl o n g s h a c l o w s n r c n o s i g r ro l t h c p a t h thc s<lurcc lthc shots oI ad.jcctivc hlascs p l i r c c l ,n r i s c r l b l c a n d s l i g h t l y l i i s h t c n e d r . l n s u r o f w h a l t o d o c c l u a l l vu n a p p c a l i n t c a l r n o sh o r n c l y l i r l l o w i n g t t i"1 advcr-bphrases ncvcr llr bclow irnrncdiatclv ovc b now r.lpwilros5 p l c p o s i t i o n u lp h r a s c s o n a s t o l r c f i r r 1 c nr n i n u t c s w i t l r r l r - r tr u v i r r g n o n o t l r c r o c c r s i o n s a l r n o s tl r o r n c l vExercise4 Sentenceelements:functions ISGE2.3-4] W h c n w e t a l k o l p h r a s c s w c a r c t a l k i n g o l i , o R 1 , c a l c g o r i c s- t h c w a y r p h r a s c sa r c f i r r r n c d .W h c n w e t a l k o l s c n t c n c c c l c n r e n t s( s u b . j c c l sv c r b s . , o b . j e c t sc o r n p l c n r c r r ta n r l a r l v c r t r i u l sw c a r c t h i n k i n g o l t h c w a y d i f f b r c r r t , s ) k i n t l s o t f i r r n r a lp h r a s c s , t N ( r r o Nh l r w t h c s i t n t ek i n c lo l p h n r s cc a n c x p r c s s l . diflcrcnt clcrncirts. Ihc v c r bc l c n r c ni{n u s c n t c n cn r u s b cu v c r bp h r a s c . u tt h i sd o c sn o tu p p l y e l b t o o l h e rt i r r n r s n df u n c t i r l n s . o r c x a r n p l c i n t h c p u s s u gic l l x c r c i s c ) : u F ( n 3 N o u n p h r a s c c u nb c : s srrb.jcct T l t t s i i t t rtt . . . ob.jcct ... lworricd) lrr,. ob.icctot prcposition . . . ( o n )( t s t ( ) t t ( . l l s o c o m p l en r c n t (TIre writcr ts) u truvc!lcr Acljcclivc phrascscan bc: coniplcr-ncnt t q uu I I v u t ru1t1ttuI i tt.q P r c p o s i t i o n ap h r a s e s a n l c part of l noun pltrasc (rio sign)ttl thc putlt an aclvcrbial (sat dorvn) ()n u st()n(
    • Word classes ILook at the passageagain (Ercrcise 3) and clccide what function cach of thefbllowingphrases has.NPs I my ankle SL BJtl(-l ? l c g r n u s c l ets a tI n e v e r n e wc x i s t c d h k 3 long shaciows . 1 a g l i n t i n gt r i c k l c 5 t h cs h e e r i l l s i d c hAcljPs 6 at all convincing 7 tirccl. nrise rablcanclslightlytrightcnctl 8 welconting, altr-tosthorrrclyPPs 9 o l t h cp a t h l 0 l b r t c r rm i n u t c s I I u i t l t o u tl t t o v i n g l 2 o n o t h c ro c c l l s t o l t sExercise5 Words and word classesISGE2.6-11]l l o w r n u c h c l o y o u k n o w a b o u t w r t r d c l t s s es ( p a r l so f s p c c c h ) /C h o o s c t h c h e s t o p t i o t t sT h c l i r s t a n s w c r i s l a . . I W c d i v i d c w o r d s i r . r t o a ) t w o ( h ) t h r c c ( c ) f i r u r b r o a t lc i t t c g o i i e s .l c p c n t l i n g ( c on w h c t h c r t h c s c c l a s s c sl r r c r c l l r t i v c l y l i x c c lo r c o n s t a n t l yc h l r n g i n g . I C l o s c d w o l c l c l u s s c s( l ) h a v c i n r p o r t a r t g r a l n n r a l i c a l i r n c t i o t t s( b ) o l t c ng c t t lcxical ncw w o r c l sa r k l c d ( c ) c o t t s i s ll a r g c l y o l rvotds. --rThc closed clusscsinclutlc (a) lirll vcrrrs Inotlal vcrbs (b) prirnarlr ancllull nttci vcrbs (c) printary artcllnoclitl vcrbs. : l T h c o p c n c l a s s c s( a ) a r c c o n s t a n t l yg a i n i n - ur r c w w o r t l s ( b ) i n c l u c l cn t a i r t l v q r a m r n a t i c alw o r i l s ( c ) i n c l u c l ci t l l v e r b s . gcncric spccitic 5 Thc tcmrs itnrl a l c t p p l i c r l t o t h c n r c a n i t t g l ( l r )a t i v c r h i a l o phrascs (b) noun phritscs c) prcpositional hrltstrs. ( p unrnarkcrlre 6 Thc tcrrnsnrarkcclancl I a t ct o ( a ) i n f l e c t i o to n l y ( b ) n t c l r t i r t { t only ( c ) b o t h i n l l c c t i o na n d t t t c a t t i n { . 7 S t a t i v cv e r b s ( u ) a t ct t r a i r t l yL t s c tiln l h c p a s s i v c( c g : r o / . r cl t r t tr t )( b ) a r c r a r c l v u s c c l r r p r o g r e s s i v c c n s c s( c g : l t c l o t r g ,k t r o u . o v t r()c ) s h o w l l a c k o l t t t o t i o t t i t ( c g : / i c , r c , s t. .t i l ) . 1 3A p r o - l i r r r n i s ( a ) a s p c c i a lk i n t l o f p r o n o u n ( b ) a n y w o r c lt t r l t h r a s c t h l t r e l t r s to aitothcr cxpression without repeating it (c) a covcr tcrtn lirr both prottttt"ttts anclclctcrr-trincrs. 9 Opcrator nreans (a) a finitc verb phrasc (cg: tttuld lruvt.frttgrttttrr) (b) thc auxiliaricsirr a v c r b p h r a s e ( . . . . t r t t r l tllr a l c f i r r g o t t c n ) ( c ) t l r e f i r s t o r o n l v a u x i l i a r y ( . . . . t o u l dh a v c f i r r g o t l c n ) .l 0 N o n - a s s c r t i v e p p l i c st o c er t a i n w o r c l st h a f a r e r c s t r i c t e ci ln u s et o ( a ) n c g l t i v c a questions (b) ncgative statemenlsand questions (c) negative statcrncllts.
    • 10 A generalframeworkExercise6 Word classes:definitions[SGE2.6-11]Complete sentcnce the s withthesc words: utljectivc: adverbs eonjunctions tlcttrminers nouns prcposiliorrs pronouns verbsI Dt natni c..ftni rc, liil l, tru t r.t t itc al l describc . . y.illl. . . . . . i2 CollcLtiva, courtt. ,qctrititc,l)rolrcrare used in clescribing cutitc, (ontpdrdtitc, sultcrlot it,t, relatc to3 Attri but i te, 1ttcdi4 I)cnrott.rttutitr, itttcrro.qutitt,ltcr.sotrul,rclutit.t describc clill-crcnt kincls of5 ..... . o f t e n t c l l u s I r o w ,w h e n . w h c r c o r w h y s o r n e t h i n g a p p e n c d . h6 Many . . . . . . h a v e r n c a n i n g s o n n c c t c dw i t h p l a c c o r t i r n c .T h c y c o n n c c l c t w o u n i t s o f a s c n t c n c ct o g e t h c ra n c ls h o w a r e l a l i o n s h i p .7 Thc articlcs rrlarranclthc ttc spccial kinds oltt ..... . . j o i l tw o r c l s , h r a s c s n c lc l u u s c st o g c t h c r .S o r n cu r c c o o n l i n a t i n g p u l l n ( l ( , l l t c i l r ( s t r h ( ) r ( l i n i l l g . nExercise7 More about word classes ISGE 2.6-111Choosc thc odcl word out in cach sct thc word that docs nt)t bclons to thatparticuar worrl class. lF,.turtrple.built. door, garclcn,roorn. winclowAtt.tutt". built IThc othcr worcls arc nouns.l lcould rlray shoulcl will want 2 itrc can did has was 3 nrc cvery ouls sorncone thcy 4 atie-r ut during into upwarcls -5 and be-causc or too whcn 6 college cllss gralllnar lcarn tetchcr 7 angry hungry loncly obviously silly lJ causc insist must pcrsuaclc :iuggcst 9 an how nty no whoscl0 afierwards baclly liicnclly now soon
    • 3 Verbsand auxiliariest Therc arc three nta.iortypcs ot verbs: I r rr r { o r l er i c u l v c r h st - eg : l , t l i t r t , / i l r . . r , l r .t t r t t t l . . . Alntost all vclbs arc irrthis catcgory. cxccpt tor 2 rntrv.rnr- rbs - /rc. r1oarttl I t u t t ve - 3 v o l r , r t . a r - r x i l i a r i c s ( u t t , t o u l t l . t r r r n . r n i , q l t t , t t r r r . s l .s l t u l l . will.vttuldExercise 8 Full verbs: functions of the base form [SGE 3-2-3]l T h c r , r , r slti , r r n o l t h c v c r b i s t l t c r . r t r i r t l l c c l c itr r n i o l a l i r l l o r p t i t l t a t -v c r b , r t l r c l i r r r nl l t a t c o n t c st i r s l i r r a r l i c t i o n a r y l l y ( e s : / ) r 1 i r l t .l i k c . l t t , r i o . B u t N r r t ltr I i cvt,s,I i kcl. lx i n.q.dttrrt). T h c b a s c i s u s c c li n l i v c t l i l l c t c n w a y s : l I o l i c n t o l r r h c r c . [ i n i t c p r c s c l l tl c n s c ( l ) f c s ) l C . t t t t r t lo n c c ! | i n t p c r a t i v c ( i r r r p ) l rl f h c y c l c r n a n c l ctth a t I t t t t t t L t oh c i r .o t f i c c .l s t r l l . i u n t : t i v(c u b .)i] l t s l"hcy w a n l c t l t t t c t o c t r r t t .l i r l f i n i t i v c w i t h l o ( t o - i n l i l r ) l I c a n c o i r r r t o l l t o r r o w i.n l i n i t i v cw i l h o u t r o ( b a r c i n l i n ) ] IF i l c lt h cb u s c i r r r n sn t h cf i r l l o w i n ga n dd c c i c l w h i c hw a yc a c h n ci sb e i n g s c d . l i . c o uF,.tttnrplc. Whcn yorrhavcIlothingto say.say nrlthinsWho saidthatlA t t 5 u , t , t " . l r apc c s ) 1 ) . r ( / . (i t o i n ) . r r n l i r r l pI)B t t tt l o t . s r r r ble c a u s c . l r rirs r l o t (lr / nf . r , rla bascfirrrttI I Listcrcarclully. r 2 If youwont listcn. rn toing. I 3 M y p a r e n t a l w a y si n s i s t c dh a tI l i s t c nt o w h a tt h c y s a i d . s t .tr But why am l supposccl listcnl to 5 A c t u a l l yI a l w a y s i s t e n n Y w a Y . l a 6 If youcantstand hcat, outcttthc thc gct kitchen. larryS Trunran, llll:l- lc.)72. [] I US presidentl 7 Who was he tclling to gct out of thc kitchcn,anclwhyl U lt hasnothingto clowith kitchcns. wassuggesting pcoplcwhtl couldnot He to work undcrpressure they get out and linclothcr wclrk. that 9 O h I g e ti t ll0 I dont know whetheranyoneactuallydid get out as a result.
    • 1 2 V e r b sa n d a u x i l i a r i e sExercise9 -ed form: regularand irregular[SGE3.3-10] In rcgular verbs. the past tcnsc and the past participle both encl in -crl: I lookcd lpastl, I have lookcd [past participlcl -crlfirnn So the label is ofien used lbr both these parts of the vcrb. cvcn with irrcgulal vcrbs: He .rax He has .rccri. .Cornple{c thc lbllowing passageusing -rrl lbnns ol tlrcsc rcgular ancl irregularvcrbs: cicsccncl clisappear clrop givc lead pcrclr populate risc rouncl say scl stancl wrap Lookl , . r u n p l t . T h a t sr i g h t . s . , r t oh c d o c t o r . t altcr your Irothcr.M y n r o t h e r( l ) . . . . n r e d i r c c t i o l t sl t o w t o r c a c h t l t c c l i s p c n s u l ya n c lI ( 2 ) , . . . . . .o f l w i t h a b o t t l c ( 3 ) . . . . .. inbrownpapcrurtrlcrrrtyilrrn.Ihcroad(.1) ......uphill.throughathickly(-5)..... .poorlocality.aslarasthcbarracks.whichwas(6) . . . . . . o t r l h c v c l y l o p otl h c l r i l l , o v c r t h c c i t y .anrlthcn(1)..... ..t.ttwccnhighwalls.tillitsucltlenlyahtrost(13)i n u s t o n yp u t h .. . . t h a l ( 9 ) . . . . . . s t c c p l y . t c c p l y . o l h c v a l l c yo f t l r c l i t t l c s tr i v c r . . . . a n c l l l t c o p p o s i t eh i l l s i d e . . . ( 1 0 ) ...... to thc gcntly (l l) ...... top.on which ( ll) ... . . . t h c p u r p l c s a r t r l s t r r t c r v c ro l t l t c ocalhcdlal.Exercise10 -edform: functions [SGE 3.3] pust Thc f initc i11tirrrn is usetl lirr: Sirnplc past tcnsc: I ltxtkcd. Wc ,ran T h c n o n l i n i t ccr1participlc is r.rsecl lirr [)crttcl: l h i r v c l t x t k c t l .T h c y h a d . r r c r i i t . P a s s ic : v Yott wcrc .rt,r,r;. Plrtiriplcelause t r c r r l r o n ra d i s t u n c c ,i t i s l o v c l y .Dcciclc whal lunclion thc -crl tirrrns lraclin cxcrcise 9. anclnritrk lhcrn Dasllcnsc( p a s t ) ,o r n o n l i n i t c p a r t i c i p l e : 3 A 1 6 llExercise11 -s form: pronunciationand spelling[SGE3.4-10] The 3rd personsrngular the sirnpleprcscnt of tensc(thc -,s firnn) is pro- ways,accordirrg the souncl nounccdin threedifferent to that it tbllows: vuits lsl weieJt.s lzl vi.sltes lvlCompletc the fbllowing with the -.sfbnn of the verbs indicated.Then arrangethevcrbs into three lists according to the wav the enclingsarc pronouncecl.
    • Past form 13E.tunrplc. I Bad money DIitvEs ut good. (drive) o I r l - i n t h c u ( i( r . l i s t . 2 Abscnce . . . . . . . t h e h c a r tg r o u l i t n c l e r( l n a k c ) . 3 lts thc carly birtl that ..... . . l l r c w o r t t t .( c a t c h ) 4 Travcl . . . . . . . t h c n r i n c l( b r o a c l c r t ) . 5 Charity . . . . . . . a t h o r n c .( b c g i n ) -lornorrow 6 rtcvcr. ...... (ctrtttc) 7 Hc u,ho . . . . . . . i s l o s t .( h c s i t a t ) e 8 ll ..... . . b c l i e l b u t i t s l r u c .( p t s s ) , 9 It ..... . . t o a d v c r l i s c(.p a y )l0 This powclcr . . . . . . . w h i t c r l h r r nw h i l c . ( w a s h )ll Historl . . . . . . . i t s c l l (.r c p c a t )l 2 A n a p p l ea d a v . . . . . . . t h c c k r c t o irt w a l .( k c c p )ll Powcr ....... to crlrrupl. lcnd) (l - l l n d u b s o l r . t tp ( ) / c r . e . . . . . . l r b s o l t t t c l y( c o r r u l r)l .Exercise12 Past form: regularand irregular[SGE3.5-10]C o m p l c t c t h e l i r l l t t r v i n gw i t h t r r a sttc l t s c so l l l t c v c r b s g i v c t t .M y r r r o t h c r( l w a l c h ) . 1 1 l l l r l ) .t .t r e l i r t t t t h c k i t c h e r t t l o o r u l t y a l t t l I c t t u l t li r u l r r : i l t c h c r k c c n c v c s p i c r c i n g l h c c l o t h o l r t t y bl louuzh c r c t l t c w a t c l t ( 2 r c s t ) ct . . . . . . g u i l t i l yi n r n y p o c k c t . Arc you going on 1 o u rb i k c . t h c n . W i l l l cs. I (3 slry) ....... M o t h c r . . a n d . l c l i n g u r t c o r t t f i r r l a h lrc d c rt h i t t l u tr l i r c c t g u z c . ( - 1l x g i r t ) . . . . . . t o w h c c l t h c b i k c a c r o s s1 h cy l r r . i l . l (5 ...... you 16sa1) .. ... il (7 necd) think)n r c i r r l i r r g r s o t t t c t l r i t r g el i r l c v o u ( l t r i t l c ) o b ...... it ltgairl.) 11s o n l y l l i t t l ct h i n g . I ( 9 l c l l ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l. r c r . l t l b e a l l r i g l r t . l [(lOulvc).. ......soorlbvcand | | pcditl) ( o u t i n l ( )I l l c s t r c c tw l r i l cs h c( l l w u t c h ) . . . . . . n r c .a l i t l l ct l o u b t l u l l iI .( l 3 t h i n k )O n c c o L r t o l s i g h tlo tl c l t o t t s t I ( l - 1t r l ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a l l t l l y s t r c l l l l t l l o r l l h c p c c l a l s l Panrl (15 ridc) . . . . . . l i k c t h c w i n d . N l y g r a n t l l l t h e r s l t o t r s c( l ( r b c ) ...... in onc ol thc oltlcr parts ol lhc town arttl ttty way ( l7 lt-atl) . . . . . . l l r n r u g ha l l t i t z co t c o b b l c cs l r c c t sb c t w c c r tl o r t gr t t w so t h o u s c s . ( l 8 l Ikecp). l lc )s . . . . . u p r n y s P e e r l . c x c i l c r n c n l c o u r s i n g t h r o u g l r u r l ta t h i n k ) . . . . . . o l t h c w a t c ha n d ( 1 0 r c v c l ) . . . . . . i r t t t t y l t a t r . eo l ( r . l w l c y . c-l.lrcn fr-0rriun crltry bclwccn lwo tcrritccs tlf llottsesa tttotlgrcl puppy (21 dalt) . . . . . . i r r l ot h e s t r c e t . 1 2 2p u l l ) I . . . . . . a 1I n y b u c k h r a k c .T h c c i t b l c(2.3snap) . . . . . . w i t h a c l i c k - t h i t l w l t s w h l r t l h a t l ( 2 i, n t c n d ) 1to fix. I (25.janr) ...... or1he thrnt blukewith fhc puppycowcrins firolishly ti n r n y p a t h .J h e b i k c ( 2 6 . i a r ) . . . . . . l o a s t l t n c l s l i l lt,h e b a c k e r r c s u i r t r . t i t t g las though(27 catapult; . . . . . . o / e r t h c p i v o l o f t h c s t a t i o n a r yt i t l n tw h c c land I (2tl go) .... .. ovcr the hancllcbars.
    • 14 Verbs and auxiliariesExercise13 -edform: pronunciationISGE3.5] -r,r/ Thc regular fbrr.n pronounccd thrccdilferentwaysaccording the is in to s o u n di t f o l l o w s : u islredltl utiglted ltU vuitcd lrcUCio throughall thc rcsular rr1 tornrsin Excrcisc l2 and put fhcrn in thrcc listsl r r e o t t l i r t g l l t ei r p r o t t u r titr t l i o r t : lo[:.tuntltlt: ( I ) vtrtclrtl likc r.rr.rlrcrl/t/Exercise14 Spellingrules and exceptions[SGE3.6-8]C r r r n p l c t c h e t i r l l o w i n g . u s i n g - L t lo r - i t r g l i r n n s o l t h c s c v c r b s : t rlcvckrp dyc lic rnislay occur olllr panic rcpay suc whingcI l n c v c r ( l ) r x l r r t R r r t)o n r e t h a t l r c w a s ( l ) . . . . . . . o r - I w o u l d n t h a v c( 3 ) . . . . . . t o l c n d h i r n t h c n r o n c yi n t l r cf i r s tp l a c c .H c s a y sh e ( . 1 ). . . .n r y l c l t c r . a n d t h a t s w h y h c l r a s n ty c t ( - 5 ). . . . . . n r c . I I c r c a l l y s t a l t c c( ( r ) l . . . . . . w h c l r I s a i c l d t a k c h i r n t o c o u r t .B u t I a r r r c r i o r , r s tl h i n k i n go l ( 7 1 s y . . . . . . h i r r , b c c a u s eI n r I c t lu p w i t h h i s ( u ) . . . . . . o n a b o u th o wu r r k i n c Il a r n a r r ch o w u n l a i r l i f ci s . I l c s a ( 9 ) l . . . . . . i n - t h c - w o o ls c r o u n s c ri l y o u a s k n r c ,w i l h i l n o v c r ( l 0 ) . . . . . . s en s c o l g r i e a n c c . vExercise15 lrregularpast participles[SGE 3.10]Ncwspapcr hcadlincs oftcnusc prcscnt tcllscsto report thc lalcst ncws - it sounrls Irnagine thcse hcacllincsarc in loclays papcr. ancltcll sonrconcnrrlrc inrrnccliatc.what hasbccn happcning.[.lscprcscntpcrfcct tcnscs, nrakingany rninorgranmtllicalchangcs that rnay bc ncccssary.F,.r n t1t c. Art th icvcs stcrl Ciainsborough. u IA t r s v r c r A r t t h i e v c sh a v e s t o l c n a ( p a i n t i n g b y ) G a i n s b o r o u g h . . I Rioting spreadsto city centrc. 2 Drcamcomcslrue ltlr octogcnarian throughpit ordcal. 3 Boy sleeps 4 Tottenham lose out in a differcnt ball samc. strikein dock unrest. 5 Thousands 6 Postalcharges rise again. 7 Madmanshoots 5.
    • Primaryand auxiliaryverbs 15 8 MP fights otf deaththreatfrom muggcr. 9 P&O profitsf:rll 22 per centat half-yearl0 Ferry sinksin harbour.I I Refugees rencwed flce fighting.l2 Lastolthe retirgees horne. flyl3 Wcst Countrybearsbrulttof galcs. stlrgcry. ctncrgctlcyl4 Ciunvictirnunclcrgocsl-5 Ncw prcssure roup swlllgslllto actl(xl. g lcaclcrbroadcitststo natioll.l6 C,-ounl 7 J e n o r i t s b a c ka t c r i l i c s . hExercise Primary 16 verbs:contractions and auxiliaryl s G E3 . 1 1 - 1 8 1W r i t c t h c a b b r c v i a t c dw o r c l si n f t r l l .L . . r u n r 1 t l D.a r l i n g . t h c y r c p l a y i n g o u r l u l l c . tAtrsnctDarling. thcy arc playing our tunc. ".I Thcrcs no firol likc an oltl ltlol.2 Im only hcrc lirr lhc bccr.3 Dont call us,4 w . ^ l l c a l ly o u .5 l l s t u l n e l o u t t t i c t l t g l t i t t . r6 lcl no idel you carccl7 Whocl havethoughtit/lJ Ive arrivecl,anclltt prove it Int hereExercise 17 Auxiliaries ISGE 3.11-18]Flerc twelverentarks. arc Showyoursurprise asking shortqucstion by a (usingbc. tlo ) pointingout thatyoufiute, or tt modalauxiliary andthcnadda shortstutcttlent.differ from the speaker. I watcha lot of TV.E,runrytle: ...... Do votrlI ooltr. I I dont watchthe newsvery otien,though 2 I cant understand weathermans that accent. J I m i s s e dh e f i r s tp r o g r a m m cn t h u tn c w n l t u r es e r i e s . t i 4 I d f b r g o t t e nt w a so n . . . . . i
    • 16 Verbs and auxiliaries 5 Ivc bcen llatching the tennis. t r M y h r o t h c r r o t t i c k c t sl i r l t h c f i r t r r l : . s 7 B u t h e n o t i n t e er t e t l i n u h r t r . r n r . . . r i X l r r rg o i n u t o u l t c h t h e l i n u l s( ) n t h ( h ( ) . t ) W c d o r t l l t l r v e h . t . l l r o r tl r th r c i r k l l r s il r u c .. . t ll 0 W c l l p r o b a b l yg i v c u p t e l e v i s i o ni l t h c l i c c n c c l c c g o c s u p a g a i n .| | l d r r r i r :i t t e r r i h l . . ( ) l ( ( ) L l r e .l l W c h u v ( l l -t ! r ) lt l t i . l i .. . . . . .Exercise18 do: auxiliaryor main verb? ISGE3.15] 1 / ) o c a n b c u r ru u x i l i u r v r s i l t I ) o . t t t rir* i l r . a n t l a r n a i n s in lVlrttt t rttr ".rtr,, yrt dti! lltttt tut totr tlrtirrJ! lL l s c r l o ( l s l r u r i l i a r l , o r a s r t t r i r t v c r h ) t o a t t t lg l t t i v c c ( ) n r l r c n t s o r t o l t s k q u c s t i o n s ic as irttlicutcrl. I I c n . j o 1rr t * o r - k . 3 u t w i u r l c x a c l l , v v o u ) . r x r i o r i ; o . ) l l l c l c t h c l i r s t , / , ri s l r n a r r x i l i u r v n r l t h c ( a eL()ll(l t: rt It|iritt r tt lr. i - I (io rrscafch i)h.tvotrr... I I t h i n ki r a r u l i s g o o t lf i r r r o u . "lork W c i l . I s i r p p o sic . . . . ." t rrnvtrrrn l -1 I:iulrnv parcnts ciisul-rpror"crrv u,ork. ol O h s u r ey . t h e l y 5 M 1 b r o t h e s t a y si n b c t l h a l f t h c r l a r . r . . . . . . . .r e l r l l v . 6 H c h a s u r a t h e rp e c u l i l r r . j o b i.l , v o uc i t t t c a l l i t l . j o b Wtrv.What ........,, 7 Wcll. at onc tinrc hc workcrl in colnpr.llcrs. oh. 8 B u t h c t l c c i d e do c i v c t h l t u p . t S ow h a l . . . . . . .a f t c r t h a t / . 9 V a r i o u s h i n g s B u t n o w h c p l a y sh i s g u i t a ri r rt h c s t r c c t s . t . I d o n tb e l i c v ict . H c . .............!.. .l 0 A w f u l .i s n ti t l W c l l I v e g c l t r i n d sw h o . . . e . . . . . l n y t h i n ga t a l l . .)I I Why clontthcy L a z y .I s u p p o s e .h c y . . T . . . . . . a n y t h i n g h e nt h e yw c r c w at schooleither.l2 Maybeone day Illjoin rly brother we could fcrrrn band. - a O h .n o . . . . . . . .Y o u w o u l d n t i k e i t . l
    • Primaryand auxiliaryverbs 17Exercise19 lnfinitives[SGE3.12.3.17-l8lCornpletc the fbllowing with a suitable infinitive. Remenlber somc vcrbs need 14.,-infinitiveiind sornc nced a barc infinitive. . I I l v o u l c l . . . ! i r ) . | - . . . . . . . n r y . i o b i i I h a c lt h c c h a n c e ll 2 [ w o t r l c ll i k c . . i o . r R . A . 1 : l - . . . . w hIern c l l d e r . n . 3 I w o u l crl a t h c r . . . . . t h a n 1 5Irnay .........tlthoughIought6 7 I hatl trcltcr . lJ I tlulcrtt r) I nccdnt . . . . . i i I ( l o n tw a n tt o .l 0 I d o n tt h i n k[ n r l i k c l y.l l W h a ta r nI . . . . . . . .i l t h c t a s r n c l kll I wus aboLrl rvhelrthc phottc rangExercise2O used to [SGE3.17]I T h c r l a r g i n a l n i i t r l a lr r . r t , lt o . r c l c r r i n gl ( ) u p l l s t [ r a b r t c l r no t t l v b c t i r l l o w t : t l 1 . hy an irrlirritivc W e t t s l r l f o l i r t i n I - o t t c l o t lb t t t w c i l t l n t t t o n . . I ) 0 l r 0 t ! : o n l u s c t l t i s r v i t l i l t r .,,q c lt r , s c t,l r r( n r c u t t i t t g ) ( f q ( l ( t ( ( t t . t r t r r t tItrl t . f l w h i c h i s l i r l i o w c t i b ; . l r r r i r r , g o t t t t o t i l l l o L l l ) l l l i . t s c l P S 0 n r cP c 0 l l i cn c v er ( r / t r . s ( t l l i | , r , q i n i l h i g c i t v . l h c v c i t t t l , 4 t t r , t t t l r t o t : l t ( r r ( ) t ( 1 . .h c v T ,tl?rt .tLt.((() llt(ttl.ll lhcr-c i s r t l s or t r c g t t l i t r - v c r ht , t t w h i c hl r l w l t v sI l t l c t i s t l t o i - r l c c t : t l iirl a knilL. /.stlhis. {( o p r p l c t c t h e s c l t t c n c c sI l ( ) i r r a g r - u n r n r a l i c utl t r t ls c t t s i h l cw l t v b l t r s i r t g t l t c l lc n r l i n g sl . i . h c r c t t t i t yl t c s c v c t - ap o s s i b l ea l l s c r s l I A l u n c t i l t r cn r a n v[ l r i t i s hw o r k c r su s c t lt t t . . . . . . t h t l 1 tl . l l )l i s l l . l I N o " vr t t o s lo l t h c r t th a v e g o t u s c t ll o . . . . . . I T h i s n r e i u l s t ) o s Io l l h c p o p u l a t i o t la r - e t s c t lt t r I t J l t t r e t r . l ly ( i l r : l l l ( ) l o l u : i l l t r c S o t t t s t t l t t " l 5 T h e s c a r c a t t c w i s hi r t v c n l i o r t . I l t c t t r s c t l o . . . . . . t 6 P c r h a p so n c c l i t yo l t r c h i l c l r c t w i l l I r a v cb e c o r l l es o u s e t l[ o . . . . . . t 7 t h a tt h c y w i l l a s k i r ta r t t a z e t l t c t t t , [ ) i t h totu L r s co . . . . . . y [ tt Anddidyoualsousettt ........1" 9 I s h t l l r c p l y n o t( l u i t c r u t h f u l l y W c n c v e ru s c d o t - t l 0 t - i k ec v c r y o n e l s cI w a s u s c ctlo c A rcal old-lirshionecl casltlcss sociclyl( a ) l i v i r r gi n a c a s h l c ss o c i c t Y s(b) havingthcrir ntclney paid into their banks
    • 1B Verbsandauxiliaries(c) usingcrcditcards(d) barteringgoodsfor other goods(e) payingfbr thingsby cheque(f) pay for thingsby chcque(g) carrymoncy arouncl coinsand things(h) be paid in cashat the enciof thc weck( i ) b e n o s u c ht h i n g(i) usentoncyExercise 2l Yerb phrases ISGE 3.19-22] A verb phrasc may consist of a singlc worcl (lrl/c) or scveral vcrb fbrtns (luttl bcctr vritittg).A verb phrasc rnay bc linitc. anclrefcrto tintc (nrilc.r. wrot() or ttortfinitc H e t k r t s i l ll t l r v c l i r t t c [ o r r | i / r . Writitr.qisnt casy.I c l c n t i t yt h c l i n i t c v c r b p h r a s c si n t h e l i r l l o w i n g . T a k e c a c l t p l r r a s ca s w h o l c - c l onot classify cach worcl scparatcly.Thcn Iind at lcast fivc nonlinitc vcrb phrascs.L . t u m l t l c : r t t i , q hs c t r t( f i n i t c ) . t t t l t l u t r ( n o n l i n i t c ) t rIt rnight sccrnoclclin thc twenticth ccntury to pltn anclcarry out cxpcclilions as ur n c a n s l r r a k i i r ga l i v i n g . y c l I c l b c c nd o i n - e . j u sh a l l o r l h c - a s t1 w oy c a r s .I h a c l n 1 o tt pconsciously choscn such a lifc; it hatl .just workccl oLrtthat way. ln l913. lirur rrronthsbcfirrc I was born. rrry firthcr tlicd ol wounclsrcccivcclItotf i r r n o r t h o 1 M o n t cC i t s s i n ow h i l s t c o n r m l n d i n g a t a t r kr c g i t n c n t .t h c R o y a l S c o t sG r c y s .W h c n I w a s s i x l c c n ,I d c c i d c c1 or r r a k c h c a r r n yn r y c a r c c r[ ( x ) .I c l i n h c r i t c c l l tr n y l a t h c r s i l l c b u t n o l h i s b r a i n s .s o l h c R o y a l M i l i t a r y A c u c l c r n ya t S a r r r l h u r s t twus out. Howcvcr I nranagcdto scmpc through . . . Cladet Sclrool anclinto thc Grcyso n a t h r e e y c a r s h o r ts c r vi c e c o r n r n i s s i o nw h i c h I s p c n tp l o u g h i n ga b o u t( i c r t t t a n y - ,i n t a n k s ,c a n o e i n gl l o n g E L r r o p c a r t v c r s . . . a r r c s k i i n g i n B a v a r i a .A l l t h i s g r v c i l lomc a taste firr travcl. (Ranulph Ficnncs: tltt l,trdstl tltc EurtltlExercise22 Subjunctive [SGE 3.23-241 Theso-callccl mandative is in sub.junctivcusecl //tal-clauscsafierexprcssions (which rnay bc vcrbs,nounsor acljcctivcs) orclering. of recomrnencling, takes basc This subjunctive intcnding. the firrrnof theverb- with no -.rlbrm. and no changes pasttensc: tbr T h e v s u c s e s t e d II ThL- suggestion I that he leaveirnmediately. wls I lt wts cssential I N o t i c et h c n e g d t i v e u b j u n c l i v c : s They orderedthat he not leave. A commcrnalternativeis a verb phrasewith shoulcl.
    • Voice 19Rewrite the fbllowing. using the subjunctive where appropriate.Make any otherchangcs necessary:E:untple. The govemor directeclthat all prisoners bc closely supervised . .The governor dirccted that all prisoncrs should bc closcly supervisccl lll tirnes. atHc orclcrcclthat all prison officcrs shoulcl strictly observc lhc regulatitlns. [{cinsistccl that they shoulclnot lct any visittlrs snrugglc in we aJtons clrugs.It was orv i t a l . h c s a i c l . h a t t l l v i s i t o r ss h o u l c l c s c a r c h c d . t b Thc prison olficcrsstatccl that t h is has alrvaystrccrtdortc. B ut thc litcl is thrrtthrccprisoncrs r:scapctlott Saturtlay. -fhc n c w r e g u l u l i o r r s t a l ct h a t i 1i s c s s c n t i a t h a t a l l s c c t i o r t s l 1 l t c r i s t l ns l t o u l c l l o pbc scarchccl ntorc licqr,re ntly and nrorc thoroullhly. Thcy also rccotttrttcntlcd thate x l r i l s t u l l a r cr c c r u i t c c s o l h a l n o r t t i t t t c r o u s k i l l i r l t h c l h prisottcrs lc, thcy will an o t b c a b l c t o c s c l r p c . , s i l i t w a s o r t l y l s i n r p l ec l u c s l i o t o l s t a l l i n g l , lExercise23 Passivevoice [SGE 3.25-26 M o s t t r a n s i t i v cv c t - b s a t t b c a c l i v c a t t t l p a s s i v c .1 h c p a s s i v cv o i c c i s t t s c t l c lirr v a r i o u s r c a s o n s .W h c n i t i s t t s c t l u i l h t l L r t l l c t l t i o l l i r t - t h c a g c r l t ( t h c 1 s u b j c c t o t t [ c a c t i v c v c r b ) t [ i s t t t a y l r c b c c i t t - t stc c a g c n t i s t t t r k t t t l w l l9 r h r u 6 i l r p o r l a r t lo r b c c l t L t s tcl l c t t g c l l tw l t l l l s I o a v o i c lr c s p o t t s i b i l i t l o l i t n t a y . ; b c t g c r t t l t l l t s i z ct h c a c t i o r to f t l t c v e r b b y h i . t v i n tl h a t r r c l t rl h c c t r t l 9 l t [ c scntencc. W h c n l l r c i t g c l t l i s t r t c t r t i t t l t c t l i t h a / r . r p l l r a s cl t c l t l t c v e r b t h i s l l u t s t h c w l a g c n t i n l h c i n r p o r l a l l lp o s i t i o r ta t l l t c c t l t l .C o n r p l c t e h c l i r l k r w i n g w i t h s u i t a b l cp a s s i v c s f t h c l i r l l o w i n s v c r b s : t o advcrtisc llltct allow btriltl givc hcar holtl inlirrrn(l) inspecl kccp Irotily obtain placc setrcl tcllln ccllain c irculnstanccs public inquiry rnuy ( | ) Hr,ttt,t-tr a ittttl propositlsput fi)rwardb y t h c D c p a r t n r c n lo l t h c E n v i r o n m c n to r a l o c a l h i g h w a y a u t h o r i t yb c f i r r ca n e wr91d(2) . . . . . . W h c n t h c S c c r c t a r yo l S t a t ct i r r l h c E , n v i r r ) n m c n t r i s i t t l t r - s or o a ( l p r ( ) p o s i l l sh c y ( 3 p u b l i c l y ) t . . . . . . a n d l h c r c i s o P p o r t u n i t yt t t t a i s t -o b i c c t i o n s .w h i c h n t a y l c a c lt o s u c h i t l l i n c l t r i r y . h c I n s p c c l o r i n c h a r g c o l t h c Ti l q u i r y w i l l h c a r v i c w s o f o b . j c c t o r sa n c l o t h c r s s u t h a t M i n i s t c r s n l a y ( r l ) . . . . . . b y t h e l n s p e c t o rt l f a l l m a l c r i a l f a c t s .T h c I n s p e c t o r - 5 ). . . . (all thc relcvant crtrresponclencc lrom ob.jcctorsto the proposals ancl frttrtr othcri n t c r c s t c cp a r t i c s , s o t h a l h e w i l l ( 6 i u l l y ) l ...... whcrt conductingtheinquiry. A copy of thc rulesgovcrning such inquiricscan (7) ...... lrom HerM a j e s t y sS t a t i o n e r y f f i c e .T h e r u l c se n t i t l ep c o p l ew h o ( 8 d i r e c t l y ) . . . . . . Oby the proposals to take part. A p u b l i c a n n o u n c e m e n( 9 ) . . . t . . . i n l t l c a ln e w s p a p e r s o t l a t e r t h a n l 4 nclays befbre the inquiry. People who have obiccted to the road proposals (10) . . . . . . i n d i v i d u a l l y ,a t l e a s ts i x w e e k s b e t b r e t h e d a t e o f t h e i n q u i r y . T h e y
    • 20 Verbs and auxiliariesuill cither ( I I ) .. . . . . t h e D e p a r t m e n t s S t a t e n r e n to f R e l s o n s . c l r( ll) ... . . . w h c r cs u c ha s t a t c l n c n ta n ( l 3 ) . . . c T h c p r o t : e e d i n g s1 , 1 1 ( . . . . . . A s i r r t i r r n r a a s p o s s i b l e .b u t t h c I n s p c c t o r lnrust k c c p o r d c r .[ : a c hp c r s o nw i l l ( l - 5) . . . . . . t o p u t h i s c a s ci n h i s o w n w a y .A t t c r a l l t h c i n t e r c s t c c la r t i c s ( 1 6 ) . . p . ....thcDcpartnrcntsrcprcscntatiren r a k c sh i s c l o s i n g r c n r a r k s .Exercise24Agents ISGE 3.25-26]H c r - ca r c s o r r c o t t h c a { c l i l s w h o p l a y u p . t r l i n p u b l i c i n c l L r i l i ca b o u { r o a d s : s(a) pcoplc living ncar the proJrosccl w roucl ne( b ) t h c D c p l r t r n c n t o f l h c B n v i r o n n r c n to r l o c a l h i g h u a y a u t h o r i t i c s(c) lawycrs( d ) t h c S c c r c t a r vo 1 S 1 a t ci r r t h c l l n v i r . r ) n l n c nh i n r s c l l l t( c ) a n I n s p c c l o ru p p o i n t c r lb v t h c I ) c p u r l l l r c n to l t l t c [ f n v i r o t t r t t c n tW l i t c o u l l u l l a n s r v e r -ts l h c l i r l l o r v i n gq u c s l i o l r s .u s i n S l r l r : r r r i v e e n s c a n t l u r . t o tagcnl.I W h o h u i l d s n c w r o a r l si n B r i t l i n l [ltcv,rHt, t ] t l . t t ( b ) t r r r , ) t : t , , l i t N n o tI. l l r l t N n t o N N l otlNlt. ( x . t . t ( i n w , t N t i u , t i l t ( ) R ll l l l s .I W h a l s o r t o l p c o p l c r u i s co b j c c t i o n s . ( ) h . j etti t r r r sI W h o c o n d u c t st l r c r l a v t o d u 1 [ 1 i 1 s i 1 l co lsl r t I n t ; u i r y ? s It ....tl l)ocs lnyonc rcprcscnl lhc ot-r.icctors.) T l t ey t l r r t5 W h o n r a k c sl h c f i n u l c l c c i s i o n . ) T l t el i r r l rt ll t e i r i o t tExercise25 Active or passive? [SGE 3.25-26]f o r n p l c l c t h c l i r l l o w i n g i n u s r r i t r r b lu c ti v c o r p a s s i v e c n s c u s i n gt h c v c r b sg i r e n : c lA soldicr ( l shool) rs r(r lnd criticaliv wounclctlasltc ( l sit ) . . sli n h i s c u r o u l s i d ca n a r n r yc a r c c l so l f i c e i n n o r l h [ . o n ( l o r y c s t c l r l a y T w o n r en w l t r r 1 .(3 bclicvcl . . . . . . l o b c r u c t t t b c r so l a t c l r o t . i s to r g u l l i z i t t i o l t , - l (Irpproach) . . . . . . h i s c a r o n l r n o t o r c y c l c . j L t s l a f t cp In r . T h c p i l l i o r r rpusse gcr (-5 run) n . . . . . . l o w i t r r l s l l t c eu r . w h i c l t ( 6 p a r k) . . . . . . o r . r t s i dt h c o l t i c e . H e ( 7 s l t o o l ) c ...... thes o l c l i e r h r c c t i r n c s ,t h c n ( 8 n r n ) . . . t . . . h a c k t o l h c n l o t o r c y c l ea n t l(t) flec) . . . . . . i n t h e r u s l r , l t o u rt r u t I i c .T h e v i c t i m . a a l l - y c a r - o k lrnarricd nran. (10 hit) ...... in lhe chcsl. Hc (ll say) . . . . . . t o b c i n a c r i t i c a l b u t s t a b l cc o n c l i t i o ni n h o s p i t a l . A n t i - t c r r o r i s t d e t e c t i v c sl a t c r ( l 1 c o r c l o n ) . . . . . . o l f t h e a r c a . T h i s a t t a c k ( l 3p l a n w e l l ) . . . . . . a n di t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e o l l i c e ( l 4 t a r g c t ) . . . . .. lbr sometime. A m o t o r c y c l el a t e r ( l - 5 f i n d ) . . .... abancktned bout ten miles aaway.but it ( l6 not know) . . . . . . y e t w h e t h e rt h i s w a s t h e g e t a w a ymachinc.
    • 4 ,n"semanticsof the verb Phrase Time and tense [SGE4.1-6] Although vcrb tctrscsoltenrcferlo tirnc rcal tirnc in thc worlcl titne ancl tensc are not thc satlc. Tensc is a qratnttlaticalc a t c l l o r y .w i t h v a r i o u sk i n c l s tncanirtg.So prcsctit antl past tcnscs rkl rtot itlways rcftr ttr olgritmtttittical prcscnt anclPast lirne.Exercise26 Presentsimple tense:what time? [SGE4.3-4] Thc sirnplc prescltt tc!tsc carl rcfcr ltl prcscll(, plrst artcl{utttt-ctirltc: I l t r t l i r l r t ; r r i t l r l t . I l p r " * " , . , ts l . l e . S l T l r e y / i l r i t t S t o l l r r t t t lI. rr.rnr,/ lrain. l Inut,lr H I I usually by _ l lc Ircvcr /rrArsa holiclaY.I _t I rcgrtt to slty ... Illrstatrlaneous II l | / r r d | y o u h a v c g o t c n g r t g c d .l P a s t hcrrtl fcccnlly- I)l W l r c n r 1 ot o r r l x , . q i ry o u r n c w . i o b ? t ] lFutur" Fl Cottte alrclscc tl:i llcxt tilllc yorr alr itt ltlwtr. ID e c i d c w h i c h k i n < lo l t i t t t c t h c p l c s c t t ttcnscs itt thc tirllowing relcr to, atrd tttarkt h c n ) S (t a l c) , l l ( L r b i)t. I ( l t s t a l l l a n c o t l)s P ( l s t ) o r .I r ( u t u r c ) . . I likc work. (S).l..tttnt1tlc.D c u rS i r , ( l ) I r n t o l c l t h a t y o u ( 2 ) o r g a n i z c s u u r n r c r c n V i r o t t t l tc ittlltl l P s l i r r p e o p l c t t l l t c l p cw i t h c o n s c r - v u t i ow o r k . a n c lI ( l ) w r i t c t o a s k l i r r l u r t h c r t l c t a i l s . n I n o r n a l l y ( . 1 ) o r k i n n t y v a c a t i o na n c lI p i t r t i c t r l a r l y- 5 l i k c l h e i c l c a l w o r k i n g w ( ) oin thc countrYsiclc. Cor"ilcl you plcasc lct ttrc know: w h c l c t h e s cc t t n p s u s u a l l y ( 6 ) t a k c p l a c c ,- w h c n t h i s y c a r s c a r n p s( 7 ) s t a r t .- whcthcr the current progranlmc (f3)contintrcs to the cncl of thc ycar and also - I (c.)) apologizc firr asking , but I lttn a stuclent- whether vclluntecrs( l0) rcceive any pockct moncy? I ( l l ) c n c l o s e a s t a m p e c a d c l r e s s c c ln v e k r p c t i r r y o u r r c p l y , a n d ( 1 2 ) l t l o k llbrwarclto hearing froin you. I (13) hope very tnuch that you still (lul) havcvlcancies 1or this year, and I will of course lct ytlu kntlw its sootl as possiblcwhatcver I ( I 5) decicle. Yours faithlully,
    • 22 The semanticsof the verb phraseExercise27 Past simple: when exactly? [SGE 4.1-6]Look at all the instanccsof the past simple tenseherc and decide whether they rcfcrto: An even(E): t Thc Nonnansitrtudetl Englancl 1066. in A habit HAB): ( Theyhrrilr some splcndid cathccfials castlcs. and A stateS): ( Thcy criiolttl fighting.or whcthcr thc past tcnsc is uscd lirr: A n a t t i t u d c( A ) : I tltorr,qht at ... th I n c l i r c c t p c c c h / t l r o u r h( l ) : s t . . . c v c r y o n c f u r c r . ab o u t t h e N o r r n a n s . r Ilypothesis(HY[)) I f W i l l i a m y i . s i t c t]ll a s t i n g st o d a y . . . .[ : t u r t t p l c . | ) w u n r l c r c d( A ) . . . (| ( l I x o t r l t :c r 1. . . . . . w h c t h c r o u ( 2 ) k t t c v t . . . .t.h u t 1 0 6 6i s t h c r n o s ll a r r t o u sl a t c t y . rin E n g l i s hh i s t o r y ? I t t J a r t t r a rly 6 6 t h c o l d k i n g ( E c l w a r d t h c ( o n f e s s o r l ( 3 l l i &.l. . . . . a n d l l a r o k l . 0thc E a r l t r f W c s s c x . ( 4 ) 1 u r t L l t t i r r t.t. . . . . h i r n s c l f k i n g . B u t a c r o s sl l r c C l r a n n c l tlI ) u k c W i l l i i r n t o t N t t r t t t a t t r l( 5 1u t t t r t t t.l. . . . . t h e E r r g l i s h h r o n c .a n i l i r n n r c d i a t c l y y t( 6 ) . s l u t t c. l. . . . . a s s c r n h l i r th i s a r r n yu n d l l c c t . t T h r o u g h o u l { h c s u r t . r r n c[r{ a r o l c l ( J ) l r t o k t d . . . . . . a c r o s s t o F r a n c e . b u l r r oN < r r r r r a n(s1 3 ) r l r i r . . . . . . S h i p s i n t l r o s c c l a y s( 9 ) t t t c r l t , .t .l . . . . w i n d p o w c r . u n t l rc o n t r i l r yw i r r c l s r r ds t o n n s( 1 0 ) d c l u v u l . . . . . . W i l l i a n r c v c n w h c n h c ( | I ) 1 1 . , / r . . . . . . arcarly. A r r c lt h c n i n S c p l c r n b c r a n o t h e r c l a i r t r a r r1 o t h c l l r r - o n c H a r a l d o l N o r w a y , . t ,( 1 2 ) l u t u l u l. . . . . . i n n o r t h c r nL , n g l a n c l n d ( 1 3 ) t u 1 t t u t e t l . . . . .Y o r k . M c d i e v a l a .k i r r g s o f c o r r r s c ( l ; l ) l c d . . . . . . t h c i r o w n a r r n i c s . s o f l n g l i s h H a 1 o l)c t x t k . . . . . . ( r 5 tllris army north. P c r h a p sy o u w i s h t h a t t w c n t i c t h c c n l u r y a r n t i c s ( 1 6 ) r r . l c r l . . . . . .s u c h s i n t p l c (w c a p o n sa s b o w s a n r la r r o w s w h i c h i s w l r a ta l r t r i c s n t h o s cc l a y s l 7 ) / i r r r , q h t . . . . . . iw i t l r b u t t h c y ( 1 8 ) t t t u l t . . . . . . i n f l i c tl a t a l i n . j u r - i cA n a r r o w ( l ( ) ) k i l l c d . . . . . .t h c l s.N o r w c g i a nk i n g . . . Two days later William of Norntandy linally (20) lutrdrd...... in southernEnglancl.a tcw milcs wcst of Hastings on the south colsl ofEngland. Harolcl(21)n t u r c h e d . . . . . .h i s t i r c c la r m y s o u t h ( a r m i e s( 2 2 ) u , u l k c t.l . . . . . c v e r y w h c r c i n t h o s ci l a y s ) . T h c t w o a r m i c s ( 2 3 ) n e t . . . . . . o n4 O c t o b e r . F l a r o l d a n d t w o o f h i s b r o t h e r s l(21) dicd...... lighting.William was thc Conqucrorl T h e b a t t l et h a t ( 2 - 5 ) h u n g e t . . . . . . t h c c o u r s co f E n g l i s hh i s t o r y i s k n o w n a s t h e c lB a t t l e o f H a s t i n g s ,b u t i l y o u ( 2 6 ) u e n t . . . . . . t o H a s t i n g st o d a y y o u w o u l d f i n c la town. To visit the actual battlefield you must go to the village that isbusy seasiclcsimplv known as Battle. AspectISGE4.7-l2l Aspectis a grammatical labelthatcoversp rcgressive andpe(ect.Progressive and perfect look at time in a special tenses way. Progressire(orcontinuous) activity,actionin progress, theretbre stresses and may imply that the actionis incomplete not going to continue long. or fbr Perfett isconcemed with action(s) a statein a periodbefbrenow (or, with or past perfect, before then) and continuing to the presenttime (or until then).
    • Tense and aspect 23Exercise 28 Present simple and progressive [SGE 47111C o m p l e l ch eI o l l o w i n g s i n g : t u Present simplctense[1 ask,he a.rA.r ...1 or Prescnt progressive utn uskittg,, arc asking...1 ll thevIndicate any places whereboth tenscs possiblc. areThc increasing of pcsticicles otherchcmicals farmersin rccentyears, use and by( l c u r r c n t l y / c a u s e ) r s c . L r R R r - . N r I - y ( A u s r N c i b i r c l s o ftp rc c o o l ctay s i d c l b r h cytun r veurbanarcas. B i r c l so l p r c y ( 2 f t e d ) . ..... on smallmitmmalsso in thc ,c6untryside ( 3 pickup) thcy . . pesticidcs through eating poisoncd g a r d e n i r d .b u t bp r e y .l n t o w n st h e y( 4 e a t ). . . . . t h eo c c a s i t l n a lt h c n t a i nr c a s c l t h c y ( 5 t h r i v c ) n . . . . . . i r ro u r s t r e c t ss s i m p l yl c s s ipollution.Thcirprcsencc(6ernphasize) . . . . . .t h c t r c n d ( ) l w i l c l l i t cto lnovc fiorr thc harassmenl ruralareas of intclcitiesand towns a lrerrcl which( 7 b c s h o w n ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a l s < ly t h c i n c r c a s i nn u n l b e r ) f f o x r - s r t b g ( iLonclon. tt (tl appear) . . . . . . t h a t h c r ea r c n < l wc o n s i d c r a b lteu t l r b c ro f t ssparrgwhawks thc wcll wooclccl in arcas Lontlon.[Jutasa rulethcscbircls not of (9attack) . . . . . . . . 1 h e t l o r c f a r . u i l i ab i r c l s w h i c h ( l 0 n c s t ) t r cltlsc to thcttt A t t h c s a m ct i t r t ct a w n y o w l s , w h i c h n o r n t a l l y( l I t t c s t ) ..... " Intrccsinthccountrysiclc(l2aclapt) .....tocrcviccsintallbuildings. Birds T h e l - o n c l o nW i l d l i f c T r u s t ( l 3 s a y ) ... of prey havci n c r c a s c c li n s u c h n u l n b c r st h a t w c ( l t X I r o w a s k ) .... lorv o l u n t c c r o b s e r v c r st 0 h c l p u s g e t s o n r c i c l c i lo l t h c s i z e t t f t h i s n c w p t l p u l : r t i o n . Exercise29 Presentsimple and progressive[SGE4.3-6,also 4.10-111Contplcte fblkrwingusing prcsent thc thc or progrcssive. sirnplc prescnt Rctllclnbcr tnaythat bothtcnses rcfer thc f uturc. to.lrtlnt. Crn you cotneancl help? What ( I you/clo) ...,}!it.Yl1!r.l}llf!: ....l. l o u t r |. (2 watch). . . . . . T V . I t s M < l n i c a a t l r c sS h c ( 3 g i v c ) J . . . a ctlokcryclcmonstrltiot"t. (4 nlakc) Shc ntennSucs.. l o h t r B u l y o u ( - 5k n t l w ) . . . . . . h o w t o c l ot h e t n .Y o u ( 6 r n a k e ) . . . . . . n r a r vle o u sr n c r i n g u c s . l./ocrr: Yes, these chocolatc but are tneringucs, you(7 know) . and the Bookcrs (u corne) . . " " n e x t S u n c l a ya n d I d l i k e t o d o , somcthing different tbr then.r. Besidcs always(9 enjoy) I w a t c h i n gh c r . I ( 1 0 p r o r n i s e ) ...... Ill come and hclp the m o m e n tt h e p r o g r a r n m el l e n d ) . ( ... It (12 tinish) a t 3 . 3 0 a c t u a l l y . P l e a s e !Y o u ( l 3 i n t e r r u p t ) . . . . . .I ( 1 4m i s s ) . . . . . .h e r . MonituJames: And now we ( l5 whisk) . theegg whitesuntil thev ( 16 stand). .... . up in peaks. And a usefultip to remember
    • 24 Thesemantics the verbphrase of - here slightlystale cgg whites( l7 rnake) . . ... . better meringues t h a na b s o l u t c lfy e s ho n e sW e l l .t h a t( l 8 l o o k ). . . i . . . r i g h t .N o w fbr thesugar grated and chocolate. I carefully I 9 fold) See, ( t h i s i n t o t h e w h i t e sw i t h a f b r k . I n c v c r( 2 0 w h i s k ) ...... it in. perfectISGE4.7-121Exercise Present 30C o r l p l e t e h e f o l l o w i n gu s i n ge i t h e r : t Prcscnt pcrtcct sirnple Shehrr.i tltoughr aboutit. Present perfecl proercssivc Wc ltnc ltectrthinkitt,q.l)uvid.Whatcvcr( I you/do)nAVu yor ntIlx rxrrxr;l You dont look ltxr grxtcl. Is anythingthc rnatter;)( l r u r l c sO h .I n r a l l r i e h t .B u t | ( 2 o v c r w o r k ) . ... lately nd a | ( 3 n o t / s l c c p. . . . . . .) . . . . . p r o p c r l yA n c lI n r a f i a i t I ( i l o v c r c a r ; . l " t . . I ( 5p L ro n ) t " n c a r l y1 2 ",rr,,ur. (6I)uvitl. You nccda holiclay. you/trook) ... anything yct.) Tonr(7.just/rclurn).. . t r o r n C i r e c cs a y s i t s n t a r v c l l o u s . c Hc (tl go) .. . tltcrcfirr vcars.C l r u r l t . s . c l l I ( 9 s o m e l i r . n c s / t h i n.k ) W . . o f g o i n st o ( i r c c c c again.. ) t n i d : ( ) l ty o u ( l 0 b c ) . . . . . . . . . . t h c r e b c l i r r - ch a v c y o u ? .t l t u r l e . s Y c s . I ( | I s p c n d ) . ... sollc very {oocl holitlavs t h e r e .b u t a c t u a l l v I ( l 2 t l w a y s / w i l n t ) . . . to s()to thc Far illst. ln llct. I (l-l tclch) ... ntvsclf Thai ibr thc last - : o u p l co 1 v c a r s ., ) u v i t t .B u t | ( l - l h c a r ) . . . v o u s u v s c v c r a l t i r n c sy o u l i k c c h e a ph o l i c l a y s n l r u r o p c . it l t t r r l c . sW e l l I ( 1 5 s a v e u p ) . . . . . r h o u g hI ( 1 6 n o t s a v c ) .... enoughyct rcally. But anyway. I 117 not havc)o,,i,i iis v,,, r,.,:l::li:l l:ij;ffi:;i:;n... ll.,l::t:]( - h u t l c . W.c l l , y c s .a n c l ( l g . i u s tn l o v c ) t I ... to a newflat. B u l u n y w u y . t h i n k I r c a l l ys l r a l l o t o l J a n s k o kn O c t o b e r . I s iD u v i l : A h . S o y o L r 2 0 n r a k c ). ( . . v o u r r n i n du p a l l a s t lExercise 31 Present and present perfect tenses ISGE 4.1-121Cornplctc firllowing,usinga suitablc thc nt - prcse tcnsc prcscltt prcscnt or perfcct.( b o t h c i t h c r s i n r p l c o r p r o g r e s s i vIe c u r n , l u n tl t u r n i t r , q ,h u y cl e o r n t l l e u r n t t l , l) lI lruvclrcert lcurtrittg.Maria ( l lcarn) HAsBEFNFRNtN(i r Englishftlr sevcralycarsnow, but (2 onlyr e c c n t l y / s t a . .t.). . . . r . . . . . t o w o r k h a r da t i t . N o w s h e( 3 m a k c ) ... goodprogress.and(4enjoy).........rt. Ever sincc shc started she (5 alway:,fincl). .. readingE n g l i s h h ee a s i e s S h e( 6 l i k c ) t t. . . . n o v c l s e s t a n dn o w ( 7 b ,
    • Tense and aspect 25::i::: ; ;;; ,:".*:*l;-;:.iH: ,ili.,1,j;l",;l . . .allthewords ( l0 notknow). . shcbut (ll try) ... t o g r - l c s s e m c a n i n g n c ls h e 1 1 2s a y ) th a " s h e( 1 3g e t ) " tnuch ettcr .w b n.i a,,r"g;iri;. P e r h a p sn o t s u r p r i s i n g l yl o r s u c h a n a v i d r c a c l c r s h c ( l z l l i k c ) . . . . s p e l l i n g . t ( 1 5o f t e r ) l . . . y o uac h a l l c n g e s h c ( l 6 d c c l a r c ) . ... Shc also ( l7 writc) o" ", " j.,"; i,T; ili n :1," lli "lffi :] l "il iill ::,i"rnakc). . . t l t cs a m cr t t i s t a k c s . S h e( 2 0 l i r r d ). . . a n E n g l i s h e n l r ne t h i sy c a ra n c s h e p id l(21 alrcady/ writc) ancl (22 rccevc) i . t w ( ) l c t l c r s . T h i si s t h c t i r s t t i n r c I ( 1 3 c v c r / c l o ) t h i s . t h o u g h i t i s s o n r c t h i n g| ( 2 - 1a l w a y s / w a r r t ) i,,",i.;; l.,u:li,,i)r,. l1*lt:lli,"i,,, ;",,,.. i"*i,,,,u ;,li*J;,1 ,,"-i s h c ( f t i n c c t l) ......nrorcc o n v c r s a l i o n r a c t i c cS o n c x t w c c k s h c ( 2 9 a t t c r x l ) p . ............hcr conve -lhatfirst r s a l i o nw o r k s h o p . ( - 1 0 r c u r) n r ... practical ancrr(rrrlx;kfi;rwtrrc :ll-::.:i:1,IIl::::l::::iExercise 32 Past simple or present perfect? ISGE 4.5-8]C o r n p l c t ct l r c t i r l l o w i n q w i t h c i t h e r : p u s ts i r n p l c t l r ( ) / ( , t 1 ( / . f .l l t t t t t t t t . . . prcscnl pcrf ccl lru.rlltuvtutittttt.lrrtsf ltuvt ltrctr.lru.sllrutc ltccotrtL ...A g a t h l M i l l c r ( | b c b o l n ) w ; SI r ( ) u N r r 1 . 5 c p t e n r b c r1 8 9 0 i n T o r . c ; u a i n s o u t l r o S ywcst England. Bcttcr krrown as Mrs Agalhrr Christic. shc (2 writc 1 . . . a l t o g c t h c r7 l l r n y s l c r y n o v el s a n c l l 9 p l u y s . Vcry fcw othcr crir.nc ritcrs 13 writc)w ... rnorc bookst h a n t l i i s ,a n d t c w ( 4 b e c o r n e ) . . . s o i n . t r . n c n s epv p r - r l a r . lo Evcr sincc shc (-5 publish) . . . l t c r f i r s t n o v el . 1 / r rM.t.s r i rtu s AfJtril al.Sl.r1r.r I 910. hcr books ( 6 Ircvcr bc ) tc inotrtof print.They (7 hc lranslatcd) ... all ovcr thc worlcl.a n d . p e r h a p s u r p l is in t l y . h c r s u l c s( l l a c t u a l y i r t c r c a s c s )sinccshclc)dic). .. in 1976. orashorttinrcalicrherclcath Fthcy (10 tirll)... s t r r t r r " l t s c r h a p st l t c s c r e e t t h a t ( I I prcvive) ... hcr popularity. T w o i r n n r c n s ey s u c c c s s l l r il l n r s( l 2 b c n r a d c ) l f . . . u l euycals a1lo,l)cutlt tttttlrt N ilt ttntlM rrnltr tttrtlrt Ot irttl L.7)/{,... thcse( l J tnorc artdr ( e c r l l l -h c l i t l l o uc t l t . . . . . . . . . . b 1 t c l c v i s i o n s c l i c s . r v h i c h 11 . 1brin-e. ) . . t w o o t h c r r n o ss u c c e s s f u l c l e l e c t i v c s .c B e l g i a n t thl l e r c u l c P o i r o t a n c lt l r c c l c l c r l l E n - l l i s hl a c l l M i s s M a r p l c . t o n r i l l i o n so t v i c w t - r s . I n 1 9 9 0 . t h c c e n t e n a r v o l h e r b i r t h . h e r l r i r t h p l a c cT o r q u a y ( 1 5 h o n o u r )
    • 26 Thesemantics the verbphrase of mystery - ... hcr memory with a special testival goodp u b l i c i t v f o r t h e t o w n o f c o u r s c . I n 1 9 9 2 a L c l n d o nt h c a t r e ( l 6 b e ) fhe... .............. . . . a b l e t o b o a s t : M o u s e t r a l t , n on i t s 4 f t hy e a r , ( 1 7 iwbreak). .allrecords. T h c r ei s n o w c v c na r o s e h a t( l l Jb e n a m e d . . . . . . . t ) . . . . a f i e rh e r . Pcople l9 cnjoy) 1 A g a t h a h r i s t i e s t o r y - t c l l i nfg r C by e a r s ,a n d h e r p o p u l a r i t yc u r r c n t l y s e e r n s i g h c r t h a n i t ( 2 0 e v e r b e ) h . . I t i s n o t o f c o u r s ct l r c f i r s t t i n t e t h a t a n a u t h o r( 2 1bccomc) . . m o r cp o p u l a r n d c a t h h a ni n l i f c . i tExercise 33 Past simple or past progressive? [SGE 4.5-121 A past pro.urcssivc tcrtscolten rctclslo an activity in a perioclthat inclucles t h c t i n r c o f a p a s l s i r n p l cc v c n t . a s i n c x a r n p l c s( i ) a l t c l( i i ) b c l o w . Two pasl sirnplc tcrtscs usually show stritightfilrward titttc scqucnce f i r s t o n c c v c n t . a n d t h c r rt h e o t l r c r ( i i i ) .W r i t c o u t t h c d c t a i l s b c l o w i n c o t . n p l c t c c l t t c t t c c su s i n g c i l h c r : s , past sirnple nct. lcll . . . ()/ past progrcssivc ttrtttittg,uu.sluttt.lttlli nu.slvtcrc trgarrd aclclingvhctror nliilt as suilablc.E.runtltlc.s.(i) PrcsiclcntKe nncdy bc us.tttssitrutcllltc tlriva through Dallas. P l c s i d c n tK c n n c c l yw a s a s s a s s i n a t cwlh i l c h c w a s c l r i v i n gt h l o u g h D a l l a s . c(ii) L,vcryonc alivc at thc tintc rclnctrtbcrs what thcy r/o/lrcsiclcntKcnncdy /rt killcd. Iiveryonc ... rcrlcrrtbcrs what tlrcy wcre cltlingwhcn PrcsiclcntKcnltctly was killcd.(iii) Kcrrncdy bc ussu.s.sirtutcri/l-yndon Johnson Dt swtlrn in its prcsiclclrt, Whe n Kcnncdy was assassinatccl, Lyndon Johnsonwus sworn in as presiclcnt. I Julius CacsarTrrl.srrc political rival into Egypt/hc first rttal Cleopatra. a 2 Jtrlius Citesarnrcct Cleopatrirlhclull in lovc with hcr. 3 Philip ll of Muccdon bc u.sstrssin urcrl in 336 nclhe plutt an invasiott of Pcrsia. .1 Marco Polo ( | 254- 13241 btgitt to writc rn accounl of his travels in China/hc ,lt,litttt" in lt Ccnttcsc riron. p tli.st -5 Christopher Colurlbus look.fltr Asiufiic ttttr Arnerica in 1492. 6 He rctutn to Spain/hc rLctitca hcrtts welcotnc. 7 CaptainJamesCooknratthisthirclgreatPacificvoyage,/hebckilletlinHawaii in lll9. 8 Cook tlielhis crew rrrftehis ship back lo Britain. 9 The French rcvolutionary Marat .rlrin his bath/CharkrtteCorday ll.rft in ancl t-r11him. him/ she lte orrcstetl irr.rrnccliatcly.l0 She esso.t.in(tte Ianzania)/thejournalistI I Dr Livingstonc trolcl near Lake Tanganyika (t.tow
    • Tense and aspect 27 Henry Morton Stanley /inrl him in lt37l. Drl2 S t a n l e yi r i d h i m / h e . r a r . L i v i n g s t o n e .p r e s u m e . l IExercise 34 Past simple or past perfect ISGE 4.5-9]-TI rc rnuin use of the past pcrlcct is lbr an earlier pasl: By thc cnd of the ninctccnth ccntury Antarctic cxpl<trcrsltul nrultltcd out tlrc coastof this firrbiclcling continent lnttlI ltudI trtkkcl inland as f itr s o u t ha s 7 f J . - 5 0 S .u t i t r v a sn o t u n t i l l 9 l I t h a t t h c S o r . r t h o l c i t s c l f w a s B P rcachccl.Stuclythcsc nolcs aboul thc final racc lirr thc P<llcbclwccn Robcrt FalcortScotl (olB r i t a i n ) i u r d t h c N o r w c { i a n c x p l o r c r R o a l c lA r t t u n c l s c nT h c r r w r i t c o u t t h c s t o r y .u s i n g t h c p a s l s i n r p l co r t h e p a s l p c l l c c t . Scott alrcady lcutl tnrl:.ttrtttltlc. carlicrcxpcclitiortlo lhc Antarclic in l90 l .1. whcnhc .st,t orrt on his fatcful last.jotrr-ncy.A r r . r n c rS:c o t t h a d a l r c a c l y c c la n c a r l i c r e x p c c l i t i o n. . . w l t c t t h c s c t t t t r l . . . l l 2 O t t o l t e r l 9 l 0 - S c o t t s s h i p r c a c h c c M c l b o u r n c ( A u s t r i t l i a ) .w h e r c S c o l t l Bcg rcccivccla cablc lionrMacle ira: lcavc to itttirrttryou procccclint Attturetieu. Art.tutrclscn. 1.lutr l9ll S c o t t r e a c l t c c(li a p c E v a n s o t t R o s s I s l a n c l . ll .lutr ArnunclsenreacheclBay ol Whalcs. (r0 rnilcs rtcitt.er thc Polc than Scotts basc. Both partics laiclclcpotsas lar south as they coultl atrtlthcn wuited firr thc Antarclic spring. l9 Oct - Anrunclsens arty lcli the Bay of Whalcs. p I Nrn Scotts party sct oLlt. ll Dec Scott rcachccl2.(XX)lcctabove thc sea.Amurtdscrtreachccl thc l)<llc, anclraiscclthc Norwcsinn 1lag. 2 | D c c S c o t t c s t a b l i s h c c l i s c a n r r l. l 3 a t 7 , 1 ( X ) e c t .S c n t b a c k t t n c o l h i s h t support partics. l . l u r t l 9 l 2 S c o t t c s t a b l i s h c d a d c p o t o nl 7 t 3 r n i l c s f r o r t r P o l c . S c n t b a c k l a s l y support party. Scotl now with four cttlnpaltions(Wilson, Oates. Iivitrts itncl Brllvcrs). lS.lutt - Scotts parly rcuchctl thc Polc ancltirunclthc Norwcgiitn fllrg. Bcgan t 3 ( Xr)n i l c r c t u r n m a r c h l o t h c i r b a s c o t t R o s s I s l a r t t l . I7 Fclt - Evarrstlictl. 2 ll4urch Reachcd Midcllc Barricr Dcpot. whcre harcllycnough Iucl oil left bccuuse f lcakagc to take thctn to Onc Ton Dcpol.70 ntilesnorth.(Thcy o ncvcr rcachcd it. ) I7 Mutch Oates ualked out clt the tent to his clcath.httping the othcrs ntight survivc without hinr. 2 l M u r c l t - S c o t t m a d e f i n a l c a n t p ,o n 1 1 " l r n i l e s s t l u t h o f O n c T o n D c p o t . l
    • 28 The semanticsof the verb phrase Frostbitc and heavy gales prevcnteclthern from goin-uto thc clcpot fbr fuel. Thc )9 MIurth - Scottwrotc in his.journal: c n c lc a n n o t b e t a r . l2 Not - Scarch party tbuncl the boclicsof Scott. Wilson ancl Bowcrs. I Scott lcarlr Mclbournc whclr he lcrcttc news that Atnundsen was alscr heaciingfirr the Polc I W h c n S c o t t s r , l r r 7 ; h i s f i r s t b a s e o n -n u a r y l t ) l l A n r u n c l s c n t t o t . t e t r c u t h I l t e Ja 1 Bay olWhalcs. - l S c o t t s p a f t y . r 1 1 l r l o n I N o v c n t t r e r .A r t r u n d s c t t s a r t v a l r c a c l y c r r r . . o p 1 :1 Scotls pal11only,qcl 2.(XX) ftct abovc sca lcvcl r.r,hcn Norwcsiarts lrtrrlr tlte thc Polc. 5 Scrrtttrol krrttrt that Arrrtrndscnbtrrrhirrt ttt it. 6 O n l J a n u u r y l 9 l 2 S c o t t b r , g l r h i s l i n a la t l a c k a r t d , r t r bra c k h i s l a s t s u p p o r l i 1 p a r t y . l " h co t h c r s u p p o r l p a r t y / r c . r ( / rb a c k t c r t t l a y s c a r l i c r . 1 7 S c o t t r t r r r l it h c P o l c o n l 8 . l a n u u l y l 9 l 2 o n l y t o d i s c o v c rA l n u n c l s c trtu i s t t h c Norucgian llug thcrc a rnortth bcfitrc. d T h c y c o l c r l { ( X ) r i l c s .b t r t t h c y / i r l c t h c l J 0 0 - r t r i l cc l t t r t t. i o t t r - t t e } . n t r) O r r r c r r c h i l r g M i c l d l c B a r r i c r D c p o t M a r c l t t h c y l i r r r / t l t a t v i t l I i r e Io i l l c t t k . onI tt 0 O n l 7 M a r c h O a t c s r / i c i l . I r v a n st / i r r ll i l u r w c c k s c a r l i er .l l Tlrcy bc lcf tatctl by tltc appalling wcalltcr cotttliliortsbclirlc thcv tttutt(t,q( lo fon rcuch Ottc Dcpot.l 2 Scotl arrtlIrisconrlxrnions dclrl ovcr scvclrntonths whcn lhcy ltc ,li.sttnLrttl /rc b f l s c u r c hp a l t v i r r N o v c r r r h c rl ( ) I l . Future time [SGE 4.13-201 J l r c r ci s n o i n l l c c t c d l i r t r . r r l.c n s c i n E r t g l i s h .b t r t l h c r c a r c s c l , c r i t lw a y s o f e tllking ubouttltc tulurc.Exercise35 Future time: present progressive or will?lsGE 4.13-201 lhc p | c s e n tp ( r g r c s s i v ci s ( ) l l c r ru s c r ll i r r l i r t u r cc v e t t t sa r i s i n g l ) o r n p r c s c t t l pf lrts or arrartgcrttctt(s l|c utt: - tttcttitt,q |()|tt()tt-()tt. lhc uill firtLrrcis sornctirttcs ttcutntl - I vill hc 2l trL.tt ltirthdut, but alstr h a s l n c i t n i r t g s f p r c d i c l i o r t ,i r t t c r t t i o t rw i l l i n g r t s s l : 1 . 2 7 o . e l willC o r n p l e t ct h c l i r l l o w i r r gu s i n g c i t h e r t h c p r c s c n tp r o s r c s s i v co r t h c lirturc( c I i u . I h c u r y o t t ( I g o ) r n r ,( i ( ) l N (o r t h o l i t l l y s o o n . iI t c l c t r :Y c s . w c ( 2 g o t . . . . . . . t o l t a l ) . , , p i t c k i t g eo u f i t c t L r a l l ) . tC r 1 r t rO h . ; o u ( . j l o v e ) . . : . . . . . I t a l r - . V y h c n( - 1 v o u l c a v c )[ t t l u t . W c l l , i v c 1 . 5l 1 ) . . l . . . . . 1 t 1 t t n t ct t r tt h e l - 5 t h . RC r l i a :T h a t ( 6 b c ) . . .....tlrcc.I t a l e t r Y e s . i t s l i o u l cb c . W c ( 7 g o l . . l . . . . . o l l i l c t l a c ht o u r a c t u a l l v .(clra: (ll vou not gct).... . . . t i r c d s i t t i n g i n a c o u c h a l l c l a 1: ,
    • time 29 FutureHclen.Well,itcertainly(9bet.. .....tiring,Isuppose.Butwe(lt) v i s i t ). . . . . . . S i e n a ,l o r e n c c , s s i s a n dR o m e F A iCeliu: You ( I I get) . . . . . . . . c u l t u r a li n c l i g c s t i o b u t i t s o u n c l s n m a r v c l l o u s .o w l o r . r( 1 2y o u s t a ! ) . . H g . . . . i nA s s i s i lH e l t t t U n t b r t u n a t e lw e ( l 3 o n l y h a v c ) . y . . . . . a q u i c ks t o pt h e r e . M a y b ew e ( l r l a c t u a l l y t a y ). . s . . . . . t h e r c n t l t h ey e a r . a rCtliu:lt souncls good tour. But you (15 come) a home exhaustecl.l l c l c t r N o . w c ( 1 6 n o t ) . . . . . . . .W e ( 1 7h a v c ) .......4 scconclwc-ckinSorrento.rtrtclwc(luiuslrelax).. ..".bythcsca.Exercise36 going to or will? [SGE 4.13-20]a The gorrr,q /rr lirtttrc usually tttcatls tl.tc luturc as a result ot prcscnl lI intcntions Wt rt grtirrgttt lte nrurrictl. o r t h c I u t u r ca s a r e s u l to 1 l r r c x i s t i n g . p r c s c l l tc a u s c l t . s, q t t i t t il4 t r u i t t . I r I II t l r i t t kI r t rg o i t t . g o l t L. s i t k . lC o n r p l e t ct h c l i r l l o w i n g w i t h , g r r l r r r o I c l o l o r l i / / - ,q toI I hcar you ARr: iotN(i go on a coilch tor.rrI thought you clidnt likc roatl ( . .journcys/ W c l l i f I t a k c t r a v c ls i c k t t e s p i l l s I . s ..... hc all light.I W h a t s i t l l t h a tg e a rl i r r . . ) ...... yotr . . . . . . t a k ct r ps n o r k c l l i n e l Wcll,I ......try.- j M y s u i t c a s ch a s b r o k c n . l ) o n t w o r r v .L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l c r l dy o t t t t t i t r c .- 1 I l a v c y o t l g ( ) l t r a v c l l c r s c h ec l u c s l l l c a v c t t s . t l l i r r g o t t c n I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p h o r r c l r cb a n k l o l l l o r r o w . I . t 5 I v c b o u g h ta p h l a s cb o o k . b c c a u s c . . . . L . t r v 1 o s p c i r kl t a l i a r l . 6 Whcn yotrr-clt Rottte . i . ..... y()u . . . . . . t l o s o l l l c l l l i n l lt i r r n r c l 7 Why ltavc vtlu botrglrt stt trlarty liltrls.) I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i t k t l- o t so l p i c t u l c s l c v c r y t h i n g . t o l{ W c r c u b i t w o r r i c c ll t b o u t l c l t v i l l gt h c h t l t t s cc n l p t y . Wc .... . . k c c p l l r lc y c o l l i t i l y o u l i k c . 9 ...... yoll ... . . . s c t r dn l c l t p o s t c l t r ( l l t l r l tS o r r c r l l r l p l c l s c l . Exercise37 Things are hotting up! [SGE 413-201 C h o o s c t h c b c s t l c n s c l i r r r r r s ( )c x p r c s st h e l i r l u l c i n t h c l i r l l o r v i l l q . 1 Scicntislss1v that thc levcl ol carbon rlioxitle in thc carlhs attttosphcrt is i l c r c a s i n g a t i l n a l a r n l i n ! r a t c . a n d t l t c yt i r r c c a s tl l l i l t i 1 ( I ) ( l ) c o n t i n L r c st r ) i s ( c o n l i n u i n g ( c ) l v r r . r . ( ( ) N t r 1 r ,r i s c r v l t i l c u c ( l ) ( a c t t t t t i t l t t e ( w i)l l c o t t t i t t u c lo ) tr ( c t w i l l b c c o n t i n u i t r g t o b u r n f i r s s i l l u c l s .T l i e l b c l i c v c t h a l l h i s b u i l c l - t r p l t t c a r b o nd i o x i c l c ( 3 ) ( ac a u s c s t r ) i s c a u s i n g c ) w i l l c a t r s c a l l l a r k c ( lr i s c i n t h e ) ( ( (e e a r t h sl e m p c r a t u r ci n t h c t , v c n l 1 r - f i rcse n t u r y .l f t h c y ( l ) ( a ) a r e ( b ) a r c b ei r t s ) t t u r eg o i n g t o b e p r o v c c lr i g h t . u , e ( 5 ) ( a ) s e c ( b ) a r c s c e i n g (c)will he set-irlg
    • 30 The semanticsof the verb phraseunprecedentedclimatic change in the next century. Because when the earthstemperature(6) (a) rises(b) will rise (c) will have risen ice capswill melt and seasw i l l r i s e . A n d a s t h e s c a s( 7 ) ( a ) r i s e ( b ) w i l l r i s e ( c ) a r e g o i n - e o r i s c , t h e r e w i l l tbe widespread flooding. A reporl some years ago suggestecl that in the thircl quarter of the next century,the concentrationof carbon dioxicle in the atrnosphere (8) (a) is doublin-e(b) willh a v e d o u b l e c l( c ) w i l l h a v e b c c n c l o u b l i n g . I f t h i s r n a s s i v eb u i l d - u p o f c a r b o nd i o x i d e ( c ) ) ( a )o c c u r s( b ) i s o c c u r r i n g( c ) w i l l h a v c o c c u r r e d t h e a v c r a g ee a r t ht c m p c r a t u r cw i l l i n c r e a s e y s e v c r a lc l c g r c e s n c lw h i l c t h i s ( 1 0 ) ( a ) i s h a p p c n i n g b a( b ) h a s h a p p e n e d c ) h a s b c c n h a p p e n i n g . t h c s c a l e v e l ( I I ) ( a ) r i s ; c sb ) i s r i s i n g ( ((c) will bc rising by asrnuchas A nrctrc. A n o t h c r r e p c r ctl a i l n st h a tt h e s cs c r i o u sc l i m a t i cc h a n g e s I 2 ) ( a ) a c t r . r a l lb c g i n r ( y( b ) t r e l c t u a l l y b c g i n n i n g ( c ) w i l l a c t u a l l y b e g i n r a t h e rs o o n c r . t s a y s a s t h c Ic h a n g c s( l 3 ) ( a ) t a k e ( b ) h a v c t a k c n ( c ) w i l l t a k c e f t c c i .s o r n cn o r t h c r na r c a sNcw York fbr cxanrplc - could becurnc scrni-tropical.This rcprtrt also says thatt h c g n r w i n g s c l r s o n 1 . 1 ) ( a )b c c o l l c s ( b ) w i l l b c c u r n c( c ) h a s b c c o r n e l c l n g c li r r (s o r n e a r c a s . b u t t h a t i n t h e s o u t h c l r i e r c o n t l i t i o n s ( 1 5 ) ( a ) c l c c r c a s c( b ) a r cc l c c r c a s i n gc ) w i l l d c c r c a s c c r o p y i e l d s . ( N o t h i n g t h a t w c ( 1 6 ) ( a ) c l o( b ) a r c c l o i n g( c ) w i l l d o i n t h c n c x t f e wc l c c a c l e sw i l l r n a k er n u c h c l i l l c r c r r c c t s c c r n s . n l c s sw e ( l 7 ) ( a ) s t o p ( b ) a r e s t o p p i n g( c ) i. uw i l l b e s l o p p i n g b u r n i n g f b s s i l l i r e l s .I o n l y h o p c t h c s c i c n t i s t s l t t ) ( a ) r n a n a g c (( b ) a r c r n a n a g i n g( c ) w i l l b c r n a n u g i n g t o c o r l t c u p w i t h a s o l u t i o n . I f t h c y( 1 9 ) ( a ) d o n t ( b ) w o n t ( c ) h a v c n l . t h c n t h c r c a r c g l o b a l p n t b l e r n sa h c a d . llP c l h a p sw e o n l y r e a l i z el h c c x t c n t o f t h e p r o b l c n tw h c n w c ( 2 0 ) ( a ) l c a v c ( h ) a r cl c a v i r r g( c ) h a v c l c f t i t t o o l t t c . Modal auxif iaries ISGE 4.21-241 Mostof theruodal verbs canbc puirccl prcscnt into ancl pastlirrrns (cg: n,r// u o u l t l )B u t ,a sw i t ho t h c rv c r b st,c n s e h a v cv l r i o u st l c a n i n g s c s i c l c sn t e . s b ti : T h c r c st h ep h o n c . / / a n s w c r t . I F u t u r c l i ) l I i ( I t I i l / b e M o t h c r .r i n g i n g b o u lt h c c h i k l r c n . P r e s c n(rP r e s . t l a l W c l t r r r l r l o l i c ns w i r nb c l o r cb r c a k l u sw h e nw c w c r cy o L l n gI.P a s ( P r r t t I r c a l i z c dl u t t u l d o o nb c r n y t c n t hb i r t h d a yl.F u t u l ci n t h c p a s t l i s W h a t x t r r r l ry o u c l oi l y o u w o n t h c p o o l s / l y p o t h c t i c l l f i r l u r c i [ ] Worrltl you likc surne ntorccolficl ( ISocial usagc hcrcfirr politcncss) rcfcrring the prcscnt to IExercise38 Modals- whats the time?Dccidc what titnc is broacllybcing referrecl by thc rnodalsin thc tbllowins. Mtrk toeach senteltcePasl.Prcsentor Futurc - or iruture in thc past.(Wc are not conccrnecl
    • Modals 31in this exercise with whetherthe eventis real or hypothetical) I C o m ee a r l ya r . r / e ( a / r h a v ea p i c n i c d ""FLlT!l$P""" 2 Cutt therc be life on Ntarsl 3 lt nrutwcll rain tomorrow. :l You rira- old, but that clocsntexcuse you be 5 Ilyou nr// cat scltttuch.no wonclcr youre fat. 6 S l u l l w e c v c r d i s c o v c rt h c t r u t h l 7 Thc sea toulLlbc very rough that winter. ll My cousin Lrtultl bc ovcr thcre. but yourc in thc way 9 You nil/ bc Paid.l0 C h i l c l r c nn r / / c l ot h c s et h i n g s .II S h c h a s n t t c l c p h o n c c-l s h c n i r g l i t b c i l l .l2 Try as hc nrlglrt hc was unablc to opctl thc salcl3 H c r i r i . q / rsl t i l l c t l r n c .l:1 l t s s o c o l c l i I t t t r r l l b c t h c n l i t l c l l co f w i n l c r .l5 | c o r r l t lt c l c p h o r t cl a t c r i l y o t r l i k c .I(r 6 into 5 rtrrrl go.l7 AII hc utttrltl tl<twds accept f5. (hristrnasIt3 It was lttc in thc ye ar. Sootl it wrtrrld bc l9 | . s h o u l t lt h i r r k i t s t l t u c h l o t t c x p c t l s l v c .20 I tclcphortctl so that lltcysltttrrlltt1worry.l l l r n s o r r y y o t l s h t t r r l ttlh i n k s o .r2 J a r r c( ) u g l t ll o b c i n N c w Y o r k b y I r o w .Exercise39 Modal meaning ISGE 4-2l-341 *,rdr*,i t l . u . n . u i u u , k i n t l s o f t l r c a t t i t l ss u c l ta s : . Ability I rrli :;cc pcrlcctly wcll withor.rtslasscs. issiorr I)crrtt Ycttt t rutlt ttulrl/ltttl,lbtlrrow llly car. Possibility Arryonc crlli tttakc ll rllistakc. C o r n c c l r l y . a t t t lw c ( 1 1 l t l l l k . r Aclaru litnlrrii,q/itknow tltc ittrswcl-. Obligation I l t t t v t.q t t k t l n r t t . t t l s J r t t r r l t l l t t r trtg ptlty t h c s cb i l l s t tl L o g i c a l l c c e s s l t Y Thcrc rrttr.l/ sotrtc rnislakc. bc Tcntativcinttrcncc Thc weallrcr ttu,qhttttlsltttulr/ bc bcttcr stlttn. D c c i d c w h a t i s t h c n t c a n i n g l t h c n r o c l t l s n t h e t i r l l o w i r l g , t r t lr n a r kt h c t r l o i a (LN). A ( b i l i r y ) .P c r ( n r i s s i o D )O s s ( i b i l i t yo b ( l i g L t t i o n L.o g i c a lI r c c c s s i t y P. ). ) Tcntativcintercncc ) (Tl A personalctlmputer word processor Befitre Vou( I ) canstart usirrgyoLrr PC]W wtlrcl firr processillg. yourPCW (2 ) ncccls to bc sct uP. T h e p r i n t c r( J ) r l u s t b c c o r l l l c c t etc l - v - o u l ( W o P y o u ( - l ) n c e c l( )p f e p a r c o p i t - o f l h c s u p p l i c d l i s c s . o u ( 5 ) s h o t r l ttlt t l l V v e r t s c Y c w o r k w i t hc o p i e o 1 l h e sc l i s c s . s c
    • 32 Thesemantics the verbphrase of A -5arnpfusc(6)r"rrust fittedto theplug.The colours thewircsin thc mains be oflead(7) may not corresponcl thc colourecl with rnarkings your plug. in There arc nranydif-fbrent kinclsof col.nputerclisc.so you (fl) shoulcl alwayschcck that you arc buying thc right sort. Labellccldiscs fiom anl leaclins (t))rnanufacturcr shoulcl givc gooclservice.I ( 1 0 ) c a n 1r n a k et h e t h i n g w o r k . I t s u r e l y( l l ) c a n t b c b r o k c n- i l s a n c wr n a c h i n cl . I p r c s s h i s k c y I ( 1 2 ) o u g h tt o b e a b l ct o s t a r ta n c w c l o c u n r c nb u t l t t.n o t h i n g a p p e n s .h e r c( 1 3 ) o u g h t o b c a s i r n p l c rn s t r u c t i o r bs o k . h T l i ro ( l 1 ) M a y I s a ys o r n c t h i n g ? c s . Y o u ( 1 5 ) n r i g hc k rb c t t c r l y o up r c s s c d Y t ithc - k c y r n a r k c c l r r , u y o u h a v cg o t t o d o t h a tr n o s t 1 t h c i n r c .I l i n d . rN o tI Poss I 3 . . . . . . . . .- +. . . . . . . . .- 5 6 . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . .8c ..). . . . . . . . 1 0. . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . 1 2. . . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . . . 1 , 1. . . . . . . . I - 5 . . . . . . . . .Exercise 40 Modals [SGE4.21-34]1 l 1 1 r 1 r st l l h ( s l : u l s ( r . cl l o w ( I ) ( a ) t , r r ( h ) r n a y ( c )n c e d I k r s c w c i g h l l A t o n c t i n r c I r n a r l c a b i g e l l i r r t- l ( 2 ) ( a ) r n u s l( b ) s h o u l c( c ) w o u l c l t o l i r r . c l a yw i t h o u te v c n l o o k i n ga t b u l t c f l so r p o t u t o c s r c a k c s .B u t I ( 3 ) ( a ) h a d n t t o ( b ) c o u l d n t ( c 1 n r i g h l n 1 r , i v c u ; r oc h o c o l a l eI.. i u s t ( : 1 t ( a ) h a d t o ( b ) n r u s t ( c ) 0 u go t c a t i l i r r s c c r c t t r c t w c c n n r c a l s . th W c l l i l y o u ( - 5 ) ( a ) c a n ( b ) w i l l ( c ) w o u l tc a t c h < l c o l a t c . y ( ) u r c n r a k i n g t h i n g s lt l i f l i c u l t f i r r y o u r s c l l . Y o u ( ( r ) ( l ) n c c bl) s h o u l c(lc ) w o u l t l r i v c u p a l l s w c c t s a n d (rc h o c o l a l ct i r l a s t a r t .a n c ly o u( 7 ) ( a ) n r u s t( b ) n c c r l( c ) w o u l d c u l d o w n o l r s r - l s u r .A r r d y o u ( l J ) ( a ) c o u l d n t( b ) n l i g h l l l o t ( c ) r ) r u s t n t c a t b c t w e e r r n e a l s . S u r c l y I ( 9 ) ( a ) r n a y n o t ( b ) u r . l s tl r o t( c ) n c c d n o t c u l o L r a l l s w c c l s . l 0 ) ( a ) l (r n a y t b ) n r u s t( c ) r r e c r l I l W el l I t h i n k y o u ( I l ) ( u ) r n u y( b ) o u g h t t o ( c ) s h r r l l . y o u k n o w . But I gct so hungry. ( l2) (u) Cant (b) May not (c) Nccdnt I cat anythingbctwectr tttcitlsl W c l l p c r h l r p s y o(r1 3 ) ( a ) c o u l d ( b ) h a v c s o t l o ( c ) w o u lc la t a n a p p l c i f y o u r c r t(lcsperatc. A n a p p l c ! I ( 1 4 ) ( x ) c a n ( b ) w i l l ( c ) r r c c t ls l a r v c !Y o u a r c s a y i n gt h a t I ( l - 5 ) ( l thavc got lo (b) necd(c) woulrl starve. N o . r u b b i s h ! Y o u ( 1 6 ) ( a ) r n i g h t n t ( b ) s h o u l d n t ( c ) w o u l d na tr v c i t y o u c a t st s c n s i b l yB u t y o u ( l 7 ) ( x ) w i l l ( b ) r n a y( c ) r r r i g h tt r y c a t i n gl c s s T h a t ( l l J ) ( a )n r u s t . .( b ) n c c r l st o ( c ) s h o u l c l g e t y o u r w c i g h l c l o w n . ( l9) (a) Ought it to (b) Should it (c) Would it bc a cood iclctto take: itunrin vt a b l e t s .d o y o u t h i n k / N o . t h a t ( 2 0 1 1 1 1c o u l d n l ( b ) s h o u l d n t ( c ) n c c d n t b c n e c e s s a r y f y o u e a t iplcnly olfruit and vcgetables. . A n d r v h a te l s e ( 2 1 ) ( a ) m a y ( b ) s h a l l ( c ) w i l l I d o ( 1 2 ) ( a ) W i l l ( b ) M a y ( c ) W o u l d I t c l l y o u s o r n c t h i n g o g i v e u p ? t o pt h i n k i n g t Sso rnuclt about ttrocl.
    • Modals 33Exercise41 Modal perfect infinitives [SGE 4.34]Cornplcte thc followin-e using a suitable rnodal pcrtect infinitivc. cg ntut ltutcflr,gtttetr. t oultl lurteltrlr, that keepsclosc to the meaning of thc sentences siven. M last evening. but thc thcatrc wasWc tlieclto get tickets titrT-lte otrsttla7r Saturclaysolclou1. I Oh what a pity - I like the iclea. ut its too latcnow. b O h w h a { a p i t y - i t w o l l . t . rt t r v t t H r , t t N u n . l f I t w a s p o s s i b l ct o b u y t i c k c t s f i r l F r i d a y . b u t w c d i c l n 1 . Wc.... . . . . . . . .t i c k c l si r r F r i c l a y . l 3 Wc thought you had pclhaps ttttclcolhcr llrrallgctllcnts. Wcthoughtyou.... ........othcrarrltngclllents. : l W c l l F r i c l a yw o u l d h a v e b c c r ri n t p o s s i b l e i r r u s . f Wcll. wc ... on FridaY. - 5 [ l w a s i l r n i s t a k cl c a v i n g i t s o l a t c . Wc .... . . s ol a t e. 6 T h c s c n s i b l ct h i n g w o u l c l h a v c b c c t rt o b o o k w c c k s a s o . Wc .... . . . . . w c c k sa g o . 7 N c r t w c c k c n d i s l p r o b l e r n . c c u r . r s c o t h c r i s c o n t i n g1 os t u yi t n c il 1i s p o s s i b l c h M shcwill bc hcrc by thcn. M o t h er . . . h a v ca r r i v c d l r y t h c n . l { I w a s c x p c c l i n g h er l o t el c p h o n ey c s t c l d a yb u 1s h c d i d n 1 .b c c a u s cI w i t s i n a l l clal. Shc... . . . y c s t c r t l a yb c c a u s c w a s i r t a l l t l a y . , I 9 B u t w c s h a l l d c l i r r i t c l yk n o w b y t o r r t o r r o wr t i g l t t . Wc .... . . . . . . . . h c a r r b y t o r t t o r r o wr i e h t . l I lornl0 s a y s h c s s u r c s h c h a s l i r r g o t t c na l l u b o u t i t . H c s u y s h c. . . . s . . . . . a l l a b o t r itt .I I I a n r t e a l l yc c r t a i n l h u t s h e h a s n t f i l r g o t t c n .T h a l s r t o t t l t c s o r t o l t h i n g s h c tkrcs. Shc.... ........1i)rgottcll. [ornl, w c n t o n a n d o r . r p o l o g i z i n ga h o u t i 1 .w h i c h w a s t 1 u i l eu n l r c c c s s a r y . a Tont... . . . . . . I q u i t eu r t t l c r s t a r t c l .Exercise42 be able to, have to, be allowed fo [SGE 4.35]Cornplctc thc tbllowing usinq parts <ttltt oblt: to,ltuve 1o,anclbc ullovtetl/o, antlany other words r.rcccssary that thc rneanirrg is as closc as pttssible to thc sosentcnccs lvcll. g I W h c n I w a s a l s c h o o l .g a m c s w c r c c o n r p u l s o r y . W h e n I w a s a t s c h o o l .w c t t t ) t o I l - A Y i r N l u s . (, It was the fact that thcy wcrc ccttttpulsory that I dislikecl. It was. . . . . . . . p l a y s a t t t e sh a tI d i s l i k c d . t3 But lbotball wasnt ctrtttpulsory. But wc
    • 34 The semanticsof the verb Phrase4 Running was permitted as an alternativc. We.... . . . . . . . .g o r u n n i n g i n s t e l t d .5 I w i s h I c o u l c lp l a y t e n n i s r e a l l y w c l l Id like . . . p l a yt e n n i s c a l l yw c l l . r6 I f y o u c a n t p l a y g a n t c sw e l l , i t s a d i s a c l v a n t a g c . Not... .........istclisaclvantagc. i7 I t h a s n t b e c n p o s s i b l cf t t r t r c t o c o t . l t i t t u cl a y i n g t e n n i s s i n c e I l e t t s c h o t l l . p I ....... . . . . . . . s i t t cIcl e f is c h < t o l 8 lrn sorry but Itnust say yotl clontlook lit. l. ....... s r t vy o u d o n t l o o k l i l Exercise43 More modals ISGE 4.21-341C l r o o : c l l t c h c s t i . l t l w et . I W h y c l i d n t o u g o 1 ow o r k y c s t e r d a y l y I ( a ) n c c c l n h a v cg c l n c b ) d i c l n t r c c rtl o g o ( c ) l l l u s t n tg o ( d ) c i l u l t l r r h a v c t ( t llollc.2 A c t u a l l y I t h o L r g hy o u a l w a y s w o l k c c l t l r t T u c s t l a ye v c t t i t t g s / t I ( a ) u r i g h t ( b ) r n u s t ( c ) w o u l c l ( d ) u s c c it o ycars al]o. but rtol ttow, thaltk gooclttcss.S l n f a c l a l t t t r c t i t t r[e a ) o u r r h t t o ( b ) h a d l o ( c ) r l l t l s t ( d ) w a s 1 oo r k l w t l c v c n t t r g s ( w l wcck.. l f h a t ( a ) c a n t h a v c h c c r r( b ) c o u l d n t b c ( c ) n r . r s t n t[ ) c ( t l ) s l t o t t l c l l . tlttl t v eb c c t t vcry plcasartt.5 O h i t w a s n l s ( ) b i l dI.h a d l o l s ( ) l t l i c n t l s l h e r c . W c ( a ) r n i g h t h a v c ( b ) w i l l h i t v c h a d ( c ) w o u l c l h i t v c ( d ) r v o t r l t lh r t n lc l t t l l o t s o l f u r t . t( r l - 6 e k i 1 g b a c k . I I i n t l i 1o d t l t h a t ( a ) I w o u k l c n j o y ( b ) I w o t r l t l h a v c c n j o y c d ( c ) I s h ( ) u l ch a v c c n . j o y e c ld ) I o u g h t 1 o h a v c c n . i o y c d c v c t l i t t gw t t r k s t t r l l u c h . l (T l J u t n 6 w , a r l l r i g h t /Y o u ( a ) n ) a yn o t ( b ) n r u s t n t( c ) n c c d n t ( c l )t r s c cIll o t t o w o r k c v c r ti t t g s . lhats rigltt.lJ Olcoursc. Y1lu cliclte ll rnc. I (a) coulclrcnrcrtrbcr(b) tnay ltavc rctncttltre 1c) rctl should havc rertre (cl) It.tbcrecl lllight rcl)lclllbcr. Exercise 44The Mary Celeste:mixed tenses [SGE Chapter4] TIrc nryslcryof the Mrrrr.Ct,lcslcis onc of thc greitl lilysterics thc sea.An of An-rcrican sailingship.thc MuttCclcsttset fronl sail New York on 5 Novcrnbcr 1872 bouncl Clcnoa ltaly, witl.ra cargoot 1.7(X) tirr in barrt--ls olctlrlltncrcial i f n c c c s s a r yo h n c l u t t t t o r e . a l c o h o l U s c s u i t t b l ct c n s c si,n c l u d i n g l s s i v e s . p t, o A nronthlatcr on -5Deccmber sl.rc I sight - ( ) . . . . . easttlf the Azttrc-s. in A t i a n t i cb y a B r i t i s h h i p . h cD c i G r u t i t r B y a n a m a z i n g o i n c i d c n c c t h ee a s l e r n , s t . c themastcrof thc Britishship,CaptainDavid Reecl Morehousc. lhe rnastcrancl tll the Murt Ccleste. Captain BenjarninSpooncrBriggs. (2 dine) togethcr NervYork thc nightberfore Mrrrl Celestt(3 setsail) in thc SoMorchouse(.lrcaliz-e) . . . . . . . . t h a t l hle -u r v C e l t s l t ( 5 s a i l ) ." " ." l 4 . 1t1
    • Modals 35t h cw r o n gd i r e c t i o n . h a tc o u l ctlh c s h i pb e d o i n g h e ( 6 w o n c l e r. ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . l W . .H a v i n gh a i l e dh i s f r i c n d ss h i p a n d g o t r 1 or e p l y . h e ( 7 g o ) ...... toi n v c s l i g a t e h e r e( l l b e ) . . . . .T . . n o b o c lo n b o a r d C a p t a i n r i g g s h i s w i t c y . B .a n ctl w o - y c a r - o ld a u g h t e(r9 a l l v a n i s h ) d . . . . . . T h e l a s ten t r v i n t h c s h i p slog was lbr 2-5Novcmber. which claythc Mury Cclcstt 110bc) onw i t h i ns i x r n i l c so l t h eA z o r e s . A n c n c p r i r(l I I h o l dl a t c r ). . . . . . . i nG i b r a l t a r . u tt o t h i sc l a y h cl n y s t c r y b to l t l r cM a l y C e l c s t t l l r r c v c r o l v c ). ( sExercise 45 What do you think happened?fhcrc r v c r ea n r lh a v cc o n t i n u c co b c .v a r i o u sh c o l i c s b o u t h c l i t t co l t h cM r u r , ll l a lC L l t s t c . c r i r i t c h c f i r l l o w i n gt h e o r . i cu s i r t gr n o t l i t l c r l c c ti n f i n i t i v e s . S ( i l r R t s p l- 1 . 3 - l A l t c r n u t i v ca r c s o n l c l i n r c1 r o s s i b l c . l. s sl : . . t t u r t 1 tPc r h u p ls c c r c w n r L t l i t t i c t r t dn r u r c l c r cttl lt c B r i - u gls r r r i l l . lc. h al ar l r i . r n r ,T - :c c r c " l , r n uh a v c / n r i g h l u v c / c o u l h l v cn t u l i t t i c ta t t t ln t u r c l c r ctth c rh v h cu l l t s r i g g si r r n i l y . l I N o . t h a l si r n p o s s i b l c .h c c r c u h a t lv i t t t i s l t ctto o . T l N o .t h cc r e . . w . . . . t l t t t t lcl t a l o r . J thcy . . lottltd thcsltip. ort I b u tt h c r - er c n o t f i r u t t ro r t t h c s h i p . w l I J I u r nc o n v i n c c t h u tt h cc r c wg . od n r n k . r u r - rrl-e r l r cl u r t r i l y n t lt l t e c s c a p c r l . l t n ct u n l-ltrt l tu - 1 A n o t h c r p o s s i b i l i t vi s l l l r l p i n r t c sl r o u r . r l c t l t c s h i 1 .a n d k i l l c r l c v c r y o n c . r ( )t Piltlt: - 5 B u t r v h l r lr c a s o nr l o ( ) u s u g g c s ll h c s c p i r a l c sh a t l? I S r ri lv l r l . . . t l t i r .l (r No. obviously that tlitl rtot lttlrpcrt. No.thll . . . l t c c t tw h a t h u p l t c r t c t l . 7 I l c c lc c r t l r i nt l t c c u r g o o l a l c o l t o lc x p l o r l c t l . ( ) l r vi o t r r l ). I I t t t l t t . L r r lr t l tt , l l t t l. . 8 T h c n p o s s i b l yC l p t a i n B r i g g s d c c i t l c i l l n r o r t l y q u c s s i t ) g t o g c 1c v g p y l ; 1 . i n l o t h c l i l c b t x r t o t t i t I o w I - o 1 - ro l . c ( ) u r s c . c CrptuilBIilg: . t 9 I l h c c l i c lt h a l . i t w a s a r r r i s t a k c o c l o s o . [ W el l l t t ... lllll.l0 Arrrllhen. obviouslv.l wirrd caughtlhc Mrrrr(tltslc. the ropc lrrokc urtrl cvcryonc was tlrowttctl. A wind . . . . . . . . . . l hr o p c . . . e an(l cvcrvone tlrtlwrtctl.
    • Nouns and determiners Count and noncount nouns [SGE5.1] Sornc conrrnon nouns lire coultl (countablc)noutls - llke fuxtk,,qirl, problent,anclothcrs arc ltoltcotlnl (ltlass)llotltls. cg: tiL t, intltttr!ttrlt Thc r. clislinction is partly rclatctl to tneanirtg.but is also vcry itlrportanl g r a n r m a t i c a l l y b c c a L t s t h c u s a g co f t l c t c r r t l i r t c l w i t h t h c n l i s d i f t c r c n t . . c sExercise46 Count and noncount nounsC 6 u r r tn t l u l s r l u s t h a v c a r l e t c r r n i n c ( u . o t t c . t t n , t h i s . . . ) i n t h c s i n g u l a r .t l t o u g h rthis is not ltcccssuryin thc plural. Norrcounl nour.ts ttrtl nccrl a tlctct-trtttrcr. rkrL l n d r - r l i n c l l t h c w o n l s t h a t w i t h o u t f u r t h c ra l t c r a t i o nc a n l i t i n t o t h e l i r l l t t w i n g as c n t c n c c s . l t t c c c s s a r vc t t r t s t t lltt g t l o t l t l i c t i o n a r y . I .lirunrplt. Tonr is always ollclirrg4dvtcclu!$lludidca/suggcstitln. lrzlcrrarlcl ,frl,q.qc.rIk)/r coul)t rtotttts. Wc cottlcl say: llc i.s trlutr.tsttfJcritt,qilau.si llrc ttlJtrirt,qidtulsLry,,qcstitttt.] srrq,qc.ilioris. nttttllc i,sttlxu.t.s But I Y o u s h o u l r l n t . j u d g cr i r t to r t o t t t a c l t i c v c t t t c n l / l a i l t r r c / l l r o g l c s s / s t t c c c s s . l I It was dillicult tirr-hint to fincl carccr/ctttplovrrlcrrt/.iob/work. 3 H i s n c u , . j o b i s s o n r c l h i n gt o i l o w i l h i t t l v c r l i s c t n c t t t / a t l v e r t i s i n g / p u b l i c i t l " / rrrarkcting. . l B u v n o w i 1 sa r c a l b a r g a i n / s a v i n g / s a v i r t g s / r c t l u c t i o t t . 5 Thcrc is a/an firltunc/incoutc/uroncy/wcalthto bc ultcle Irotttcotnputcls lltcsc clays. 6 I n c e d a r t c w c l o l h c s / c l o t h i n g / s u i t / u r t c l c ra r . we 7 Medc-rnanrnrunition/ar-rns/eqr-ripnrcnl/wcapotrs/wcitporrrv is sophisticlrlcd. 8 Youll havc to gct t lcavc/pass/perrnission/pernr t t oi g c t i n t o t h c l i t c l t t r y . 9 D i r l 1 , o r r a v c a g o o c le x p c r i c n c c / l i r r t u n c / l u c k / t i r n ch i l c v < t uw c r c l t w i t y l h w l0 Orrc sccrtc/sccncry/vicw/cotrntr.vsitle parlictrllrrly stays itl ttty rttillcl.Exercise47 Count and noncount usage M a n 1 , n o t r n sa v c b o l h c o u n l a n t ln o n c o u n tu s l g c . S o t r t c l i t t t cls c t l i f l c r c r r c c h h is bctr.rcen r-uri1 rucartittgittrtl Inorc qcttcrltl lttcltrril-tg: t ltit kur = a [tir-d; u t l r i t k c r r= t h c r n c u tl l . o n ri l . S o u r c l i r t r c t l r c r c i s a g r c i l t c rc l i l l c r c n c c : t . t i , q l r t s t = s o n r c l h i n gs c c n : . r i , g / =1 c ) e s i g h t . t( o n - r p l e t t h e p a i r so l s c n l c n c c s c l o v n u s i r t gl h c l i r l l o w i n g w o r c l s o l l c c l t sa c o L t n t c b . .attclotice as rt ltollcol-lllllioull.
    • Determiners 37 business cheese dinner expcrience glass ice life noise painting paper plcasure worryUse a .rood dictionary to help you if necessary. I Where can I get e p,rpEnJwant to know whats happening. I also nccclprpnn I to wrap up some parcels with. 2 Doyousell.... ..llntean,ctlulclyoucutapiecesothatlctlulclrcplacc w i n d o w l A l s o I r n h o p i n gt o f i n t l . a brokcr.r . . . . . t o r c p l a c eo n c I b r o k e when I was washingup. 3 S h o p p i n g i n t h i s h u g c s l o r c -i s q u i t c . . .... Thcy scll everythirrg. r.rl b s o r n co f t h c s l l e s s t a f f a r c v c r y y o u n g a n d l a c k ......, so thcy clont k n o u w h c l c i l n y l h i n gi s . 4 Still. Ifincl it . . . . . . t o s h o p h e r c . I t n c a n I c l o n tc x a c t l y s h t t p f i r r . . . . . . . b u t I I i k c t h c a t t n o s p h c r. e 5 I shall havc lo contc back anothcr clay anclgo to thc art clcparlnrcnt. Torr ancl M o l l y h a v ct s k c c l lirr . . . . . . i t sa w e d c l i n g r c s c n t .I c l t l n tt h i n k t h c y l i k c p (nrorlcrn) ...... rrtuch. 6 so its . . . . . . l o k t t o w w h a t t < tc h o o s c .S i l l y , i s n t i t / C l h t l o s i r ra p i c l u r c g s l r o u l t l t t h c l t el r u s cl i r r . . . . l 7 D i d y o u J r c a. . . r . . . l O t c o u r s ct,h c r c sa l o t < l f . . . . . .b u t l h c a r c l sorncthing lhal sounclccl likc a bontb. -Ihcy tt cliclhavc a tcrrorist botttb go ollhcrc sonlc years ato. brll lhcy wcrc opcn ncxl clay. . . . . . . . i t s t - t s u a l . l v cs o t r t c l i t . n eh o u g h t I d l i k c t o s t i t r t ts ...... b u t i t I t t u s tb c a n i g h t r t r i t r ch c s c t l a y s . t 9 Oh, I nlust go to lhc firod clcpaltrttcnt. Thcy scll (vcry s1rccial) rnadc 1 r o n g o a t s r r t i l k .o t r c I c a l t t u c t i r t t n y l o c a l g r o c c r s . Y o t r d o n t l i k c r . . . . . . JY o u c l o r t k n o w w h a t y o u r c t l i s r i t t g . tl0 And what anr I loing to cook lirr ..... . t h i s c v c n i n l l lI t h i n k s o t t t c l l t i n g s i r n p l c .h c c a u s c tonlorrowwcrc goittg1o..... ttrganizcd y Bill b Browns turnily t o c c l c b r i t l ch i s n i n e t i c t hb i r t h c l a y .ll Hcs lcd (vcry activc) . . . . . . a n c lc l i r n b c da l t t t o s e v c r y I n o u n t u i n o u f y can think ol. Bul Itow, poor tllcl chap. hc catt harclly walk. Still. thats ......,........!l 2 W c l l , I t h i n k w c v c . i u s lt i n t c f i r r t h c r c s t a u r a n tl. r t t g o i n g t o h a v c . . . W h a t a b o u l v u u l A r e y o u g o i n t t o h a v el c a . o r w i l l y o u h a v c y o u r f u v o u r i l c g i n a n d t o n i cw i t h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l Determiners [SGE 5.3-1 0] C o u n ta n cn o n c o u nn o u n s r cp a r t l y l i s t i n g u i s h c d t h cc l c t c r n r i n ctrh c y l I u r by s crrrrlakc. r .qrtul tltul ttt tutd riittrltttrtlY go with lloltcotllll llot-llls: Thr- toLrrislotficc cliclntItave a great dcal of/rnuch intbrrualiort. rr /or of gocs with rtortcttuttt plural ltoLtlts: or Ilrey gavc us a lot of aclvicc/alot of brochLrrcs.
    • 38 Nouns and determinersExercise48 Nouns and their determinersUnderline all the worcls that fit the lbllowitts sentcltces without any othcr consult a good clictiorrary.alterations.Il necessary. I Not a greal clcal of experitnents/investigations/walLAglqllE]l has bcelr clonc on this. I Alnrost cvcry dclailiexplanation/inlbrrnation/trews c gavc us scct.t.tctl h inaccuratc o rttc. t 3 Yor,rscc a lol ofhatl bchaviour/conduct/custorn/nranrrcr lixrtball nratchcs. at .1 Docs il do much darnagc/rarrn/hLrlt/in.iury/ -5 lhat picturc i srtt ol lnuch itnpttrtancc/price/r,itl trc/woltlt. (r Thcy huvc such tcrri b lc c l i nralc/slorttts/tcttt pcratutc/wcalhcr. 7 E,achbag/ba-llgagc/l Lrggagc/su itcitsc sltottld bc IlrbcI lctl. l l N c i t h c r c o u r l r u t c r / c q r r i p r r r c n t / n r a c h i r t c / r n l t c l i srs c liya b l c . ri t u t lhcrcs 9 not clror.lgh 1un/.iokc/.iov arottttcl thcsc tlltvs.l0 b u t p l c n l 1 o l c o n r p l a i r t l / c o u r a g c / 1 r l t l i c n c c .Exercise49 some, any, no [SGE 5.5]C r r r r p l c t c h c f i r l l o w i n g . t t s i n g. ( ) n t r . ( ) t ) t L l l t i t tt,tqt.vt t r t r t t . t , t I T o r n s h o L r l rb c l t c t c . N l r l i r t u l c t t o u rl,le s i t v sh c l i r r g o t b c l i r r c . l . lhats I . . . . . . c x c u s ea t a l l . H c s t c r r i b l y i t r c o t t s i t l c r t t t c . . l H c c c r l a i n l vk n o w s r v h u ll t c s t l o i n s .l l c s . . . . .. firol. -+ . . . . . . . .c h i l d c u n s c c l h a t :i t s c l e t t t c t t l a r v 5 ;;;, ( I i r r l1 o t t t : t l l t l t t i l r p r o b l c n rp n r n r i s i n go h c l p h i n r l i k c , t thll. 6 Wcll. ...... tllll )otl u ill: 1 antl.... . . c l l t l s1 " o u o s c . l 6 ld bc gr.llclirlirr .. . . . . h c l p y o t t c a t te i v c . () l l l r n c c t o u . . . . . . l i n t c y t l u l i k c . t o t l i s c u s st i lhcrcst0 . . . . . . t i t t r el i k e t h c l ) r c s c r l t .il S o u r ep c o p l c u l w a y s w i t n l . . .... lirr rrtllhing;t2 b u l I b c l i c v cl h c r c s . . . . . . l l c cl u n c h lExercise50 Central,pre- and post-determiners [SGE 5.3-10] Whcn nrorc lhan one tlctcrrnincr togcthcr. usualy s p c c i a lo r d e r t h e y h a v c t o b c i n . theseUnscrarnble scnlcnccs.LrrrnrTrlr:bccn havc Inonths vcry all lew last I thcsc tryrngAtr.nrer. theselastfcwmonthshavc becnv e r y t r y l n g . All ? arc cornplaints rnore scveral this there rnattcr alone one ab<tut -l bolh evcry seconcl thcsc two clay surgical dressings be changccl havc tcr
    • Articles 39 1 amount fbod needecl pcople times fbr of all that those three they -5 take hours tablet a cvery fbur half o all few first the those worsc wcre rest than claYs hall gct clotrble you thc packctpncc 1 at bccauseits now clisgraceful a 6 agc husbands were Marys bolh her twicc two lasl 9 lil)ollreI ollrcf r)(w ltn lhc slte tllty tltrsscs ho1rgl11l 0 one onc ones you thc dozen as lbr coulcl litllc big sarnc scvcral pricc gctExercise 51 few, a few,little, a /iffle [SGE 5.10] Fcuantl littlc ttrcrathcr Ircgativc itt ttrcartilt-{, cttntraslwilh rr.filarrtl t atrcl / i l l f t . w h i el r l r r , p o s i l i v e.R c w r i l c t h c l i r l k r w i n g u s i n g . / r 1. u f t v t . l i t t l ro r u l i t r l t i n p l a c c o l t h c t r n c l c r l i n e dw o r c l s , n a k i n g a r t y o l h c r c h a l t g c sn c c e s s t r y . r Not rnarty pcoplc alc exaclly thc wcight thcy would likc lo lrc.Il.rurttplc.Att.svrcr;Fcw coplcarc cxactly thc wcigltt tltcv wotrltllikc to be. p I Flitld!1_i1lfyw()ntcll nowarlays want to spenrl hours cookirtg, atrclcvctt ftwcr want to spcncall dry itr thc kitchcn. lI Sontc pcople say theyr.enot intcrcstc(l in lbocl. urtd a stttitll nutttbcr acttrally rneiln lt.3 Crazy starvrtion dicts clf1f harclly tny prospccl olsucccss. r4 It is all right to havc sotle butlcr. but try to cut clown the alllounl.-5 Sorne people do ove rcal. but ttot as lltalty as yotr rnighl think.6 A s r n a l la m o u n l o f s i t l t i s a l l r i g h t . i s n t i t /7 T h e r e s n o t m u c h c h a n c eo f k c e p i n g s l i n t , u n l c s sy o r . r t i c k t o a c l i c t . sl{ Mlny pcoplc errjoy firrcign restaurants,bttt not ntany pcople know anything about Tibetan ltrocl.Exercise52 Articles: a or the? ISGE 5.11-24]Crlrnpletethe firllowing ttsing a/rrii or //tc.South Afiica bccilrle (l) .... . . l i r s t c t l u n t t yt o c l c c l a r e( 2 ) ,g r c a tw h i t es h a r k( 3 ) . . . . . . p r o t c c t c c lp c c i e s h c n ( l ) . . . . . . . . . . s w . . .h ; " ; i " ; .ban within 200 nriles o1 (5) .. . . . . c o a s t w a s i n l p o s e c l ye stc-rclav.
    • 40 Nouns anddeterminers(6) .... . . j a w b o n e a nf e t c h4 . 0 0 0 . c f lf(7). ....thiefisdetermincdandprof-essional.hesgoingtobreakiy o u r h o u s c . T h i s l u n ta s s e r t i oin a l l ( 8 ) b s . . . . . . m o r ca l a r m i n g h e n wu t t e r e cb y P C A l a n H u s h e r .( 9 ) . l ..... crimc prcvention fficerfbr o(10) .... . . M c t r o p o l i t a n o l i c e . o r e t h a n- 5 0 0 l i r n e sw c r c c o m m i t t e c l P M cc v e r yh o u ri n E , n g l a na n dW a l c sl a s ty e a r ,a c c o r d i n go ( I l ) cl t ...... latestt i g u r c sI.n ( 1 2 ) . . . . . . e f l b r tt o p e r s u a d(e 3 ) . . . 1 ... public o play t(14)... . . . g r c a t c r r o l ie t a c k l i n s r i r n c( l - 5 ). . . n c . ... Horne fficc Oh a sl a u n c h c d 1 6 ) . . . ( . . . , t 4 . 5m i l l i o n n a t i o n w i c la c l v c r t i s i nc a r t r p l i g n . c g( 1 7 ). . . . . . p u b l i c s c n c r aa t t i t u c l a c c o r c l i n o P C H u s h c ris l t w o n t g l c. tg .h a p p c no m e . t I n h i so w n p a r to f L o n c l o nm a n yr e s i c l e nhs a cllb r ( l t { ) , tc ...... countryat( l9) . . . . . . w c c k e n cl e a v i n g 2 0 ). . . . ( . . . w a y l i c cf i r r c o r n n t i t t c r lt h i c v c sB u th c s a y sl r a t9 4 p c rc c n to f c r i r n c g a i n sp r o p c r l ya s ty e a rw a sl a l g c l y . l a t lprcvcntablc.Exercise 53 a/an, the or zero ISGE 5.11-241l n s c r t r ,d t r .t l t ( ( o r n o t h i n g t a l l ) a s n c c c s s a r y . r a(I) .... . . w o r l dw i l d l i t c s i n ( 2 ) i . . . . . . d a n g c r(.3) . . ..rcltsolls rccott]plcx (.+). a - . . . . . w o r l d s p o p u l a t i o ns c x p a n c l i n u .r r d i aincrcasingly(-5)..... .rnanisclestroyirrlr.norcandrlorcol(6)...........n a t u r ac r t v i r o n n t c n l . l (1) ...- . . l a s tc l o d on ( l t ) . i . . . . . w o r l cd i c t lo r r( 9 ) . . . . li s l a n c l f . M a u r i t i u is ( l 0 ) o n . . . . . . l a t cs c v e n t c c n ch n t u r yT o c l a y(.l l ) tc . . . . . . . b l a c k h i n oi n K c n y a o r . r le o ( l 2 ) r c cl . . . . . .s i u t l t : u y .T h c r ci s w(13)... . . . w o r l c l - w i d c t r i l ( l c - n r u cthlo e s a l i n ( l . l ) . i i lf . . . . .r a r ca n i r n a l s n d h i r d s .( l - 5 ) . . a . . . . p a r t i c u l a r a v o u r i t c ,a n c lo l . r cs c v c r c l y fthreatcneclwith(16). ....cxlinctionthrouthsr.nugglingis(11).....o r a n g - u l a l lw h i c h o n l y s u l v i v c si n ( l l t ) . . . . . . . l i r l c s t so l B o r n c oa n dSunratra. ( lt)) ... . . . l i c r c cr l r g u n r c ni ls n o * r l g i n g a b o u lh o w t o p n r l c c t( 2 0 ) . . . . . . u r o s c n c l a n g c r c c lc c i c sS o n r c c o p l c r g u c h a l( 2 1) . . . t sp . p a tzoos,with thcir rcscarch work ancl brcccling prosralltntes, otlcr(22)b c s th o p c .a n d ( 2 3 ) . . . . . p r o t c c t i u nr u r n i n l c r n a t i o n a lr l u g g l e r sB u t f s .s o r n c o( 2 . 1 ) f . . . . . .o k l c r z o o s h u v c ( 2 5 ) . . . . . . c l i s a c l v a n t c lg(e 6 ) af2 . . . . . . c r a l n p c d i t y c o n d i t i o n sh o u g h 2 1 ) . . . c t. ( ... zoowith (2tt) 1 a i 1 l cl r p c n p r c e s l i k e W h i p s n a c l c Z o o i n ( 2 9 )Betllirrclshire countrysidc north of Lonclon is scen as olfcring (30) ...p l c a s a n lh a b i t l t . Howcver(31)... ...public-atanyratcin(31) ......West isl e s si n t c r e t c ctl h a nt h c y o l r c cw c r c i n l o o k i n g l t ( 3 3 ) . . . s . . . c a p t i v ca n i n r a s . lso (34) . . . . . . z o o s . p a r t i c u l a r l vt r a d i t i o n a l o r . r c sl.o s c ( 3 5 ) . . .nrolley. Somc zoos havc sought (36) ... . . . s o l u t i o n i n r n o d e r n i s i n s .I n ( - 1 7 ) ......recentycars.(38) ...... BronxZooinNcw York.forcxantple .
    • nouns 41 Properhas increasecl (39) .. .... attendances introducing(10)byn a t u r ah a b i t a t-s ( 4 1 ) . l . . . . . j u n g l cw o l l c l ( 4 2 ) ...... Ethiopianm o u n t a i n n cs o o n .B u t ( 4 3 ) a l . . . . . . i n c r e a s ea t t e n d a n c e su s tb e p a r t l y d md u e t o( 4 1 ) . . . . . .f a c t t h aitt o p e n sr e ct h r e e a y s 4 - 5 ) f d ( . - . . .w e e k .a n d( 4 6 ) . . . . . . z o o s t i l lg e t s 1 7 ) . . . ( . . . s o v e r n m e n tu b s i c l y s Neither r18... ( ) . . . t r a c l i t i o n a o o s n o r ( 4 9 ). . . zl . . . . t h e m e z o o s conscrvationis{s would apparentlyappcalto all anirlal lovershowever. Sonrcl i k c t o s e e l l z o o s b o l i s h c d .n ctlh c i ri n t n a t er c t u r n e do ( 5 0 ). a a a s t ..... wild.But this could perhaps leadto somecnclangcrccl spccies bccorning xtillct. eExercise 54 Articles in fixed phrases ISGE 5.19-20]Crrrrrplctc qucstionnairc inscrting thc by suitablc prcpositions, aclclingttttlrt ancl ttilncccssary. (Whcn vou havecornplctccl thc tlucstitltt:t. cttulcl thcttlotl a you tryliicnclI ) I Whcrryou wakc up. cloyou gct ()t1ot bcclirtrrlrctliatcly? I D o y o u g c t t l r c s s c d c l i r r co r b ...... brclkfastl 3 Do you walk .. .... school/work? 4 I f t h c a n s w c r o ( 3 ) i s y e s ,c l oy o t l g o t . . . . . . l i r t l t ,b c c a t t sy t l u l i k c t h c c c x c r c i s,er t r b c c a u s t h c r c sn o s u i t a b l cr a n s p t l r t ? c t -5 I f t h ca n s w c ri s r t o .d o y o u t r a v e | c a r . . . . . . . . t r u s / o r . . . . . . . .t.r a i n l 6 Wlrerrtloyottuorkhcst.{rt) ......lttorttitlgtht..... .ltllcrtlotrt) (c)... .cvcnirrg0r(d). .....nightl 7 What t i n t c t l o y o u n o r t l l a l l yg c t . . . . .. horttcl ll If you hlcllo work (a) .... . . r r i g h t . o t t l dy o u s l c c p ( b ) c clay? 9 Do you cvcr trtve I . . . . .. air, lls parl tll your job ? l() Il yes. w h a t c l Oy o u d o . . . . . . p l a l t c( a ) r c a c l ( b ) s l c c p ( c ) w a t c h t h e rnovicl ll llavc you cvcr lrad... . . . i n l c c t i o u c l i s c a ss u c l la s ( a ) . . . s c rncaslcs (b) .... .. llltllllps c) ..... ( . w h o o p i n uc o u g h / l 2 1 1 s ow c r c y o L l . . . . . . . h o s p i l a lw i t h i t . l3 Do y o u g c t u p a t y t l u r u s u a lt i r t t c w h e n y o u a r c ..... holiday? 14 Do y o u p r et c r t t l h a v e a h o l i d a y . . . . . s p r i n g / . ..... suttltttcr/ ...... a u t u t l t lot r . . . . . . wintcrl Exercise 55 Proper nouns ISGE 5.25-34] 1 l / l M ( ) l n 1 1 1 c S r c ( ( ) r n p l e t . i n l h c t n s ev c s . h u l s p t t t t l i t n c s/ l ( i s l t n , - s s C n l i r l partof thc nanrc. I _t Find out aboutScotlancl inscrting whercvcrllccessary. by l/tr Cometo (l) .... . . s p c c t a c u l a rc o t l a n cb r a p e r t c c t h o l i d a y l A nfcrl s tt o S fl i (2) .... .. Edinburgh. (3) .... .. Athens f (l) . o . . . . N o r t h l Visit(5) . . . . . . E d i n b u r g h a s t l ep e r c h e c ln i t s r o c k4 4 3 t e c ta b o v cs e a - C . o
    • 42 Nounsanddeterminersl e v e. A d m i r e( 6 ) . . . . l . . S c o t tM o n u m e n ta m e m o r i atl o ( 7 ) . . . ,S c o t l a n d rs o sfta m o u s o v e l i s t(,8) n n . . . . . . . S i r W a l t e S c o t tW a n d e d o w n r . r(9) .... . . R o y a lM i l e , a s e r i e s f n a r r o ws t r e e t l i n k i n gt h ec a s t l e o ( 1 0 ) o s t . . . . . . H o l y r o o d o u s eo r ( I I ) H . ......Palace i ( l2) oH o l y r o o d o u s et,o g i v e i t i t s f u l l n a m e . e g u n y ( 1 3) H B b .... . . K i n gJ a m e sIV of (14) ...... S c o t l a n dn 1 5 0 1 . u t m u c h r e s t o r e dn t h c e i g h t c c n t h i b ic e n t u r y(,l - 5 ). . . . . . H o l y r o o d o u s e s w h e r e( 1 6 ) . . . . H i .. presentQ u c c ns t a y s h e ns h ev i s i t s( l 1 . . . . w .. Scottishapital. c A l s on o tt o b er n i s s c ds ( l t t ) . i . . . . . E , d i n b u r g hc w T o w n .w h i c hs o u n c l s Nlikc a rnotlernhorrsingcstatc.but actually clatcsfiorlr the sevcntccnth anclc i g h t e e n tc c n t u r i c s . h A s a c h a n g c t i o r n s i s h t s c c i n g , s h o p l b r s o u v c n i r s i n ( 1 9. ) . . b u s t l i n g .P r i n c c s S t r e c t . P a m p c r y o u r s c l f b y c l i n i n g i n ( 2 0 ) . .... . H i l t o n H o t c l . S c c py o u r s c l fi n t h e a t r n o s p h e r e r c a c l i n gh a t l i n e n e w s p a p e r . 1 ) . . by t (2St tisntutt. I f y o u r e i n l c r c s t c c l i n a r t . ( 2 2 ). . . . . . a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f ( 2 3 ) . . . . . . . . . N salso(24)...S c o t l a nic la r n u s t . T h c l e s . . . R o y aS c o t l i s h A c a c l c r n y , w l r i c h lh o l d sa n a n n u a c x h i b i l i o r o l w o r k b y l i v i n g a r t i s t s B u t t h c h i g h l i g h t f ( 2 5 ) l r . o . . . . . .E c l i n b u r g h a r s( 2 6 ). . . yc i . . . t r c l i n b u r gn t c r n a t i o nF e s t i v a l Ih alh c l c e v c r yy c a ri r t ( 2 7 ) . . . l . . . A u g u s ta n c S e l c r n b c r . l p But perhaps wuntarr you lway-frorn- it-allholiday. Thcnto you (2lt) . . .Highlancls Islands arrcl furthcrnorth bcckon.And how hardto choosc!Hcadingn o r l h - w e sy o u c o u l cc l r i v c h n r u g h 2 9 ) . t l t ( ..... Pass f (30) oC i l c r r c oscc. c ( 3 1 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . S. c o t l i u r ch is h c srtn o u n t a i ( 3 2 1 . . . . l g n,B c nN c v i s a n ctla k c( 1 3 ). . . , . . . l i u t r o uR o a d o ( 1 4 ). . . s t . . . .I s l c sO r .y o u c o u l ctl r a v c lb y t r a i na l o n g( 3 - 5 . . . ) . . . . s c c n i c c s tH i g h l a n c il n c a n d W lcrossto(36)... ..lslcof(37) ......Skyc.Oryoucouldtakcaboatt o t h o s cr e n r o t es l a n c l s3 t t ; . . . i (. . . . O u t c rH e b r i d e s . V i s i t o r sw i t h a l a s t c f i r r a c t i v c s p r l r t s i l l f i n c lt h c r n i n ( 3 9 ) . . wH i g h l a n d s(.. 1 0 ) . . . . . . R i v c r D c c i s f u r n o u si r r i t s s a l r n o n i s h i n g ; 4 l ) f f ( . . . .. . RivcrSpcyarcais evcn rnorcfiunous its Scotch firr whisky.Frornthcmountainresortof(:12) ......Aviemore.youcangoskiinginwintcrin(43) . . . . . . C a i r n g o r m s , h i c hb o a s t h c h i - e h e sc s l a u r a n n B r i t a i n . w l rt it A n o t h e r i g h tn o t t o b c r n i s s c cn ( 4 z l ) s il . . . . . . n o r t h c r n c c l t l a n ds ( 4 - 5 ) S i. . . . . . . G r e a tG l e n ( a g l e n i s a n r c l u n t a i v a l l e y ) s t l c t c h i n g r o m ( , : 1 6 ) n f . . . . . . I n v e n c s s n t h cc a s t o a stto ( 4 7 ) r o c . . . . . . F o r tW i l l i a n o n t h c tw c s t .T h c G l c n c o n s i s t o f a s c r i c s f l o c h s( l a k c s ) i n k c c b y ( 4 t l ) . . . s o l lC a l e d o n i aC a n a l , a i dt o b e t h eh o m eo f ( r l 9 ). . . n s . . . L o c h N c s sM o n s t e r ,a vast prchistoric bcastsurvivingin thc dceprenrotcwatersof this loch. Sontcpcopledoubtthe very existence this strange of - creature othersareccrtainthat( 5 0 ). . . Ne ... s s i c i s r c a l . Number [SGE 5.35-44]and irregular plurals Mostcountnouns form theirplurals adding or -e.s, some by -s but have plurals. itregular
    • Number 43Exercise ISGE5.37-40] 56Complete the fbllowing using the correct plural fbrms.E.rumplc.I want a chocolate mouse.A t r s v e r ; W eh a v e n t a n y e c l i b l ev t c e .S o r r y ! I I want a Christrnascard with a snownlan on il. I r n a f r a i d w e r c o u t o f c a r d sw i t h . . .2 And I ncccl sonrc sort olbookshelf. Wc have sonre goocl valuc wtloclcn ...... at L49.9L).3 Ancl whcrc can I -ucta silk scarlarttla purc linen hanclkcrchicfl W c h a v c s o r n cb c a u t i f t r ls i l k . . . .... but wc ortlyscllcotttln l1 Ancl cun y()u ask your tilocl tlepartnlcnt to scncltllc a largc plaice I c k r n tt h i n k t h c y v c l l l l y . . . . .. at all ttlclay.5 Oh. and I nccd a tltlzctt cuur - tlo. tltake it twtl .6 And I waltl a slory about spacccrall. l r n a l r a i dt h c r c s n o c l c r n a n c il r r . . . . t .. abtlttt7 Oh, ancl I rrcctla hunclrccl pins. W c s c l l p i r r si n p a c k c t so f t w o . . . . . . a t 9 9 p . Y o t r t l t t s c c r l lt o w a l l l s o l l l c l r r l l t c rp t c u l i l r ll h i r r g s .13 Ycs. wcll, thats thc lot. Ir,c only gol about a poulrclin cash. bul I sul.rptlsc catt I pay by crcclit card/ Allthisisrathcratall<lrclcr!Giventeaclrcquclirlrlillcty-rrittc .......-50p. ForeignpluralsExercise57 ISGE 5.41] IhcrcConrplcte thc firllowing. rnay bc alternativc illlswcrs.I I s t h i s t h c o n l y s e r i c so l c h i l d r c n s b o o k s y o u s t o c k ? No. wc have scveral tlther stlntt,s olclcr chilclrcn. firr2 Irl buying atrothcr cncyclopaeclia. How r-narty ...... havc you got nttw/3 Shcs busy writing an ittclcx.itncllhc appcntlix to hcr book. Shc sccnts to spend nltlrc lilrtc writing ancl thanthc actualbooks4 Thisis a crisis. Oh clear, your wholc lifeis a serics ot5 Hcll sendyott a mem<lranclunl. H e sa l w a y s e n d i n g s6 Haveyou got a PrtlsPcctus? l T h c r ea r et w o . . . . . . W h i c hd o y o u w a r r t7 Heneeds stimulus. a B u t h e n e v e rr e a c t so a n y . . . . t8 Whats your criterionfbr personal successl I t h i n kd i f f b r c n p e o p l e a v ed i f f e r e n t. . . . . t h
    • 44 Nouns and determinersExercise58 Singularor plural nouns? ISGE 5.43-44] Some nouns ending in -.rare not plural (eg:7rlrr.slt but sontenouns without .i): -s ttre (pcoltlc). C o l l e c t i v en o u n s( e g :a u t l i e t t c c . t t t t n t i t t c c , . l u n t i l , t e u a r lc s i n g u l a r n o u n s o nt - thcy nccd a cletc-rminer such as u. tha, tltis - but sornetintcstake a plural vcrb: 7lristtunt ltuve donc utll thisstu.tott.W r i t c o u t a l l t h c p o s s i b l ca l t c r n a t i v c s n t h c l i r l l o w i n g . i I Sonrc/this/thcse firlk clont/clocsntknow how to sperrclits/thcir nloncy Atr.stttr.s. Sorne tirlk dont know how to spcnd thcir lnoltcy. Thcsclblk ckrntknow hnw to spcnclthcir tnoncy. firll is norrnally luralI p 2 Thisithcsc bclongings olJohnswas/were firuncl the cupboarcl in 3 This/thcsc fiunily neccl/neecls hclp. ,1 I p a i ctl l ( X ) l i r r t h i s / t h e sb i n o c u l a r s .u t i t l t h c yi s n t / a r c n v c r y g o o i l c b t 5 Thc policc has/havc r hard job to clo 6 W h a t w a s / w e r ct h e n c w s o n t c l c v i s i o n l a s t n i g h t l 1 Thcrc is/itrc r couplc of pcoplc or.rtsiclc who/which waltl/wants to talk to you. 6 Thc PrirncMinistcrsolticchas/have issued statclncnt. a r) T h c o u t s k i r t so t t h c t o w n i s / a r cn t t h c l d u l l .l 0 A nra.jority tlrc strikcrswant/wants rcturnto work of loll O u r M P s r n a j o r i t y w a s / w c r c h i g h c r t h i s t i n r e t h a n l i t s tt i r n cl 2 Whv is/ale thcrc rernainsollbod on the tablcll 3 Thc public has/havc a right to know what moncy is bcing spcnt in its/thcir nanle.l4 The audience was/wcrccnraptureclCase [SGE 5.48-55] The genitivecaseof the noun souncls sameas the regularplural.It rs thc written [sl after regularsingularnounsor a plural without an -s:u girl,s nante,the childrensntother:and simply with an apostrophe atier a [] regularpluraf rfte girls ntother.s. :
    • Case 45Exercise59 Genitive or of-construction [SGE 5.48-55]Usc thc informationsivcn to conrplete sentences the usinga gcnitive ln sonte .sente you nces uill haveto usca nounclcrivccl frornanother word in the sentcncc.E.runtltlt. Henrybehavccl vcry badly.which upsetall olus., l r i s l c r W c w c r c a l l u p s c t y t t n l n v sg , r ) i : n : r o r. . b g RI M y p a r c n t sn s i s t c c ln t a k i n gt h c d o g o n l r o l i c l a y .h i s c a u s c c lr o b l e n t s . i o T p l h er e w c r c p r o b l c r n b c c a u s o 1 ( 2 ) s c .2 M y u n c l es a y sh c w a sc d u c a l c c lu r i n gt h c s c l r o oh o l i d a y s . d l . . . . . . . . . h es a y st .r x r k l a c cnt h cs c h t x hlo l i r l a v s . . p i r- 1 M y t u n l h a sh c r i n i t i a l s r ra l l h c r t h i n g s . o l B i l l h u s b c e no r n i t t c d r o r n h c t c a u r . l i s u g r c l l s u r p r i s co u s a l l . l t I t W t l t t t l t l l s t t lp r i s . tilI I . . . . . .- 5 B i l l h a s b c c r t v c r y " l o y a lt o t h c n r . I t i r r r p l c s s e r r r c . s I l r r t t r t t p l c s : c th 1 i l( r M y g r - a n c h n o l l r cs a l w a y s l o s i n g h c l s l - r c c t a c l ca n c lc x p c c t su s t o l i r r t lt l r c n r . ir s, W e t t l t l r .rrt 1 l o o k i l t t l i t r . . . . . :7 T h c p c o p l c w h o a r l v i s c dr n y u r a n c l f i r t h cw c r c n o t c x l c l l y h c l p l i r l . r My....- *1:r::r:r r:r: r::::o.,r:ru l1:l :.nll:l:l is,,bvi,,usExercise60 Genitives:London landmarks[SGE 5.48-55][ . ] s ct h c u n d c r l i t t c dw o l c l s t o w r i l c s c n t c n c c sa b o u t w h c l c t o f i n c ls r l n r cl j r r n o u sl , o n d o n l a n t h r i t r k s .[ . l s cl g t n i t i v c s l r u t t u r c l s i n t h c c x a r n p l cw l r c r ry o u c a n .B u t i n f i r u r c a s c sy o u w i l l n c c d a n r l / - c o n s t n r c t i o nr r s t c a c R c n r e n t b c r h c s c a r c i l. tr ) i l n l c ss o u s c c a p i t a l l c t l e r s . . I u c o r r r e l - c s c r v c c il r r t h c t o n r b s r l i n W c s t n t i r r s t cA b b c v l lnd rnontrrne of pocls nts A t r s n c r P o c t s f o r n c r i s i n W c s t r n i n s t c rA b b c y . . 2 a c a t h c c l r ac l c d i c a t c do S t P a u l l t in thc City l l o u s c s w h c r cP a r l i a n r c n t 3 thc c o n r l u c l is s b u s i n e s s t al Wcslrrrinstcr .l thc lar.nous club firl travcllcrs in PallMall -5 a park in honour oi pa!_t!19.[ ncartheGencral PostOf tice 6 anobclisk callcd nccdlc)- ( a o n t h eE , r n b a n k m e n t .a r e not in fact conncctcd with Cleopatra! CharingCross 7 thc Royal Academy. a societv devotcd to the fine arts in Piccadilly
    • 46 Nounsanddeterminers ll the waxworksntuseumfbundedby MaclanreTussaucl neiirBakcr Streetstation 9 the rnuseumaboutchildhoocl i n B c t h n aG r e c n ll0 Thc most tunrous towcr in Lonclon. beguni n t h cc l c v c n t h c n t u r y c a t T o w c rH i l lI I A colunrn cor)mrelr()rittingAdrniral Nclsorr in Tralalear Squarcl 2 l g a l c t h n r u g h w h i c h t r a i t o r su s c r lt o b c lakcn to prison(and oltclr cxccution) al (Sccqucslion l0!)
    • Pronouns Centralpronouns lsGE 6.2-161 The so-callcd ccntralp r o n o u n sn c l u d e : i pcrsonal pronouns I, mt. sltc.tltcnr,clc rcllcxive nty.slt, attr.rr/tts, t etc possess Ivc rnittt, tturs, ctc /llcils,Exercise61 Personalpronouns [SGE 6.2-16](ionrplctc with stritablepcrsotralanclrcflcxive pfonoulls.I T h c y t o l c lu s t o h c l p o r R s r l v r , st o a n y t h i n g w c t r c c t l e c lB u t t h c t r o u b l c i s t h c y . l r . c c l u c n t lg c t i n t o c l i l l i c u l t i c s y ...... ancl thcn cxpecl us to hclp . . . . . .o u t .2 I s p o k cr o t h c c h i l c l r c n i t r n c a r l y a n l t t t t t r , r y i n g t o t a l k l o . . . . . . l t a ss i r l l p l y a s I c o u l c l b o u tt h c s i l u a t i o n s h i c h w o u l t l c o n l h l n t . . . . . . a w i t sl l r c y p a s s c t l thrgugh lil-c. I ctlulcl not havc hacl a rttore livcly auclicncc.arltl when I hatl f i n i s h c c t h c y b r o k c u p i n t o g r o u p st t t t i t l k o v c r b c t w e c t r l ...... thc points I had raisccl.3 S5c clrcalcd dinncr. At tlinncr, shc thoughl. lltc cortvcrslttionttlttst lrc sctiotts. S l r ct o i t k A r t s c r i o u s l y . . . . . . u r r cb c l i c v c d t h a t o l h c r s l l l u s t w a l l t t o t a l k l s c r i o u s l ya b o u l . ..... t(x)4 I rnight go up thcrc firr a fcw claysirt thc holidays. Pcrhaps ytltr would likc lo conrcwith . . . . . . a r t t l w r t t c ha b i t o f p a r a c h u t i n g t t r . i u t n p . c v c r t!5 Wc lgst c91tr9l 6f thc boat anclwilhin an anrazingly shtlrt spaccoflitnc firuncl ...... in rnicl-rivcr.vcntually c Siot E w . . . . . . b a c kt o t h e b a n k w c hacllell anclsomc girls frorl thc oppositc bank camc antl rescuecl6 Irhirrkhcworks .....toohard,butlwish. ....allsuccessand unhcsitatingly ecttntnlcnd r .. -.. for thc 1rositiotl.7 S o r n e p c o p l c c l o n o t s e e m t o t tltiiv i c lg b y nn . . . . . . .b u l I . . . . . . . . . . . . " f i n c l it rather loncly.8 Ifyourcgoingcanlping,takeatorchwith...... Icantlcnd mine. bccause I need it ...... So Im afiaicl youll have to buy . . . . . . . . .o n e .
    • 48 PronounsExercise62 The pronoun if; What does if mean? [SGE 6.9] Sometimes worclit is usecl a grammzrtical the as and the rncaning subject. subjcctconrcslater: 1r is very sadthut vouhuvc lttstttttrr .irh. cluntrny thereis bccausc But sonretinre hasno tncaning is usecl a s ir but its no othersub.iect: /r is raining.D i s t i n g u i s ht h c s c t w o i l i t f l r c n t u s c sb y u n d c r l i n i n gw h a t r t r c f c r s t o . i l a n y t h i n g .L , . t u n t p l cI:t s b c t t e r t o h a v c l o v c c la r t c l o s t t h a n t r c v c r t o h a v c l o v c t l t t a l l . I I 1 sn o u s c c r y i n g o v c r s p i l t r l i l k . ? Ivc ncvcr knowr.tt rain so tnuch. i 3 lt rcally is a problcln sontctitt.tcs know whal to do. to , l Y o u v c h a d t l r a t l o n g c r t o u g h .I t s r t t y t u r n . 5 Wc corrsiclcr intportant to kccp ottr options opctl. it 6 It says hcrc that thcrc arc Ito pcrtitrrttattccs Sunclay. tln 7 Whos calling? I t s t t t c . y o l t r c t l t t s i t r l,t t t t lI w a t t t t t t a s k y o t t a l l t v o t l r . 8 Docs it ntatlctilIrn latcl 9 I hatc it whcn you ttlk likc lhat.l 0 C a n y o u i r n a g i n cw h a t i t s l i k e h a v i n g n o l h i n g t o ( l o l| | Its nol firr nrc to lcll you what to tlo.l 2 A s i t h a p p c n s ,I a l r c a d ,k n o w .Exercise63 itSornctinrcs word il is uscd in rathcr idiornaticpltrases tltc with rathcr s1rccialrurcanirts. the it-phrascs thc lirllowillg scntcnccs ttrcan: Find in that( a ) ( s o r n c t h i n gs f i n i s h t - c l / w otru t : i) t n( b ) t h c r c sn o a l l c r n a t i v e :( c ) h u r r yu p :( c l )c o n r b i n cw o a p p a r c l t t lc x c l u s i v c h o i c c s ; t y c(e) livc at a fast and cn.joyablc pacc;( f ) c l c l i b c r a t etl ly s o n r c t h i nb y o n c s c l l ; o g(g) putup with prirnitivc onclitiotts: c( h ) t o w a n tt o h u r l o r u p s e t s o n t c o n)e ( .f i . t u m p l e l ( c ) l s t c po n . i t = h u r r yu p ] IS t c po n i t - o r w c l l r n i s s h et r a i n . t2 W c l l , i f t h e l a s tt r a i n sg o n e . h c r c sn o t h i n g i r r i t . W e l l h a v et o w a l k . t f3 T h i s c a r sc e r t a i n l y a c i t . I v c g o t t o l l e t a n e w o n e . h l,lYou cant haveit both ways- cithcr do thc job properly. resigtt. or5 Y o u rt r o u b l e i s y o uj u s t l i v e i t u p a l l t h et i r n e . o u s h o u l d n h a v es o r n a n y i t t c Y t l nights.6 Why haveyou got it in fbr mel What haveI donc tclannoyyou/
    • Wh-pronouns497 When his partnerlefi the firm, he decided go it alone. to8 I dont mind roughing - but Id like something bit morecorntbrtable it a rcally.Exercise 64 it again! [SGE 6.9]lI s firr a wholc scntcnceor clause: Sometimes the word i/ stancls I rskccl vlro lrul told ltinr. and rl turned out to be thc ncighbours. , Sornctimcswc usc an il-scntcl c ew i t h t w o v e r b sI a crnphasis: n cleft s e n t c n c e l b r e x l f ifil ] lI // was only ycslcrtlay that w c l c a r n t t h c t r u 1 h .( W c o n l y l c a r n t t h c truth th veslcrclay. ) : :Rc r i t e t h c l i r l l o w i n e i n t h c w a v inclicatcdt<tshow clcarly wltal lhc wttrcI ll rcfc rS w Ito. I H c l l i l c t l t h c c x a r t t .I t w l s a g r c a t h l o w t o h i s p r i t l c . H i s t . r l t - t N t ; I l l l l I i x , N lw . . s . ( ; l i l : l I J I - o w l r ) l t l s I R l l ) l : 2 I t s a l l t h o s c l a t c n i g h t st h a t w c r c l h c l r o u b l c . n i l. . . . . lnr 3 Do youthinkhcslrould again? all lirrit. lry |nralIirrlavour.. 1 l ) c r h a p sI s h o u l c l n t s a y i t . b u t I t h i n k h c s l a z y . Irn allaicl 5 W c l l , l c t s l a c ci t . l l c s t t o t s o i t t g t t l t r t k co t t r a d v i c c . W c l r l v c t o f a c ch c l a c t . . . . t 6 I t h i n k h c r c s c t t t s d v i c c . A t l c a s t i t a p p c a r ss o . a I lc uppcars 7 I t s a l l h i s t t l k o l p o v c r t y t h a t r e a l l y a l l l l o y sl l l c . What.. ll Hc nray ask lilr a loitn. thouch I tloubt it. I doubt 9 Q u i t c l I c o u l d l c r r r lh i r n s o r n cn l o n c y . b L r tI c l r a t h c r n o t r i s k i t . Iur nol kccrrtttt the iclclrl0 If it haclnt bccrr litr your hclp hc woulcl bc iti it worst- It.tcss. l1you. . and relativesISGE 617-18]Exercise65 Wh-interrogatives pronouns sirnilar. not cluite sarnc. Relativcanclintcrrogative arc bul lhc zcro relativc pronoLlns uho. vtlronr, ultost, rrlticlt, tltut ancl interrogative pronoutts vhtt, trhttttt, nltttst.vhit h ttrtdvrltut Whose. nlrrt /r and hhut catl also be detcnniners.
    • 50 PronounsThc policearediscussing crime.Theyhavcsomcclucs, a andtheyaskthemselvessome quesfions.Write out the qucstions. usingNlr-question worcls.I Someone helpecl them. wtr<t rrnt-pED tuett?2 lhey got insicle hclp fiorn somcbotlv.3 Thcy wcrc lookingfirr sorncthins;l Wc have sonrc clues alrcady. so larj-5 Wc arc likcly to get some help fronr thc slaff.6 C ) n c f t h c t h i c v c s c l th i s i a c k e t c h i n c l . o l b sorneoncs7 They usccl kcyt{ This.jackct bclongcrl to sotttcbotly.9 Thcy cntcrcclby onc of thc ckrors.N o w c o r n p l c t ct h c s cp h r a s c s b o u t w h o t h c p o l i c c ^ a n t o i t t l c r v i c w l n r l w h a t t h c apolicc arc looking for.Lisc rclativc pronouns (vlro, vltonr. vltost. vhit h or tltut).l0 sorncortc . . . . . . h a d a g r u r l g ca g a i n s ll h c M u s c u n tI I s o r n e o n eo . . . . . . l lnoncy would bc inlportantIJ luryorrc . . . . . . 1 u ri s r t t i s s i r r gl3 everyonc . . . . . . h a sa k c y t o f h c h u i l d i n gl;1 cvcryoncto ..... t h e r n y s t e r i o u s c l c p h o n cc a l l c r s p o k e tl5 anything . . . . . . c o u l c lh c l p s o l v c t h c n t y s t c r yl6 sornconc ...... tumilv is hidinsthcntExercise 66 thts and that ISGE 6.19-20]Conrpletethc tirllowing using tlrrs,thut, thcsa or th()s( (somctir.ncs they arepronouns, sonrclir-ncs ancl cletcnniners).E.runrplc. ruosnf ar-ollclays. was lessstressful. In lile I M a y I i n t r o d u c eo u ? . . y . . . . i s H c n r ya n c E l a i n c . l 2 Whats . . . . . . I h c a ra b o u ty o u t w o g e t t i n g n g a g e d / e 3 | hope . . . . . .w h o c a n h e l p ,w i l l . 4 W e w e r et a l k i n go f . . . . . . a n d. . . . .. nothingn particular. i 5 I w o n d e ri f . . . . . . o d d - l o o k i n g o u p l e v c r t h e e c a nh e l p ? c o r 6 l t s b e e no n eo f . . . . . d a y s . o t h i n g s o n er i g h t . N g 7 Perhaps of . one ..... finc daysyoull realize world doesnt the oweyou a living. i e - 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .s m y l u g g a gh e r e w h e r e s o u r s ? y
    • Indefinitepronouns 51 9 C o u l d y o u p l c a s ep a s sm c . . . . . . c u s h i o n b e h i n c ly o t t /lO ... . .ltre wonyiltt 1i;ncs el i v c i l r .I I I s a y .W h a t c l oy o u t h i n k o f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I l t s a y sh c r et h a tb c c r i s c o r u i n g l o w n c in price.l2 Will . . . . . . o f v o u w h i l u t t n t t i c k e t sp l c a s cr a i s ey o u r h a n c l s Exercise 67 Indefinite pronouns [SGE 6.21-28]C o r n p l c t ct h c f o l l t t w i n g w i t h : anything cvcrything nothirlg sorllctlling oranybocly/ortc evcrvbodv/tlttc tlobocly/nootlc sorrtchody/tlttcl , , . . t t t t t t p l c : , N r r t ro u( ic a l l t l o I c a t t d t l b c t l c r l yN I D o n t . j u s ts i t l h c r c - c l o . . . . . 2 W h y s h o u l dI . ) l t s. . . 1 ot l o w i t h r n c . I ...... . . . . . . s t t t t t c w l t e w o u l c ll i k c a l et t c r f r o t r ly o u . rc 4 ...... . . . . . . I t a st o l c a t lt h c i r o w n l i t l . . 5 Not . . . c a r t b c b o s s .t l t o t r g h . (r ...... . . . . . . i s o b v i o u s l yw t l r r y i n gh i r n - b n t w h a t l s 7 Ivc nu idcit its.... ........ gtlcss, l { I n r a l w a y s t h c l a s tt t t k t t o w . ... tclls nlc anythint. 9 Someboclyrttust krtow ..., lrul whol l0 Hartlly . . . w o t t l c la g r t - cw i l h y o u . I I l l y o u c a n b c l i c v ct h a t .y o u l l b c l i e v c l2 ..... . . . . . . . i n t h c i r r i g h t t t t i r r c l o u l t l c l os u c h a t h i l l g - w 13 Moncy isnt ... but it hclPs. l 1 E v e r y l i t t l c h c l p s- i t s b c t t c rt h a r t . . . I supposc.Exercise 68 both, either, neither, each, all, half ISGE 623-28)C o r n p l c t c t h e f b l l o w i n g u s i n g D t i,r l t t ,t . t r t i t l t t r , c u t l t , u l l o r l r t r l tp r r s l o u n s r , /r Q olor clclerminers). r y d b (A u r o n g n c c l i c a lrlc c o r d cm u l t i p l c i r t h st ,h ch i g h e tw h c r c I ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .t.h c schilclren h a v cs u r v i v c d r es c v e a lc a s c s t l s e x t u p l c ssxa t a t i m e ) . n 1 9 7 4 M r s a r < (t i I aRosenkowitz gavebirthto sixchilclren Cape in Town South Afiica. (2) . . . .w c r eb o y sa n d( 3) . . . . . . w e r eg i r l s . In thc UK. (4) .... . s i x W a l t o ng i r l s b o r n i n l 9 t t 3 s u r v i v e a s d o t h e ,Colcman s e x t u p l c tb o r n i n 1 9 1 3 6- 5 ) s (. . . . . . - o f t h c m a r c g i r l s ,a n d ( 6 ) . . . . . . a r e b o y s .( 7 ) . . . . . m o t h e rh a d a n y p r e v i t r u sx p e r i c n co f e es e x t u p l e! s t P e r h a p t h e m o s tf a m o u st w i n s i n h i s t o r yw e r et h c S i a m e s e t w i n s o r n i n s bIt3 l. I (8) - . . . . . . w e r en r a l e C h a n g n dE n g B u n k e r( 9 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . o f a .themcanhavehadanyprivacyastheywerejoined thechest. I 0) . at If(ofthemwantedtogoanywhere l ), ( l . . . . . .h a d t o g oI.n l 8 4 3 t h e y m a r r i e ds i s t e r s ,n d ( 1 2 ) a . . . . . . c o u p l e s a d c h i l d r e n(.1 3 ) . . . . h . couple produced siamesetwins.( 14) .... brothers died in 1814-fbrtunatelyw i t h i nt h r e eh o u r so f ( 1 5 ) . . . . other.
    • 52 PronounsExercise69 Televisionand children[SGEChapters5 and 6]Cornplctc 1ollowin-rr suitablc thc with pronouns clctcrnrincrs. anclA n v o n e w h o l t l st h o u g h t a b o u t ( l ) t t w i l l h a v c c o n c l u c l c c lh a t t o o n r u c h s c x a n r l tv i o l e n c e o n l c l c n i s i o n a n n o t b c g o o d l i r r c h i l c l r c n .( 2 ) . . . . c .. is perhapsr n o r cl i k c l y t o c l e c l c n 3 ) . . . . . a ( . r n i n c l t h a r r o t u r n( - 1 ) s t . . . . . . i n t os c xnraniacs or ganqstcrs. but no rnattcr. In so ftrr as a rcport publishccl yestcrclayr c p e a t sc o m n r o n s c r r s c p i n i o r t s .( 5 ) . o ..... is urtcrceptionablc. Yctil(6). . . . . . l o o k s c l o s c r a t l u t t l ( l t i l d l ( / r . o n c n d s a c c r t a i n n r o r a l ifp l i g g i s h n c s s n r l a u t h o r . i t a r i a n i s r( l , . . . . . . a n i s p c r h a p sn o l c s s d a n g c r o u st h a r rt h e s c x a n r l v i o l c n c c ( t t ) . . . . . . a | 1 l c p l o r c ( 9 ) . . . . c . . . a u t h o r so l ( 1 0 ) . . . . . . r c p o r l s c c n ll o h a v c ( I I ) . . . . i d c n t i k i tl . r i c t u r oc s o e c t r , . .l iJ u c l g i n g " "( l 2 ) b . . . . . . c r i t i c i s r ro | l ) u l l u s .( l 3 ) . . . t . . . i d c a ls r r cg l l iw o u l c l b c u n l i - r n a t c r . i a l i s t i cE l s c w h c r c ( 1 . t r ). . . . . .. conrplain thath r x r . r o s c x u a b l . c k s ,( l 5 ) . . . . ls a . . c l i s a b l c d n c o l c lp c o p l ca r c n o t r c p r c s c l r t e ( l a lo r c l s c s h o w r ri n ( l 6 ) . . . ... trrd light. W c l l . r r o d o u b l ( 1 1) . . . . . . a r c c l l l l c t lr n i n o r i t i c s( l ( ) n o t l l w a y s r c c c l v escnsitivc t r c a l n r c l r t F l u t ( I 8 ) . . . . . . . o l rushas ttol bccn outnrgcd to sccsornL- !roLlp of 1rcoplc clcarto ( l 9 ) . . hrulallysalilizccln sorlc latuousi1lt-otrarttrttc.) T h c n r c r i t so t t c l c v i s i o n l i c i n ( 1 0 ) . . . . . t l i r e r s i l y{. l l ) .r c a l l y i s l i r r p a r c n t st o g u i r l c ( 2 2 ) . . . . . . c h i l t l r c n u w a v t l o r nt a s t c l c s s n e s s . Morcovcr (l-l) ... . . . s h o u l d n ( ) l l r s s t m r c h a t c h i l d r - c rh a v c a b s o l u t c l yn o t r. j r r d g c r r r c n tl ( l + ) o ...... own. (2-5 .. 1 .... is bcttcr thlt (f(r) . . . . . . s h o L r l c le l l e ct o c h o o s ew i t h i r r c c r t a i r tb o u r r c l t h a n b c a s s a u l t c rllr y b sl l r c k i r r d o l b o r i r r g u n i l i ) f n r i l y . c a l c u l ao c nla k c ( 2 1 . . . t t rr ...irrtotretler.ancln r o r c u s c l u l c i t i z c n st h l t ( 2 f i ) . . . . . . u u t h o r so l ( 2 9 ) ...... rcporllravcn (10) i nrinclsyc. c
    • 7 Adjectivesand adverbs Adjectives ISGE 7.1-26] Most adjectivcs can corttL- attributive position befbrc a noun (a /r.rlt/r in and in prcciicative lrcrusc) ptlsition alicr a vcrb such as /rc,htt ttnrt, satnt(Thc hcruscis lotelv).Exercise70 Attributive and predicative[SGE 7-3,7-17-221A f c w a c jl c c t i v e su s u a l l yo n l y c o r n cb c t i r r ca n o u n .a r t t la f c w n o r t t r a l l y n l y l o l l o w oa vcrb.D c c i { c a b o u t t h c s c a c l j c c t i v e - sa r t c l u s c t h c r t t t o c o l r t p l c t c t h c c l c f i n i l i o r r s .srarnnlaticallY. allaicl asltat.nccl contcnl cldcr glacl itlttct ttraitl r-naxlnluttt occasitlnal only outcloor rcatly A t ( trttt ]lottc[,.rutttplt,s. travcllcr who ltas nobody w ith thcnr is rt l-t.tNt,lt;VLI.l.l,lt. ) Wlrcn pcoplc itre by thcttrsclvcsthcy lfc 1.()Nl:. (ralotrc pcoplc) I I f i r p c r s o ni s c r n b l r r r a s s ca tl h i t v i n g b c h l v c c l b a d l y s / h e i s . . . . . . c 2 A c h i l d t h a t l e c l sl r i g h t c n c ci ls . . . . . . 3 An cvcnt lhat rlocsttot happcnvcry olicn is . . . . . .. 4 S l R . rq l h l h l r t( ( ) rI l c l j ,r r r r . r hti n l t p c t s o t l c l t l l ll l ( l t l i r i r 5 A p r r r t yr e l t li r rt l r c l ( ) p ( lrtl i ri s . . . . . . 6 I1a chilcl has no lrrotlrcrs sistcrs s/hc is . or 1 A p c r s o t rw l r o i s r c a l l y p l c a s c da b o u t s o t t t c t h i n gr s . IJ llyou havc scvcral worrics about snnre-thing, orrc lhltl worrlcs yotl lnorc but t h a r ra l l l h e r c s t . t h a t i s . t) lla person is aclcquatclysatisficd,s/hc is . l 0 I f t h c t o p s p c e ca l l o w c c li s 7 0 t n p h . t h c n t h a t i s . . . . . . l l l I f l u n c h i s a l l p r c p a l e ca n c lc o o k c c l .i t i s . . . . l t 2 I l y o u r b r o t h e r i s o l d c r t h a nl u , h ci s . . . . . . ytExercise 71 Adjectives and participles ISGE 7.5-6]Rephrasc scntc-nces, the using-irt,q -crl participles or o1 llorn thcscvcrbsinstcrrdthe worcls italic.but keeping in roughlythe sanre meaning. Make any othcrsrnallchanges necessary. ilnnoy astonish btlrc tlisappoint cxhaust wotry frighten intcrest puzzle surprisc I The play had an absolutely (incrediblc)p|ctt. T h e p l r y h a da n u b s o l u t c lr st ,r x t s t t t rP;l o t y r
    • 54 Adjectives adverbs and 2 Thc way themurclererbehaved rcally(.rt was ar.v) 3 B u t I w a s( . r a r l ) . . . . . . t h a tm y t a v o u r i t e c t o rw a s n ti n i t t h a tn i g h t . a 4 S o m cp e o p l e e tr e a l l y( a r i , q n ) g . . . . . . w h e nt h e yh a v ec o m es p e c i a l l y to seea particular actor. 5 I alsothought firstscene thc wasralhcr(tlullutul tcdious) 6 I r r c a n .w h o ( r c a l l yt u k c s t t i t t t c r c s t ) u ... in spidcrs? 7 B u t t l r el a s ta c tw a sr c a l l y( u n ( . p ( ( t ( d ) ... - hrilliarrt. fl Irrcicle rrtally, incrcase seatpricesis thc in (u t uusc.for urrict.t) 9 lt is (dit/tcult trttdcrstutrtl) to .... .. wlty nrorcpeoplcclontcomplain.l ( ) h u tI s u p p o . lcl t e y / t , rtt r t , t t t t t < . l , ( . f { , lExercise 72 Adjective position [SGE 7.7-8]R c w r i t c t h c t i r l l o w i n g , u s i n g t h c s ca c l i c c t i v c so r e p l a c et h c w < t r c l sn i t a l i c . M a k c t iany othcl changcs ncccssary.You will ncccl sorne oltlte worcls rrore thart ortcc. abscnt ccrtain conccrnccl conscious clect involvcd littc prcscnt pr()pcr I Our rrorlr clct tcl chairrnan takcs ovcr irnrnccliately. O u r c h a i r n r a nl i r . r , ( tra k e so v c r i m r n c c l i a t e l y . r bccirusc our .flttntcr chairnran rcsienccl suclclcnlylast Scptcrnbcr lirr hcalth rcasolls. 3 Most otthc pcoplc vho vcrc tltcrttrt the rnceting arc dclightctl, 4 bul xnrc pcople (thut Inr trtt .qttitr,q trunrc, ttt 5 peoplc who wcre not (ttt|lc rnceting. havc tclcpholtcd to say that thcy shoulcl h l r v ch u t l p o r t u l v o t e s . 6 Thcy say thc t>nlycorrect thing tctclo now is holcl anothcr electi<ltt, which is ridiculous. 7 One of our dif ficulties is we do not always have the up-ttt-dutcaddresses all of our members. 8 The secretary auureof the problern. is was 9 Wc oncewroteto a membersavinghis subscription oterdue, lady sayingher husband,10 and we had a letterfiom a very distressed v,hohatl cliedrecently,had always paid on time.
    • Adjectives 55I I We iire now rnaking a deliberote effort to bring our records up to date.l2 The secretary spoken all the peopleuhohttveott,-thirtg do withthe has to ttt ntdttcrf . l a n d i s t r t r r l t t l t t rlth u t w c w i l l g e t i t r i g l t t .l4 But it coulcl bc a long and t rtntltlicalcrlbusiness.Exercise 73 Adjectives with prepositions ISGE 7.9, 16.38]Sorncprcdicativc are prcposititln. ad.icctivcs oficn lblloweclby a particularUscworcls frorl thc tlblc to rcphrasc scntcnccs showrt. thc as Uscthc wordsin thetirstandlastcoluntnoncccach.You will ncccl usctwo ol1hc positiotts to pre twicc. answerablc satisIactory rcfcrcrtccs glad about thc <lpportunity gratcfuI at the clifficultics diffbrcnt trlr a n y a s p e c to l t h e w o r k ilwarc trorrr thc boartl dcpcnclcnt ot coplng sub.ject oll ncgotiation goocl to your rcrrnarks bore-rl witlr all nry prcviousjobs worriccl rny last.job Thcjob is yoursprovided your rclcrcnccs satistitctory. ltrc The.jobotlcr is r)t.ttttNt)tiNsAltstrl(tr)RY I oN l<tll;ttRLN(l,s. ) I w el r o r n ch e c h r r l ln g e l e . Iarrt... -t I r c a l i z ci t w o n t b c e a s y . I am... I t s u n l i k ea n y t h i n g v c t a c k l c d e f o r c . I b Itis.... 5 Is thercanythingaboutthejob that worricsyou: Are you Can wc discuss salary/ ls thc pay We havecvery conhdence your ability ttt manage. in W e r es u r e o u l l b e y I appreciate what youvejust said. Iam.. I v e j u s t l e f t a v e r yd u l l j o b . I w a s. . . . . .l 0 Youll haveto reportto the directors. Youll be
    • 56 Adjectivesand adverbsExercise74 Discontinuous adjective phrases ISGE 7.8-9] It is not usuallypossiblc put a long adjective to phrase tiont clf a noun in (*u bettcr.fotthis problenrsolutitttr). What wc can do is rnakethe phrase discontinuous with thc adjcctivc befbrethe nounandthe restollhe phrasc afier it - u lsettcrsolutiottfttr tltis Droblcnt.R c w r i t c w h a t y o u s a y i n l h e l b l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n s i, n s u c h a w a y t h a t t h e a d j e c t i v ep h r a s ei s d i s c o n t i n u o u s . I Y o u w a n t a c a n l c r at h a t w o u l d b c s u i t a b l ef b r a c h i l d . You say: I want ,qsutTAIlt.It (,MIRA I()R A cuu.t). 2 You think the ctmera that you arc showrr looks irnpossiblc firr a beginncr. T h r t ll o o k s 3 Thc next rnclclel the assistantsh<lwsyou looks sirnilar to llrc last onc. A n t l t l r i sl t r t r k s . . ;l You ask it this cilnrcra is casy to usc. I s t h i s. . lrortrthese two. 5 You ask i1 hc has any rnlkcs lhat are clilferent H l t v c l t )t t t u . . . 6 Y o u l i k e t h e n e x t c u r n e r ab c c u u s ct h e s i z c i s m o r c s u i t t b l c f i r r a c h i l d . ( ) h . l h r rllo o k s. . 7 You ask firr a bag that is big cnough to carry sparc tilnrs in. ld likc ll You ask thc assistanlilhc has any bags that arc chcapcr than tlrese. H r t v r l t l u 9 Y o u a l s o w a n t a n a l b u n rt h a t i s a s b i g a s p o s s i b l c . O h l n t l I w r u t l.l 0 T h c a s s i s t l l ntth i n k s t l r l t y o u u r e a c u s t o r n c rw h o i s h a r d t o p l c a s e . Thisis. Adverbs [SGE7.27-371 Advcrbs somctimcs bclong to the vcrb or thc wholc preclicatc: lotrg wulks. Ic tfitrr uots.tot B u t s o r n e t i n r c sh e y . j u s tb c l o n g l o a r t o t h c ra d v c r b ( t c r t s t r a n g c l y ) ;t o a n t adjectivc(/irlrlr.stupid); losonrcothcrword: huUnutlhroughthcafiernoon. /.)o many, ruther a lnistake; or evcn lirrm part of a phrasal vcrb (think olrt).Exercise 75 Adverbs: functions ISGE 7.31-37]Identifythe singleword adverbs thc following.and thendecidein eachcase inwhich word or phrase adverbbelongs the with. This is not particularlyE,runtple: difficult. particularly adverbl;particularlyAnswer. [= difficult.
    • Adverbs 57 I RichardLong walks roundin circles. 2 H e a l s ow a l k si n s t r a i g hlti n e s . 3 He has bccn on some very long walks - in Britain, Spain. Mexico. the Nepal. Sahara. 4 S o m c l i n t e sh e r e l r r r a n g . c sh c l r r n d s c l p ei r n d p h o i o g r l r p l r sh c r e s u l t . l l 5 In onc photoeraph that hc took hallway up the highest nrounlain in Mcxrco o you can make out a circle olstclncsthat hc rnacle. l L o n gc l n c e e s c r i b e a t e n - n r i l e a l k i n B r i t a i na s a t c n - r n i l c c u l p t u r c , d d w s 6 though whcthcr sculpturc is quitc thc word cvcryonc would usc is arguablc 9 F l u tL r r r t gi s u r t u l l i s t a I t i g h l y l u l c r r l c t o n c i r r s o r r r cp c ( ) p l ( " c l e s ll 0 rilthrr u .jokcr to othcrs. worksll Hc w i t h s t u n e sa n c lr o c k s a r r dm u d , l a i r l vt 2 quickly crctting grcat circlcs anclothcr shapcson thc walls lrrcl lloors of arl gallcrie . st 3 llc hashad wcll ovcr a hundrcdunclthirty onc-rnan shows artt 4 This sortol d o e s n o t s c c r nt c c h n i c a l l yd i l l i c u l tl 5 Lons agrccs in a scnsc that almost anyonc could do what hc cloesl 6 B u t n o b r x l v a sp r c v i o u s l y o n ct h i sa n dc a l l c di t u r t ! h dt 1 F o r r n ei t s c n o u g h o g a t h e r h c m a t c r i a l t o g e t h e r h c i s q u o t c ca s s a y i n g , t t s , l lfIu I maclethem into nry own shapesil would be too rnuch.Exercise76 Adverb pairs Many acljectives -/.r have a corresponding adverb(as in A cute.fhl tlriver drivts curefir11.v..)there arealsosorne Rut pairsthatlook like this.wherc thc word without-/rcan bc an ad.jective an adverb, that therearc in firct or so two advcrbs, otien with ditlerent meaninss.
    • 58 Adjectives and adverbsAll the following words can bc aclvcrbs.Cornplete the exercisc. using adverbsfrom among this list. Do not use any word morc tlran once. Use a dictitlnary ifnecessary. first firstly hard hardly high highly .iust .iustly last lastly near nearly latc lately right rightly wrollg wronglyThe re has bcen an unfortunatc incrcasein burglarics ( I ) r.,qrr:r-v which thc policc- (2) . ..... or (3) .... .. a t t r i b u t ct o t h e c a r c l e s s n c so l t l t r t n y shouscholclcrs. So. ii you value your propcrty, ytlu shoulclthink (zl)a b o u t t h c p r o b l e r n .a n d n o t ( - 5 ) . . . .. htlpc lbr the bcst (6) .... . . , m a k e s u r e t h a t a l l y o u r o u t s i d e c l o o r sh a v c s c c u r cl o c k s Next.chcckthcwinclows.(7)..... .allcasualburglarsgetinthrougllilninsccure door, cvcn a wirrcltlw lcti opclt. S o . w h c n c v c r y o u g o O u t ,l o c k t r p . l t ( t t ) . . . . . t l l a k e s s c n s ct t l i t l v i t t -burglars into yttul htlrllcl T h c n . i 1 y o u r cl i k c l y t o g c t h o t r l c( 9 ) . . . . . l c a v ca l i g h t o n Ncxt. considcr solltc rpgrc sophisticatctl utctsutcs.Marry irouschcllclcrs toclayh a v c i n l l l r - r c c l u t s i c l cl i g h t s o - s o l t l c w h c r en o t t o o ( 1 0 ) " " on a wall-whichg0onautOntaticullyilstlttrcortccotttcs(II)...... Othcrpcoplcthirtk( l2) ... . . . t t f a l a r t t ls y s t c l l l s w h i c h a r c a l s o s c t o l l b y a n i n t r u c l c r (ll)... ...tlorlljustthinkaboulit.Actnow(14) ""lwrry! Exercise77 Adjective and adverb pairs A s w c l l a s r c g u l i l r a c l . i c c t i v c / a d v eb p i l i r s l i k c c u r c l r r l l t u r c . l u l l t r and s c l s l i k e / i r r r t i( a c l i ) ./ r t r r r l( a d v ) . / i r u r l / r ( l d v ) . (eg: /rr.rt) thcrc arc ptirs whc[c bolh lravc thc satrtc lirrnl wilhout /r - 1 r ( c r r r l . r ,l u i l . t ) , pairs wlrcrc b()th adjcctivc anrl aclvcrb ettcl ilr srrnrc-1rworclstltat arc acl.icctivcs arrcf only (trtrfiitttrl/.r). Hcrc. to rnrtkc att aclverbial.wc havc 1o usc a phrasc,eg: trt rrri ttrrfiitiltllvutr.lrtttrntrtt. Wrifc cxplanalions inclicatccl, rs Consult r using advcrbsor aclvcrbphrascs. clictionaryf necessarY. i E.ranplc. you arc a hcavysnlokcr.you stnokehcavily If I lf you area harcl wtlrker.you wclrk 2 llyou arethe lastpcrson hear aboutsomcllcws.y()uhclrrit ttl . l l l ) . , t ru r ct h c l i r : t p er : o t rt o : t r r i r t s t r t t tw h e r e y o u l t r li v e e ,1 If you do sornelhing cowardly, you act 5 If you arcearlyfor an appotntment. arrlve. you ( r I l l o u l t r el u t c .Y o ua r r i v c 7 If a planeis very high in the sky, it may be flying too fi If you havca lcisurclylunch.you havelunch . ( ) l l o r n c ( ) n s v t r u r n c l r r n e i g h h . hu r .l i r c q u i t c . ic l r cl l 0 A j u s t i u d g c s a j u d g cw h o a c t s i
    • Comparison 59Exercise78 Gomparisonof adjectives [SGE 7.39-43] Thcrearc threetypcso f c o m p a r i s o n : Equal: Thc rat was rr.!big a.ra catl ( N o te q u a l ) : A rat is n()l usfso big a.i a cat. More: ( r r l : u r c h i g g er l l t r r nl l r t s . Supcrlative: Augustus is rAc biggcst of ttty cats. Augustr.rs llit biggcst cat rri thc roatl. is N o t i c c X i s t h c . . . ( . r 1) r r a l l t h c X s ) ( ( b u t X i s t h c . . . r . r 1r ( s o t n c p l a c c ) tC o n r p l c t ct h c t i r l l o w i n g u s i n g :( t h c ) h i g h c s t( i n / o t ) h i g h c r ( l h l n ) . ( a s / s o ) i g h ( a s) . hI...trrttt1tIa. tttt;tt is Mttr-rnt llow Ilvcr-cstlI r o r 1 3 5 v c a r s . l l o r r r l u - 5 1 t o l 9 l l 7 . n o b o r l y d i s p L r t c dt h a t M t E v e r c s l w a s( l ) . . . . . . . . . . . . n 1 o r - r n t(a i)n . 2 . . . . . t h c w o r l d . T h e c c c p t c hlc i g h t a st l . 8 : 1 0 a ( wr)lclrcs ( 1 9 . ( X ) l l l) . u n t i l i n l 9 7 l t h c C l r i n c s c u r r n o L r n c c t h a t i t w a s a c t u a l l y cl(3)..... . l t f i . l t - 1 8 l.l1 c l r c s . t oc h c r i r t t p r c s s i v c l ( . + ) . . . . T h c r cw c r c o l c o r r r - s t y . . pclks in thcI Iintalayas firrcxunrplcKr.alsokrtounasCh<tgot i t-h , s w 1t s l t o t ( - 5 ) . . . . . ibu l .,bcitttta n r e r cl J , 6 I r n c t r . e s I I . v c r c s lr c t t t a i l t c d 6 ) . . . . . l ( . all thc Ilinralayarr eaks. p Thclt. in Mruch l t ) 1 J 7 l.h c L i S K 2 c x p c d i l i o n c l u i n r c r l t h a t K l w a s i r r l u c t(l .... . . h a r l p r . c v i o u s l yh c c n c s t i r t t i t t c t l T h c v s a i t l i t w a s p o s s i b l y .( l J ). . . . .. tl.9013 n l c t r c s .n r u k i n g i t . r t t t t[ ] v c t c s t ( 9 ) . . . l l o w c v c r . i n A u s u s t l t ) l l 7 t h c C h i n c s cr c a l l i r u t e d h c i r c s t i r n u t e s o l 8 . u , l u tlnctrcs lirr Ilvclcst and ll.(rII rnctrcs lirl K 2 , u l t i t t t i t i r t i t t gt h a t K l w i t s I l o t f(1 0 ). . . . . . . F l v c l c s l . h c n i n O c t o b c ro l t h c s l l n l cy c u r .t h e R c s c a l c hC o u n c i li n R o r r r cu n n o r r n c c tn c w s l t c l l i t c n r c a s u r c n l c r t l s . v c t - c s [t.h e C o t r n c i s a i t l .r v a s l E lr r e l r r r l l l 5 t t t c l l t tsI I t . . . thc Chincsc e s t i n r a t ca t t . 1 1 6 - l n r c t r c s . u v h i l c .ptxrr Kr was lcss ilt ti.607. ( l l v e r e s t .i t s e c t t t s t t r l t t a i l t s l 2 ) . . . . . . . l r l lt t t o t t t t l l t i l t r
    • and grammar adverbials8 The semantics ofExercise79 Adverbials: formal realizationISGE 8.91 An advcrbial is onc of the fivc major elemcnts of sentcnccstructure,along with subjcct.vcrb,objcct and corrplement. ISGE 2.3] An aclverbialis ol ten a sirlple adverb: tvervvlrtrc , trirrals, rcrr,.ia.t But r. ailvcrbials can also takc other firrrtts: Noun phrasc: (We go) cvctttlut. Prcpositional phrasc: (Ciornc) itrtrttht gurdctr V c r b l c s sc l a u s e :I f p o . s s i l c . . . . b l N o n fi n i t c c l a u s c : l t i u k i t t st t l t t t u ti t , . . . . . . F i n i t c c l a u s e :W l t c t rI r e u l i : c t l. . . . . . . -Pick out thc advcrbials in tlrc lirll<twillg passagc llrcrc are twenty-two altogcthcr anclgroup thcrn as showrt.Thcrc wcrc pilcs of pupcrs oll thc stairs ancl pilcs cvcrywlrcrc in tltc rtltltn. He That pilc. hask i c k c c la t i d y h e a p w i t h h i s t o c . hc saicl, b c c n t h c r c l b r 1 c ny e a r s .Thc troublc is I work all tht-- tirlc. Thcrc isnt tirnc to sort things. I would gct arttuttclto buying cupboarclsif I coulcl bc bothcreil. Sornchow lifc is full tlf ob.icctsthatsuclcle takc ovcr. C)ncwcck thc placc is ticly:anclthc Itcxt weck it is ttlo latc. Now nlyI c a n t t h r o w t h i n g so u t . I l c t r i n g h i s c x p l u n a t i o n . I . i t r s t s r n i l c c lI h a v c a l w a y s t h o u g h tt h a t i t i s .h c s t . uh c n t v c r p r r s s i h l t l.t o l l o t r i l i eizc othcr pcoplc.And thcrc was sotncthingvcry irnprcssivc boutall thatchaos. a (singlcaclvcrbs l2) cvcrywhcrcn o t u t P h n r s c s - l) ( onc wcckp r c p o s i t i o n a l h r a s c s( - 1 ) o l t t h c s l r t i r s pverblcssclause(l) possiblenonfinitcclausc(I)finitcclausc(l)
    • lntensifyingand focusing adverbs 61Exercise80 Adverbialsof space and time [SGE8.2-3, 8.16-26]Rewritcthe following in the rnoststraightfbrward worclorder. I T h cp r i z c l i g h . . . . . .l o n 2 2 A p r i l / w i l l b c h c l d / i nG l a s g o w / a t t A n c l r c w s p o r t i n g l u b S S C A n s v c r ; T hp r i z c f i g hw i l l b eh e l da t S t A n d r e w s p o r t i n g l u bi n G l a s g o w e t S C on 22ncl April. 2l r u n t i l h u r s d t y / a g a i n / s o c a n r e l a x a n d p r a c t i s cr b i t / c l o n tp l a y . T I - l s r r i d. latcr/the clctcncling snookcr charnpion/atShcfliclcls Cruciblc Jhcatlc whcrc t h c c h a m p i o n s h i p s r c b c i n g h el d a -l Tlris lbr sornc ycars/in Lonclon/rnaybc thc last tinrc arr IAAF conrpctition is sttscrl 5 Aceonlirtg in a nrinur nratl nrcc/lo hcr coach/RosaMolas rt-rost irnprcssivc pcrtilnlancc was/last sr-lnrnrcr 6 S l r e. r u n l yt w o d a y sa l i c l a l 0 k r n r n i n i - r n a l a t l t uirn N c w Y o r k / 1 0 k r n / a t B o u l d c r , r (oIorarkr/ran 7 H t r l l : u n W o l r r sr k i p p r r fhrrn near lhc linc/in lhc closing scconcls thc gaurc/l{on H inclnlrrchclcul thc of b a lI l { N o l l i r t r : l t l t rFto r t s l r lt City (irounrl/bcat Chclscu7 O/ycstcrday 9 CiollcrFrctlCouplcs l thc LJSA o i n P a r i s / a l a B o u l i c / l c dt h c f i c l t l i n t h c T o u r n o i s P c r r i c r r l c P a r i s / t o r l a yI0 Thctllcntctlyounu ugosluvtcnnisplaycrhit2) cs.. Y uc lasl year/onclay/to bcat Bcckcr/al llrc lrrcnch OpclrI I B . i o r r[rJ o tt w o t t l i v e t i r n c s / b c t w c e n1 9 7 6a n d l 9 l J 0 / t h cW i r n b l c c l o nl c n n i s c h a n r p i o n s h i p sl l A f t c r r e l i r i n gi n l 9 l J J . c h o n 2 . j A p r i l / r c l u r r r c1 ot c r r n i s / 1 9 / i n t h c M o n l c( r r r k r p c n rl l9 OExercise 81 Intensifying and focusing adverbs [SGE 8.32-39] A d v c r - b s h a t r l o n o t a f l c c t 1 h cn r c u n i n go f t h c v c r b o r t h c u , h o l c p r c r l i c u t c . t b u t t h l t h a v c s o n r cs o r t o l s u b u r - r l i r t aoc - n r i r l g i n alli r n c t i o nu r c s o n l c l i n t c s lr c u l l c r ls u b . j u n c l s .h c l c a r c v u r i o u sk i n d s . l l . i t h a r i o u sn r c a r r i n g si.n c l u d i n g : T v E , r r r p h a s i z i n t n d i n t c n s i t r , i n g :I t r v a s . i r r . r t i z u l l . t i " s i tu rotn.d c r l i r l l u t l l t N c rI l.t t t ttL r,/rrl1trl.r rcc i t// ls .fi Focusinr]: I rtt rl.t tt ttr c l.t/.r f lirTrlr askerl.Many words can bc use(l lroth us sub.ir-rncts as other arlvcrbs.so thc posititrrr uttcl is irnpoltant. Cclrnpalc:in thc sc-ntcncc
    • 62 The semanticsand grammarof adverbials She was wcaring a clark blue jurnper (.tu(t!./rAz Lauras. Isubiunct how 1llt"]l It was an odd cxperiencc. though it is harcl ttt lc.st rilx(.td(tl. Itnanner aclvcrb lc.st ribe in what rval?]Adcl the advcrbs below in the hcst placcs in thc scntcnccsto plotlucc thc ntcrtrtiltirsthat are inclicatccl thc brackcts. inI:-tutrt I c. 1tuntu:itr.qlt. IlL rtttrtru,qt.t rlutrttvtcII vitIr hi.sttttntI Icg. ttt ( a ) ( l t i s a s r r r p r i s i n lg a c t h a l h c c a l t c l a n c c . ) A r r . r u r r A r r r a z i n g l y , c t t t a t t a g e ls t l l t t t c cw c l l w i t h h i s r l r c t a ll c g . : h o ( b ) ( v c r . ! u c l l i n r l c c d) . , l r r s ut r :I l c n t a t t a g c s t t t l a t t c cl r n r a z i n g l ,lrv c l l w i t h l l i s r t r c t a ll c ! . . t I lttttllt. l t t I t t t t r l t , t r t/ r , / 1r,r.. r rr r r r rl tr r . (b l l l rr.trtr,qtt ri : c rI I I rc ttrtttirr,g.( rttr tl r ll r l lr , r e l) l. . . . . . . . t ) c t t t t ;l t l t t t t l t t l ( ) t t t t ( l ( r . l ( t t tt(llt ( : ( l t) { T l t c t e t t o| o i 1 1i1 tl l r i r t r :t .. . . . t (h) (You ttlty l-rc sr-rrplisctl I ol all pcoplctlotr1. . thll ) j r r . s lL s t t tt t t t t l t t r t i t L tlto t t t t t t t t i t t t t l ( . . : ( l ) ( T h l t s r r l iI t l i r l . t ( b ) ( l i r rt c n r n i n u l c s x a c t l l ) c 4 kittdl,t. ( , r l l i . t l t l t t i t w l t u t o r t ( ( t r l l t . ( ) tltt t t t l i r t r t t i r t t l(.l l t l l t c r o s s . ) . t t b l l I I t , lI t t i l i | t , u . l t tt t k t t ,t t t t. t l r t k i r t t ) . . . . . . . . l 5 t t t t l t ; l l t u v t t o t t t t l t c t t t t t , t t l t l t i r t k v t t r t t t t t t l t t l l t . ( a ) ( I havc rto otltcr rcltstttt or cottltttg.) I t h t t N t t h o r l ) ! ( ( l ) l) ( l t tr i l t ll t r l l ) ) . . . . . . . . . (t ,qtrirlcloll r r . s t L t o r t l t l t t ( ) l . ! ( t t r t i . v L i l t rt t t . t t t l t t - t . t lto.s.siblt;llrt ( a ) ( I l u r n o t s u l c w h u t t h eq u i t l ct t t l dt t s .) ( b ) ( H c s a i ctl h c r cw u s r t op o s s i b i l i t v l o r t r g e t t i r t t h c r c . ) . o g J rcullt: Ictr.jotcd it. { l l ) ( v ( r y t t t t t r ltt . ( b ) ( i n l a c t .I a c l r n i)t f3 .rilr7;1.r. Plcusttrv Io t.tltluitrvlttrl it i.s.tttrrttttrrl. {i r , ( D ( } n l r t ( } ( l ( l t l )l l t i t t s l s t . . . . . . . . . i, t ) ( b ) ( D o n tu s cs u c hl o n gw o r d s l ). . . . . . . . 9 .;till: I doti t ltuvt ltertrti.ssirttt trsttltc librur.t. ttt ( a )( I a r ns t i l lw a i t i n gl i r r p c n n i s s i o n . . . . . . . . ) ( h ) { M ) l i h r u r ; i t k c ti so t r o l t L t l c}.. . . . . . . . t l l0 vtty tuL : n h (t) H c ltxtkcl I ikc ltisfuther c.rt t1tthut ltt ttu.s.ftt t t. b)To tell ou tltc tttrtlt lutvctrt tltotrghtultoul it ut ull tht:sc lust.few I nt()tttlt.l
    • Disjuncts 63Exercise82 Disjuncts - and other adverbs [SGE 8.40-421 Disjuncts arc a special typc of aclvcrbtlrat havc a sort of supcrior role to the rest of thc scntencc.Thcre are two tnain kincls:cither tlrclr inclicatchow thc - speakcr is spcaking _ tiutrklt,ltct.sortullv or they cornlllctlt on thc content - pcrhults. cet tuirtlt .loolisltlv, qtritttiglttlr.Again. nrany of thesc wtlrclscan also Iunction as othcr sorts ttf aclvcrbs,so posilion is inlptlrtant to inclicate mcaning.A c l d t h c a c l v c r h s h o w t t , n t h c b c s t p l a c c st o g i v c t h c t n c i t r r i t l g sn d i c a t c d . s i i I turl(t.tun(hrlr1r: was vcry upsct. (l citn unclcrslatrcl Shc thal). S l I t l W . S t I N | ) l l R S N I ) l i l . V t I R Y t r P S t l . ) / - f tll)IlRSl;NI)rl]1..Sllll W,S VI:RY tllSI:l. 2 l i u n k l r : l t i s n l c a s y t i l r s o n t c p c o p l c t o l i t l k t o t l r c i r i i c r r t l s a rlrrc r n i l i c s a b o u t tl t h c i r p r o b l c n r s .( T h c y l i n d i t ( l i l l i c u l tt o d i s c u s st h c i r l e c l i n g s . ) f i u n k l . I d o n tk n o ww h y I s i t h c r ct l r i n k i n s i t hy o r r ( l l l s a y w h a tI t h i n k . r w . thals owI lccl.) h l r t u t l q l i l l t : l l c h a d l r i c co w r i t e a l c t t c r l l t a t t l c s c l i b c d w l t a t i t w a s l i k c h c r c . ( l l c tl warrlccltlrc dcscrintiott to lrc Iail arttl ttccuratc. ) t r t r l h l r r l l t .I:t w a s l a i r l yo b v i o u s t l r a th c c l i r l r r w u r t tr t ) ci t l l y t t t o r c :i t l t t lI t l i d r t t t w a l t t h i r n u n y n l o r c c i t h c r .( l a n r t c l l i n g t h c l r u t h w h c l t I s r t yI t l i t l n t w i l t t th i r l l .) 6 l t o r t t , s t llt ,l l . g o i l y o L rl i k c . I d o n 1 r n i r r d ( l t i s l c a l l y l r t t c t h i t l l t l o n t r n i n c l . ) . J l t o r t c . s t l .D"c a l i n g w i t h l c el i r r g s .t t t t t h e o l l r c r h u n r l .c l n h c l l t b r i n g t h c l l n t i l y t . c l o s c r t o g c l l t c r .( l h c t l i s c t t s s i o r lts c c c l o b c h o n c s l . ) t t uIIt. Scarccly tltrcc ccrttltlics hlvc clapscrl sincc il hlts bcerr itcccptetl .qttrct that, intlcctl, the Harth clocs tl.tt:rvc.B c l i r r e t h a t o r t l y a f c w p c < l p l ct o o k t h i s ( v i c w .) Thc poor havc been in flrvour tlf glcatcr cquality (Wcll. thcy gctrt,rull.t". u s u a l l v h a v c l) l0 ,qutrrull.t Thcy telt thcy had to watch the filln bcfilrc it was shown. (llclirrc it was shown to thc public.) ll .rpeukitrg. sirrplc ansvver the qucstiolt woulcl bc thal we clo ,qencrullt A to clrcaur colour.(C)nthc whttle clo!) in we l2 !irerullt:Alllhadtodurvastakeiloutoftheirox.(larnspc-irkirtglilcr.all)wherl I saythis.l
    • 64 Thesemantics grammar adverbials and ofl 3 litetully:We were really poor so that often by Weclncsday cliclnthavc wc anythingto eat.(l meanthat- I arnnot exaggcratir-rg.)l 1 l i t c r u l l y : T h e s e t w o c h e r n i c a l sw h c n r n i x c d t o g e t h e r e x p l o d e . ( T h a t i s l r scicntific fact. )l 5 l i t t r u l l y : S h c w a s s o c x c i t e d h c r c y c s c l a n c c c l . ( W n ol t l i t e r a l l y r c a l l y - l a r n el usingthc word lbr cnrphasis.)l 6 p c r . s o r t u l l .IrI c w a r r t s o s c c y o u . I l l t c l l h i n t y t t u r c h c r c .( H c w a n t st t ) s c c y o t t : l h i n r s et . ) lt 7 l t c t . s t t t r u l l .T"h. a t g i r l w a s n r t t t . c l e r c r l .o . I c l i c l n t k n o w h c r .I k n c w w l t o s l t c t N w a s . D i c l n t I t c l l y o u t h a t l ( l c l n c v c r . a c t u a l l y t t e th c r r n 1 s c l l . ) rl 8 p u . t r u t u l l t : I t h i n k o y s l c r s a r e o v c r r i t t c c l(.S p c a k i n gf o r r n y s c l lExercise83 Conjuncts [SGE 8.43-45] fion.junclsrrc it s1-rccial kintl oladvcrb tltat cttltrtccttwo parts ol a setttctlcc. ( ) r c v c l rl w o s c n t c n c c sl,r y c r p r c s s r r t rl t t t c a t t i t t gc l a l i t l n s h i p c t w r - c rttl t c r t t . r b llrcy are s o r n c t i r r r ca l s oc l r l l e r c o n n c c l o r s E x l t t t t p l c sl:t r t r r c v c t t.n ( ) t ( o t (.t s l . ttttcrt lrc lt.s.r .C o n r p l c t c h c l i r l l o w i n g p i t s s a g cw i t h t h es c c o t t . i u t t c ta n d l i n k i n g w o l t l s : t , s lunyhuw but lirst lirrllrcr hcncc howe vcr scconclly sirnilar.ly so tltctt though t l r u s( l ) as a rcsult by cttttlrast lirr cxurnplc in lact irrothcr wolcls on thc conlrary ort thc olhcr ltatttlF o r y c a r sw c l t a v ct a k c n t h c h c a l t ho l t h c c a r t ht i r r g r a n t c d .( I ) H t l t t o c l a iy i s u n d er ll h l e a t . I t i s f a s l r i o n u b l co b l a n r ct h c i n d u s t r i a l i z c c lr a t i o r t sa n t l t h c y c c r t a i n l yu l c t r ,r c s p o n s i b l cl i l r r t t a n yc n v i t . o r r t t e n l ap l o b l c r n s .F a c t o r i c s , l ) . . . . l ( ... rlla)n o l o n l v p o l l u t c t h c a i r w c b r c a t h c :t h c y o l i e n p o u l l - r o i s o n o uw i . l t ci n t r to u r s c a s sa n t l r i v e r s .( - l ) . . . . . . l i s h a n d o t h c r t n a r i n cl i l i r r r a yc l i c .( 4 ) consunrcrt l r cg . c n e r ap u b l i c i n d c v c l o p e d l s o c i c t i c s u l s oc u L r s c o l l u t i o n w i t h pthcir cars. ccntral heating. relrigc-rators, lritvcl anrl vast unloLlnts lrouscholcl air ofwaste. If rvc ckr rrothing.wc urc tolcl. (-5) ...... thc plarrct will clie. (6) grccn . . . . . . t h c r i s eo f t h e e n v i r o n r n e t a l l l l o v c n r c n l , n dt h c n a r - n e s s a gh a t tei f w c w i l l o n l y r e t u r n t o t h c s i n r p l el i t ea l l w i l l b e w e l l . (l) ..... . . n l a n yo b s c r v e - r s i n t o u tt h a t ,( 8 ) po . . . . . . , r e a l l ys i m p l clilestyles can cause appalling cnvironntental clarnage.Cutting clown trees lorl i r e w o o c l A c o m m o n p r a c t i c ei n u r u c ho f t h c T h i r c lW o r l d . u s u a l l yl o o s e n s h e s o i l . . t
    • Adverbials 65(9) ..... . c a u s i n g o i le r o s i o n n du l t i m a t e l y a m i n eI.t m i g h tb e b c t t c ri f s a fthey haclnuclear powerl (10) .. . . . . m a n y p c o p l ei n t h e d e v e l o p i n g o r l d w a n t m o r e winclustrialization ancl consulncrism, which are not going to go away. ( I I I . . . . . . h o w c a nw e r n i n i n r i z t h c i r b a de l f e c t s l e Entergrccn cconomics. Economists generally are vicwccl people as concernedc r n l y w i t h r n o n e y a n d i n d ug rto i atlh . E n v i r o n r n e n t a l i s t s . ( 1 2 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t r c s rwp i c t u r c ca s r e j e c t i n g r a t e r i a l i s t iv a l u c s .( l l ) . . l n c .... economists rc u s T (b a d d i e a n dc n v i r o r r n r c n t a l ia r eg o o c l i e s .h e t r u t h . l 4 ) . . . sts . . . . i s n o ts os i n r p l c(.l 5 ) . . . . . . . o n ei t l p o r t a n p a r to f c c o n o r n i cis c o n c c r n c r v i t ht h c t s clb a l a n c i n g l c o s t sa n c l e n e l i t sB u i l c l i n g n a i r p o l tn e u ri . t( i l y g i v r - s s c r s h c o b . a u tb c n e f i t l q u i c k t r a v e l .( 1 6 ) . . . . o . . t h c n o i s cn u i s a n c cb r t h c c i t y s f Greeni n h a b i t a n tn r a y b c t o o h i g h a c o s t . s e c o n o l n i s t s r y t o w c i g h u p t h c tc o n l li c t i n ga r g u n r c r t t s . Ovcr the pastltw ycars. two idcashavcrnctwitlr sonleIncasurc agrccnrent. of(11)...... . tlurt clcccntralizing solutions olicn better alc thandircctcontrols.(llt) . . ... it is usually rnorc cflicicnl t() control inclustriapollution by lt a x i n g o f f c n d i n gi n c l u s l r i c s a t h c r l h l r r i n s i s l i n t o n p a r l i c u l a r - c q u i p r n e n t . r( lt)) .. sustainablc . . . . c c o l r o r . n i s th a v c c o n l e u p w i t h t h c i d e a o f sr l c v c l o p n r c t t t .I t i s n o t s u s t a i n a b l c o u s c u p f i n i t c r e s o u r c c ss u c h a s o i l a n c l ln r i n c r a l sw i t h o u t r c p l a c i n ul h c n r w i t h a l t c r n a t i v cl s s c t s l i r r l i r t u r c g c n c r - a t i o nIs oc n . j o v( 2 0 ) . . . . . . . i t i s r r o ts u s t a i n u b llc a l l o w s p c c i c s l a n i r n a l s r p l u n l s o o oI o b c c o r n ce x t i n c l . Grccn ccononrisls rc nol stuny-cycd ut rellistic. It is to bc hopcd lhat thcir a bvicws will bc hcard.Exercise84 The Loch Ness Monster:mixed adverbials[SGEChapter 8lC o r n p l c l c t h c l i l l l o w i n u , p u l t i r r gl h c w o r d s i n d i c a l c d i n a s u i t a b l cp l a c c .L.rutrrltlt.M a n y p e o p l c s t a t ct h a l a p r eh i s l o r i c n r o n s t c rc o u l d r r o te x i s ttoclay. possiblyi t t . s n c r : a n y p c o p l c s l a l c t h a t a p r e h i s i o r - i c r o n s l c rc o u l d r r o t p o s s i b l y e x i s t M nlotlay. I T o l h o s c w h o h a v e n o t s t u d i c c tl h c I a c t s still r 1 h cL o c h N e s s M o n s l c r i s o n e o l t l r o s es i l l y s l o r i c s bckrvcclby ncwspupcrs. rrrcre ly 3 Suchan iltliludcis unclcrstanclablc. entircly :1 lt is not sllggcslc(lthat wc shoulrl accept the c x i s l c n c co f a r r u n k n o w n c r e a t u r c lirr a nronrent 5 w i t h o u t c o n s i c l c r i n gh e c v i c l e n c c , t w i t h g r c a tc a r e 6l7 bLrtit is not nruch lcr hopc surclv/too 8 thal pcoplc should have open rnincls.) rcasonably fhere 9 arc strangc things in the worlcl attcr all l 0 w h i c h w c n o w a c o c p t .b u t w h i c h w e r e once
    • 66 The semanticsand grammarof adverbials II consideredvery dubious. indeed l2 N e w s o f t h e f a m o u s S c o t t i s hm o n s t e rh i t fi rs1 l3 t h e h e a d l i n c so f t h e w o r l c l sp r e s s . in 1933 l4 although stories about a strangc aninlal in this remote lakc l-5haclcirculateclfbr rlany centurles. locally sightings l6 One of the lnost wiclcly reported i n D c c c m b e r 1 9 3 3- t u r n e d o u t t o b e a h o a x . unlbrtunatcly l7 The Duilt Muil newspaperarrangccllilr a Ncssic.rncl clown b i g - g a n t eh u n t e r t o t r a c kllJ/19 hc anclhis phototrapher fourrclfirotprints. within tirur clays/ on tltc shorcl 0 / l I H c S r t v r r t t r t l k i t h o t t ti l . cvcn/onthc BBC 22 BLrtthc fi)otprint hatl bccrr maclc with thc stuflctl tirot ()la hiPPolalnus. sadly 23 This tlicl not st<lptlthcr lllollstcr huntcrs artcl nulncrous sightings Itavc bcctr rcptlttecl. ovcr tlrcycars l;1 Photograplrsanclcinc lilnrs 1o1thc aninlals) allcgcrlly ?5 havc bccrr protlucctl. in cvirlcncc 26 Divcrs Irltvc clcsccrtdccl. i r t t ot h c l a k c a7 itnrl boitts arttl a tninilttttrc sttbtlrarinchavc r,,,ith ccho- scarchctl. sountlittg ctpripntcttt Iuln 197-5 new ttttclcrwatcrplrotographswcrc showtt i n t h c H o u s c so l t o M P s . s c i er t t i s l sa t l t l. i o t r r t t a l i s l s . Par-lianrcnt29/10 A lltttotts rralr.tt.alisl slatcd that large itttittlitls in thc lakc/ cx is l c t l . Lrndoubtcdly 3l Ihc UritishMttscttttt Ntttrral llistory) tlisagrcctl. ( s l r o n gIv 3l ln a book ptrblishctl in 199I J 3 i r L r l l r o rt u a r t C a n r p b c l lc x a t r l i r r c s l l 1 h cl r l l c g c t l S a p h o l o g r a p ha n d s i g h t i n g s . s painstakingly 3 4 H i s v c r d i c t a b k r w f i r r N c s s i ct l n s is lhlrl s l t e t l o c r t t o l t t t t t lt l t t t t t o lf x i s t . sadly
    • 9 Prepositions prepositional and phrasesExercise 85 Deferredprepositions [SGE 9.2] P r c p o s i t i o n s s u a l l y c o m c b c f i r r c t h c i r r r o u n ( o r p r o n o u n ) : u . f t t rt h t u t r t , u pcoplc vtitlt nrorttt. look a/icrl/rl,s. wc talkccl rrlrorrl nr.t1ttoltlotr.s. Ilut sourctinrcsthcyarcclctlrrccl,lhittis.lhcycorrcaficrthcirnr)unorpr()noun: Thcy arc kxrkcd o/icr. What clitl you IltlK ulxtutlC o u r p l c l ct h c s c n t c n c c s c l o w w i t h s u i l a b l cp r c p o s i t i o n s . b[i.rtrtttltlt; .lohtr i.suli titl or, sltidtr.s.T h c r rp r a c t i s e s i r r g r c p o s i t i o r ra l t c r l h c i r c o n r p l c n r c r rb y a s k i r r u / r a 1 - r l u c s t i o r r s u p s ts ul u b o u t l o h n sb r o t h c r A n t l r c w . . u, r Is ,NI)RLl:.ttrtttltlc. ot;l ,t:l{itt) I . l o h ni s v c r y i n t c r c s l c d . . . . . . a l l s o r t so l s p o r . t . I I l c s s o o c l. . .......uthlctics - l I l t " s k c el t . . .... loolhltll. .1 I Ic worrics . . . . . . h i sp r o g r c s s . -5 Hc haclto conlcn(l a b a c k i n . j u r yl a s l s c a s o n 6 He is etilrettlll sullrril1! cxhauslion. 7 Hcs ltoping l r t t i t n p r t r rt n l ( n l i l l l t i s t l r r t t t l3 He is lirnd .... tcllllrs. 9 l l c o b j c c t s. . . . t h e c o r n r n e r c i a l i z a t i oo f t h e g a n r e n .l 0 B u t h c b el i c v c s ... sPolt5,1r1-"11ip.l l H ed c p c n c l s l r ep l r o n t i s l a r n i l y l ht 2 Hc longs t h c d l y r v h e nh c c a n t u r n p r o l c s s i o n a l .
    • 68 Prepositionsand prepositionalphrases Complex prepositions ofjust oneword (a/, itt.vithout) therearealso consist Mostprepositions but consisting two or rllore words: becuuse itr cornplexprepositions of rl, trcltlititttt to.ltv ntttttt.t ttl .Exercise86 Two-word prepositions [SGE 9.3]Usc the worcls frttm thc first column (olce cach) plus a wgrd ligrlr thc seconclc6lumn to rnakc complex prepositions.altd thcn use them to complctc the passagc. accorcling I for along apart tnlm ,ll.^u.." I contrafy I ()f ;ffi::, I lrrespcctlvc to I or-rt prior thanks I witltIs global warming a scrious problcrn?((ornpare cxcrcisc 37) .II) global( I ) ,lc.<rrnDrNt; a rcccnt rcport. thcre rnay bc no need to worry aboutw a r n r i n g .( 2 ) . . . . . . . . . t h c p o p u l a rb e l i e t h a t ( l ) . . . . t .... risirrgtcptperiltures. polar icccapsarc about to mclt, llooclingvast areasof thc worlcl. thei t i s n o w es t i n r a t e dh a t ( t ) . . . t . . . . . t h e w c s t A n t a r c t i ci c c s h c c t t h c w o r l c l sicc shcetsarc saf.e. lrvcn if the eurth wanned up by 6"fi. it woulcl take 10.(XX) years tC)rnclt fltcClreenlanclcecap. (-5 .... i ) ..... thc east Antitrclic. that would rrccdtcmpcraturcs to risc by 20C bcfilre it rneltccl. Quitc (6) thcse estimittes. therc is anothcr morc startlingprecliction.Thisisthat(l..... ....gettingwitrrrrcr,thcworlclrnayactuitllybegettingcooler.(8). ........toourowncentury,lhercwasALittlclccAge.that lasted intermittently frorr thc sixtccnth ccntury. The causc was rcduceclsolitrradiation - less heat carne (9) the sun. - - . . . . othcr scientists bclicvc that sotneth in-l Many astronomcrs ( I 0) . . . . .similar could happenagain.Thc twenty-lirstcentury. ( I I ) . . . . . . . . . changesi n t h e s u n . m a y b c c o l d c r t h a n t h e t w c n t i e t h .S o ( l 2 ) " . . . .. wherc yclulive. you may soon be necding warmer clothes.
    • Prepositionalmeanings 9 6Exercise 87 Three-word prepositions [SGE 9.3]Can you completethesesentcnces they were originally written/ Use the asI o ll o w i n gl h r e e - u r d p r c p o s i t i o n s : o in cascof in spiteof with in cornparison in touchwitlr by rneans of by way of on bchallof on account clf for the sakeof in exchangc fbr in acltlition to with reference to I rNc,rse firc, breakthe glass. op 2 DearSir. yourqucryof24Scptentber.nryclaughtcrwillntttbe acconrpanying as shc is currcntlyin hcr thirclycar at university. me. 3 I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l.y . . . . . . . . t h i sp a r to l r n yex p c r i e n c e . h i c hI t a k ct o b c w rclevant thc work, that I arn applyingfirr thc positittn. to : 1 I s h o u l cl li k c t o p c l i n o u t t h a t t t h i sc x p c r i c n c cI.a l s oh a v ct h c r l c ( c s l t rp l t p c r t r l ri lh c l tilo t t s . y q 5 I t h a r d l ys e e m s o r t hw h i l e s t c r i f i c i n g o r n u c ht h a l i s c x c i t i n r o r a r n r - r s i n g w s . . . . . . . . . w h ails d u l l .i n c l e c i s i v c cb o r i n g . un l 6 Theclivisionintoolclcrandncwcrparlsisrnadclargcly clarity, ancl clocs imply lctual chronological not succcssiott. 1 ll ... . . . . . . a l l y o u r p r c c r l t t i o ny o r -c l oh a v ca b u r s tp i p c ,i t i s s a f e s o s r tt gct a plumbcrin irnrlccliately. l l T h c c l i s a c l v a n t a ga r c r c a l l y q u i t c s r n a l l cs thc vcry rcal advantagcs. c ) D o n o t h c s i t a t co g c t . t . . . . . . . . u si f y o u h a v ca t t yp r o b l c n t s .l0 We ainrto infbrm,c-clucate, publicizc, clcrnonstriltc aclvitncc aiutso1tltc arrcl lhc Associittion c x h i b i t i o n s . c t u r c sf,i l r n sa n c t t t e c t i t r g s , lc lI I I e n c k r sa c o p yo f m y C V c .........application.l2 W c i l c t. . . . . . . . . t h ca b o v c o m p a n yw h i c hh a sc o n s u l l c c lso r tv l r i o u s c , u r n a t l c r sn v o l v i n g o u a n c o u r c l i c n t . i y lExercise 88 Prepositions mainly of place and time [SGE 9.4-11]C o n r p l c t eh c l i r l k r w i n g s i n gs u i t a b l c r c p o s i t i o n s . t u pOfT the RailsA $ 2 9 9r u i l t i L k t ttt x t k T c t l o t h u( l ) B . . . . .a . r r . t - r c c t t r t r l ) tk (AnrcrituDoug. (3) . . . . . G o s l t u t t rI.n c l i a n ac t l u l d h a v e b e e n a c h a r a c t e ( 4 ) , r . . . . . .t h cb o o k( - 5 ) . . . . . .h i ss i c l cl . w a sa n o v e c a l l e d . l u lD u v g s t l C iDotrtBurk (6) .... . . N i g h t .H e w a s a p l r r k sa n c lr e c r c a t i o n x p e r t( 7 ) e . . . . . .h i sw a y ( t t ) . . . . . . a c o n f c r e n(c9 ) . . . . e .. Phoenix.Arizona. H c h a d b r o u g(h t0 ) . . . 1 . . . h i r n c o u n t l c s s b r o c h lulr)e s.(. . . . . . . . . . t h c .. ..p l a c ew e w c r e g o i n g tp a s s l l ) . . . . s o ( . . W en t e ( 1 3 ) . . . t . . . t h et w od a y s t t o o k t hS o u t h w c s t C htio g o( 1 4 ) . . . i e cf . . .C h i c a g o 5 ) . . . . . l(LosAngelcs. Doug only had fbur daysto reachPhocnix.attencl conference return the and
    • 70 Prepositions prepositional and phrases (h o r n eb u th c l o v c ctlr a v c l l i n gl 6 ) . . . , . . . t r a i n . y j o u r n c yw a sl c s s u r r i e d . M hr n o r cc x t e n s i v e 1 7 ) (. ...... $299 Id bought ne(18)..... oA r n t r a c k t i c k c t s h a ta l l o w c d o u t o s p c n d i x w c c k s r i s s - c n r s s i nh ec o u n t r y . s t y s c tgY o u c o u l cc o v c r a s I d i d . 7 . 7 2 ln r i l c s 1 9 ). . . l . ( . . . l e a v i n gh ec o u n t r y . t I h a cb c g u n r yj o r - r r n c y 0 ) . . . l n (2 . . . l ) c n rS t a t i o n 2 1) . . . r ( ... NewYork(22) . . . . . a w A r n d a y( 2 3 ) r . . . . . .S c p t c n r b e r . W c p a s s c cp l a c c s( 2 : 1 ) l . . . . . . S u g i t rC r c c k . M i s s o u r i ,w h e r c J c s s cJ a n r c sh a c l h i s h c a r l c ; u a r l c r .a n c l M a x w c l l . N c w M c x i c t r . n a r t t c t l ( 2 - 5 ) s.Lr.rcicn Maxucll. a larttous untcrln(l trallpcr. B h M o s t l ) l a c c su c l c i n t l i s t i n s u i s h a h l(c 6 ) . . 1 . . . . . . . o l l c a n o t h c r .( r 7 ) . . . . . . t h c a b s c n c c( 2 l i ) . . . . . . r n u c h t o r l o . f i r o c lb c c a r n ci n r p o r t a r r l .H o u r sw c r . c c t c r . r n i n c d 9 ) . . . d (1 . . . n i c a l s T h c l a s tc a l l ( 3 0 ) .b r c a k l a s lh a c lh u r t l l y b c c n r n a d cw h c n l l r c l i r s t l u n c l t c i t l l w c n t L r p . In (ll) . . . . . . n r c a l sl.h c l c w c r . c i d c o s h o w i n g s 3 1 ) v ( ......thcI o u n g cc u r . I t w u s s l n u r g cw l t c h i r r g v i c l c o( 3 3 ) . . . a . . . 6 5 r n p h .Y o u r r c v c r .k n c w i l , h c t h c rl ( ) w a l c h l h c s t o r y ( 3 1 ) . . . . . . s c r c c no r t h c ( ) n c u n t i l l c l i n g1 - 1 5 ) . . . . . . . . . . . t h cw i n t l o r v (361 . . . t h e t i n r e w e r c a c h c cA l b u r l u c r q u ei l w a s r r r i t lr n o r r r i r r g . i l r . y , l Ca N i . r v a . j o . j o i n cu s . H c t o l d u s ( 3 7 ) d . . . . . . t h c I l r t l i i t nl c s c r . v a l i o n su n d .p o i r r t c do u t u p l a n t w h i c l r i s u s c d ( - 1 8 ) . . . . . . r n c t l i c i n l l p r , r r p o s c s . c lt h c ans n u k e c c t l .u s c d( 3 9 ) w . . . . . . u n u n t i d o l c( 1 0 ). . . . snukcbitc :+ ) ( I . . . . . .s h c c p . I ) c o p l cg o l o n ( . + 2 ). . . . . . s t a l i o r t s . 1 3 ). . ( . . . . l h c r n i d c l l e( - l : l ) . . . . . . n o w h c r c ,( . + - 5 ). . . . . . p a p c r s u c k c d( : 1 6 ) . . t . ..... thcirr r r r n sT l r c l c w a s a h u s eT - s h i r t c dl u l h c r ( : 1 7 . . . . . . . .) Ituge urrns who carlicclh i s t w o s o r t sc v c r - y w h c r e c w e l r l . J l l e r c w a s r u r t t l d l a d y w l t o s e a u r t th a d l a l l e n h( . 1 u ). . . . . . a l a c l c l cu n r l c v c r ( . 1 9 ) . . r . ... thcn couldntrcrncnrhcranyoncs narnc (50) . . . . . . h e l b r - o l h c r sA n d t h c n o f c o u r s c l h c r c w l r s .Dor-rq. phrasesExercise89 PrepositionalR c w r i l c t h c s c n l c n c c s c l o w b y u s i n g t h c r i g l r t p r e p o s i t i o n t h c " v o r ci ln t l i c a t c r l . b +I n s o r n c c u s e s y o u w i l l n c c d t o n r a k c o t h c r c h a r r { c s .I l r r e c c s s a r y . o n s u l t u cdictionary.[:.tttnrplt.I rcalizcd irnnrccliate thal sonrclhing was wronlr. (oncc) ly,ttsurr. I rcalizctl ul ()n(( that sonicthirtg wits vJrong. I I d o n t k n o w t h c m t o s p c a k t o . ( t h o u s h [ v e s e c nt h c r n ) .( s i g h t ) J H e n c v e r l r r i v c s p u n c t u a l l y .( t i n r c ) 3 B u l o n t h i s s i n . l l c o c c a s i o r t c d i c l .l o n c e) h . 1 T h c i r c h i k l r c n s c c r t tt l r , r i t c n c o n t r o l l a b l c ( h a n c l ) u . .5 W h a l I w a n t m o r e t h a r ra n v t h i n g i s p c a c c a n d c 1 u i c l( a l l ) . 6 | think you arc paltly right.(poinl) 7 I d i c l n t n ) c a nt o b r c a k i t . ( p u r p o s c ) lJ W h a t l r c y o u c l o i n gt h c s c c l a y s ? p r es c n t ) ( 9 I m n o t c l o i n ga n y t h i n g s p e c i a lt h i s e v e n i n s .( p a r t i c u l a r ll0 I l l b c l v i t h y o L rv er y s o o n . ( m i n u t e )
    • meanings 71 PrepositionalI 1 No way. It just cannot evcn be considered. (qucstion).I2 We rnustallow fbr thc fact that hcs very old now. (all)l3 Everything ncatand tidy arrdready.(order) isl:l Incidentally, havcyou seenAndrew latclyl(way)l - 5 I f y o u g o o n t r y i n g .y o u l l r n a n a g c v en t u a l l y ( c n d ) e .Exercise 90 SayingsM a t c ht h c m e a n i n g ( a ) - ( n )t o t h c i n c o r n p l e ts c n t e n c c s , i n gt h c r nt o h e l py o u s c usf i l l i n t h eg a p sw i t h t h e s e r c p o s i t i t t nIs .r l e c e s s a rc o n s u l a c l i c t i o n a r y . p f y, t a t ( 3 ) f i r r i n ( 3 ) l i k e o f ( 3 ) o n o u to l ( 2 ) o v e r w i t h w i t h o u t I r x : . r r ,s i g h t ,. o . . . . . r n i n d .l f ] 2 l t sn o u s e r y i n g c . . . . . .s p i l t i l k .[ . . . . . . 1 m 3 Marry . . . . . .I t a s t c ; p e n rc .t . . . . .l c i s u r c . . . . . ] [ . 4 T h c g r a s ss a l w a y s r c c n c r i g ...... t h ct l t h c r i d c s . . . . . t h ct c n c c . il - 5 T h c r c s t os t . t t o k c t . . . . . . l i r c .[ . . . . . .I 6 R o m cw a sn o l b u i l t. . . . . . a c l a y[.. . . . . . ] 7 T h c r c s r ot i t n c I . . . .. . t h cp r c s c n l[.. . . . . .I 8 T h c b c s tt h i n g s . . . . . l i l t a r cl l c c [ . . . . . .I . 9 V a r i c t ys t h cs p i c c i ...... l i f c .[ . . . . . . Il 0 T h c l c sn o a c c o t t t t t i t t g . . .. . . t a s t cI.. . . . . .I| | Y o u( : r t lI t i t k e t . . . . . . i 1 o t r|.. . . . . .Il 2 C h a r i t b c g i r t.s y ..... h o r n c[.. . . .. . ]l 3 P o s s c s s iio n i r r c r t r t . . sn p s . . . . t h cl a w .1 . . . . .I.1 . 1A c l t r n a y k x r k ......aking.1......1 Meanings:(a) Grcataclricvctttctrts tilnc ancl takc cflirrl.( h ) O u r l i r s tr c s p o l r s i b i l i t s t o I a n r i l y r t dl l i c n t l s . iy a(c) You should cnjoy lit-e whilc you can. arttl ttol bc loo collccrllccl abor.rl r r e c t t t t r u l l t t itllt)g t t r l)t t t t lp r > s s c s s i o t t . o( d ) A n y o n ci s c n t i t l c c lo c r i t i c i z c c t t p l c t l p t l w c r . t p i( c ) N o w i s t h e b e s t i t n ct o c l <w h l t c v c ry o u r ep l a n n i n go c l o . l t(f) Sorncone sornclhing) longcrprcscl.tt soonlorgottcn. (or no ls(g) New ancl clillerent cxperietlccs rnakelilc intclcstrnq.(h) Thcrcsalwayssomebasisin tluth lilr rutnouranclscanclal( i ) I l y o u m a r r yt o o q u i c k l y .y o u l l h a v ca l o n gt i r n ct o r c g r e li t .( . t ) O t h e rp e o p l c si k c sa n dd i s l i k c s r ei r n p o s s i b ltc c x p l a i n . l a o(k) Regretting solrlething thatshappenecl a wastcof timc. is(l) Many activitics andso on thatcostntlthingarc Inorcworth whilc thanthings requiringInoney.(m)Beingin possession somcthing a greatadvantage youretryingto prove of is if ownership.(n) Sorncpeoplealwaysthink thatcveryoncclseis luckierthanthey are.
    • 72 Prepositionsand prepositionalphrasesExercise 91 Nouns + prepositionsCertain nouns alnrost are always fbllowcdby thesarne or f wo prepositions. onc Fillin the gapshtrewith the right ones. If necessary, consulta clictionary.Thc Research Defence Societysaythatthc (l) cascnonusinganir.nals rncdical inr e s e a r c i s o v e r w h e h n i n g .n c l h a t s u c h( 2 ) c x p e r i m e n t s . . . . h a t .. animalsmakc an important ) contribution .. . (3 .. . thc rclicf of sutlering. B u t t h e r e r eo f c o u r s er l )a r g u r n e n.t.s. . . . . . . . . . . . . u c h c s c - a r c h , dt h c r ci s a ( s r antierce -5) pposition ( o . . . . . . i t f i o m v a r i o u s n i r n ar i g h t sg r o u p sw h o s a y a l .t h c r c s n o p o s s i b l(e ) . i u s t i l i c a t i.o.n . . . . . . . . . . . n f l i c t i n p a i no n a n i r n a l T .h c y i 6 . . i g sr n a i n t a i nh a tt h c r cr n u s tb c ( 7 ) a l t c r n a t i v c.s . . . t . s u c hn r c l h o c l s . c t l t a t an l(u) cure s . . . . . . l.tunran cliscnscs lclbc sought shou elsewhclc. Thcir (9) anger . . . . . . w h a t l l r c y r c g a r ca s c l c l i b e r a tc r u e l l y a n c lt h c i r ( 1 0 ) s y m p a t h y l c . . . . . . t h e a n i r n a lk i n g d o r ni s c o r n t n c n d a t r lb u t i n t h c r n o r cc x t r c u t c c.a c t i v i s t t h i si s a c c o r . n p a n ib y a n a h l o s tt o t a l( I l ) c l i s r c g a r d s cd . . . . . t h ei rtcllowhurnan ings. be T h c r ch a v cb c c nn u r n c r o u(sl 2 ) a t l a c k s . . . . . . u n i v c r s i t i ca l t cr c s e r c h s l al a b o r a t o r i c n v o l v c c a.r t cp e o p l c h o u g hlto h a v ea ( l 3 ) c o n n e t i o n. . . . is l l t ct h c w o r k h a v cb c c ns i n g l c c l u t l i r r a l t l c k s . o Aninrul rightscanrpligrrcrs havculsotar-gclccl sholls so succcsfully lirr tlral t h (ll a l l i r r g u rs a l e s a v ch a da c l c v a s t u t i n g 1 ) i l n p a c t ...... cornrnurrilics,suchasthc scalhunlcrs northcrn of (-anacla. whosc( I 5 ) dcpcndcncc.. . . .t h c f u r t n r c l c a st h c i rr n a i ns o u r c c f l i v c l i h o o r l w o I n s ol i r r a s a n i n rra g h t s c a n r p a i g r he rv c a i s c d o u r16 ) a w a r c n c s s il r a sr (t h c r n o r a i s s u c sn v o l v c c n o u r ( 1 7 )c l c a l i n g s l i il ...... anirnals,cll ancl wg o o c lT h c r cs h o u l d c r t o( l l l ) q u a l r . c l . b . . . . . . t l r a t B u tt h c r ci sn o ( l 9 ) c x c u s c . . . . . . . t h cv i o l c r r ca n dt h e( 2 0 )t h r c a t s c . . . . . . h u r n a ni l c w h i c hw c lhavcsccn.The pcoplcrcsponsiblcnrustnotbcalklwcclany(21.)escapc........t h c ( 2 2 )c o n s c r l L l c n c c s . . . . . . t l i c i ra c t i o n s .Exercise 92 Putting prepositional phrases in the right place I ) r c p o s i t i o n p l r r a s c h a v cv a r i o u s i r n c t i o n sr . r s c n t e n c c . o m c t i n r ca a s l i u S s p r e p o s i l i o n a lh r a s es a d v c r b i a l : p i tlc is going to planl a lrcc li thc littnt gtlr1rri. IThis u s t r / t t rl h c i s S o i n g 1 o p l a n t a t r e e. l S o n r c t i r n c st l b l l o w s a n o u n p h l a s c .a n d i s r a t h e rl i k e a r e l a t i v c c l a u s c : i Thc lrcc itt tlrc.fiortteurtllr is two hunclredyears old.I So therc arc sornctirncs problcnrs ita prcpositiclnal phrascgets sepafatcd llonrthe worrl(s)it rcalll"bckrngs lo.T h i n k a b o u tt h c p r e p o s i t i o n a lh l a s e s n c l e r l i n eic l t h e l i r l k r r . l , i na u t h e n t i c p u n gnewspaper reports, anclnrovethenror rewritethe scntcnccs tcl bring out lheprobable eanings. m
    • 73 Prepositionalphrases bodiesin thecar murders conftssed killing toEranrple:The manaccused theof his girlfriendand her flat-mate while in prisonawaitingtrial, the court heard yesterdaY.Ansv,er..The man irccused thebodiesin the carmurdersconf-essed, of while in prisonawaitingtrial, that he had killed his girifriendancl flat-mate. her O r :W h i l e i n p r i s o na w a i t i n g r i a l ,t h e m a n . . . t [The rneaning must be that he confesscd, rathcrthan killed. while hc was in prison. So the originalscntencc reads awkwardly.lI Sincethen therc havc beenno reportsof the growing tcnsionin the official rnedia,althclugh new China News Agcncy quotccl heacl Nankings the the of Hehaiuniversity ycsterday callingon tbrcignstudcnts returnttl class. as to2 An carlicr rcport that he haclsecnTerry Waitc. the Archbishop of Cantcrburys spccialenvoy kidnappcd in.lanuary l9lt7. was dcscribcclas a tttisuttclcrstanding by l-antbeth Palacc. Incws itern. 1990. Larnbcth Palacc is thc Archbishops London horne. Tcrry Waite was frcccl in l9c)l.l3 Thcthir{[manl.ancphewctfthescnator.hasnotrlatiehimsclfavailablcon{hc a d v i c eo l h i s l a w y c r .zl Hc was firrceclto ahanclonhis atternptto bc thc first pcrsorrttl sailthc Atlantic both ways crnMonclay aficrntltln.-5 Dctectivcs arrestccl girls 1a1her tcr watching lhe Pcnnsylvaniallat hc had thc af rcnteclfbr two days.f) Aclviccto backache suftcrers: I)onl pick up hcavy weightslikc groccries tlr c h i l d r c n i t h s t r a i g hltc g s .l y o u w i l l h a v et o l c w r i t ct h i sc o t n p l c t c l y l w
    • 1 0 Thesimpte sentenceExercise93 Clausestructure[SGE 10.1-4] T h c r e a r c b a s i c a l l y s c v c n t y p c s o f c l a u s c c o r n b i r r i n gt h c c l c r n c n t so f S ( u b j c c t ) . ( c r b ) . O ( b j c c t ) .C ( o n r p l c t n c n) a n d A ( d v c r b i a l )i t rv a r i o u sw a y s . V tk l c n t i l y t h c s c n t c n c ct y p c s t h a t t h c f i r l l o w i n g s c l l t c n c c s c k r n g 1 o l s S V . S V O , bSVC. SVA. SVOO. SVOC or SVOA. I I l c l t v e r y t i r c c l .S V C [ / = S . f L l t= V ; r r r l t i r c l = C . l 2 My tcct hurt. 3 Tl.rcreccptionist hanrlcdnrc nry kcy. .l I wantccl lirod. - 5 | p l a c c dn r y c o a to v c r a c h a i r . 6 I ordcrcd nrysclf sonrcthins1ocat. 7 I t s c c r n c ds c n s i b l c . tt I lay on thc bccl. 9 A waitcr brought collic and sanclwicltcs.l0 IIc sctthc tray on a tablc.ll Iwasyawning.l 2 I f b u n ct h c b c dr a t h c r h a r d . ll 3 T h c t h i c k c u r t a i n sc x t c n c l c c lo t h c I l o o r . t1.1 Bul thc hotcl was siluatcclon a busy strect.l-5 Thc trallicnoisc kcpt rnc awakc.Exercise94 Verbs with two objects ISGE 10.5]R c w r i t c h el b l l o w i n g V O Os c n t c n c c p , l t i n g h ei n d i r e co b j c c la t i e rt h ec l i r e c l t S su t tob.ject. usinglo or.tot. anclL..ranrplc. boughtthe chilclrcn crcarns. Shc iccAtrsver. boughticc crcarns thc children. Shc firrE.runrplc. wrotc his ruother lettcr. Hc aArtsvcr. wrotea letterto his rnothcr. He I Why diclyou lendthat clreadful nranrnoney/ 2 Hcs alwaysscndingpeoplebeggingletters. 3 He shouldhavewrittenyou a propcrletter. 4 Perhaps could find him a job. we
    • Subjectcomplements 75 -5 Why shoultlI botherto get him work? Torn that loan. 6 Hc hasnevcrrepaicl 7 I h o p c t h e y v e r c s c r v e cu s a t i t b l c . l 13Lcl nrc buy you a clrink 9 Youd tlrink sorttcottc oultl brinc us a lllcllLl. wl 0 T l r c y L r s u l l l ys i l v c l l t c n t a b l c b 1 l l t c w i n t l t l w II C l n y o L lp a s sr n c t h c s r l t ll 2 I w o n d c r i l t h c y c o u l c lp f c p r t r cu s a s l . r c c i l t l t r t l c l i n g l pExercise95 SVOO[SGE 10.5]S 6 1 r cv c r b sa c t u a l l yp r c l c r S V ( X ) w o r d o r t l c r .C o r n l t l c t c l r c l i r l l o w i n g t t s i r l g / i r l i t lor lrc urtrlotrc of thc phritscsfrorn tllc tllirtl coltttltrt I I rskccl a lot ol tnottcy. 2 W o u l t lt h c y a l l o w thc lirll plicc. 3 B u t t l r c yr c l u s c c l a cliscottttt. :1 slryingIcl citusctl thcrrr t h c i r s c l f- c o n f i d c r t c c . 5 I p o i n t c d u t t h c y dp r o n t i s c c l o ntc a sirrplc clucstiotr. 6 B u t t h e yi n s i s t c c ln c h a r s i n g o this rcasorutblcrccluesl. 7 | envy cxtra llrllc to pay. lJ But il cost a lot ollroublc. ll l s k c t l r r t - M . s t t t tt r e l I s l l ( .13A5 .....6 .....15Exercise 96 Subject complements [SGE 10.5,10.7]Sornecopularverbscan bc fbllowedby both adjectivcand noun ctlmplements.Rewritethefollowing,usingan adjective placeof thenouncomplement. in Make changes.all othernecessaryE.rample:I felta real idiot. Anstt,er;lfeltreally idiotic.
    • 76 Thesimplesentence I I felta real fool. 2 It sounded excellcnt an idea. 3 B u t i t h a s n t r o v e d p a r t i c u l as u c c e s s . p a r ,l Shclookcda sensible rson. pe - 5 S h c l lp r o b a b l c n du p ar i c hw o r n a n . y 6 Hesbecorne athorough bore. 7 Thc wholcthingseerns ultcrnraclncss ntc.to S T h u t s . j us e l i s h n c s s . s tl 9 Theyvc rcnrainecl lricnds.l 0 I t s l u r n e d u 1 n i c cc l a v g a i r r . o a aExercise 97 Complements [SGE 10.7]C o n r p l c t ch c s c r r t c n c c si t h t i r ea d . j c c t i v c s v c r r . t w gi bacl browrr calrn clctr clclicious flat old opcn peculiar- rcarly truc Slandcr.r,,rH[t..runrplr. otthc rloors. I T h c l c a v c s a ct u r n c c l h l . . . . . . l t w o u l ds o o nb c w i n t c r . 2 | f c h I w a sg r o w i n g . . . . . . l o o - l i k c t h cy c a r . 3 I w a s . j u s tc t t i n g g . . . . . . l o h a v cr n y s u p p e r . 4 w h c ns u c k l c n lty c c l o o r p r a l t g h s . . . . . . a n d I h c l r c lg u n f i f c . - 5 I t h r e wr n y s c l f o t h c { r o u r r d t n dl a y t i ...... on thcfloor. 6 Y o r rl t l v e l ( ) k c e . . . . . . . p ... ln an cnrcrgcncy. 7 f h e t o l l i cs r r r c l l c t l u But I lcarccl thc nrcat haclgolrc ... 9 I t h a d t a s t e d. . . . . . l h c p r c v i o u sd a y .I0 At this ratcury clrcarns ould ncvcr colnc . wExercise98: Deverbalnouns ISGE 10.16-17] S o t n c l i n r e s ( )g i v c r n o r e w e i g h t t o l h c e n r l o l a s c n t c n c e . c t - t s c l a l h c r t w a generalvcrh with not rnuch nlcilning + u noull clcrivedfrorn a vcrb (cu: /rrrlc utt drgunt(nl. insteacl ol.just using thc verb urgur).R c w r i t ct h e s e t c n c c sr.e p l a c i n gh c u n d e r l i n e v c r b sw i t h o n eo f t h cf b l l o w i n g n t clverbs+ an appropriate noun. do give have nrake takeMakc any othcrncccssr,rry changes.E.tanrplc: sighecl I with relief.Ansuer.gavea sigh of rclief. I I He rushesaroundmadly phsllag&phi.lgeverywhere. 2 Sorne thernare very good.Lookl of 3 But one of these dayshell injurehimself. 4 Id like to arrange him to seea psychiatrist. fbr
    • 77 Subject-verbconcord 5 He doesntneecl you advisinghim. 6 Pcrhaps holidaywoulclbe goodfbr hirn. a 7 He lcctures aboutinterfering. me u lve neverharmedanyone. 9 I crieda lot but I still feltmiserable. (usc,goorl)l() t{e is not intcrested anything in elsclhcseclays.II Hc looksat rne in sucha funnyway.l2 I u i s hw e c o u l cIl a l k a b o u ti t .l3 B u t h c . j u s g e t so l l c n d e d . tlzl Ilow ciln onc cxctlscthat sort of bchaviourll5 O h w e l l ,i t s t i r r t c c g o tn t o v i n g . wExercise 99 Subject-verb concord [SGE 10.19-271 S i n g u l a r u b . j c c lg r a r n r n a t i c a lny c c s i n g u l a r c r b s ,a n d p l u r a ls u b j c c t s s s lc l v ner-rl plural vcrbs. But sontctirttcs rrotiollalconcortl is uscd concorcl lccorcling rtteaniltg trt ralhcrthartstrictllratlllrtar.C h o o s ct h c b c s t w o r t l s i n t h c l i r l l o w i n g . I Thc global tolal ollror.ncs witlr TV was/wcrc csfitnatccllo bc ovcr -5(X) rnilliort by 19t37. 2 B u t i n l g u u t h c f l h i n c s c N c w s A g c n c y s a i tch c n u t n b c r o l I V v i c w c r s i n C l r i n a l a l o n c w a s / w c r c 6 ( X )n t i l l i o l t , w a l c h i n g l ( X ) s c t s . 3 6 ( X )n r i l l i o n i s / a r ca l o t o l v i c w c r s . :l Tlrc greatesl rrurnbcrolcpisoclcsol itny TV progralltlllc cvcr solcl was/wctc l. frl4 cpistxlcs ttl(rttttrttrlitttt tL1. Stt -5 Irr lt)7 I thc cornplctescricslt that datc was/wclcsolrl to a Claltitdian colnprtlly. 6l-ficWitrtlstlWur,aboutlhcSccondWorldWlr.,was/wcrcthcrlloslcxpcnslvc t e l c vi s i t t n p r o c l u c t i o tc v c r . r 7 1 . 6 b i l l i o n p c o p l c - o r . a l l r i r c lo l t h e w o r l t l s p o p u l u l i o n a r c / i s s a i d l t t h a v c watchcd Bob ficltlolsoriginal Livc Aid collccrls. u This pop stitr anclfirnclraiscl rrc/is rtow worlcl littt.totts 9 Actually Billy Craharl - as wcll as Bob Gclclol was/wcrc bchind thcsc c0nccrIs.l0 Arouncl one in ten UK houscholclswas/wcrc without colour TV in l9tltl.ll But ntore than onc ir"r two lrouscholcls thc UK has/havc two or lllorc scts. inl2 Having two ttr thrce se{ssccttt/secnls unneccssitryto nlc.l 3 2 5 h o u r s 2 l r n i n u t e sa r c / i s s a i d t o b e t h c a v e r a g cU K v i e w e r s w c c k l y l i x .lzl A rnajority of vicwers wclrlclwideprobably watch/watchesncws programmcs rcgularly. l-5 News of clisasters reach/reache a huge audiencc. s l6 What you both see anclhear has/haveAn enonrlous inlpilct. I7 So many people being killed in earthcluakes and cycloncs are/is traeic. l8 So-callcd progralnmes of cntertainntcntare/is not always cntertaining. l9 B u t a p p a r e n t l yt h e a u d i c n c ef b r s i t - c c l m s a n d s o a p s a r e / i sl a r g e .
    • 78 The simple sentence20 Too much scx anclviolenceare/isshownin my opinion. -2 l Swcaring and bad lan-uuage general are/isalsoprevalenl in22 A numbcrof concerned indivicluals protcsl/protcsts.Exercise100 Other types of concord ISGE 10.28-30]C o r n p l c t ct h c t i r l l o w i n gw i t h a s u i l a b l cw o r d i r r c o l l o t l L r i l ls t y l c .A t o n c t i r n c c v c r y o n c w i t h a t c l c p h o n cp a i d l i r r D i r c c l o r y [ i n c ; u i r i c s r c g a r d l c s so l h o w o l i e n ( l ) t t t t , ru s c ctl h c s c r v i c c . o w l r B l i t i s hT c l c c o n r u s t o l l t c r o n l y a s N c htopayuhcn(l)..... actullly(l)..... .it.Andsorncpcoplcrlorrolh a v ct o p a y a t a l l . N c i t h c r a b l i r r t lp c r - s o n ( ) ra p c r s o nr r n a b l c o t r s e h c p h o n c b o o k s t tt h n l r g h s o r n ed i s a b i l i t y ( : l ) . . . . . . . t o l ) i l ]. S o i l r , r t t k t t , r u ( ) n t ( ( ) t ) ( l l ( r (5) .... . . c l i g i b l e l.e l l ( 6 ) . . . . . . l o a s k B T u b o u ti l . T l r c r c s i t r r o l h c r x c c p t i o n .N o c a l l t o D i r c c l o r y l l n q u i r i c s l i r n r a B T p u b l i c cp a y p l r o n cl ) . . . . . . a n y t h i n gu t l l l . A p a r t f r r r r nh e s c f l c cc n r l u i r i c s . a c h c n t l u i r y n o w ( l { ) t c ...... ovcr -3-51t. U s u a l l y r v h c n I r i n g h o r n cc i t h c r n r y t i r t l r c r r r r r o l l r c ( 9 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B 1 t o rn c i t h c r o ll h c n ( l 0 ) . . . . . . u t h o r n cy c s t c l c l u yw h i c h s u r p r i s c cn r cu s n c i t h c r , lo l t h c n r( I I ) . . . . . . o u t v c r y o l i c n . A n y w a y n o n c o l t h c p c o p l cI t r i e dt op h o n cy c s t c l r l u y I l t . t .. obtainablcExercise101 Positiveand negativetags [SGE 10.33-36] a ( T a e c l u c silo r r s r c u s u u l l yn c g a t i v ca l t c r p o s i t i v cs t a t c m c n t s Yt t r r c t t r t n r l x , r , t I o t r t t o t r / ) n c lp o s i t i v ca t t c r r t c g a l i v c( Y o t rl t u v c t r f. f l t r g o t t t r r r u t t t o r t . l a l, T h c y a r c r r l s o o s i t i v eu l t c r s t u t c n r c n to f n c g a t i v cr n e a l r i n g T l r u t . t s t u r c e l v p s ( tuproltlcnr. is irlIA d d t a gq u e s t i o nls l h c s cs c n t c n c c s . o I T h e r ec o u l dh a r d l yh a v eb e e na s i l l i e re x c u s e<o r r r . nr r r , r r u l . l 2 Thingsarc scldor-n quitc what thcy sccrn. 3 Y o u r a r c l yg c t e v e r y t h i n g o u w a n l i n l i l c . . y zl Pcoplcshouldrnakcthc bcstof what theyvc got, ... 5 Y o u c a n tl i v e f b r e v e r . 6 The ncws is rathcrclcprcssing. 7 T h c r ch u v ch c c ns o n t c e r r i b l c c c n c s| nl c l c v i s i o n . t s ( 8 It will be difTicult get aid to all these to people. 9 This is scarcely generous,l0 We haveto do what we can to help.
    • Negation 79Exercise102 Responding negativequestions toAgree or disagree as inclicated to the statelrents suggested by these negrttivcquestions. fy] indicatcs the questioncrs fircts arc correct; [X] rneans thcy arewrong.E.runrplt. Hasnt Lcningrad becn rcnarnedSt Pctersburg? [y]Artsver. Ycs. it has.E.tuntplt. Isnt Mont Blanc tlrc highest rtrountainin thc worlcl?[,X] .N o . i t i s n t .A t t . st t u I M t E v c r e s ti s .] I Wcrcnt Hillary and Tcrrsing thc lirsl l.rcoplcttl reach thc surnrnit?lyl 2 Hasnt Evcresl Itow bcctt clintbctl hy wonlcn? [y] I Cant wc tlcsccnclto thc cclttrc of thc carth with spccial cquipnlcnt?l,Xl . 1 W h y ? W o u l c l r r p c r l p l c c a b l ct t l s u r v i v e h e h c a t / X l t b t l 5 I l a v c n ta l l t h c m o u r r t a i no f t h cw o r l c b e c nc l i r n b c c l o w l I X l s l n (r lsn1 .fakarta the capital ol lncloncsia? lyl 7 D i i l n t t h c i s l a n c l t K I a k a t ob l o w u p i r r l t t u l l I r l l o a 8 W a s n t t h i s t h e b i g g c s l v o l c a n i c c r u p t i o r ti n h i s t o r y /[ I l 9 Docsntthe sutrso rttuntlthe earth? lXll 0 W o n t t h c y c a r2 0 ( X b c a l c a py c a r ?y l ) lExercise103 Emphasizingnegation Wc sornctirt.tcs cttrphasize a Itcgitlivc tttcanillg by putting a ncgativc aclvcrbialat lhe vcry lront of thc scnlcnce.This usually requircs illvctsitttt of thc subjcct anclopcrator if thc ncgative ncgalcs the whttlc clitusc. nccswith thcncgative ncar-neRcwritcthcfollowingscnte or wordor phrase S,ativcat the front.E.tutnple.neverirnagined I that anythinglikc that woulclhappen me. to NL.vFrR I r4A(;tNE anything thatAttsver. DID that like wouldhappen me.(invcrsion) toE.tanple.I fbund that, not fbr the first tirne, I was wrong.Attsv,er: troR FIRST Not TuL, rrnlE, foundthat I was wrong.(rio inversion) I I I flew to Egyptnot long ago. 2 Nowadays peopleno longcrgo by sea. 3 I haventbeenso irnpressed sinceI went to Mexico. 4 You wont find a more amazing buildingthanthat pyran-rid anywhere.
    • B0 Thesimplesentence 5 Unfbrtunatcly lost my wallct - rrottbr the first tirne. I 6 Y o u l i t t l er e a l i z e o m e t i m ets e l r o u b l e o u c n nc a u s e t h e rp c o p l c . s h y o 7 I haveselclorn hearcl suchan extraordinary explanation. ll You rarelydiscover whole lruth in thcscrnattcrs. the 9 The -guiclc cliclnt oncccorlplain.l0 Y o u h a r d l yc v c r f i n d s u c hh o n c s t y .Exercise 104 Nonassertive words ISGE 10.37] E n g l i s h d o e s n o t u s L r a l l y l s ct w o o r n r o r c n c l l a t i v c si n t h c s a r n cc l a u s c( : / L trt,rcr.suil ttltlltitr.q trrthrxlt.[nstcacl to wc usc nonasscrlivcfrlrrrs with one rtcgativc / rrrlcr .vrr1 zrtltlrri,g ,,:::,.u)_lr-l)_:f_D i s a g r c ew i t h t h c s l a l c n r c n t s s i n d i c a t c d f o l n p l c t c y o u r r c r n a r k s i t h t h es e n o n - a . wasscrtive wortls or phrascs: any ilnyonc any longcr ut all cithcl ev e r firr long rnuch yctplus any othcr wurrls that trc llcccsslry.ll.r tp I c ; Sorncbody nr ust know sornet i ng about it. urt hA t t . y y t eIrt k r n t t h i n k A N y l l o r ) y o r , s N n n N ( A l r o t r n . . K A i t lhcyll | c o m c s o n r ct l n r c . Itlorrllhirtk. f Ivc bccn waiting agcs. Cioon!Yottlutvcrt1. 3 T h c c x h i b i t i o n i s p r o b a b l y u l r c a d yo v c r . ( ) l r ,I t l o u h t l . . . . . . . i 4 W c o t r g l t t 0 u r l t t il . tl ( w r ) r ( ) r ( r t t i n u l . s . l ( ) l r , t l o n l lc t s . . . . 5 Thc wcathcr secrnsa lot bctlcr. Itlorttlhirrk. 6 Tom knows a lot about art. I dont bclicvt- e h A n d h i s r n o t h c d o c st o c r . r Noshcckrcsn1........ Is it a long way frorn hcrc 1trthe stationl N o ,i t sn o t . . . . . T h i s c r o s s w o r d u z z . l ics c l u i t c i r n p l e . p s I c l o n tth i n ki t . . . . .l0 Surelysorncone must know thc answcr. B u tI d o u b it f . . . . . . .Exercise 105 Scope of negation ISGE 10.38-41] The scopeof a negationusuallystartswith the negative wherewe put the negativemay affectthe meaning.
    • Negation B1 the in waysin cachof thefollowingscntcncesInsert wordsinclicated two diff-crent rnakingany othcr stnallchangcs showrt.to give the meanings nccessary.I I lruvttrt Attdrct" .surllrcs,s. ,qrtl (still) ( a ) ( l h a di t , b u t I v c l o s ti t . ) I tl,F.NT St ll.l. (iOTNt)R[WS rl)l)RI]SS ( b ) ( l v c b c c n l v a i t i r . r g g e st i r r i t . ) a l l l l I l l . l l r ( ) l l ) R I l ) l ) R I .) I u t l v i . t c t l l r i n r t t t t t t n r l t l u i t t . ( t r r t l) (l) (l lclt strongly thltt it was rrot a goocl iilca to corrlplaill.) (h) (lollirctl ttorttlvicc.)) I drtti t kttotr vhtrt.sltupltertitr,q. ldtlittitclr) (a) (l arl totally ignorant.) (b) (l havc a sortolrouth i(lcrl.)4 I tlttrrt lt.to utrlLrstuttltht.stIhitts.s.(ttctr) ( a ) ( T h c r c sr r o p o i n t i n l r y i n g . ) ( b ) ( Y o u r n i g h t h l v c c x p c c t c dl h r t a t l c a s l I w o L r l c l . )5 Ilc litltr l ur-ritt linrc. (rtttt t) tttr ( a ) ( J u s to n o l l c o c c a s t o t r . ) (h) (Ncver.)6 I lotrl likc otslcrs(yrrtirulurlt) . ( a ) ( B u t I d o n l r n i n t lt h c r r r . ) ( b ) ( l r c a l l y l i s l i k ch c r n . ) t tI I drtttt trttdtrstutrd.(rtttllt) ( a ) ( l l i s i n c o t n p r e : l t c n s i btl o n r c - . ) c l h t t l h r r l lt l o . I s u p p o s c . )8 Tlrut.sttot d(((ptublL. (.sirtrltlt) ( a ) ( l t i s u n a c c c p t a b l cT o t a l l y ! ) . ( b ) ( l t s m o r et h a na c c c p t a b l e i t s v c r y w e l c t t m en d c c c l . ) i
    • 11 typesand discourse Sentence functions Questions Thcrearethreernaintypcsof clucstions: that with a straight or tro. I .rr,.r questions canbe answcrccl rro _r{,.r Atcvou r eu d.t". H u tt t t t ( )tt g ( ) t c t t rt t t g I t n I t t n t.". 2 nlr-qucstions,bcginnning with Nliat. vhcrc, crtc.or /ron. 3 altcrnativc qucstions - whcrc thc qucstioncr sLlggcsts altcrnativcs: lVr11 you ltuvt ttu ttt-t olltt!Exercise106 Negativeyes-no questions[SGE 11.5]You arc latlrcr cnrss and surpriscd at thc way a lricnd has bchavccl.Criticizc hirnl r r r t lr n l r k es t t t g t s l i o t t st.t s i t t gt t c g r t l i v e . l . , i / , ( l u ( t i ( ) r l s . sE.tuntplc.(You thitrk) hc ought to apokrgizc.Yotr stnto hinr.Oughtnt you to apologize?Youthink: You sayto hirn: I Surclyhc gotrnyr)lcssagc. ? Hc ncverctrnsidcrs pcoplc. othcr 3 S u r e l y o r n c f t h i sw o r r i c s i n r . s o h 4 H c i s n tg o i n gt o s u yh c ss o r r y ! 5 It sccurshc no fcelines. has 6 Hc couldhavcletr-nc know. 7 S u r c l y i sp a r c n t w i l l b ew r l r r i c d . h s u l woulcihavcthoughtyouclbc able to scehow they fccl. 9 It rnightbe bctte to go ancl thcrn. r scel 0 H e s h o u l d r y a n dc x p l a i n . tI I It woulclbc a good iclca him to tcll lirr his Iather.l2 Perhaps (both)canfirrgctthisnow. youExercise 107 Tag questions [SGE 11.6]Complete fbllowing with a suitable questron. the tagE.rumple:Pleasesendus a postcarcl,Ansver:Please wont you? sendus a postcard. I Youd betterlock the car. 2 And do remember shutthe windows. to 3 And youd betternot leavethe radio in the car, 4 Y o u w o u l d n tw a n ti t s t o l e n . . .
    • Wh-questions83 l 5 Ancldont fbrgetto put on the brakes ... 6 O h . s t o pt r c a t i n g e l i k e a n i c l i c l t , m ...... ! l 7 tm j u s tc h e c k i n c v e r y t h i n g . g - .. . . . 8 Come o n .l e t s o . . . . . g . . . . . . . . . .1. t) Anc l c t sn o tc l u a r r e l , ...........ll 0 T h c r c s o t h i n gn o r el o b e s a i c l . n l ...... lExercise 108 Wh-questions ISGE 11.9-10]y 9 u w a n t 1 6k n 6 w p r 6 r ca b g u ts p o r t .L J s c l / t w o r t l ( i r r c l u d i r r gt o } 1 ) : t nlth c u / lw o r - c gs v c nt ( )a s kc ; u c s t i o n s i n c l i c a t c T lh c li as c . a n s w c r t o t h eq i l c s t l o l llsr cg l v c n s lin brackcts.I . , . t t t n t p llti r.s tO l y n t p i cC i u n t c s / h c l1lA t O l y n r p i ri r ra n c i c r tC i r c e c c ) . . t . tY o t t u . s k w l t t i N w l r R I : l l l l , I r l l t s l ( ) 1 . N { l lt( . r l t t s t t t l t - l l ] . ; I t i r s t O l y n t p i c G a r r t c s / r l l o d c r . n i r n c s / i n a u g r r r a i c ( I .( o n 6 A p l i l t ltSt)6) ) o t h c r c v c n t s b c s i d c s r u n r r i n g / c o n s l i t u t c i r t h l c t i c s . ( r c l a y s . w a l k ie v c f i t s t l ng. ncl and rlultiplc cvcntslikc thc clccathlon) - tllillgs I l i c l c lc v c n t s / i n c l u d c ( t h c h i g h . j u n r p . h c l o n t . i u n r p .t l i s c u sl h r o w i n s . t like that) . l t h c w o r { r l c c a l h l o n / r n c l n(.a c o n l es t i n w h i c h c a c hc o n t p c t i l o rt a k c sp a r t i n l 0 c v c n t s) 5 o l t c n / O l y n r p i c( i l r n r c s / n o wh c l t l . ( c v e l y f t l u r y c a r s ) 6 c o u n t r y / h o s t / l g tO l y r n p i c i a t t l c s S o u l hK o r c a ) tu C (. 7 becornc/youngestcvcrplaycrtowin/rnenssinslcschdrnpionship/Wilublcdon. ( t s o r i sB c c k c r i n l 9 t i - 5 ) tinrc.(Flcwas l7 ycars227 clays) u olcl/thc 9 people/ntanagc/finish Lonclon thc Marathon/990. (nearly2-5(XX)) I l0 older- crickctor fixttball.(possiblytbotball- thercareconllictingclairns) NorthCarolina, I I motorracingwin at Asheville, rccgrd(Shawrt USA/l9titt/set Robinsons) (because wasthefirstwomanto win this sortof l2 this achievement/special. she event)
    • 84 Sentencetypes and discoursefunctionsExercise 109 Wh-questions ending with a preposition ISGE 11.10] askingnlr-questions end with a prcposition.Practise thatE . r u n t p l e d o n t k n o w w h a ty o u m e a n ;. . . . . . o n e a r t ha r ey o u t a l k i n g. . . . . . I .Yott sut".wHAT oN tiARTnARF- otl TAt-KING eot rl y a l I I c a n ta f l b r da b i c y c l e . . c a n I b o r r o wo n e . . . . . . . . . . 2 I c a n tt a l ka b o u t h i st o r n y l a t h e rs o , . c a nI d i s c u s is . . . . . . . . . . l t 3 U N m c a n s h eL . J n i t e da t i o n sI. k n o w .b u t . . . . . . . .. . d o t h c l c t t e r s H O s t a n d t N W ..........! . 1 I d o n t u n d e r s t a n d w h a t y o u r e t r y i n g t o s a yu r c y o u g c t t i n g . . . . . . . . . . l .: 5 S o r n e t h i n s m a k i n g o uu n h a p p y ig y . . . . . u r cy r r uw o l r y i n ! . . . . . . . . . . l 6 E v c r y t h i n gs g o i n gw r o n g ; i . h a v cI g o t t o l o o k f i r r w a r d. . . . . . . . . . l 7 I rncl sorneonc yesterclay someone you know! do you think I b u m p c d. . . . . . . . . / . 1 3D o y o u t h i n kt h c r c s f n r n i l yr c s c n r b l a n c c l. . . . . . . . . .o f h i s p a r e n l s o y o u a d t h i n kh e t a k e s. . . . . . . . l . c ) I v c g o tl i r r t o o n a n y . j u r n p e r.s . . . . . . . s h a l I g e tr i d . . . . . . . . . . l r . . ll 0 Y o u l o o k a s t h o u g hy o u r c c x p e c t i n !s o r n e o n e ..... arcyou wlitirrq ........../Exercise 110 Exclamations [SGE 11.20]Y o u a r ci n u n c x c l a n r a t o r y o o c lS o l u r n y o u ft h o u g h t sn t oc x c l a m a t i o n u , i l r t rn ! i ssllou or 1llral.Whcrc possiblc alsornakean cxclanratory rcrnarkin thc firrnrolancgativc ucslion. qE . r u n r l t l c(Y o u t h i r r k ) l t i sr c s t a u r a ns u n u s u a l . . T ilY r t t t. s t t w n A I A N t . N t . s it l - r c s t a u r a n t ! . ( ) / I S N r r n r St t . r s r A t : r i Au ntu s u a l l r N I You think: Thc fbod is dclicious. You say: . . lixrtl ! " t l t l i ti o t r s 2 But thc scrviccis slow. , . . . . .s c f v r c e t : in. *,y1".:,:. i"Jo li{ii:, ... good-lttoking? 1 ( Y o u r f r i e n c le a t s u i c k l y . ) q lil.*,", "T t:::ll:":lTllljJ:.,*,.. l:: ... cxpcnsivel 6 Thev chargc a lot. , . . . . .a l o t l
    • Block language 85 l ::::T": - lt:11illt ... ticsh? 8 I lust love lbod. 9 I r e a l l yd i s l i k ed i e t i n g .l 0 I wish I could come here more oticn.E x e r c i s e 1 1 1 l r r e g u l a r s e n t e n c e s ; b l o c k l a n g u a g e I S G E 11 . 2 1 - 2 2 ]E , x p l a itn cf i r l l o w i n g c w s p a p c rc a c l i n g s l u r n i n g h c n r n t or c g u l a s c n t c n c c s . h n h by t i r(Thcrcare scvcral possiblc answcrs.)I,tutrt Ic.B irthdayPartyM urdcr pAtt.rvcr. Thcrc was a rnurcler a birthclay at party.(i.c. Sonrconc was nrurclcrcd ata birthday arty.) p I GanglandFcud FcarBy Policc 2 A i l B o r n b l { o a x c r J a i l c d F o r 3 0 Y c a r s . i S u r p r i s cP u y A w i r l t l F o l ( o l o l t ) P o l i t e sccrct 4 Bank loan rnans nlan 5 Six dic in craslt 6 CashMachincRippcdllonrWlll 7 H c a l h r o w l o h a v c - 5 t hT c r r n i n a l 1 3S i x l n C o u r tA t i e r C i t y S t r c e t i l l t l e B 9 Body Washccl Llpl 0 C l o t h e s w a pI n r n a t c l e c s S FI I T r a i ns t a b b i n gl 2 M i s s i n g o u p l cS a l e Cl 3 3 0 o n t o p o f w o r l di n d a yl4 High-techspy guarcls briclgel-5 No N-weapons Navy Ships On
    • 12 Pro-forms ellipsis and deviccs to hclp us avoiclboring anclunncccssary Ther-carc two gralnl.natical rcpctiti<ln: p r o - fo r m s : pronouns anclothcr words (cg: tlrcrL,tlrctr.r/o trr) lhal rctcr back cllipsis: l c a v i n g o u l w o r c l s l h a t a p p c a r c l s c w l l c r c ( u s u a l ly sua c a r l i c r ) i r t t h c s a r t t cc o l l t c x tExercise 112 Pro-forms [SGE 121-131Wrilc oul in lull what lhc undcrlirtctwortls rcltr to. l Study thc rrndcrlincd wolds and si.ryF.rttttrplL. whal thcy sllntl tilr.Arrsnrr: undcrlinctl wttrtls lhei ) l c a s c c a dt l t c i n s t r u c l i o n s a r c t i r l l y .W h c n y o u h i t v cr c r t t ( I ) t h c r n l i l l i n t l r c l o r r t t . r c la l c l h a v c ( 2 ) i l r c a d y f i r r c o l l c c t i o n .I l y o u h a v c c h i l t l r c n .( 3 ) c a c h s h o t r l cb c l i s t c t l lscparatcly.Yourlnswcrs will bc trcatcclin strict ctlnficlctlccancl (l) rr<ltrc will bct l i s el o s c t ll o o l l t e l P ( ( ) P l e . S g r l e o 1 t h c q u c s t i g l t ss c c r t l h a r t t t l c s s b u t ( 5 ) s o l l l c a r c s u r c l y t t l r n c c c s s a r Y . ,B c l e r q u c s l i o n s . b u t ( 6 ) l c w c r w o u l c l h a v c b c c n i t n i r n p r o v c r t t c n tQ r - r c s t i o nls . 3antl l:1 arc ctttttplicatcd.(7) Ncithcr is casy t0 allswcr. (tJ) And rnan) arc badlywor6ccl.so lllany penplc will lincl thcrl clillicult1oanswcr. As firr thc two parts ofqucstion I I, (t)) btlth arc opcn to lntcrpretatlorl. Ancl what abgut thc qucstion that rnakcsa wolttAll have to statcwhethcr ( l0) shcis singlc. marriccl or rcr11arricd whatcvcrl Wcll, a tnan has to answcr ( I I ) that orone too. But I wnncle:rwhat they arc going to clowith this infirrmation. ( l2) lt c<lulclall bc misused. A t t . s u c r s . . . . . . . 1 Exercise 113 one, ones, that, fhose [SGE 12.4-51Complete fbllowing usingone,ones,that or thore- theE.ramples: value.The househasbeenpreserved owEof architectural as [i.e.a house]
    • One,ones 87The Ministerstrcssed needto consider the Britainsperfbtmance against rs,rr of the countrys competitors. li.e. tlte perfbnnancel I W e v e g o t a n e w p e d e s t r i ac r o s s i t ] - i t ; s . . . . n q . . w h e r ey o u p r e s s a button. 2 T h e c i t i e s o l E , u r c l p a r c t n u c h o l c l c rt h a n e . . . . . . o f A n r c r i c aa n d Australia. 3 The problcms . are . ... of consiclerable clifficulty. 4 W c a r cg r a t c f u lb u t t h c l i t co l a r e f u g cic . . . . . . . s olIttiscry. - 5 T h c p o s i t i o ro f r c t u g c c ss l a rw o r s ct h a n. . . r i ... olimrnigratrts. 6 I s y o u r n c w. j o b ...... with prospects. 7 I p r c f c r t hs o u n c l l u g u i t l r r [ (.]. . . . . c o of a violin. 1 3P c o p l c h o w r i t c g o s s i p n c l w a . . . . . w h < r c a cilt a r cc c l u a l l yo b l a l t t c . l t 9 M a n y p n r b l en sa r e . . . . t . . o t s t y l cr a t l t c lt- a nI n c a t r i t t g . hl 0 O u r l i v c st h c r r c r cc a s i c r h a n. . . w t ... of yttunl llcttplctlclay. tI I T h c r n c s s a go l t h c b o o ka r r t l. . . . e . . o l t h ch r o a c l c a wta sc l e p r c s r i t t r : . sl 2 T h c p u b l i ci s l l s c i n a t c d y t a n r o u p e o p l c s o i n s s p a r t i c r - r l a r l y b s d . o1the Princcitncl[rince ss.Exercise 114 one, onesISGE12.5l the lbllowing scntenccs slrowclcarly wltlrt to nrcrtns cach ottclottt.r inL:.::,,"[,,,.rurtr1tlc. havcntgot a tcxtbook:I oughtto wrilc (,/r(. WcAttsvcr.ought1owritc a tL-xtbook. IL).tunrplc. not olc to cotttplain, I wish youtl bc Ittorccarclul. Irn butAttsvtr. not thc sortof Inr pcrson cttrnplain to ... (Jrrc. saicl. two. thrcc,gtl!E:utrrplc. cornpctitors Thc wcrc on thc linc.Thc startcr And away thcy went all cxccptortt, who prcsLrlrtably not hcar. dicl (Jnc,two. thrcc,go! Altclawaythcy wellt- all crccptAtrsvrt". slartcrsaitl Thc ( ) n c( ( ) l l l P lc l ) r. . . l( I Thcsc littlc statucs arc pitrt of a set. Somc carry wcapons, othcrsIt.tusical instrurncnts. One hasa chairacross shoulclcrs.his 2 Daddycarne Cantcrbury to with me lastSaturday buy ntc a ncw clrcss to fix l a s tn i g h t .I t w a sh o p c l c s s .n e v e rs a wo r t cI c o u l de v e nt t t l c r a t c . I 3 H c u s e ctlo g i v et a l k st o s t u d e n to n v a r i o u s< l p i c s . n c b e g a n : H o w a r c a n s t O f ytru count? OneI twol thrcc? infinityl z[ We went to Hannahs party.I thoughtI wasntgoingto cnjoy it at first,but I met s o m eo t h e r y o u n g n e s . o 5 I think probably what Captain Kay saicl was- providedit is witnessecl.will a is legaleven if its on the back of an cnvelope. Did he say hccl personally witnessed oneJ 6 H o u s t o n t a r e d t h i m , l i c k i n gh i s l i p s .H e s a i d , H e sn o t i l l . o r i n j u r e d r s n o Oh no. Hes stayingto look afierthe oncs who anything? On the contrary. are. 7 The whole family were cricketers. One was in a Test team fbr England.
    • 88 Pro-forms ellipsis and 8 Out of about every five that startolf doing generalrnedicineand general surgery only one getsto beinga consultant. 9 Shewas an extraordinarily able womananclnevcrone for half nteasures.l0 We pickedup my visa.tbrgedanother andgot somefood fbr theiourney. one (Srrlel ol EnglishUsug,c) 115 it, them, one, ones, someExercise (a)-(f) thatfirllow sentences anclFindthe sentenccs l-6, t:onrplete themusingir.Ilt(nt, onc. oil(., .ontc.I Can anybody lend me somc money?A t t : ; u c r n c c c l s o l t t - . I . (d)2 M y C D p l a y e r sb r o k c n . (....)3 I l a v e y o u h c a r c l h c s ct w o n e w c l i s c s l t (....)4 H a v c y o u g o t a p e r s c l n ac o m p u t c r l l ( . . . .)-5 And a camcral Havc ytrua canrcral ( .. .. )6 Mincs vcry good. (....)( a ) O h I w a s l o o k i n ga t . . . . . . t h c o t h c r d a y . W h a t c l <y o u t h i n k o f . . . . . . t h a t t a k c l instant picturcs/( b ) I d o n t k n o w w h a t st h c t r a t t e rw i t h . . . . . . I t h i n k I l l b u y l t n e w . . . . . .(c) Well Irn thinking ofr:etting lirrlrornc usc.But I clontknow which . . . . . . w o u l c lb c b c s t .(d)I ncccl......( c ) I l l s h o w y o u . . . . . . B o r r o w . . . . . . i i y o u l i k e b c f b r cy o u b u y . . . .. with b u i l t - i n f l a s ha r c u s c t u l .{ l t N o . l t l l i k t l o h t : t r . . . . . .Exercise 116 do, do so [SGE 12.6-8]Clhooscthc best option. I P l e a s er c n c w y o u r s u b s c r i p t i o ni f y o u ( a ) h a v e n t a l r e a d yd o n e ( b ) h a v c n t alrcady ckrnc it (c) ttrrvulrtAr.Rt-.AI)y I)oNttso. 2 The sccrctnrythinks we nccd to attract younger mcmbcrs, and thc comtlittee (a) cloestoo (b) cloesit too (c) docs that too. 3 If wc manage (a) to (b) to tlo (c) to do it, wc shall bc in a much better posititrn financially. zl My brothcr belongs to two tennis clubs and (a) has (b) has done it (c) has donc that fbr many ycars. - 5 H e p l a y s t e n n i sl i k e a p r o f c s s i o n a l ,u t I l l n c v e r ( a ) d o ( b ) d o i t ( c ) d o t h a t . b 6 Hes just takenup golf and Irn thinking of (a) doing (b) doing it (c) doing so too. 7 Take up golf? Nothing would make me (a) do (b) do it (c) do so. tl Untbrtunately I dont see very wcll without glasses.Well I (a) clont (b) dont do it (c) do that either. 9 I supposeI could wcar contact lenses.Yes, why (a) dont you? (b) dont you do? (c) dont vou do it?
    • So,evenso, not,nor 89l0 Joininga club is fun, and youll find afier (a) doing (b) doing it (c) doing so that you makelots of new fiiends.I I Ijoinedthisclubfiveyearsago,and(a)having(b)havingdone(c)havingdonc so I know that it was a gooddccision.l2 Ive just lostrny tennisracquet. dear.How diclyou (a) do (b) do so (c) do Oh thatlExercise 117 it, so, that ISGE 12.6-13]Complefe tbllowing.usingit. so or tlrut theE.runtple. Theyregiving tickctsaway.Ansvcr. Who told you rtter? F a r c s r eg o i n gu p a g a i n c x l w c c k . W h c r cd i d y o u h e a r . . . . . . . . . . l a n I lm2 l s t h a tr c a l l yt r u e / afraid3 I f w c d o n tb u yo u r t i c k c t s o w w c l l r e g r e t n .zl Could I buy now. anclpay lalerl"l cloubt.. S o m e i r f a r c s i l l b c d o u b l c l H o w c k ly o u k n o w . . . . . . . . . . l a w56 You wont bclicvc . , b u t t h e ya r cg o i n gt o a b o l i s h c o n o t t t y l a s s . c c A n dt h e r e a r c g o i n g t o b c n o ms p c c i a l t t c r s . H o w d o y ok n c l w . . . . . . . . . l or o u .7 Arc train firrcsgoing up tool l bclievclJ W c s h a l lh r v e t o g c t u s c ctlo h i g h c rp r i c c s . l s u p l . r o s e9Exercise 118 so, even so, not, nor [SGE 12.9-13]R c w r i t ct h e l b l l o w i n gL r s i n g h r a s c s r c l a u s e s i t l t . r o( ( t t . ( ) , o t o r n ( ) t l o p o w . nreplacc wordsundcrlinccl. thc Youvc lirrgoltenE.runrple. your bag.Oh gooclncss. I havcclroppcd yes it.AnsvLr. so I havc. Olt. I ls thc wcathcr cvcr going to gct wanncrl O h . l t h i n k i t sg o i n g t og c t w a n n c r . 2 Y o u d o n t t h i r r ki t s g o i r r g o s t t o w l l W c l l ,I h o p ci t c l o c s n s n o w t 3 I think thc winte aregettingcolclcr. rs Il seems thal thevarcgettingcolcler. 4 I waitcdhoursfirr Torn lastSuturclay, hc cliclnt and turn up Thats whatI hcarcl. - 5 I k n o w i t s d i f li c u l t t o l i n d a c a l l b o x . b u t a l l t h e s a r n ch e s h o u l c h a v c t r i e c lt o J l e tu sk n o w . 6 D i d n t h c t r y l ( ) s e n dr rr t t e s s l t g c . It appcars hc did nottrr" that 7 | would always send it nrcssiulc Yes. woulcltoo. I 8 I d o n t l i k c b e i n - k e p tw a i t i n g . g Idont eithcr 9 Vou .rtrt arpect thc young lo 1celthe sattteas wc do Maybe we cannot cxDect them to feelas wc clo. b u l s t i l l i t s a n n o v i n g .
    • 90 Pro-formsand ellipsisl0 You have to make allowanccs for them Thatswhatpeople say.I I They seethingsdifferently Wcll,perhaps clo they yl 2 B u t I d o n ta c t u a l l yh i n kt h e c l o . tl3 Perhaps and I couldgo together you next week,but if we cannotgo togcther. whal about the fbllowing wcckll 1 l - o o k .i t s s n o w i n s O h g o o d n c s st,i s ! iExercise 119 Ellipsis ISGE 12.14-231R c w r i t e t h c f i r l l o w i n g . l c a v i n g o u t e v e r y t h i n sy o u c a n .E.runtltlc. Clould you. ilyou wantcd to lnarragcwith lcss slccp. r.nanagc with lcss slccp?A n . r v c t ( i o u l c ly o u , i f y o u w a n l c d t o . r n a n a g cw i t h l c s s s l c c p ? :O f c o u r s ca b a b y s n c e r ll i r r s l c ep i s g r e a t c rt h a n a n a c l u l t sn c c c ll i r r . s l e c pT h a t s .d itlcrcnt. B u t t h c c l fc c t s l i r r - a n d u h o l t o o r n u c h s l c c pa r c n o t d i s s i r n i l a r . t oh c c l l c c t s l a t ot t x r l i t t l c s l c c p t i r c c l r r c s s , i m i t a b i l i 1 ys o o n . M o s t h c a l t h y a d u l t s s l c c p b c t w c c n uncls i x a n c la h a l f h o u r sa n i g h t a n d c i g h t a r r ca h a l f h o u r sa n i g h t . [ - c s st l r a n5 p c r c c n t lo 1 h c a l t h y c l u l t s l c c p r n o r - ch a n n i r t c a n t l a l r a l f h o u r so r l c s st h u n l i v c u n d a h a l f a s th o u r s . B u l s o r n c c c l c b r a l e ds h o r l s l e c p e r sc u n n l i u r a g cw i t l t a n r c r c l i v c h o u r s s l c c p . H o w d o t h c y n u l n a g cw i l h r r n c l c h v c h o u r s l S t u c l i c sr r d i c a t c h a t m o s l o f u s c o u l c lc u t d o w t t o r t o u r s l c c p ,t h o u g h w c c a n l r o l i tp c r h l p s c u t c l o w r r o l i v c h o u r s .i l w e p r a c l i s c cc r r l t i n gr l o w n o n o u r s l e c p .A t c a r r r l l slccpof cxpcrin.rcntal s l i r n n r c r s g r l t l u l l l y r c d u c c dt h c i r s l c c p b y t w o h o u r s .u n c l rcscarch sultllcslsthal sholt slcepcrs irnprovc tlrc quality of thcir slcep. S h o r t s l c c p ,i t i s c l a i n r c d .i s t h c b c s l s l c c p y o u c a l t l t a v c ,a r t co l c o u r s ci l y o u l r c ln o t i n b e d w h e n o t h c r . p c o p l ca r e i r r b c c l .t h i n k o f a l l t h c t h i n g s y o u c o u l t l t l o .Exercise 120 Ellipsis ISGE 12J4-221Rcwritc thc filllowing. filling in all thc words lhal havc bccnclliptccl. lE . r u n t l t l t . W h a ts o r t o f . j o b i s i t l d o n t k n o w . A t t s u c r I. c k l n t k n o w w t t , l t s o R t o Fl o B I I I S .I I meant to bring the letter and of coursc I firrgot to.2 H o w s J o h n s j o bg o i n g ? Oh, pertcctly wcll. I gather.3 Oh, by the way. Mary. we linally spentyour book tokentoday. Oh. Iraveyou?
    • F a u l t ye l l i p s i s 9 1,1 Incidentally. you know trbout Malcolrn clislocatinghis shoulderJ s Well. anyway. he bcen back fiont thc Lake District about a week and hc can now drivc again. I d i d n t r e a l i z eh c d b e e n .5 Thcyrcthesortofbooksthatyoutcncltopickupandlttttkatinodcl olllctlts. m you know, stt clrttttsttrt ol.iusl stay oll thc shcll cloing ntlthing6 I c a n t p r o r r o u n c et . i Oh. right! I sccl No. I wottt try. cithcr. Wc No Oh.7 w c r c t o g c t h c rw l t c t t r v c s a u t h c s c . wc wercnt. ycs we wcrc I o r c l h r . lr i s r t t o r t t i n g . h1 3A r c y o u a b i t i n l c r c s t c c l .t v i d l D W c l l . a b o u tl o l h c s a r r t c x l c l l ta sJ o . I d s a y .Exercise 121 F aulty ellipsis ISGE12.14-231H c r c a r c s o n l c a u t l l c l t t i cn c w s p a p c r i l c r n s w l t c r c t h c c l l i p s i s o r s l t b s t i t u t i o t l s il a u l t y . R c w r i t c t l r c t r c o r r c c t l y .T I t c r c a r c c l u c s t o h c l p .l i . t t i l r r p ! t T . n i g h t s s l o r i c ss h 0 w t h r t c h i l d r c n a r c s t i l l c x p o s c t lt o p o v er t y , .op r a l n u l r i t i o n p o o l c c l u c a t i o n n c l t c i t l l hc a r c .( t a k c n l k r r n t h c T V l l a g co l a S t r n t l l r y . ancwspitpcr.10.90) l ( . / r r r :l s t h c h c a l t h c a r c l l l r i g h t ?Iltv.t.itt.Trtnights stoticsshow that childrcn arc still cxl.rosccl povcrty. 1onralnutritiort.poor cclucatiott rttttlpoor ltcaltlt cltrc.O r . . . . . . t o p o v c r l y , r D a l n u t r i t i o na r r c p t l t l r - c d u c a t i o l t i d h c a l t h c a r c . [ - I h t : . l us c l t l c l l c e s w r i t t c t i s u g g e s t c d h a t i t i s b l t l l i r r c h i l t l r c n t o b e c x p o s c t lt o 1 thcitlth carc - which is prcstrrnablyrtot wltitt wlts trtcatltII l A p a s tp r c s i t l c n to l t h c c l u b l l o o k r n c u s i r l eu n t l s u i t lt h a t . a l t h o t r s ht h c r c t t r r t r k w a s r l a c l c .i t w a s q u i t c a r v f u l t o s c c i t i n p r i n t . l h c o f l e n t l i n g o r c l s e r c t l t t t s u w r l c l c t c dI r o r n h c f i n a l d l a l i I o f t h c c l u b a n n u u lr c p t l r t l .b u t p c r h a p s . c r t t i n st r t t b ntinrl prcscrtt lrchaviour, we wcrc wrollg to do so. (7lir Srrrrdot"lclc,gr,t1tlt llt..t.9l ) (1rrc:What did the prcsidetrtalttl colrtttlittectlo wt-otlg/2 l l y o u r e r c t i r e d ( o r . j u s tl b o u l t o ) y o u k n o w l i r l l w c l l t h a t p c l t c eo l I n i t r t lo n l v cenres fronr having thc conficlcnccarrclsccurity ota high rcgular irtctttlreatttl c a p i t a lg r o w t h . (/irc: Yor-rltrc about to whatl
    • 92 Pro-forms ellipsis and3 So thc latest ideais redroutcs, which will certainly if thcyarenot cfficie fail ntly enfbrcedanclwork bcttcr than double ycllow lines anclothcr No Parking r e s t r i c t i o n sa v cd o n e . T h t S t u t d u t T e l e g r u p h. l 1 . 9 0 ) h ( Il C/uc:Red routcs. like yellow lines.arc all partof a scheme controltratficin to if"l townsancl cities.What is the bie:l A shooting campaign is under wav to wipc oul Tasntanian ntaskccl owls introduceclin the 1920sto craclicalethc rats. but instcad clcvclopccl tastc lor a thc Lorcl Howc islanclwooclhcn,onc of thc worlcls rarcst bircls.fbund only on thc island. (l ht Duilv Tclcgrulth 21 .1.89) Clrrc: Who ur what startcd cating thc rarc wooclhcrtsl5 Thcdccisir)nsetsaprcccclcntwhichwillcncoLrragcowncrsloprotcctthcirlistcd builclingsagainstclecay.or risk nruch largcr bills ila property must be rcscr:ccl by corrrpulsorye n)crgcncy action latcr. llrc Duilt"l tlLg,ru1tlr 23.-5.91 ) C l r r c A l i s t c cb u i l d i n g i s a b u i l d i n g o l h i s t o r i ci n r p o r l a n c c a n c p u t o n a n o f f i c i a l . l ( l list). I s t h i s n c w c l c c i s i o ru o i r t - u o c n c o u n t g cr i s k / r t
    • 1 3 GoordinationExercise 122 Coordinatorsand subordinators [SGE 13.1-13] Whcn a rnairr clausc ancl a suborclinatcclausc arc .ioinccl.it is sorttctirncs possiblc tbr cithcr clausc to cttnte first: Whcn you are reacly,you can bcgin. You can begin whcn you arc rcacly. B u t c l a u s cc t x r r t l i n a t o r ( c g : a r t r 1 r t r . l t u tm u s t c o n l c l r t t h c b c g i n n i n go l t h c s . ) sccor-tcl clattsc.R c w r i t c t h o s c s c n t c n c c si n w h i c h t h c c l a u s c s c a t t b c r c v c r s c d w i l l t t r o o t h c rclrangcs.F<lrcxanrplc ( I ) crnnol bc rcwlittcn its thc rcsult is urtitcccptablc.tArrtl tlttttlrt.rrrloltstlott.r!t,1ttttplc cvttnlttrc tttuk( ,q(.tttr(s. (lgnorc thc llct thatr c w r i t i n g r n a y u p s c tt h c f l o w o l t l t c c o l l t c x t . ) I Pcoplc cvcrywhcr-ctttitkc gcstures anclthey cltl so conscitlusly. 2 Pcgplc utay wavc to othcrs to uttrtct allcntion, or lhcy Irtay 1-loirll stltttcthillg it1 I o t r r l l r t l l e t t l i o to i t . lt 3 So signalling is univcisal. bul indivirlual signalsrtrcttlt litttrcltl lhirlss irr clilterent lturcs. cu :l Wc ncccl Io bc awarc ol thcsc dillcrcrrccs.so that wc dont otlcncl pcoplc. 5 A signal rnay bc pcrfcctly lricncllyin ultc cullurc. yct thc sattlc signal rllay bc ruclc irt attother. 6 Lincorrscious gcsturcscan bc cven rlorc rcvcaling. lirr wc dtt ttol ccttsot tlttf runcortscious dy language. bo 7 W c a r e o l t c n u t r a w a r ct l l a t w c a r c g c s t u r i n g .s o t h a t w c d o l t t r c a l i z c t l t t t w c a r c s c n d i n go u t s i g n a l s . tl A lantous ttturclcrcr. DrCrippcn, was brtlugllt ttl.iuslice bccauschis girllriend. , E t h c l l c N c v c u t t c o r t s c i o t r s lb c t r a y c dh c r s c l l w i t h h c r b o t l v l a n g u l g c . y 9 C r i p p e nh a t l k i l l c d h i s w i l c a n c lw a s s a i l i n gt OA n t c r i c a w i t h I c N c v c . w h c n t h e c a p t a i no f t h e s h i p r e a l i z e dw h o t l t e y w c r c .l 0 E t h c l l u -N c v c h a d f t n r i n i n e b o d y l a n g u a g e . l t h o u s h s h c w a s c l i s g u i s e ta s a a l Ilran.I I S h c a l w a y s c r o s s c ch er l c g s . w h c n c v e r s h c s a l d o w t t , ll 2 T h e c a p t a i nw a s c o t t v i n c e ctlh a t t h e c o u p l c w c r c C r i p p e n a n d l c N c v c .l 3 T h e c a p t a i n t c l e g l a p h c dt h c a u t h o r i t i c s .s o t h c p o l i c c l v e r c w l i t i n g l i r r t h t - shipsarrivll in New York. l4 lt was thc first time that raclio-teleglaphy was useclto catch a nlurclcrer. ( C r i p p e n w a s e x e c u t e di n 1 9 1 0 . )
    • 94 Coordination Exercise123 Coordinationand subordination[SGE 13.3-13] Whent ornittccl Sont But whr Thcl In o t O n r i t t h e s u b . j c c t sn t h c f i r l l o w i n s r , , h c r c v cp o s s i b l c . i r l , , r t r t t t l t S o t t t c1 r c t l p llc o k l i r r w a r t lt o r c t i r r n ) c n t .a n r l l t h c y ] a r c s l a c lw h c n t h c , r lt . o t t t l l t t r t g c rl t a v c t o w o r k u t t t l I t h c y l c l r n f i n t l l i r n c t o p u r s u co t h c l i r r t c r c s t s . -fhc1,cn.joy I t h c i r . w o r k . v c l t h c l r . i i l lb c g l u d t o S i r e u p . 2 Olhcrlteoplcrcctlettizcthalllrcywillhlvclor.ctilc.buyliarbolctlornoltcc thcl t l t c v r t o l o r r u c rh t r v cu . j o b . 3 O t h c r - st g l t i t t o o k l i r r w u r r lt o r c l i r i n ! . h u t w h c n l h c y t l o t h c y l i n d l l r c y l o n g t i r r l l t h c c o r n p a n i o r r s l r iun t l t h c t n r i s s l h c s t i r r t u l u s h c y l r a c l l u , r l r k . l r t a : l I l p c o p l c s t o l t w o t - ku r t dt l t c l h u l , c l r o r n c n t l r l l i r r r u l u t i o n l t h c y l c c l l h c v a r - c s o o l r r o u s c t o s o c i c t y I h c y n u r y r a l t i t l l _d c c l i n c p h v s i c l l l v . y 5 M o s l r c t i r c t lp c o p l c w i l l f u p h y s i c l l l y l i t t c r i l t h c v s t i r n u l l t c l l r c i r b r a i n s a n d t h c y w i l l l r c r n c n l a l l v f i t t e r i f l h c y l a k c s o n r c p h v s i c u lc x e r c i s c . ( r S o n r cp c o p l co l c o u r s ct l k c p l c n t v o l c x c l c i s c :l h c v u , u l k ,t h c y 1 t l l 1 e o l l t.h c v work in lhcir gurtlcns. 7 O t h c r o l t l c r - p c o p l c i l r t II l ) o r cn r c n t u lp u r s u i t s . o t l r c yg o l o c l a s s c s l o n c s o r t w s o or lrnother. tt Thcy lcitrn ttl hlrncllccolrtpulcrs or thcy slu(ly solnc alca otnrusic or art thcy h i t v c t t c v c r c r l t l o l c t l h c l i r r c u n t l t h c y s u d t l c n l yl i n t l o u t a l l s o r l s o l t h i l t r . s . 9 S o t t t c t i l t t c st g r o t l l t o l p c o p l c s t a r t t h ei r - o w n c l a s s b c c a u s cl h c y d i s c o v c l u i s h u r c di n t c r c s lu n d t h c y c a n l t o I l i n d a l t c r i s t i n ! c l a s s . l 0 A n e w s k i l l a c c l u i r e t l r t t h e a s c o l s i x t y p l r r si s p e r h a p sn o t p a r t i c u l u r l yl i k c l v to lt-acl lr ltcw clrccr. allhouglr it coulcl. to l l A s i x t y - y c a r - o l cg r a r r c l r n o t h c c c c r r t l l rw o n a p r i z c w h c n s h c p u b l i s h c c h c r l lr l firsl novcl. ll S h e h a d n o t h a c ll i n r e t o w r i l r - b c l i r r c w h i l c s h c b r o u g h l u p a t i r n r i l y u n c ls h c pursuccla clrrccr.Exercise 124 Correlatives[SGE 13.14-16]J o i n t h c f i r l l o w i n e p a i r so 1 s c n t c n c eu s i n g c i r l i r , r.. . r t r ,t t t , i t l t c . . . i l o r o r l x t t l r . . s tr l i t l . M u k c a n y o t h e r s n r a l lc l t a n c c sn e c c s s a l y .I:.ttuttltlc. Thc blue whulc is thc lurscst rnatnural irr thc worlrl. l h c b l u c w h a l c i s l h c h c a v i c s tr n a u t r n a li n t h c w o r l d .r l r t , r u t r :h c b l u e r " h a l e s b o t h t h c l a r g c s ta n d l h c h c a v i c s tr r r a n r r n a n t h e w o r l d . T i il I W c t t r u s lp r o t c - clth c r v o r l c l s i l d l i f c . I f w c d o n t , s o r r r c 1 " r c - coc s n i r n a lw i l l w s ifa
    • Simple coordination 95 die out. 2 Thepandaisintlan-eerofcxtiltctiott.Thcblackrhinoisindangcro1extinction. too. 3 Sorrc specicshavc bcen ncarly wipcd tlut hy tlan fbr filocl.Other spccieshavc bccn ncarly wipccl out ltlr sport. 4 I p c r s o n a l l yc l on o t l i k c s n a k c s .I p c r s o n a l l yt l o n o 1l i k c h a l s .B u t I d o n t w a n t t o s r t l h c t t t t l i s l t p p r . l r r . 5 Many pcoplc do not unclcrstandwhat thc problcln is. Marry peoplc do not appreciatc what thc pr.oblernis. 6 I)t-oplcaclrnirctigcrs as bctutilul iurinrals.Pcoplc lLartigcrs as lllall clltcrs 1 R h i n o c c r - o s ca r c n o t t h c n r o s tv a l u a b l ea n i t t t a l si n t h c w t l r l d s i n c a s ht c r t t t s . T i g c r s a r c n 6 t t h c l l o s l v a l l i l b l c a t r i t t t a l si 1 t l r c w g r l t l in cash tcrrlts! ( Racchorscsarc I ) 5 Iilcphants arc lirutttl in Allica. Irlcpharltsarc lirr-trrtl Asia. in l-lrc A t r i c a n c l c p h r t n ti s I t o t t h c l a l . g c s t t l a t r l n r a i r l t h c w o f l ( 1 . l - h cA l i r c a n l clcnhartt i s t t o t t h c l t c a v i c s ta r l i r t t a l l l l l t c w o r - l t l . il 0 S 9 r 1 c s 1 - l c c i c s c r r rr n o s to l t h c i l t i n i c c a l i n g . W l t c t t t l t c y i l l c I l o l e a l l l l g t h e Y sp l itrc slccping.Exercise125 Simplecoordination[SGE 1317-261I i l l i p t a s u t u c h a s p o s s i b l c a s s l l o r v r ti n t h c l i r s t s c l l t c l l c e . qclI f s o r n c o n ca s k c c ln t c w h a t t o s c c i n A u s l r a l i l a n d I i 1 t h c ya s k e t lr r t c l l t o r v l ot h c r e .I c l s a y : E x p l o r c t h c O u t b u c k i n y o u r o w l l v e h i c l c ,a n c ll c x p l g r c i t l s l o w l y . Driving through thc Outback in un ancicnl l-antl-Rtlvcr crtablccl to crr.ioy trs ll.tcchanging sccncry, itnclcnablcclus lo appreciillcthc clcscrtschatlging t.t.ttlotls. I cltln o t t h i n k t h a t I h a v c e v c r f c l t s o c l o s c t o n a t u r c o r t h a t I h a v c c v c r f L l ti n a s c n s cso carefree. Occasionally, whell thc tlescrls silcllcc lcll rrpon tts wc wctulclcopsiclereur isolatitrn anclwe woulcl consiclerour vulncritbility; we woulcl citzc iltw o n c l c ra t t h e v i t s t c r n p t y p l a i n . a n d w c w o u l d w a t c h t h e b i r c l so l p r e y c i r c l i n govcrhcacl. The road itsclf was narrow but lhe roa(l ,asslnoolh. So thc th.iVins was casy roacl-trains- htrge linkecl lorriese rccpt when we had to pull asiclclbr onc of thcwhich stir up great cloucls ttf rctl dust and which arc de finitcly lackirrg in roaclrnanners I T h e o t h e r h a z a r c lo t d r i v i n g i n t h c O u t b a c k i s t h e w i l d l i f c . r c s i l i e n l t o t h ce x t r e r n ee n v i r o t r r l t e n tb u t n o t r c s i l i e n t t 0 t h c l n o l o r c l i r . A t d u s k u r r s u s p c c t i n g .
    • 96 Coordinationkangaroos. cows andbulTalo would wanderon to the road.attracted thc glare byof car headlamps. was curiositywhich would ofien leadthe kangarooto its Ituntirnely cnd,and would often leadthe car to the nearest garage. With rusting carslying abandoncd thc roadsidc, with deadanimals at and lyingabandoned the roadside. at you experience momentscrf anxiety.So when youfinallyreach Aycrs Rock,whenyou linallyrcachthelargcst rnonolith theworld in- you get a wondcrfulscnsc olachievernent. But this is not thcend. You siartphotographing fromevcry angle,you start itgazingat it in woncier. and you starttouchingi1.or you startwalking rounclit.F i n a l l y . o u c l i r n bi 1 . yExercise 126 [SGE 13.22-23] Noun phrascs linkecl by arrrl ttray cxprcss twrl rathcr clillcrcnl rncanings: ,lolttt urtd Murv huvt utttru ltri:c nray rncan Tltt.tltuvt rrott rr ltri:c bttvtt,tr /lrcri (togcthcr) or 7/ir.rhurc ltotlr uott tr 1ni:t(a prizc cach separately).Rcwritc thc scnlcnccs whcrc rlrl has. or coulcl havc. this scconcl. scparalc,r n c i r r r i n { y u s i n g l x t t l r . . . t r t r l < t rt-t t i t h c r . . . r t o r . b John artd Mary hitve won a prize.l.wtttrltlt-Atrsutr".Both John anrl Mary havc won a prizc. I John arrclMary urc Iwo young pcoplc. 2 J o h n a r r c M a r y c l o r r 1o o k a l i c r l h c r n s c l v c sp n r p c r l y l l . l J o l t r t: r t t r lM : r t l l r r v c l r l r .ltr 1 l i k e t l o t l e l t t l o l l t e t .1 In lact, John anrl Mary arc olr very qoocl tcnns -5 ln sonrewaysJolrrr anclMary arc vcry rnuchalikc. 6 JohnanclMary arethoughtful curing ancl 7 Johnand Mary clonol like going arountlalonc u John ancl Mary -lo almost everywhcrc togctlrcr 9 Jr,hn ancl Mary clid not share the first prizel 0 J o h na n dM a r y d i d n o t g o i n f b r t h ec o r n p e t i t i o n !I I .lohnand Mary are not yet thirtyll J o h r rl r n t l M u l y u r e n ( ) l t l r e s u r t r e r g e t h o u g h r .
    • Complexcoordination 97l3 Johnand Mary aremutuallysupportivel4 Johnand Mary oftenhelp cachotherl-5 Johnand Mary aregood tiiendsof mineExercise 127 Complex coordi nation [SGEl 3.27-2Sl Whcn we coorclinatcclauscs wc nonnally avoid too rnuch rcpctition o r n i t t i n g w o r d s t h a t c a n b c g r a m r n a t i c a l l yu n d e r s t o o d e l l i p s i s ) . (The tolkrwing :jcntcnces all acccptablcscntcnccs.Bul can you inscrt thc worcls arethat have becn urnitlcclJ I Most pcoplc would likc. but clont know how, to rcacltustcr. M o s l p e o p l c w o u l c ll i k c I r on r , , r D. , r st l H , b u t d o n t k n o w h O w .t o r c a d f a s t c r . r t l 2 T h c y a r c w a s t i n g .a n c ln o t c t f i c i c n t l yu s i n g . t h c i r t i r n c . 3 S r l r n cp c o p l c i r n a s i n ct h a t t o i r n p r o v et h e i r r e a d i n gs k i l l s t h c y r n u s tt r a i n t h c i r good cycs to nrakc nrovclncnts ancltheir lips to rnake no mover-ncnls. 4 Slow rcading should rtot l.towcvcrbc attributcclto wrong cyc llrovcnrcnts,nor clficicnl reading to goorl orre s. 5 Slow rcaclcrs using. or at lcastnrarryolthenr arc using. habits nrorc suitablc arc to young chilclrcn. 6 Thcrc is sonrc cviclenccthat rntlLrthing thc worcls with youl-lips can, anclthlt pointing at thc worils with a lingcr clocs,slow thc rcaclingproccss. 7 I t i s i r n p o r t a n t . y t h c w a y . t o r c a l i z c t h a t c f f i c i c n t r c a c l i n gi s n o t c x a c t l y t h c b sarnc as, lnd rnusl ltot bc t:onluscdwith, quick reacling. l l S o r n e t i r n c s c r c a c lt o g c t t g c n c r a l o u t l i n c . b u t s o n r c t i u r c s o l i n t l s p c c i h c w t inlirnnation. 9 Q u i c k s k i n r r n i n g m a y b e r n o r c s u i t a b l c l i r r s o r l c k i n c l s o l r n a t c r i a l s a n cc nror l carcful rcading lbr othcrs.l0 Rcading 170-2(X)wrlrclsa rninutc is ucncrally consiclcrccl slow.ancl-5-50-7(X) cxccptionillly flst - cxccpl lirr skirnrning-rcacling.l l T h c r c a r c s c v c r a ls k i l l s t h a t o n c c a c q u i r c c w i l l h c l p r n o s t p e o p l e t o i r n p r o v c l clranratically, ancl cveryonc to irnprovc a bit.Exercise128 Quasi-coordination [SGE 13.32] Usually when thc subjectof a scntenccis two coorclinatecl nouns or pronouns, verb mustbe plural.But therearealsophrases look likc the that q u a s i - c o o r c l i n a t i oh c, e r br n u s t t n v c o o r d i n a t i ob u ta r en o tr e a l l y w i t ht h i s n : b e s i n g u l a i f t h e r e a ls u b j e cits a s i n g u l a n o u np h r a s cF o r c x a n r p l e : r r . Adam. alongwith Andrcw, was involvcd.
    • 9B CoordinationChoose thc best answcr.F,.tumple. Thc nature of intclligencc - as tnuch as sonle othcr human attributes - (a) arc (b) is not cntirely untlcrstottcl. (b)l1ri.incr: is I I l s c e r n st h a l n a t u r c , i n a c l d i t i o nt o n u r t u r c . ( a ) a f f e c t( b ) a t f - c c t s w l r a t a p c r s o ni s l i k e . 2 In other wrlrcls,whal your parcllls ancigrartclparcnts likc. as wcll as your arc u p b r i n g i n g ,( a ) h a s ( b ) h a v c a n c f l c c tt r p o l )y o u . 3 A s w c l l n s ( a ) s l u ( l y ( b ) s t u d y i n g t w i r l s b l o r - r g httr p t o s c t h c r . p y c h o l o l i s t s h a v c s t u c l i c ci ld c n t i c a lt w i n s s c p a r a t c d r t c h i l d h o o c l . i : l l l c s r - r l ts h o w t h r t i c l c n t i c at w i n s . i n a t l c l i t i o n o ( a ) l o o k ( b ) l o o k i n g a l i k c . l t h a v c v c r y s t t n i l a ri n t c l l i g e c c . w h a t c v c r n thcil.upbringing. -5 This. with anothcr vcry clifflrcrrl stucly,(l) clo (b) docs scclti [o sltow that i n t c l l i g c n c ci s n t l t . i u s tl l l t l a l t c r o l c t l l t c a l i o l t ( r L l n r c l a t e tc h i k l r c n b r o u g h tu p l o g c t h c ri r t a c h i l t l r c n sh o r t r c . i t h l r n i d c r t t i c a l l w crrvirorrnrclr . ( la ) s h o w ( b ) s h o w s d i l l c r c n t l c v c l s o l i l l t c l l i g c n c c . 7 A l l l h i s s L l g g c s t s r a t h c r t h a n l l t i r c l y( a ) p r . o v e ( b ) p r . o v c c ) p r o v l l l s l h a t c s ( h c r c c l i t y , r t c c s l r y .s i r t t p o r t a r t t . a i t{ Pclhapstirrthisrcuson,irrtelligcncclcsting.alorts$ilholltcrfirt.rrtsoflcslittt ( a ) a r c ( b ) i s c h a l l c n g c cb y s o r t t ct c a c l t c r s . l 9 T h c y s a y a n l Q t c s l i s u n r c l i u b l ca n d L r n l a i r l 1a b e l sc h i l t l r c n .r l t t h l : rt h a r t( l ) l , h c l p ( b ) h c l p s( c ) h " l p i n g t h c n i .l 0 S o r n e l i n t c s h c l d t c l c h c r . o r l r 1 o s o l t h c s t u l | .( l r ) r c l i r s c( b ) r c l i r s c s I o t t s c a t suchtesls.I I l n t c l l i g c n c ct c s l s c c r t l t i t l l yr a i s c l t s w c l l i t s ( a ) s o l v c ( b ) s o l v i n g p r o b l c t t l s .l 2 I ) c r h a p s t h c y s l r o u l t lh c u s c c l w i t h c a u t i o r t , r a l h c r t h a n ( a ) a b a r t c l o r(l b ) (c) abanclonccl abandtlning lltogcthcr.
    • 14 sentence ThecomptexExercise 129 Matrix clauses ISGE 14.1-21 A C (onrplcx s c n t c n c cc o r t t a i n sa 1 l e l t s to n c t t t a l r i x c l i t u s c ( c l l l c t l t h c r n a i n c l a Lrsc t by sornc grarnnttriltns) ancl ltt lcast ttttc sr.rbor-tlirratc clattsc. For cxarnplc: Y o u w i l l u t t c l c r s t a t r t l / w l t c t tt t t l o l l t c c r c r c t s c vo l n r a t r i xI Istrbordinalc] A l l y o L rr t c e t l / i s r a c l l c c . p I s u b o r . d i n l t c [ n u r t r i rI |Llndcrlinc thc nlrtrix clauscs in lhc lirllowing. Orttit ltll subortlirtlttc latlscs cI r ( ) c v r Irl t c l l r l t I t t t t t i , r t t t r t r : .l.,.rttttt1tlL".l LcXd ]! yQll11l1fg!11()rlc-vvotr tlottt hitvc alty lllorlcy orl Yotl. il I Ncu,trullic l i g h t s h u v c b c c t rr l c v c l o p c t lb c c l r r r s l h c c x i s l i r r g( ) l l c sl l r c t l i l l i c t r l t c ott 1 6s c e i r r s l r ( ) l t g s u n l i g h t a r r t ls o n r c t i n l c s r J ) l l c l ttr b c l o r l l t c la c t t r l l l y t l r c y i oll position. alc in thcI T l i c l l a t - l c l s c r s i g n u l s t h uu r c u s c r l i r r - ! r c c n l i l t c r a r r o s c a t t t r c w i t sottc l l l l l tt vu,ltctr rcllcctcd lig.htotrscurcsthc sigrttl. so thcy cltrt ltlrltcar r,i,llitc.- l l t i s c l a i r l c r l t l r u t t l r c r r c u s i g n a l so v c r c o n r ct l r c s cp r o [ r l c r t t s t r t t l l t a t t l t c v c a t t r c o n l l i b t t t ct o t t t a t s l t l t t Y . l- 1 T h c l c u , s i g l a l s u i l l l t x r ks i n r i l u r l l u t l i s t u n c c b u t c l o s cu p t h c d l i v c r l t i l l I r o l i c c , r ul ) l t t c r l l o l h o l c s .5 W h c r r t l t c n c w l i g h t i s o l l .i t w i l l l o o k a l o t b l i t c k c r .( r - l h c r r i a i n c l r a n g c i s i n t l r c l c r r s .w h i c h i t t t l t c r t c r , i l i g l t t s c o l t s i s t so l s l t t l t l l l c l s l c l s l l t a l c h a n n c l h c r c l l c c t o r s i g h t t l r r o u g h ( X X )h o l c s i t t r t t t t a s n . l l7 T h c l er r s l c t s l a k c t h c b c s l u s c o l u v u i l a b l cl i g h t r r t t l l i r t t t a r t i t t t c t t s c i g h t b c r r r t t r t l tllil! cillt be scclt lronr distancca urrtl lr rnorc dilfirsc bcartt thirt citrt bc scclt ltt w i d c r .a n g l es c l o s c r [ o t h c s i g n a l . Nonfiniteand verblessclauses A s r v c l l a s l i n i t c s u b o r r l i n u t c l l u s c s .l l r a t i s . c l u u s c sw i l l t l t l i r t i t cv c r - bl.h c l c arc also: Nonlinile clauscs: (rrlrlrrr,q lt.t /tt,g,qrr,gt. I hclrtlccl lirr (lttstotlls. Mtt lt.tltictrl,r. tclt sllc arttl happy. t V c r b l c s sc l u u s c s : i t l t n t . t l r r , g g r r ,iqr t l r c r t t t. l r c l l r x c d . tt
    • 100 The complex sentenceExercise130 Nonfiniteand verblessclauses ISGE 143-6]Rewrite the fbllowing, using nonfinite or vcrblessclauscs.Use the worclsinclicatetl.a n d k c c p t h c r n c a n i n ga s c l o s e t o t h c o r i g i n a l a s p o s s i b l c .E-tunple. When you arrivc at Custonrs,you will firld you havc a choice.A t t s v t c r .n r n H I v t N t ; , ( t( s t r ) N t s, o t r w l L t .h N r t I r t t t t l A V t l ( l l o l ( u . O A I I f y o u h a v c n o t h i n g t o d c c l a r c .y o u l l l a y t i l l l o w t h c g r e e n s i g n s . wirh.. 2 l f y o L r h i n k t h a t r t r i g h tu t c a ny o u d b c c l o i n gs o n t c t t r i n gl l e g a l .y o u s h o u l c u t r t i l thnrugh thc reclchanrrcl. R a t l t c r h a r t. . . t 3 P r o v i d e ct h a t a l l i s w c l l . y o u w i l l t t o t h a v c t o p a y a n y d u t y . l Alt..... tl Sonrc pcoplc of coursc arc carryitttt cltrtiablcgtlods. but tlont rcalizc it. willroul .5 But it is bcst if pcoplc clcclarclrnything thcy arc urrccrtainabtlrtt. Itisircstfirr..... 6 I l t h c y g o t l t r o u { l t t h c r c d c h a t r t t c lt h c y s l a y o n t h c r i g h l s i d c o t t h c l a u . . t l v. . . . . 7 Sourcl.lcoplcgolhroughthcNothingtoDcclitrcchlttrttclalthoughlhcykrrow thcv ale wrortg to dtl so. Dcsl.ritc t l T h c C u s t o r n so l l i c c r sa r c l o o k i n g l i r r t l r u g s . A n d t h c y a r c i t l s o l o o k i r r g l , r s r n u g g l c dp c t s . Bcsidcs c) Srnuggling 1 - r c ti s a s c r i o u so f f e n c c . c c i t u s ct h c l c i s a d a t t g e ro t r a b t c s . s b Bccattsc ot l 0 P c o p l cw h o a r c c u u g h tt r y i n g t o s r n u g g l c n y t h i r r g l l c g a l f a c c h c 1 1 1f,iy c sl l t t t l a i n cvcrt itttlttisonrtlct)t. lf ll [ ] n l e s s t h c y a r e p r c p u r c t lt o r i s k t h i s . l h c y s h o u l d s t a y w i t h i n t h c l a w . Ifnot l 2 l l y o u a r c a s k c d 1 o t l k c s o n r e l h i n gt h r o u q h ( u s l o t t t sf i l r s < t r t r c o r cc s c . y o u tl : l r o u l t lr r l nl t y s t c l t t : e. ti......Exercise131 Nonfiniteand verblessclauses[SGE 14.3-6] R c w r i t c t h e f i r l k r w i n gu s i n gv c r b l t - s s r n o n l i n i t cc l a u s c s h c r c v er t h i s i s p o s s i b l e o w .l : r u n t p l c d t t s v ( t R c w r i t c t h c l i r l l o w i n g L r s i n gv e r b l c s s o r I t o n l i n i t c c l a t t s c s .vrht rc r ( r 1t t,s.s I c. r i lt I Whcthcr it is scnsiblc or nol. lltally pctlplc carry a lol of ruoncy ott thcrn. [hough 2 t h i s i s t t t t t l c r s t a n d a b l ct. i s r i s k y . i 3 W h c r c v c r i t i s a t a l l p o s s i b l c .y t l u s h t l u l t lp l r y b y c h c q u c o r w i t h p l a s t i c . .l Particularly l"hcn vou arc on holiclay.vou nccclto lllke carc ol your tltottc. -5 tf they arc Obtainablcin vour coulltry. rlloney bells arc a goocl idea.
    • clauses 101 Nonfinite verbless and 6 Youll feel saf-er your moneyand passport in a moneybelt IUseurlil if is 7 Whilc you areon holiday,you shouldeat sensibly. U When you are in a clirnateyou arenot usecl try to dress sensibly. to, 9 Whenever is possible, it learnat leasta tewwordsof the language.l0 Do not point your cameril peopleas if you areaboutto photograph at thcrn.II Nevcrwave your armsaroundas thoughyou areaboutlo hit stlnrcbocly.l2 Althoughyoulnaysometintcsbeunclcrstanclablyannoyccl,ncvcr.ncvershclutlExercise 132 Nonfinite and verbless clauses [SGE 14.3-6]Rcwritcthc tbllowing.usingnonfinite vcrble-ss or clitttscs placcof thc italicizcci infinitc clauscs. ancl ntakingatly otllcr srnallchangcs ncccssary.Etuntplt". v,tvillugc As 1ttopltltutl rt,gulurn(v.l)dp(ts tt.f no ttttd cttursetttt nrditt o r 7 l .w c w er c t h c i n h c r i t o r o f a n o r a lt r a c l i l i o r t . s Ait.su.t,r.IJaving no rcgularncwspaPcrs olcoursc raclio TV. wc villagc ancl n<l tlr pcoplcwcre thc inhcrittlrs itn tlral traclititln, tlf wcrc likcly to turtl it ovcr irl thcir u lxtok.rny grandparcnts I ll tlrctnt,rL,gitctr hancls. coughlouclly. ancllay it asidc. a My niolhcr howcvcr hul lLurtttto ttul, antl shc woultl rcatl ttt tts tln wirlter Pcnny cvcningslhrrn hcr Rcaclcrs. 3 W l t t , t t y t r . s l t t r t r r r t . f i r . ls t o k l t t u t i t l t t t l d r r L i g , l t l t r t t r t , l t h o u g l t t w a s o t l I to sh c hcr hcacl. ,1 Thcn trnc clay thc old lltdy stoplttl nrt irt thc,fl/(cl.itnclltskcd rttc llow I wrts c nj o y i n u t h c b o t l k . 5 I lrttl trttl(,,(nth()ttgltt(l rcutlitt.q I had ttsetlil lts lt lrtlrrtcllirr rtly clockwork rl: traitl. (t tl I hurl lxtrt toll tltut otrtltr.tI uotrll ltt tt vtrittr, woultl havc astonisheti it llle . To..... classics. I W h i t c x t t s . s t i ul t t l r c v i l l u g , t s c l t o trtc a t ls c v c r alla t t t t t uE n g l i s h I i I l s w h i c h I h a db o u g h t t a . i u n t b l c a l c . a s tl Thcrr vlrt,trI rt,ut ltt,d tlrc u,qt,ol 12 I was sctll to the school in the towtl 9 H c r e / v , u s n t u r l ( l o r t , u t t t o t t ! s l t t S i r W u l t c r S ( . ) l t . a n d l t a v e r t t a n a gtclc l v t l i c l l t a hirn sirrce . l0 But In,t:r.t rtrtt ltLrtoft t.t,utlitr,u,, clcvclopccla passi0n litr Oirt-ol-schOol ancl rcacling. ll Therr o1e clay,. I vulkttl tlrrtttr,qh us the frcc public tlte tovrtt.l cliscttvcrecl library.
    • 102 The complex sentence12 BeLuuseI didtrt kttoyrultat to cltoosc,I startedwith the books near the cloorExercise133 Subordinateclausesof future time [SGE 14.111 Suborclinate clauscsrcfcrringt o t h c f L r t u r c ,s p e c i a l l y l a u s e s l t i n t c c c o ( v r h e t r ) a n cc o n d i t i o( i / . . . ) ,u s u a l l y s ca p r c s e ntte n s cb c c a u stc cv c r b ... l n u . h i n t h c r n a i nc l a r - r s s s u f l i c i c n l inclicatc futurc rnearring. ic to thcJ o i n l h c p a i r so 1 s c n t c n c cts g c t h c r .u s i n g t h c w o r c l ss i v c n a n r l n r a k i n ga l t y o t h c r osnltl I chalrgcsllcccssllry. I I r n g o i n g t o b c s i x t y s o o r r .I u r g o i n g t o r c l i r c . ( w h c n ) l N I ( ; O l N ( ; l 1 ) R F I I I t [ l l l ] NI N I S I X . l 2 [ n r g o i n g t o r c l i l c . I s h a l lg o r o u n t l l h c w o r l r l . ( l s s o o n a s ) 3 t s h a l l l et r n 1 I r o u s c .I s h a l l b c u u l v . ( w l r i l c ) -l I ) c r h a p s s h a l ll i v c t o b c l h r r n c l r c d .h c r . c o r r t b c t i r n c1 od o c v c r y l h i n g I r v u n l I T w t o c k r .( c v c n i l ) 5 I t l r t t l t l r l t l l l u l t i l . I r n . : . r o i t tl ! r l r t i r l r . t t t r t t i l t o 6 l r r r l l k r e Pr i l 1 l r t l r l l l tI. l t d P t t. l l t : r l t 1 l s h a l l l l o t o u n r l h c u , o r l d . B r r t i t c o r r l t lb c t o o l a t c . ( u n l c s s . ) f i Y o t r r l t o u l t l l c t i r - e ( ) u r s c l l O r 1 o Lc o u l r l l r c t o o o l r l . ( b c l i r r c ) ) . r 9 O u r h c u l t h c o r r l d l a i l . I h c n r . r h u t o u l r l r . r cl o l ( s u p p o s c ; u tl 0 W h l r t w i l l b c h l r p p c n i n gr r l c n v e u r s t i r n c . ) t k l w o n r l c rl b o u l l h i s . ( ) i IExercise134 Subjunctive[SGE 14.13, also 3.23]t T h c r c i r l e t h r - c c i n c l so 1 s r " r b . j u n c l i v c : k . r t t a n r l u l i r .sc h . j u n c t i v es c c n o l c u l c x c l c i s c 2 ) | u lr . u c r t - s u b . j u r t v c I L r s c tfli r r r r r al lv i n h v p o t h c t c l l c o n c l i t i o n s : i ct i I . l I u c r c . t t t r.t. . l . f ( l r r u tl t i l l r e r L , t r l i y e I t t l t t . t h t w r t r r l l . . . 1 . . lirrrnulaic sr-rb.junctivc llirunrl in a fcrvlixed cxprcssior.rs: (ontc tltc strLnnter whcn thc sunrnrcrconrcs: = trutltl)( trtll =if thc truth is tolclI
    • Subjunctive 103Rewritcthefbllowing,changing verbs the thatarcin thesubjunctivc rnoodintotheindicative nrood,with or withoutshttttld, and makingany otherchanges thatarcnccessary. exccptthc lirst two arc from All newspapcrs I Glodstonc saidnclthing. hisauntchosc drawsuchcruclc If to conclusions wrts it far betterthat shedo so thansuspect Ihe trtrenatureof his cntcrprisc. (Torn Sharpe:t i ntdgc Stuft) A t t . s w c t . . . . t . w a s f a r h c t t e rt h a t s h c s h o u l cc l o s o t l l a n t h a t s h e s h o u l c l i. l s r - r s P c c.t .. ? A r l i n u t c l a t c r , f r a i l h a r r do u c h c d r y a r n r . h c b u sc o n c l u c t r c ws sa s k i t l g a t n T sa that I takc hcr scat.(Colin Thubron- Bthitrtl Wull ) tltt I Thc Princcs prcclicarncnt cornnron to all lhosc. bc thcy prilrccsor pcasants. is w h o l i n c lt l t er n s c l v e s t l u c a l c t lb c y i l n c lt h c i r s t a t i o ni n l i l c . c :l This is niy itlca ol what a prctty lclnalc rtlbot sllottltl ltlok likc; solttc sort tll I c n t i n i s t - r a r l i c a l r o L r p . r l ds i g n c d p c l i t i o n s d c r t t a t t t l i r t t h a l i t t l o t b c s l l o w t t . g l g -5 lt rcntains ottc ot ttly litvtlurilc rcstaurants.with its harcl scatcclchairs itttt! rough rctl winc. This is tlrc (lolc clAzur I kttcw antl l o v c d . S t i l l c l o .t r t r t h b c knttwtr. ( r I l c r l r d c r c c l l h aP o t o l t a l P l u t c a u , t h e s e t ll i u n t i l i t a r y c x c r c i s c s , b c t r l t tos f l l c t l t nu l rt inlu it trcw lcdcral cilPital. 7 I a r 1 f u l l e l l c | n i r u l i o n l i r l h i s c o u r a g e b u t I w o t r l t lt t t u c hr a t h c rl t c w e r c s a l el y . 9p clry lantl anrl lhc scarch lrntl rescuc lirrccs ttot ctlgagc(l irl looking litr hirrl. l J C r l r l e C I r r - i s t 1 1 as h c w i l l h a v c c v c t r l r t o r co p l ) ( ) t t t l n i t y i ) l e ( ) t l c L l l t r l l t l o l l . s, l c ) B c i t n c v c r l i r r g o t t c n t h o u g h , t h a t o i l i s a c o t n t r t o d i t yw i t h s o r l l c s p c c i a l charactcristics. l g Thc show juclgcs insislcclthat a broaclcast hcr rttusic bc turrlcd ol f bccattsc ol i t w a s u p s c t t i l l gt h e a l l i l l l i t l s . I I Ne xt rl6nrir.rga scnior aicleto Mr Hart tclephonecltltc cxccrttivc ctlitor of thc Post ... and askeclthat thc wolnans nlrllc tlot bc published. Wtrslrin,,!t0tt l2 The boy will not be rcturning schoolafierlhe hcaclnlaster clhis parents to aske not bc alltlwecl comc back. ttl that he
    • 104 The complex sentence Exercise135 Putativeshould [SGE 14.14] I A vcrb phrase with shoultlis sontetirnes usedin a /lt.//-clausc whenwc are c o m m e n t i n g m o t i o n a l l y n a s i t u a t i o nh a t w c t h i n k c x i s t so r p e r h a p s e e - _ _ - _ - _ o _ _ _ _ _ J tI c o r n n tn t i n gr : t t h c r e r s o n a l la b o u tp l a n s F o r e x a n t p l c : e p y .I f a l n s o r r yt l r t t v o us l t t t u l tb c r r p s t , t . ltl h i n ky o u a r eu p s e t . ] l Theyvc arransecl I shorrld thut .joitrthtnr !uttr. lthat is their planlt-L"...- Rewritcthc firllowing with shoultl.whcrcvcrpossible. I I unclcrstancl you do not intcncl accept that to thc.job 2 Everyoncrcgrets that you havcntacle dccision this 3 What I clontundcrstancl whv vcluarc cnrbarlassccl is .1 It is only nltural firr you lo havc considcrccltlrc pros anclcons 5 I a n r r n o s ta n x i o u st h a l t h i s w o n t a f l c c t y o u r f u l u r c c a r c c l ( r I t i s p o s s i b l co l c o u r s c s i t r n ep c o p l e w i l l b l u r r r cy o L r . 7 t s u ti t w i l l b c a s c a n d aill t h c yc l os o . l J I a r n c c r l a i n l y e l a d y o u f c l ta b l c I o c o n t c t o t h c d c c i s i o n y o u c l i d 9 l t i s d c f i n i t c l y r c f c r a b l t h a tl . r c o p ln r a k cu p t h c i r o w r tr n i n d s p c c|0 ll is a sl.rlnrcsoLrrc thc cornrniilcc iltc so clillicult ofExercise 136 Mixed tenses [SGE 14.11-16,also Chapter 4]c o r n p l e t ct h c f i r l l o w i n su s i n g s u i t a b l c c n s c s .I . l s ct h c p a s s i v e n o o c lw h c r c l rneccssary.E.ru rlt l c.Thc n firstllightarouncl two Poles rrakc) in 197 l . whcnCtptainElgcn the ( M L o n g ( c o v e r )6 2 . 5 9 1 n r ( 3 t t , t t 9 r n i l c s )i n 2 l - 5f l y i n gh o u r s . k 6A t t . s y t , c t : l h c l i r s t f l i g h t w , r snr1r u lr.,w h c n C a p t a i n E l g c n M l _ o n g < . o v n H r , o i t . 97 6 2 . - 5 9k r n . . . 7 I M a n ( c l r e a m. . . . . . ) o f f l y i n g s i n c ct h c w o r l d ( b e g i n ) l L e o n a r d oc l a V i n c i ( 1 4 - 5 2 - 1 5 1 9c l c s i g n e d f l y i n g n r a c h i r - rb u t ( d i e ) ) a c . . . . . .b e f r l r h e( a c h i c v c ) c . . . . . . h i sa n t b i t i o o f n secinghis dreambecomcreality. 3 T h e f i r s t c o n t r o l l e d o w e r - d r i v cfn i g h t l o c c u r ) . . . . . . . . . p l ...... whe n Orvillc Wright (lly) ... . .. fbr aboutI 2 seconds a heightof 8 nr 1 2f c e ti n 1 9 0 3 .
    • Directand indirectspeech 105 :l No one(fly) ... . . . t h e E n g l i s hC h a n n c lw h e n L o u i s B l e r i o t ( f l y ) . . . . . . f i o m F r a n c et o E n g l a n d i n 1 9 0 9 . 5 When Alcock and Brown (tly) .. . . . . t h c A t l a n t i c n e p - 5 t 1 r pn i 1 9 1 9t h c y (bc).... . . t l r cl i r s tt o d o s o . 6 TheArnerican,CaptainLindbergh(becornc) ......thclirsttttan to fly the Atlantic solo when hc (fly) ...... frtlttl At.nerica o t Francc in l,921. 7 B y t h a td a t cs c v c n t yo t h c r s( f l y ) . . . . . . t h c A t l a n t i c s i t r c cA l c o c k a n c lB r o w n (rnakc) ...... thcir recorcl light. f ll Aficr thcsc ( p i o t t c c t sl ea c l ) . . . . . . t h e w r t y , r l l a n y t n a t t yr c c o r c l s (brcak) . . . . . . i n t h c y c a r st h l t t i l l l o w c d . 9 Wlrcn thc Scconcl Worlcl Wlr (brcak out) .. ....ict-crlginctl llight tlrcacly (occur)l 0 T h c f i r s t s u p c r s o t r i cl l i g h t ( a c h i c v c ) ...... in l9;17 ovcl arl airlirrccbascin thc LISA whcn Charlcs Llwtxrcl Ycagcr (1ly) i n a n r c k c t p l a n c a t I . 0 7 f t k r n / h 1 6 7 0n r p h ) . Ihc by a tcstpilot - onII s u p c r s o n i c t t t t tt t t t l t l i r s t ( f l y ) ( 2 M a r c h l 9 6 9 a n d r c u u l a l l y( u s c ). . .... oll Pitsscrlgcrsctviccs s i n c c . fa n u a r y 1 9 7 6 .l2 lt (ll)r) . . . . . . o r t p a s s c n g c r c r v i c c sf i r r o v c r l t l y e a r s w l t c r t i t s ( s c t) . . . ... u Ncw Y o r k t o L o n d o n r c c o r c o l r h o t t r s5 ; 1t t t i t t t t t s l e in April l9t)0. It ttort.nally (crtrisc) ...... itt l.:1-50rph (2.-5-l-l n krn/h ).Exercise 137 Direct and indirect speech ISGE 14.17-211T h e t i r l l o w i n g c x a r n p l c so f d i r c c t s p c c c hi t r c t a k c n ( w i t h a c l c l c cllc t a i l so l w l r o i s tspcakirrg) l-rornDilhctrltit.s vrith Grr1.iby Kingslcy Arnis. Clrangc thcsc itttoi n d i r c c ts p c c c h . chap cantc 10 thc door.ittsl as I was lcavirtg.1,,:untltlt...lcnny: vcry lr-rrrny AAtt.sut,t"..lcnny a ve ry funny chap cartrc/hacl sairl ctltttc to lhc cloor.itrst shc was its lcaving.I Patrick: Dicl hc Irtcnliolt lr witcl J : N o . N o . n o t h i n g a t r o u tt h i t t . I t l h a v c r c l t t c r n b c r c dN o r a g i r l - f r i c n d . . P: Oh... Did he givc his narnc/ J : Y c s , b u t I f b r g o t s t r a i g h ta w a y , a l t h o u g hI r c r n c r n b c r t h i n k i n g t c t t u l t l n tb c i right. Anyway. hc saidhed bc back.2 P ( t o J ) : U n l e s sy o u l c c l l i k c a n o f h c ro l t h o s c I i . c . a c l r i n k l I s u g g c s tw e m o v c . With Saturclayshopping thcrc rtray bc a bit oltrtfhc and I want to bc thcre on the dot.3 JLR Scbastian:So yourc nothing to do with books. or anything like that/ May I ask what you are to clo with, Mrs Stanclishl J: I teach in a hospital, so Lsuppose I arn a bit to do with books. J L R S : O h , h o w s p l e n d i d .T e l l m e . w h a t s y o u r . w h a t s y o u r f i e l d / J: I havent really got one, I just go in in the rnornings in the week. and teach the long-stay chilclren, some of the younger ones. I used to teach in a proper -
    • 106 Thecomplex sentence:1 J: Sorry.Im just poppingrouncl thc hospital. to Onc of the little girls had a r n i n o r p y c s t c r c l a.y. s o I t h o u g h I d l o o k i n f b r a f e w i n u t e .g o i n gf b r o . t m s a breathof air really. P: Fine- do you want me to comewith you? J : N o . I l l b e t h e r ea n c b a c ki n a s e c o n c l . lExercise 138 Indirect into direct speech ISGE 14.17-211 -Turrrthe lirllouinginto clircclspccclt the worclsprobablysaid.Thcre rnaybcs r r i r lu r r 1 s l r L t i r ttrl:t i r . e oI l l c s l i c lh c d l i k c t o a s kr n ca f c w t h i n g s l l d i d n tn r i r r d i I l ) l - l K L I I ) , S K Y O t , l r I ] Wl l l l N ( i S I l O t ] l ) O N - f l l N l ) .2 [ T h c b a r n r a r r j a s k c r l n n v i l s h c h a clo l l l c t o l i v c r < l u n c l t h c r c . . . a n d t o l d h c r t h l t Jc t [ r i s w i l L l w a s o u I s h o p p i n gu t t h c u r o r u c r t l u t w o L r l cb c o n l y t o o c l c l i g h l c r tl o b l g i v c h c r t h . - b c n c l i t o l h c r l o c l l k n o w l c c l g ca n y t i r n c . b u t r n c a n w h i l ct h c d 1 1 c l c r r r c r si n t h c b l o c k h a r lt r i c i l t o g c t 1 1 w 1 y i t h l o s i n g I t i s t o p c o a tf i r r h i n r l a s t w w l l t t c f.3 S h c n o l o n g c l w e r r tr o u n d s l y i n { I o l r c r s c l l h c a s t h c b c s t - l o o k i n g l r n s l r ch a t l w n cver lnct.: 1 l ; r a n c i st h o u s h t t o h i r n s c l l l h a t i t l h c y w c r c . i u s t g o i n g t o s t a y t h e r c a l l t h c c v c r r i n gt u l k i r r gh c w o u l r l g c t v c f y h u n g r v .5 T o r n b c g g e t lu s l r o l t o t e l l a n y b o d y . x p l a i r t i n gh a t h c r l i d n o t w l n t l r i s c t n c i g h b o u rt.o l i n do u t .W c p r o n r i s c h i r nw c w o u l r ls a yn o l h i n g o a n y o n cb u t s d t . w c c l i cu d v i s c i n rt h l t i t n r i g h t c b c l t c r o a p o l o s i z e . n t l I o l l c r ctd h c l ph i n r l h b t A o writc a lcttcr.Ilowcvcr hc rctirsctl. sugucsting rathe-r ruclcly that I shoLrld nrincl nly own busittcss. (K ingslcy Arlis: Drllicrri c.s i tIt Oi tLs) It wExercise 139 Free indirect speech and free direct speechlsGE 14.221 pcoplcrcportwhatsonrcbody saidin a way thatmixcsindircctSonrctirnes has ancl speech.clirectWritc out what pcoplcactuallysaidor thought.I Hc introduced to histiiendwho askcd with a speculativc whercI canre me rnc eye fiom. A countrycallcdEngland. said.Oh yes,he said.Englancl; I would that countrynot be nearKabul?(Peter Levi: TlrcLight GartlenoJtlrc ArtgelKittg) 7.he Jriend. L t ti ; . . Thetiientl:
    • speech 107 Freeindirect2 Shall I go afier thern?he asked... Nina aclvised against. Perhaps wasnt it opening tirneyet. It woulclbe bestif they waitedfbr Olga.(Bcryl Bainbridgc: WitttLr Gurdut) Ht:... N i t t u :. M y w a i t c ra lo n c i s s p l c n d i d l y n p c r t u r b e c l .o u l t lS i r l i k c h i sc o a lc h e c k c ca. u W l d r i n k ,a r n c n pcrhaps winc listl (7litDuilt"lclcgrtrTrlr u. thc 5.2.fi13) l lrt truiftt:. W h c n A l a n S t r i p p w a s i n h i s l i r s t v c a r a l T r i r t i t - v - o l l c g c . C a r n b l i t l g cl l c w a s C i l v i t c d t o a n i n t e r v i c w .T h c q u c s l i o n sa s k c do f h i n r u , c r c u t t t t s L t a l : t l ih c p l a y cl chcss. coulcl ltc rcad ttrttsicaltclhow gotltl was hc at crosswortls/ 7 - l t c r r l t tt i t v ( t : . . . . i H c k n o c k c t l i l s i t l cp r o t c s l i r l g r a v c l l c r si r l I l i s c a g c r r l c s so g c t l o t h c b o o k s t a l l t t l)id thcy lurvc a cop1,of lltt, l:uttitQtrctttt by Sir EtlnrLrntl Spcrlscr? No. thcy r l i d 6 o t . N o t c v c l t t h c P e n g u i nc t l i t i o r r N o t i n a n y e t l i l i o n .D i d t l t c y r c a l i z cl h l t t l llrc flrcrc [:tto.it ()rrrt,rrtwls onc olthc.icwcls irt thc crrtwtt of E,nglishpoclryl w a s l t ( ) tr r l r c h c u l l l i ) r [ ] ( ) c l r yu l I l c a l l t t o w . S i t c o t r l c li,l s i r w i s h c t l . l r v t h c o t h c r b o o k s t i t l l si n l l r c a i r 1 t o r l b t r t h i s c h a r t c c s l s t t c c e s s c r c s l i r t t .( D a v i d L o d s c : . o w S r t t t t lW r t ltl l l llc:... l)r tttksttt! tr.t.s trl : . I i sttt llL.... lltsrtkslu u.s.s t rl : . II i sltt Hc callcd llc onc dair anclsaid woulrl I cornc ul) lo sce hittt bccatrscltc hitd arl Was i { e a . I I e w a s w r i t i t t gl t s h o w . . . n l r dh c w a t l l c t ll l l c t o a p p c a ri r ri l . I lll-cptrctl Io lcave l)irrisl ltc wltttlctl to krtow. ( [hc Strttdu.t"lclc.gt 2.6.91) ultlr Itt. ... H a s h c c v c r b c c r . irr r c l a n g c r l N o ls o I a r . I n h i s l r a v c l s w l t i t l h t t s h c l c a r l t c d l lrr [ - c w i s a r r s w c r s n h i s r n c a s u r c rv o i c c . i l g l a c l u u l l y o r t r i r t go t h c c t t l t c l t t s t o t t c t Docs t h u t t h c A n c i c r r l B r i t o n s l i v c r l u r n o r c s a t i s l l c l o r y l i l c t l r a nw c t l o . . . lhis t l c p r c s s h i r n l l h c s u n c o n t c s o u l a n r l h i s a t t c n l i t t r ti s t l r i t w r t t o a l r a n k t l f c x t r e r l t e l yr a r c l l i t i l l a r i l rI l l o w c r s l . l c a l l 1s l y t h a t i 1 t l o c s a c t u a l l y . ( l r r l n r n a lltt irrtcrvie with writcr Nonttan Lcwis. w Strtrlu.t"ltlt.qruplt2.6.9 I ) I tttttricucr: L c u s : i : tutt I rr ttrti Lcvis. . I ttttttitttcr: Lavis:6 Thc two detcctives rcmained. and so clid thc lwo policenren. Thcy werc cxceptionally nicc to her, and Jack Noolan askccl if she woulclnt rather go somewherc else, to her sisters house perhaps,or to his own wite who would take care of her and put her up fbr the night. No. she said. She didnt teel she could nlovc even a yarcl at the moment. Would they mind awfully if she stayedjust where she was until she telt bctterl She didnt feeltoo good at the moment, she really didnt.
    • 108 Thecomplex sentence Then hadntshebetterlie down on the bcclJ JackNoonanaskecl. No, shesaid.shedlike to stayright whereshewas,in this chair.A little latcr perhaps. whcn she felt better,she would rnove.(Roald Dahl.Lunb to tltc Slu ugltter) Nootttttt; .. Wontutt: N ootttttt Wortrutt.Exercise 140Transferrednegation [SGE 14.231 Wc sornctinrcs transfcra llcgativc llont a suborclinatc clausc whcrc s c r n a r r t i c a li lty e l o n g so t h c n r a t r i x l a u s cT h u sw c l l t a ys a yI l o t i r t l t i t t k b t c . it vrill ruitr instea(l I tltitrk vtottt o| it ruitr.C i i v c n c g a t i v c u n s w c r s l o t h c t o l l o w i n g s c n t c n c c s .L l s c t r a n s l c r r - c c l c g a t i o r r nwhcrcvcr possiblc.L..tunrplc.Diil hc appelr 1o undcrstancl uhal you wcrc sayinu/Atr.svtt.. hc cliclntappcar to. No. I Did you cxpcct that hc woulrl bc sur-priscd? I D i t l l r r t rl t t r P e1 sw o t t l l l1 l 1 , s r 1l*t r sr r r i r r t l . l i. 3 Did hc sccnro bc listcrring? t 1 Do lhc lwo ol you bclicvc hc is stupidl No. wt 5 Do y<rusLlpp()sc lras other plansl hc fi Do you consiclehe shouldconrplain? r 1 I ) o y o u i n r a g i n c i s p a r c n t s a nh el p ? h c 6 W o u l t ly o u h a v et h o u g h t t w t s p o s s i b l c ? i t) Does it look as lhough hc will suc:ceecll sl 0 Do you teel there lny point in going on?
    • functionsof and semantic1 5 Syntactic subordinateclauses Subordinatc clauses can be finitc ancl n o n h n r t L - . vanous functions: nominal ( likc a nounor nounphrascassubjcct, ob.iect.contplcntcnt or in apposition) adverhial likc an aclvcrb rclalivc rclatingto a noun or tttlutrphrase phrasc cornparalivc alicr a cornparative (cg. -cr. nrrttc, us) (Studcnts aclvisccl reacl are lo bcforcattclnpting Chaptcrl5 olSGllcarclully ex c l c i s c s r l l I a n t l l : 1 2).Exercise141 Functionsof subordinateclauses[SGE 15.2]S t u { y t h c s u b o r d i n a t c l a u s c si n t h c t i r l l o w i n g ( u n d c r l i n c c l i r r y o u ) a t t c lt l c c i t l c cw h c t h e r t h e i r l i r n c t i o n i s t r o m i n a l , a c l v c r b i a l , c l a t i v co r c o t . t l p a r a t i v cW i t h a r .norninal clause, dcciclewhcthcr it is fulrctioning as sub.ject, ob.icct,in tppositiorlor contpletrtcnt. I W]NIe Lg,t is ttty htrsittcss. ,4lsrcr: rtttntinal ( subiecl) 2 I d o n t w a r t t t o t c l l a n y o r t cw h c r c I g o . 3 O t h c r w i s cc v c r y o n c w i l l g o w h c r c I g o . 1 Thc placc whcrc I gtt is cluict anclurrlitshiorlablc -5 Sonrc pcople say that I hidc liorn thc world. 6 Why shouldnt I havc sorttc sccrcts that I hide-fitlm the worU/ 7 Actuallythc idca.that I hiclcfrorn thc world, is absurcl. 13I dont rnincl atlntitting clcsire stllituclc. a tbr 9 A hotcl ot1cring peaccancl quict is nly iclca olbliss. l0 I usually go away whcn thercsttottnuchwork lo d-9 l l I c l o n tr c a l l yk l t o w w h e nw o u l c b c t h c b c s tl i n t c . l l 2 I a m w o n d c r i n g1 y o u l l i b e i r tt o w n . 1 . 1l l ) o u r ci n t o w l t d o r i t t uI n c . . lzt I go away as oftenas possiblc. l 5 B u t I d o n t q o a w a ya s o l i c n a s t n y s i s t e r . l6 You neverseemto rclax enoughto enjor-yourself. l7 The lnain thing is to enjo))ourself. l8 Dont you evergo awayjust to enjoy -vourself-?
    • 110 Syntacticand semanticfunctions of subordinateclausesExercise 142Finite nominal clauses [SGE 15.3-121Idcntily the /uritc lrominal clauscs in thc follclwin-q scntences and state their -1 u r r c l i o n s s r - r b j e c ( i n c l L r d i n . re x t r a p o s e c ls u b . j c c t ) .c l i r c c t o b j e c t . s u b j e c t tc o n r p l e r n e n ta p p o s i t i v e .c o r n p l c n r e n t f a c jl c c t i v c , c o r l p l e n r c n t o f p r c p o s i t i o n . . oIgnorcotherclauses.f , . t r t t r t l t l c . s r r [ ; r c c . J o y A d u n r s o n ss t o r y o l [ r l s al h c l i o n c s s .s h o w s h o w l r u t h i s Rr r ( ) i l ) c l i i l ) ( l r i l n s e I t l r l r nl i ( l i o r r .1tt.stttt". lronttrrllr i.s.tottrtlittrt.s.trdtt.q(tlltutr lictiott dilcct ob.jcct(ol.i/iol,r) I l t w a s r c p o r l c ( ll o ( i c o r g c t h a l t h i s a n i r n a ll a r n a n - c a t i n g i o n l . a c c o n r p a n i c r l l b 1 t u v oi o r r c s s c sw a s l i v i n g i n s o r t t cn c a r b y h i l l s . l . I T h i s u a s r " h v c w c r c c l r n r p i n t l a r - l o l h c r t o r t ho l l s i o l o a r n o n g t l r c B o n r r r 1r i b c s n r c n . 3 S u d d c n l yl h c a r t lt h c v i b r a t i o n so l a c a r : l h i s c o u l d o n i y r t t c a nt h u t ( i c o l g c u , a s r c t u n ) i l l gr n u c h c a r l i c I l h l r n c x p c c l c r l . - l ( i c o r g e. r v l . t o l s r n o s td i s t r - c s s c t l . l r ln r c u , h a th a r lh a p p e c d . I l c u n d a n o t l r c r w o n g a r r r c - w l r r r l c n l r l k i l l c d o n c o l t h c l i o r r c s s c si n s c l l - d c l t n c c . a r r d t l r c r r h discovcr.crl hcr thrcc cubs.I - 5 H c b l a n r c d h i r r r s c l l l i r r n o t h u v i n g l c c o g n i z c c lc a l l i c l t h a t l r c r b c h a v i o L r r s l r o v r c dh a l s h c w a s r l c f c n t l i n gh e r l i t t c r . ( t w o l i n i t c n o n r i n a lc l a u s c sh c r c ) t 6 W h a l c v c r t r i c k I t r i c r l 1 o r r r a k ct l r c r ns w u l l o w r l i l L r t c d n s w c c t c n c crll i l k o n l v u r . c s t r l l c r n t h c i r p u l l i n g u p t h c i f t i r r y n o s c su n c lp r o t c s t i n g . il 7 ThcavcragcnurnberoubsinalittcrisfilLrr,ofwhichoncusuallyrlicssoon cf a l t c r - b i r t la n d a n o l l r c ri s o l l c n l o o w c u k l o b c r c u r c t l .I t i s l i r l l h i s r c a s o nt h u t r o n c u s u a l l y s c c so n l y t w o c u b s w i t h u l i o n c s s . ll l lrvcrr in tlrcir scconrlycar cubs arc unublc to ki l l on tircir own ancll llavc lo fcly firr thcir lixxl on wltat rnuv bc le lj ovcr fhrnr l kill by thc lirll-gnrwn lions ol thc pridc. .1 9 l T h e A d a r n s o n s p p o i n l c t lN u r u . t h c i r g a r c l c nb o y , a s l i o n k e c p c r i n c h i c f a T h e p o s t p l c a s c t lh i n r l i r r i l r a i s c ch i s s o c i a ls t u t u s ; t a l s o n r c a n tl h a t w h c n t h c l i cubs got tircclo1rornpins. . . anclprcfcrrccl slccp unrlcr sorneshady bush, hc to was able to sit near thenr firr long hours, watching to sce that no snakcs or b a b o o n sr . n o l c s l c ch c n r .( l w o l i n i l c n o m i n a l c l a u s c s ) tll0 Soon thcy showccl us thal they only rcquired thrcc-hourly feecls.I I I T h c A d a n r s o n s l r e a d yh a c la s r n a l lw i l c l a n i r l a l , P a t i ,( a r o c k h y r a x ) a s a p c l , a anclthis littlc anirnal playcclwitlrthc growing cubs I I was vcry touchcclthat shc IPati] shoulclcontinuc tcl lovc thc littlc rascalscvcn thoush they divcrtccl our visitors attention from herself.l2 [Elsa was thc wcakcst of tlrccubs anclcould not gr:ther sharc of rrcat whcn thc Adamsons started them on solicltclod. scl Mrs Adarlson] used lo take her on to rny lap tbr meals. Shc loved this; rolling her head fiorn side to side ancl closing her eyes, she showeclhow happy she was.l3 It was hard to accept the fact that we coulcl not kcep fbr ever three first- growing lions.
    • If and whether 111l;1 Regrctfullywedecidedthattwomustgoanclthatitwoulclbebetterthatfhetwo big ones,who were always togethcr and lessclependcnt us than Elsa, should on b c t h c o n e s t o l c a v e .( t h r e c c l a u s e s )l-5 As to Elsa we fclt that if shc had only ourselvcs as frienclsshe would be easy to train.Exercise143 Subordinatequestions[SGE 15.4-5]J o i n t h c f i r l l o w i n g , a i r s o f s c n t c n c c s n t o o n c s c n t c l l c cc a c h . r n a k i n g a l t y t l r i t t o r p ichanges that sccrn nccessary. Rcrncrnbcr that subortlinatc clucstions firllown o r r n a l w o r c l o r d c r ( w i t h o u t i r t v c r s i o no l s u b . i c ca n d a u x i l i a r y ) . tE.tumplc.What lirsl inrpcllctl prchisttlric rllall lo travell Wc do not kn<lw.rlris}1?r: clo not knttw what lirst irnpcllcclpri:histtlric rttitttttl lravcl. Wc I Was it thc ncccl lbl fbocl or pcrhaps solne nalttral tlisastcrl Wc clo ttot kl.tttw. 2 W h a t . i n h i s t o r i c a l t i n t c s . i n s p i r c c ln r c n t o r i s k t h c i r l i v c s i n s e a r c ho l t h e unknownl Pcrhaps it is casicr to urltlcrstatldtl-tis. 3 Was it tradc orthc clcsircfitr latxl or firr gold <lrpcrhapsa nrixlurc olrnotivcs/ Do wc uttdcrslancll 4 Why do sornc pc<tplc cvcn toclayunclcrtakcdilficult ancltlaltgclotrs.itturncysl Who can cxplain/ -5 Arc thcy sceking aclvcrtturcl a challengcl Is it pcrhaps tllc casc] Or 6 What arc thc clnotions o1spacc travcllers as lhcy gazc tlowrt on thc cartlll (llll we w h o h a v c n c v c r t r a v c l l c t li n s p a c c i m a g i n c t h i s / cliscovcr 7 Whcn dicl Cihristophcr loluntbus C Arncrical Docstll cvcrybotly knowJ u Coulcl hc havc bccn ntistakcn irr thinking hc had rcachcclInclia.Colunlbus clicl n o t a s k h i m s el l t h i s . 9 Whcrc did hc actually rrtakc lanclfalll Dtl you know/ l0 W a s i t w h a t w c n o w c a l l t h c B a h a m a s lD o y o u t h i n k t h l t l II Which is thc remotcst placc in tlrcworlcl today?C-an you say/ l2 Who firsl sailcclrouncl thc worlcll Tcll rnc. l3 How long dicl Magclltns llcct takc on the voyage?Do yilu rcnlctnbcrJ l4 Whcrc was Magcllan killcdl I cant rct.nenlbcr. l5 Who rnadethc secondcircumnavigation of the worldl Well, cloyou know thatlExercise 144 if and whether [SGE 15.5]Cornplctc fbllowing with il or nhether. the Statewhcreboth are possiblc.E.rample. Have you ever wonderedwrtl,tHtln/rr lefi-handedttcss simply a isdisadvantage a right-handed in world,or wHeltten/tn an actualdetectl it is experts haverecently claimed it is a physicaldefect,though they I Well. some do notknow . . . . . . to attribute to it mothers who drinkduringpregnancy or to mothers who smoke! 2 Left-handers probablydont know .... to laugh at this theory or . . . . . .t o g e la n g r y .
    • 112 Syntacticand semanticfunctions of subordinateclauses 3 These wretched experls dont seem to have wonclerccl ......lcfi- hancledness cor.ild in fact bc neither a disadvantagc or a dcfcct - simply a differencc. Actually . . . . . . o r n o t l e ft - h a n c l c c l n e ss t e l ta s a d i s a d v a n t a g e e p e n c l s is d verv much cln the indiviclual. 5 . . . . . . t h c c x p c r l st h i n k t h l t L e o n a r d oc l aV i n c i . J a c o bE i n s t c i n .G e o r g c Bush or Princc Charles are clcfcctivcis not clcar. . . . . . . t h c y e v c n k n o w 1 h a 1. n a n ya n t o u sp c o p l c h a v c b c c r tl c l i - h a n d c t l r f sccrnscloubtful. Ancl thcy clont secnrto havc consiclcrccl . or lx)t lcli-hanclctlncss t o u l t l t r c t t h e l r t tl t t l v r t n t i l g ( l l s ( ) i l t c P ( ) r l s . i Thcy coLrlclhavc askccl Navratilova ()r Mclfrtroe - o r t l r c i r o p p o l l c n t s - it is a clisaclvantage lrot in tennis. or 9 S u r c l yi t c u r r c p o s i t i v c l y u s c l i r l l i r r s o t n c p c o p l c - b clilficLrlt lirr tlthcrs.l 0 B u ta r t y h o w , an advantagc or a tlisadvutttagc, why worry IExercise145 to-infinitive -ing clause?ISGE 15.9-10] orC o n r p l c t et h c l i r l l o w i n g u s i t r qi t l o - i n f i n i l i v c o t a t t - r r i , q i r r t t t . lI , , . t t t t t r 1 I l cs n o g o o r lr n c r c l y( t u l k ) u b o u t( l ) r c s c r v c ) t h c o r l c l sw i l d l i l c .Y o u v c t i w gol (drt) sorncthing. A r r s u t t l.t i s n o l o o d t t t c r c l y t , t . K t Na ; o t l t I R I i s l , R v t Nh;c w o t l t l s w i l c l l i l c . (b tt Youvc g ( ) l r 1 )r x ) s o r l c t h i n g .(l lalk) w o n l s u v ca n y l h i n t . L l u t( 2 a c t ) . is(lcausc) . t h i n g s t o h a p p c n . u n c l l h o u g l tt h c o b . j c c t i v c s l t h e ow i l d l i f cl o b b y- ( 4 s a v e . ) c n r l a n g c r cs p c c i c s i s a c l r n i r a b l c , clthcrc havc becn sonrc ur.tlorcscclt antl nol tolitlly wclcottrc rcsults. l n l l c t o n c s u r p r i s i n g c s u l th a s b c c r r( 5 c n c l a n t c r ) r . thc huttranspccics - al lcasl to thc cxtcrtt lhat there is trow a grcatcr risk of (6 bc) . . . a t t a c k c c li.t n o t k i l l c d , b y w i l c l l i f c . A law wus passecla fcw ycars ago (7 protcct) ... scals ttllArnericaswcstcoast.Naturallythcrcsultolnot(llcull)... thcscalp o p u l a t i o n s A Sn l o r c s c a l s( 9 s w i n r ) . w . . a r o L t t t ti ln s h o r e S o f a r s t r .gooc1. But though to us scals arc bcautilul wilcl crcaturcs.to sharks thcy arc fbotl.( 1 0 p r o v i d e) . . . l l r ( ) r c f i r o c ll i r r s l r a r k sn a t u r n l l y r e s u l t s i n r n o r cs h a r k s .A n c l i t i s r r o l r s c ( I I c x p e c t ) ... a shrrk ( 12 distinguish) bclween a scalancla hurnitnswirntncr.Rcsull - scvcralswitntnersk i l l c d a n c la l o l r n o r cs a v i t g e l y t t a c k c cO t c o u r s ey t t L r o L r l d a y ( 1 3 s w i r n ) a l. c s . . . i s a nu n n c c c s s a ra s t i n rB L r(tl l s w i m ) . p y e. . . . . . . . . . . .o r .not s w i r n n r i n g n tt h c o n l y q u e s t i o n . is O n t h e o t h e rs i d eo f t h e w o r l d .i n I n d i a .( l - 5k i l l ) ... tigers as hb e c n s t o p p e d .Q u i t c right. you say. For that noble animal (16 beconrc) . . . extinclwoulclbe worlddisgrace. you mightteel a But ditferentlyif you werean Indianfanncr living nearthejunglescdge- ancl your crops. youranimals. even yourfamily werein constant danger. intention theregulations The of-(lTpreservc)...... . . . . . .t h e t i - e e r - i s a d m i r a b l e . p a r t o f t h e o u t c o m c But
    • Adverbialclausesof time 113- ( l l 3 e n d a n g e r.). . . . . . . . . . . m e m b e r s f t h e h u n l a ns p e c i e - m a k e s o srealizethat f-ewissues this world are simple. inExercise146 to-infinitiveclausesISGE 15.9,151427] clauses havevarious 7 r.r-infinitive can ntlnrinal ancl functions adverbial and (a nrcanings, can cvcn fbllow it n()unin a noun phrasc brrtk trt rcud). andRewrite thc tbllowing using /r.,-infinitivc clauseswhcrc possible.LIsethc structurclrtr X t p . . . 6 G 1 : 1 5 . 9 1i f i t i s i r . n p o r t a r t o m c r r t i o nt l r c s u b . i c c o l t h c i n l i n i t i v c rt tclausc.I-,.runr1tlc. Wlttn pcrsltlc.rrrr thrt tourisnt is a rna.iorlhrcat to thc envirotlnlcnt. this is lto cxaggcrattotl.. l l t . r trt l T o s t r y l t l t l o t t r i s t tttr l t t t t l t j o r l l t t t l t l l l t i t t t v i r ( ) l i l l l (i s ) t o e r l t t g t r : t t i t r t t : t o ttl sight I |.loboclynowaclayscan hopc tltt.t ctrtrri,iiI a latnttus wilhoul bcitlg pltl of a huge crowcl. 2 It is a rarc plcasurc indcctl il ttttr.fitrd cle a scrlctl bcach. 3 Arrd u,lt2tt _t.ott.sr,c thc Cltorntotts crowtls wanClcriltgitroutlcl VclticC. ytttt rvontlcr how that grcat city has trot alrcady sutrk ittto thc sclt. thtl wc crtll stop pcoplc witntirlg t() :1 It wotrltl bc lirolish il utrttl usinru.qittctl trrvcl. 5llwctlonothirrgaboutlhis.thcrcwillsoonbcnothinglclltltuttt((dttPt(.(rt(. (r But wc urgently nceclutcasurc tlrut v ill pntkr1both hisloric buildings rttttlthc s c o un t r y si d c . 7 Onc possibfc solutiorr is lltut gitvcrttttttttl.s sltotrltl stl ttlt tttv ltttttttrt, trt, ir.: w i t h a r r n i c s l o fl i c i a l s . . . o suillrble l J . . . n l r o t r t r r l ttll i r e t t v i s i t t l r st t l sights. 9 A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y , t l t t r tv t t . t l r t t u l l r t , l t t t r r t h c p r i c c n i c t l t r r r t i . t r rw o u l t l t. plohlhly he sitttpltr. l 0 P c o p l c w i l l j u s t h a v c 1 o p a y l n o r c i l I l t c t t t r t t r t ) r c ( l l l c r t r o r ep t t p u l a l t t ) t l l - i s t /( a t l r a c to n s . l I I Allcacly sornc IJnglishcrthcdrals charge tourists acltrtissitlrt sttthut tltetctttt ft7rdir-sornc tlf thc rlautagccauscclby trarnpling lcct lrnclwct brcath. ll Scri11rrs tourists would not hc thc only ones nltr., btrtclit fkrtrl srtrallcr vrrttrltl crttwtls. l3 Thc local peoplc whtl livc in gr Itcar thcse pficcs woulcl bc Irappicr t/rc1xrrt rf il()[ ()(nutl- l;1 Ilwc Clonol act sool), we shall wake Llpone dtry tttrd.firrd is ttto ltttt. it Exercise 147 Adverbial clauses of time [SGE 15.14] togcther, Join the scntences shown,ancl usingthc ctln.junctions rnakingany othcr changcs necessary. We rcachecl Exuntplc. was reading. I Peterborough. (until) Attsv,er.was reading I Peterborough. until we rcacllecl
    • 114 Syntacticand sernanticfunctions of subordinateclauses I I was on my way to Edinburgh by train rcccntly. I had an odd experrcnce. (while) 2 I reacheclPadclin-eton station. My train was leaving. (-justasl 3 I had to wait half an hour. Thc ncxt train lefi. (betbre) z l I w a l k c c la l l a l o n g t h e t r a i n . I f b u n c la s c a ta t t h e f r o n t . ( u n t i l ) 5 I put my case on thc rack. I settlcclclown to reacln.rybcxtk. (oncc) 6 The train stoppeclat Petcrborough.A young nran gol in. (when) 7 FIc sat clown ncxt to nre. He bcgan a corrvcrsation.(as soon as) l J I c o u l c l n t g o o n r c a c l i n g T h i s y o u n g r n a n h a c lc l c c i d c dt o t a l k . ( a t i c r ) . 9 I t w a s a l l r i g h t l I h a d g i v c n u p l r y i n e t o r . c a d(.o n c c )l 0 H c t o o h a c lc a u g h t t h c " u v r o r t s t r . a i n . c h a d n r i s s c r t h c c a r l i c r o n c l i k c n r c . II l (a l1 c r )I I H c h a d s p e n tt w o y c a r sa sa n c n s i n c c r i n gs t u r l c n li n Y o r . k . l r c n h c h a r l t l c c i c l c d T to char.tgc courscs. (bcfirrc)l2 | told hirn I only kncw orrcpcrson in York. It lurncd out thal hc kncw lrcr. ( w h c n)l 3 W e r c a c h c t lY o r - k .W c w c r c r l c c p i n c o n v c r s a t i o n ( u h i l c ) .1 , 1T h c t r a i n s t o p p c d .H c . j u r n p c do r , r t( t h c l l t o l l t c n l ) .l - 5 A l a s . h c l c f i t l r c t r a i n . l l c h a d n o t t o l d n r c h i s n a r r r c ( h el i r r c . car.elull) Condition[SGE 15.17-2Ol ( - o n d i t i o n su r c o f t w o n r a . j o t y p c s : r o t , t , N n c u t r a l c o n d i t i o n s . W c t k l l t o l k r t o n w h c t h c r t h c c o n c l i l i o r r r r dt h c ( ) v a o u t c o n r ci t r c l n r c o r - w i l l h a p p c n ,b u l w c f c c l t h c y a r c p o s s i b l c : I f C o l i n i s a t t l r cn c c t i n t t o n r o r r o w , l l t c l l h r r n . I r t y t r | i l r r r ( r . o n c l i t i t l n s u g g c s l h a l t h c c o n c l i t i u n i l l r r o th a p p c n . 0 r . i s o t , , c w n t r u e n o w . o r d i c ln o t h a p p c n : lf hc carnc tor-norrow,Id he surpr-iscd. I l l r c u c l c l r e r rr r o u . . . lf only hc hacltclcphonc(l yr-slcr(lay. A t h i r c l l y p c , R u r r x ) n r r , r r .o l r r l i t i o n s , l o o k g r a r n r n a t i c a l l y l i k c o p c n c c o n c l i t i o n sb u t a r e a c t u a l l y s t r o n u l y a s s c r t i v c : , I l I w i n , I l l c a t r n y h a t .( l t n t s u r c I w o n t w i n . ) A n o t h e r r n i n o r t y p c o l c o n c l i t i o ni s r N o r n x - rc o n d i t i o n , w h c r c t h c r n a t r i x c l a u s cd o c s n o t a c t u a l l y f o l l o w a s a c o l l s c q u c l l c c f t h c c o n d i t i o n : o I t h i n k t h a t s a n r i s t a k e ,i l y o u c l o n t r . n i n crln y s a y i n g s o .Exercise 148 Conditional clauses ISGE 15.17-201Idcntifytheconditional clauses ciecide and whether theyareopen.hypclthetical orrhctoricai. Also mark any that are indirect.E.rample. keepquict l/ 1 heretou. (hypothetical) Id l If this is justice,I am a banana. (Ian Hislop)
    • Conditionals 115 d 2 If Aristotle werc alive today, he have a chat show. (Timothy Leary) 3 You can losc a lttt of work i1 peoplc think yourc dead. 4 I f a n y t h i n gc a n g o w r o n g . i t w i l l . 5 I f y o u d o n t l i k c t h e h c a t .k e e p o u t o f t h e k i t c h e n . 6 If you asktne.thatsabsurd. 7 I w o u l d n t h a v e a s k c c li f I d i d n t w a n t t o k n o w . lJ If thcrc is one thing a successfulr.nanshtlulclknow. it is wherr t() stop. 9 C l c a r l y m o l l c y h a s s o n t c l h i n gt o c k rw i t h l i l l . l n f a c t t h c y v c a l o t i n c o u l l l l o r l . i f y o u c n q u i r c .( P h i l i PL a r k i n )l 0 I w o u l c l n t h i t v c a s k c t l i f l h a d n t w a t t l c t lt o k n o w Exercise 149 Hypothetical conditions ISGE 15.19]W r i t c t h c l i l l l o w i n g a s s i l l g l c c o t r t l i t i o t t as c l l l e l l c c s . l fhc I._tttrrr1tlt,.. lcinplcs at Aswan wcrc rttovccl. thcy wcrc tlo[ lloodctl rllrcrtlhc So c l a n rw a s b t r i l t .,1lsur,r.: Ifthc tcrll-rlcs lrl Asrvlrr harl not bcctt tttovctl. thcr lvonltl havc bcetl lltxrtlcd whctt thc dittn was btrilt. ( L l s c l i i c / 1 tr l l l l l c r t l l i t l t u t t t r l d w h c r c t h i s t t t a k c sb c t l c r s c l l s c . ) . I P c o p l el r c c t t r i t t r t s h o u t t h c p l l s l . S o a r c h i t c o l o g y x i s l s a e I I h c a n c i c l t tF . g y p t i a n s c l i c v c r li n l u a l t e - l i l c . S o t h c y b t r i l l c l a b o r a t cl o r l l b s . b r lhcy 3 w e r c c l c v c r u t s l u r o b s c r v u t i o n s .a n t l t h c C i r c l t P y r a r r r i co l G i z a i s l a c c u n t r c l yl i n c t l u p w i t l r n o r t h . s o u t h .c a s l a t t t l wcst siclcs . l T h c r c w a s n o c o i n a g c w h c n t h c p y r a n r i d sw c r c b n i l t . S o t l t c w t l r k r t l c l lw c r c paid with lirtltl. -5 Becauscthc ligyptians put ob.jcctsin thc tot.nbs, krtow a lot ltbout rtrre wc itnt Egypt. ( r T h c p y l a r n i d s w c r c p l u n c l c r ci c la n c i c r r t l i m c s . s t t l a t c r c x p l o r c r s c l i d n o t f i l l t l n g l c a { q u a n l i t i c so l t r c a s u t -.e -Ihc 7 first llulopcan visitors cliclnol nrakc delailctl notes bcctttsc lllcy wcrc llot a r c h a c o l o gs t s . i ll TIrc sandsburied sorilc trcasurcs.Part olit wooclcltboat was safcly cxcavatctl in 195;1. t) The Vtllcy olthc Kings. furthcr south. was also ptrtly prtttcctcd by santl. So Tutankhamuns tomb wlls tlot cliscovcrctlunlil 1922. l0 Tutankhar.nuns tclrnbwas not lounclby thc gravc robbcrs, ancltl.tcwondcrful trcasuresare now in thc Cairo MLtscut-tl. I I Archacologists work carefully arrd painstakingly. Thcy continue to teach us about thc Past.Exercise 150 Conditionals with inversion [SGE 1519]Rewrite tollowingwith inversion subject lauxiliary)vcrb.Ycluranswers the of andwill begin with.hatl, should or h(re.E.rample. I told him, hcd probablylaugh. If Were I to tell him, hed probablylaugh.Ansv,er:
    • 116 Syntacticand semanticfunctions of subordinateclauses I If you see iin unidentificd flying object. ler ntc know.2 If I werc to seeonc, I shoulcl infontryou. r:ertainly3 Ancl if by any chancc I nrcl an alictt aslronaut. Id infirrm thc newspape-rs too4 l l y o u w c r cn o t s o s c e p t i c ay.o u n t i e h tl e a r n l5 I1you hacll.rcenwith ntc last night. you w,oulcllravc seen the I.JFOs.6 I I y o u h a c l n il o l d r n c . I w o u l d n c v c r h a v c b c l i e v c c li t .7 M a n y s i g h t i n u w < l u l tp r o v ct o b c h o l x c s .i l w c i n v c s t i s u l ctc l c n r . s l hu l f I h a t l n t x a r r t i n ctc lc p h o t o l r a p hn y s ef . I w o u l ch a v ct h o u s h t t w a sa 1 a k c . c h r l l iExercise 151 Concession [SGE 15.21-231R e w r i l c t h c l i r l l o w i n s , u s i n g l h c c o n j u n c l i o r r s i v c l r a r r dr l a k i n g a l l y n c c c s s i l r y gcnlrngcs.l i . t u n r l t l c I t l o n t u p p n t v co f t c l l i n g l i c s . B u t t c l l i l r c t l r cl n r t h c a n b c p a i n l i r l .1 w hi l e ) : A t t . s v t t wh i l c I c k l n 1a p p l o v c o l t c l l i n g l i c s . t c l l i r r gl h c t r u l h c a n b c p l i n f i r l . t . I E n r p l o y c r s r a t r , t n t l lw a n t t o r c c r u i l t h c r i u h t p c o p l c ,b u l s o n t co f t h c i r n r et h o r l s I y r k r s c c n rd o u b t l u l .( l l t h o u g h ) 2 T h c y n c c t lt t t f i n d o u t i t b o L lu s ,y c t d o t h c y h a v el o a s k s u c l rp c r s o n u l q u c s l i o r r s l t ( t h o u g h) 3 I t l o n t n r i n c ll i l l i n g i n r t q u e s l i o n t r u i r cb u l I o b . j c c t o s o l l l c l y p c s o t c l u e s t i o n . . 1 (whilc) 4 Solnc pcrsonal inlirnttitliorrnray bc ncccssary.Evcn so. I dol-rlwant to !ivc it. (cvcn il) -5 | vcry tnuclt wanlcd lhc lasl .job I applictl lbr. Ilowcvcr, I rclr.rsccl cornplctc to t h c q u c s t i o n n a i r c( n r u c ha s ) . 6 T h e c l u c s t i o n s l r a y h a v c b c c n r c l c v a n t .B u t t h c y s t r u c k u r c a s u l r p l c u s a n t(.a s r l s c c I . 5 . 2 n o t cl ) I 7 T h e c o n s e q u c n c e s o u l d h a v e b c c n a n y t h i n g l b r m c . I s t i l l w a s n 1g r r i n ! t o c rcveal rny privatc life. (whatcvc-r) l l S o r n y a p p l i c a l i o nw a s a w a s t c o 1 t i n r c .B u t I d i d e c t p r a c t i c ea l c l e a l i n g i t h - w a w k w a r c lq u c s t i o n s . c x c e p tt h a l ) ( 9 I r e a l l y c l i s l i k c d h e q u c s t i o n n a i r . N e v c r t h c l c s sI, e n j o y c dt h c i n t e r v i c w .( c v e n t e though)l 0 P c r h a p sI l l r n a k e u p t h e a n s w c r sn e x t t i n t e . B u t d o n t t e l l a n y o n c ! ( o n l y )Exercise152 Reason,purposeand result [SGE 15.26-28]Rewrite the fbilowing, using the words givcn and ntaking all other necessarychanges.
    • Subjectsin nonfiniteand verblessclauses 117E.runrple.Some pcople make themselvcs run becausethey want to livc to a rtpe olcl age. . . . . . .r o t l r t r lAlsrrr: Somc people makc thcmsclvcs run so that they will live to a ripe olcl agc. I Convincccl that cxercisc is good tbr you. cloctorsltrr-ttrqins L-vcry()nc takc to morc cxerclse. Becausc 2 A lot of rncn in particular clie of hcart cliseasc. thcy ought to be warnctl. so S u c l r rl o l . . . . . r 3 Many pcople eat too rnuch lltt itnclclantagctheir hearts. heclrusc .1 Sorne doctors sct such a bud cxarttple that pcoplc cltl not listcrt to thelll. so that . - 5 W c a r e a l w a y sb e i n g t o l c lt o c h a n g co u r h a b i t s .w i t h t h c r c s u l tt h a t s o u t cp c o p l c dont lislcn. Sirrte. . (r Sorrrcurarathortrunllcrs cxpcricrtcc rcal pain bccausc thcy train vcry hard. so............hat t 7 Sornc rullncrs arc ohscssivc.atrd cttnscc;ucntlythcy in.iurctltcrnsclvcs. tl Othcr pcoplc lakc no cxcrcisc anclbccotne really lrnfit. As ..... 9 S i n c c s u c l t p c o p l c o l t c na l s o o v e r c a t ,l h c y 1 . r u t n w c i g h t . o so"l 0 S o r n c p c o p l e r c a l l y c l i s l i k cc x c r c i s c .a n t l t h c r c l i l r c t t t a k cc x c t t s c s . Bcr:.tu:el l S o r n c p e o p l e s a y t h c y l c a c lv c r y b u s y l i v c s . a l t c ls o t l o n t h a v c I i t t r e . " " t h a tl h c Y " l2 Sonrc olclcl pcoplc ttkc up running becausc thcy want to strcrtglltcttthcit bones. ....ittottlcrtrrl3 V i o l c n t c x c r c i s r c a n r l a r n a g cr n u s c l c s ,s t l s c r i o u s r l l n l l c r s p l a n t h c i r c l i c t caretully. "" - ttlrl4 You nright h a v c a h c a r t c o n d i t i o n . s o h i t v ea c h c c k - u p w i t h y o u r d o c l o r .rsch.;";;;.;;;,;,-i"-n,h;;;.;;"i;t;, r,,"-,,v,r,".,"r" *iJl; r",.t"",. s()ils...l6 Youdonthavc runifyou lo want ke p fit- cycling srvinrmins clo. ttt e or will .....inordcrtcr .Exercise153 Subjectsin nonfiniteand verblessclauseslsGE 1s.34-351 Whena nonfinite vcrbless or clause no subject itsown,grammatically has of we understand it is the same that asthe subject the rnatrixclause. of This is rule,but it does calledthe attachment not haveto apply in all cases.
    • 11B Syntacticand semanticfunctions of subordinateclausesSome clfthe fbllowing gcnuinc quotationsbreak the attachrnent rulc. Rewritc thcrlwhere this nrattcrs- in orclerto bring out the probable ntcaning.E.runrplt. Lilin-e in Plynrouth. a visit to a West Encl thcatre is an annual trip to which nry husbanclartclI alrvays look firrwarcl.A l s l r , r : A s w c l i v c i n P l y n r o u t h .i t v i s i t . . . e t c . I O n c c s o l c l .y o u r c u n l i k c l l t o s c c s u c l . f i n c q u a l i t y r c a l l c u t l r c rb o o t s o l l c r c c l t a l . j u s tl l ( r . t ) - 5c v c r a g a i n .( a c l v e r t i s c l l r c n t ) I C i i v c n t h c c i r c u n r s t u n c c s , t c r c s e c l n sn o p o i t t t i n c o r r r p l a i n i n u . ll J A s u n a c t i v es u p p o | t c r o l l h c a r t s i n B r i t a i nt.h o u g h t y o u w o u l r lb c i n t c | c s l c r l I t o k n o w o l a s c r vi c c t h a t o l l c f s o u t h c c h a n c ct o p n r vi c l el i n a n c i a lh c l p f i r r t h c y l u r l s u b s o l r r t c l y l . c c .( c i r c r r l u rl c t l c f ) l -l Wliting ulounclto sigrr hooks thc otlrer rlay. a [rright-lacctltcn yci.rrolrl rnurlc l uw c l c o n r c l p p c a r l n c c . ( u u t h o r - . l o h n o r t i n r c r ) M l - 5 h c p l l y n c c c l so b c p r c s e t c d w i t h n r o r cs c n s co f s l y l c .T h l t h a v i n g b c c n s a i t l . t n thcrc lrrc sornc goorl pcrlitrnritnccs. ( r O p c n l i r r l u n c h a n r lt l i n n c r .b o o k i n g i s a r l v i s e ta t t h i s c o r t r l i r r - t a bac t r ln r o r l i s h l lr rclrsonablcrcstauralrl. but vcr1 7 Askcdnruchlalcron.whrthcuasrcallyuplo.awirlcsilcnlsrrrilcdividcdhis l a c c . c c o n r p a n i c rb y a n o d d l y y o u l l r f u lh l u s h . a l 8 C o n s i r l c r i l i gs h c s n i n c t y . r n y g r a n d r r o l h c l i s a r n i . t z i t t g la c t i v c . y 9 O n c o l t h e w c l l l h i c s t r ) ) c ni r r t h c w o r - l d . i s l i r r - ie r ri r t rc s t r r r c r r l s r ee s t i m a t c t l h g r a l o v c r ! i l ( X )h i l l i o n .l 0 O n c c i n s i r l c .t h c h o u s c c x u r l c sl l i c l i n g o l s c c u r i t y .l l L J pt o c i g h l i n c h c so l s n o w l e l l i n l a r g e p a r l so l t h c S w i s s A l p s . e r t r l i r r lr t t o r . e than two wccks oldr-y lrrrl balnry wcathcr.l l T l r c r c s t a u r a n w l s l i r l l w h c n s u c l d c n l y a r n ca l c r f i b l c c x p l o s i o n t h r o w i n g u s t c to lhc grouttrl. clauses[SGE 15.36-42]Exercise154 ComparativeL l s ct h c f a c l sg i v c nt o c o r n p l c t t h c s c n l e n c cs u i t a b l y . c sl , , . t u n r p lT:h c c o u n t r y i t h t h c h i g h c s r a t co l c n r i g r a l i o in M c x i c o . t w t s u.r.x t , . . . 1 - r c o p l c c m i g r a t c f M c x i c o . . .t t l A N . .f.r o t nA l ^ r n r Pr:o p o r t i o n a t c l y . r ronr any ()thcrcountry. I The VaticanCity. the smallest indcpcr.rclcnt country in the world, covers.1:1 h c c t r r c sc o r n p a r c d i t h M o n a c o sl 9 l . . l h a . N a u r u ,i n t h e w e s t c r n a c i f i c , w P ( 2 . 1 2 9 a ) i s t h c s r n a l l c s te p u b l i c n t h c w o r l d . h r i M o n a c os . . . . . i . . . . . . . t h c V a t i c a n i t y ,b u t C ............ s a N a u r u . a u r u. N . . a n y o t h c rr c p u b l i c n t h e w o r l d . i2 The rnostdensely populatecl territoryin the world is Macao,on the southern coastof China(over2U,000 pcopleper kmr.)This comparcs with Hong Kong (-5,497 krnr).Of largccountries, mostdensely per the populated Bangladcsh is ( 7 8 3p e r k m r ) . Many peopleassume that Hong Kong is any other territory i n t h e w o r l d , b u t a c t u a l l yi t i s . . .... than Macao. B a n g l a d e so f c o u r s es . . . . . . h i . . a se i t h e r .
    • Mixedclauses 1 193 The country with the biggestpopulationis China. But the UniteclNations estimate that by the ycar 20-50 Indias population will bc 1,590million and Chinas a m e r e1 , 5 5 4 n i l l i o n ! r l n d i a sc u r r e n t o p u l a t i o ns . . . . . p i ....... tlsChinas: ut the UN b f b r e c a s h a tb y t l r ey e a rA D 2 0 - 5 i0 . . . . . . tt t . . . . . .C h i n a s ., 1 I n 1 9 t 3T o k y o - Y o k o h a n t aa st h eb i g g e sc i t y i n t h ew o r l d .B u t M e x i c oC i t y 5 w t is cxpcctcd to ovcrtakcit by thc ycar 2000. McxicoCitywasnot..... . . . . . . . T o k y o i n9 f t . 5 . b u t b y t h e e n c l o f t h c l ccntury i t c o u l cb c . . . . . l . . . . . . . a n yo l h c rc i t y i n t h ew o r l c l .5 T h e w o r l cp o p u l t t i o n i s i l t c r c a s i n g a t t h c r a t c t l f 9 1 3 r n i l l i o n a y c a r . T h e l o w c s t l ratc of naturalincrcasc any inclcpetttlcnt tll cottntrywas rccorclccl Wcst in G c r n r a n yi n l t ) l t 6 ) . n K c n y at h c r a t ci s t w i c et h c w o r l d a v c r i l g c . ( l N a l u r ap o p u l a t i ol n c r c a sw i t s. . . l c i n W c s t( i c r r t t a n.y . . . . . . .i n l t l l . o t h c r c o u n t r yn l 9 t t 6 .l n K c n y at h ep t l p u l a l i o h a sb c e ni n c r c a s i nlgl o r ct l l a n i n l twice . . . .. . . . . t h c w o r l da v c r a g c .6 I n l g t l l t h c r cw e r cc s t i r n a t etd b c l , ( X ) 6 . 7n a l c sn t h c w o r l d l i r r c v c r y 1 . 0 0 0 o r i l c n r a l c ss u ti n 1 9 8 5t h c L I S S R a c l1 . 1 3 2I. l c r r t a l c s c v c r y l . ( X X r n a l c s . t. h to ) A c c o r c l i ntg c s t i n u t t cts c r ca r cl l o t . . . . o h . . . . . . . . f c r n a l c sl l t h c w o r l t l i rnalcs. although in sotnc counlries) thcrc trtay hc tnannrcrl.7 W o r l d e x p c c t u t i o r o t l i f l a t b i r t h i s r i s i n g l i t l r na l l a v e r a g co f 1 7 . 1y c a r s ( i n t 1 9 5 0 - - 5 - 5 ) t o w a r d s 6 1 t r . 5 ( 1 9 X - 5) ) . T h c h i g h c s t c x p c c t a t i o n o f l i t c i s i n J a p a n 2(9 X ( l{ l .g ycars tirr wonrcn and T5.Slirr nrcn in l t)lJt3 Thc lowcst is in partsttl Aliica ). lirr rncrr (39.,1)arrcl lilr wotrtctr in Atghanisttrn (2tr2). fhrouglrout rnost ol thc rvorlcl pcoplc cltn cxPect lo livc . their p a r c n t s l i c l .N o o t h c r c r t u n t r y s x p e c t i t t i o n f l i f c i s . . . . . . . t c o Jlpans. Mosl rcctlrcls su-llgcst thal lllcll tlo not oll avclitgc w ornclt E v c t l i n Ja P a n ... nrcn . . . w o r t l c l l c a n c x p r - c t1 o r c a c h c i g h l y .Exercise155 Mixedclauses[SGE chapter15]l c l c n t i f yl h c f i n i t c s u b t l r t l i r t l t tc l a u s c si n t h e l i r l l o w i n g .a n c l( l ) n l a r k t h c i r t y p c , c g : cn o n r i n a l ,a c l v e r b i ao r r c l a t i v c a n c l( b ) s t a t ct h c i r l u n c t i o n . s : n t l r t t i r t a( t l b . i c c t ) . l c la d v e r b i a l( r c a s t l n ) .F).runp!t.Acciclent invcstisators urc L-lnrining thc possibilily that a wing cattte ollthe Bocing 767 bcfirrc the aircraft crashecl Sullclay. onAtrsver. thut u vitr.qtunurlJ tltt Brttitrg 767 lrcfitrt il trushcd tttr Sutrduv- n o n r i n a l( i n a p p o s i t i o nt c tt h c y t . s s i l t i l i t v ) hcfore thc uircru.ticrushetl rttt Sutrdut- aclverbial(linle). I The possibility that a surfacc-to-air rnissilc had bccn fired at the planc was under consiclcration. 2 Investigatorssaicllightning and pilol error had been rulcd out. 3 Otficials would not say if any of thc bodies haclinjuries consistentwith a bornb blast. 4 Helicopterswidenedtheirjunglesearchyesterday,butitwasrcportedthatthey could not lind the right wing and its engine.
    • 120 Syntacticand semanticfunctions of subordinateclauses That -5 is extremely strange,said a spokesman.We have no idca what it implics. 6 However other sourccs said the implication that thc right sidc of the plane could have bornc thc brunt of an explosion had lcd to the theory that it rnight have bcen caused by a nrissilc. 7 Thc spokcsrnandeclined to speculatcon how the wing camc to be detachccl. ll B u t h e r u l c c lo u t t h c p o s s i b i l i t yt h a t i t d i s i n t e g r a t e d . Thc 9 w i n g h a sa v c r y f l e x i b l es t r u c t u r e s o i t i s h i g h l y i r n p r o b a b l e h a t i t w o u l c l , t h a v e b r o k e n u p i n s r n a l lp i c c e s . l 0 I I c a l s o c o n l i r t n c dt h a t h i s t e a r n o l i n v e s t i g a t o r s h a c l l i r u n c l n o t r a c c o f c l c t o n a t c d x p l o s i v c sd u r i n g t h c i r t w o c l a y sc o l n b i n g t h e s i t e . c fhcII invcsfigators llom Bor:ing, who joincd thc invcstigirtion ycslcrclay. sirnilarly liluntl no tracc ota honrb blilst.l 2 T h c i n v c s t i g a t i o nc o r n m i t t e c w i l l c l c c i d ct o c l a ya b o u t w h c r c t h c h l a c k b o x f l i g h t r c c o l c l c rw i l l g o l i r r c x a r n i n a t i o n .l3lnourvicw.saiclaspokcsntanitisncccssarylhatthc-cxarninationsshould bc clorrcin a counlry whcrc nobody is involvccl. lwoukl1.1 b c c l i s a p p o i r r t c d i l i t w c rte c L l r r i t e d S t a t c s b c c a u s c l h c A n r c l i e a n s h a r c p l a y c r s i n t h i s . l t w a s I U S p i k r t a n c lt h c p l a n c w a s o l L J So r i g i n . l 5 B u t h c s u i d B < l c i n g7 6 7 s w c r c w c l l c o n s t r u c t c da r r c w c l l p r o v c c l . ll 6 T h e o n l y c e r t a i n t yw a s t h a l t h c a i r c r a f t h a c lc x p l o t l c r la t a h i g h a l t i t u d c .l7 Tenrlaysintothcinvcslisution,whichhc{anwithurnassofspcculationabout s a b o t e g c r l r u g b a r o n sa n d b o n r b s .t h c o w n c r o f t h c a i r l i n c c o n f i r n r c dl h a t t l r c , l e f t h a n c lc r t g i r t ch a r l a p p a r c n t l yg o n c i n l o r c v c r s c l h r u s l - c a u s i n gt h c p l u n c 1 ob r c a k u o i n n r i r l a i r .
    • -l 16 O Complementation verbsand adjectives of Exercise156 lntransitivephrasalverbs [.SGE16.3] Use thc vcrbs givcn to rephrasethe passagcsltelow: corne about go aheacl lbol arouncl pass away look back scttlc ckrwn louch down cry off take off wcar ofl clrop out stanclout cornc olt carry on catch on holcl on b e a ru p o w n u p r i n g u p w r r i tu p g i v c u p g i v c i n l t l l t h r o u g hfi.ttttttplL,.TltcycrttttinrrLl(to lrhuvt,) as though nothing had happcnccl. Thcy carricd on as lhough nothint had happcnccl. Att,tnt,t".lirrn rnust bc 2-5 by now. I1s tirnc hc stoppccl (l) bclrtlitr14irrcsprttrsibl.t. ...... ancl 1)1 sturrtd tukittg lilc u bit ntrtrc sLtiorr.slt, . . . . . . Y o u k n o w , h c w c l l t t o u n i v c r s i t y a n c lf l t c n ( 3 ) l c l t t i t l t o t t flittishing . . . . . . I I c w a s o l l c r c r l q u i t c a g o o d . j o b .a c c c p t c da n c lt h c r r(1) suid n() ..... t l c ( - 5 ). l ( ) l ) .l . i n , q r . . . . . . l a rt o ocasily.Olr.(6)befitirl ......Tlrcjob11)collultscd 1 r r r . j u s l8 ) t t l L l t h o t t i n ,.q . . . . ( . t o s a y p l c a s c( 9 ) c l o n tl r u t t , q r o t r t r d u. f l t r u s t o u n i t t . g oI o l t t r l ...... Our planc was lutc (10) lcuvitt,q ...... (flonr) Moscow. ancl wcvc only iust lll) urriyttl . . . . . .a t H c a t h r o w . rrr Oh, f rlacl youve rung. Ill (12) cortfcss wc ( ll) cotrtittutl . . . . . . a r r ch a d d i n n c r . l O h . t h a t s g o o c l . c t u a l l y i t w u s a b u r n p y f l i g h t a n c lI n t t c c l i n g b i t s i c k a n c l . . . A l Oh. ( f-1) lx chcerlitlt . . . . . . T h l t s o r t o f l c c l i n g w i l i ( l - 5Idisultlttur ......soon. Would you I ike to spcakto Mlr.joricl . . . ( | 6l I ) ()ttt r i n,yq . rlJIll gct hcr.W h e n I ( l l ) t l t i t t k l t o u t. u . . . . . o v c r n t y p a s tl i t c . n e o f t h c t h i n g s ot h a t ( l u ) i . sr e u l l . t t r o t i t c u l t l c . . . . . . i s t h c w a y t h i n g s o t t c n( 1 9 )Itultltt,tr ...... quitc by chancc. lts ocld thc way sonre of rnvinventions h a v c r ea l l y ( . 2 0 ) c t o n t cl t o p u l u r b ...... - thc publiclovet h e n r .B u t w i t h o t h c r t h i n g s I v c just hacl o (2 | )ucct:ptcfeut ...... t lNot that I ever rcally accept clefeat. shall gcr working until I die I on or us son)ep c o p l "w o u l d s r r l t l l t . . . .
    • 122 Complementation verbs and adjectives of verbs [SGE 16.5]Exercise157 Prepositional into if is English.Turnthctollowing thepassivc theresult acceptableE.runtplc. Sorneclne brokc into the housc while wc wcrc on holiday.Artsucr. TIre house was broken into while we wcrc on htlliclay.E.tumplc.Sorncitrtcgot into thc housc wlrilc wc wcrc oul. - k T h cl r o u s ew a s g o t i n t o . . . )A r r . s n c r P a s s i v eu n a c c c p l a b l c (: I N o b o d y h a s p a i d t o r t h c t i c k e t s .h a v c t h e y / I Clttrporatiort. BBC stanclslor British Broaclcastitilt 3 Wcd bctlcr sceto thc citr or wcll hitvc an acciclcnt. .1 A clrctcllulthought has .iustoccurrcclto tttc. -5 Sorncboclyrcally ought to look iltto tliis problcrn ttt11hcr. -lhc 6 hoLrscbclongs to a vcry olcl lady. 7 W c v c a l r c t d y r c f e r r c d [ o s o r l r co l t h e p r o b l c t n s ll Sornc pcoplc ob.icctctlstlongly to solllc of thc proposals. 9 Thc car is old. but thc owncr hasrcally carccl irr.itwcll.l 0 N o o n c i s c v c r g o i n g l o a c c o u l t l l i r r t h a t r n i s s i n gr l l o l l c y I I Has cvcrybody linishccwilh thcsclibrtry botlks/ l l2 Nobody is to interfcrcwith thcsc boxes. aclhcrc the rulcs l3 Evcryoncr.nust lo l4 Thcy sccm to havc looked aficr the housc quite wcll. a o - l 5 P e o p l c r g u c v c r s o m et h i n g sl b r a g c s w i t h n o r c s u l t . l6 Wevc clisposed f the problemnow. o l7 Basically flat consists thrccrooms. rny of I tl The work will amountto f 500 when its finishecl. l9 I think we can rely on David to help.20 Why arepeoplealwayslaughingat me?
    • Phrasalor prepositional verbs? 123Exercise158 Phrasalor prepositional verbs? ISGE 16.2-7]Responcl the sentcnces to using pronouns. bclow by completingthe responscsRememberthat thc worclorclcrherernay be diffbrcnt.E.runplt.Fill in your natncpleasc.Attsver. alrcadyljtt-LEI)tN. Ive ltE.tuntplc. you believein ghostsl Dotttsvcr.No, I certainly clont Bul-lEVh 1llrll1. lN I Ivc bccn running in ttty ncw car. S u r . l y , t u r g t o ts t i l . y t 2 I { c t o o k i n h i s p a r c n t sc o l n p l c t c l y . lkrwsarlltlowrlidhc. ...........l 3 Why clottt you conliclc itt ltour tntlthcr"J I r t l ul r y s l r r t : 1 I v c i n v e s t e di n s o n t c c l c c t r i c i t y s l t a r c s . W h y h a v cy o u . . . . ..............l 5 I c a s h c di n a l l r n y o t h c r s h a r c s . Youurcan oL.... y l ..............l ( r Y o u t l r r tn 1 1o t t ) o t t t r i s l e r . O l t o t t t s t I t r t .t .t 7 Thc dog turrtctl ort thc ltosltnatt. W h 1r l r t l i t . . . . . . . wltrt harl brought the ll Thc policc wcrc trying lo nrovc on lr lot ol clcnrurtstrators t l r r l l i eo l r r l u t t t l : l i l l . l Anclclidthc policc nrlrragc1o 9 T h c y i n s i s t c do r t s i l c n c c . ilowcoukthc-y......l ...........ll 0 l ) l c u s cp a s so n t h i s n o t i c c w h c n y o u v c r c a d i t . W l r o s l l r l lI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .l o . )I I T h c s o v c n l l l l c r t In c c d s t o w i t t t t v c r t h c l l o a t i n g v o t er s . l 3 u t d o y o u t h i nik c l n . . . . t ..............]l2 I clnt gct ovcr his tclrible hchaviour. Icanl . . . ei l l t e . rl 3 Y o u s h o u l d s l i t n t lb y y o u r b r o t h c r . I r r l ul r y sh l t rt . . .1 . 1 I I c s b a c la t p u t t i n g u c r o s sh i s i c l c a s . H c s a l w a y sb c c nb i t ca t . . . . . . ll - 5 I c a n r c a c r o s st h i s a r t l i c l u e l o c k c l u i t cl r y c h a n c e c . Bul u l r c r c t l r t l ) o.u . . .l 6 H o w c a n I k c c p o u l t l t c s ew a s p s / W h y c l oy o u w a n tt o . .. . . . ...............ll7 Maric takes aficr her iathcr. Oh, I tlont tltink shcl13 Why did you turn clown my otler of help/ I tlidntl9 Look up words you dont know in your dicticlnary. I always do
    • 124 Complementation verbs and adjectives of20 Could we put off our rneetin-e? W h yd o y o uw a n 1 o . . . . . . t . . . . . . . . . . . lE x e r c i s e 1 5 9 P h r a s a l - p r e p o s i t i o n a lv e r b s [ S G E 1 6 . 9 ]Matchthe rcsponses the sentenccs. toE.tutnplc.kccp ntcaning sortout all rlly papcrs. I toRt.spott.rt.Wcll. youclbcttergct on with it. (a) I I d o n t r c a l l yw a r r t o , b u t I v c p r o r n i s c t o h e l p . l 2 W c r c e o i n gt o T u r k c yo n h o l i d a y . .l l r u l t t l t r pw i l h l l c l r u ( l ( t l c s . -l W t " v e t t t tl l r t t t li n l l t c l t o t r r c . 5 I s r r p p o r I t l t ll o o t t t u c h l t t . e l ( r I l u r r e t l b e c r r : e t t i r t er t o u t l ts l c e . t g p 7 T h e l c u lt l i l h c t r l t il s i l s s o ex p c t t r t r t . l { I r r c v r r p u )l u ) y i l l e ( ) l t ) ei t . l t ) R r r h c r s s t t t t l li t r . u r r r . l { ll0 Ivc got a tcrriblc problcnr.R c.s o tt.t 1t t,s.( a ) W c l l . y o u c lb c t t c rg c t o n w i t h i t .( b ) C o u l c l n ty o u c t l l d o w r t o n i t l( L ) Y ( ) t l ( l l l l l t e l ( ) l . l t( r l i l l l ( ) w .(tl) I thoughl it would cotttc clowt.t cost irt tllc e rrd. lo( c ) E v c r y o n cc o u l c su p a g l t i l t s t i f f i c r r l t i c s o o l l e o r l a t e r . d s r(l) You wonl gct away with it in thc long rutt.(g) Yourc alwaysrurttritrs ut of things. o(lr) I donl know why you put up with it.(i) You nr-lstbc looking lirrwartl to that.( . j ) I t h o u g h t o l g o i n g i n f i r r t h a t w h c n I l c ft s c h o o l .( k ) W c l l . y o L rc a n c a t c h u p o n i l a t t h e w c c k c l l c l .Exercise160Verbs:transitiveor not? ISGE 16.11] Sorrre vcrbs arc always inlransitivc (.lutrc hus ttrlir) ancl somc can bc intlansitivc or havc an ol.l.icct.with littlc challge of tllearling (lutte it Sorne citlr bc bo{h, but the tneattingchangcs cookitr,ql.luttt ctxtkitr.q.fltorl). i.t lr1()re: Yttrrhrtvtti t Ituttk tttrrrtcuIt ttffcLIttrtrrt,gt.ftlict ctc. D o t t t L l r i t r k[ = c l o n 1 r i n k a l c t l h o lI u t r t l d r i v t dO m i t t h c d i r c c t o b . j c c t sf t h i s i s p o s s i b l cw i t h o u t s c r i o u s l vc h a n g i n gt h c m c a n i r t g . iE.utntplt.I n r a f l a i dw c v c . j u s t c a t c n I t t u r n l e a l l .B u t I t h i n k A n c l r e w i s s t i l l c o o k i n g { s o r n c t h i n g li n t h c k i t c h e n .
    • Middleverbs 125Will you have something to drink?O h , t h a n k s ,I d l o v e s o r n e t h i n g . N o t " l d l o v c . ] IWell, thercswhisky, rcd or white winc ...I c l o n t r c a l l y d r i n k I a l c o h o l ] .T h e r e i s n t a n y c o f f c c . i s t h e r e l I m a f r a i d I d r i n k tl drink all day.] coftec all day long. INotOf course you can havc sottte coffee.{Not *you can havc.lI P l c l r s e t t s w er r l t y q t t c t i ( ) l l . rW c l l , s t o p c r i t i c i z i n gn r c . W h y c a n t y o u h e l p t n c /Irn asking wlrelhcr you arc still borrowirlg rtlottcy lrotn thc bank. You rcally shoukl stop spcrrclingllroncy the way you tlo. At your agc I savctl rrloncy rcgularly. You scctt.t spcntl a lirrtune on rubbish. toT h u l s n o t t r u c . I d o n t a c c c p tt h a t . I n e c d a l o t t t l t h i n g s- a c i l r l i r r a s t a r t .O h , c o r n c ! Y l r u d o t t t n c c c l a c a r . Y o u n t c a n y o u w a n l a cIa h.i n k y o u s h o u l d w r i t c tr a l e t t c r l t l y o r . l r a n k t n a r t a g c r n c l. . . b aI l I d o n t g c t a n ( ) w c a r . v o L rw o n t b c a b l e t o b o r r o w i t . w i l l y o u lI I a r r i v c c l h o t a n cilr c d .I d b c c n d r i v i n g l h c c a r a l l c l a y a n t h c r r l h a t l . j o b t r y i n g t cl at o p l r k i t . A f i c r I d u n p a c k e cn r y s u i t c a s cw a s h c r lI n y s c l l a n c lh a n g c dr n y c l o l h c s , l . cI l a y o n t h c b c d r c a c l i n tu b o o k u n t i l i t w a s t i n r c l i r r d i n n c r . N c x t r t t o r n i r r g w c t t t r Io u t l o o k i n g l i r r a b a n k . b c c a u s cI n c c d c r lt o c h a n g c n l o n c y . B u t I c o u l d r t t f i n t l abank artywherc.Exercise161 Middleverbs [SGE 16.15]t M o s l l r t n s i t i v c v c r b s c a r t b e l u r n c t l i n t o t h c l t a s s i v c( w i t h t h c o b . i c c t l t h c a c l i v c v c l b b e c o n t i n st h c havc ttb.iects. arc tttttttsctlin thc passivc but o s t r b i c c lo l t h c p a s s i v c s c c a l s o ( h l r p t c l . S ) . u t U thcrc arc sourcnricltllcvcrbs that ( o r n o l i n c c r t a i r rs c n s c s . )R e w r i t c t h c l i l l l o w i n g i r r t h c p a s s i v ew h c l c t h i s i s p o s s i h l c . Whcn thcy wcighccl hcl irr thc hospital, shc only rvcighctl 9ll poultcls. Ii.ttrtrtplt. Atr.sutt:Wlrcn .i/il xtt.svti.4ltcl in the hospital. shc orlly we ighctl t)ll poutitls i 9 l J o u n c l s a s w c i g l t c t lh y h e r l p w lbut nol I I l a s a r t y o n cc o s t c c t l t c s cr c p a i r s i t t a d v l t r r c c . ) l 2 W c l l , I t h i n k t h c y l l c o s l a l l c a s tl l . ( X X ) W h c n r n l , b n r t l t c r st a i l o r n r e a s u r e th i n r l i r i a t t c w s u i t . h c t o l c lh i r n t l t a t h c t l l D u t o n a l o t o f w c i ! r . h a t t r ln o w r ) l e i t s L l r t : s . l 0 c h e sa t o u t l c t h c w a i s l . t in l :l Do you tleI yoir lack accessttt tirrthcr.irrlirrrrlatitlrll 5 My new car holclstlrree peoplc contfortablf in the back.
    • 126 Complementation verbs and adjectives of t) They are holding thc three hostagesin clrcadfulconclitions. 1 The school comprises thc main school builcling ancl two itccorrmodation blocks. 6 Chcap clothcs ncver seclnto fit mc prtlperly. r) You nccclto tit a ncw washcr to that tlD.l o Moclcrn art frcqucntly rcscrnblcschildrerrs ar1.l t I h c w c c k c n d t h c y s u l l g c s lw i l l s u i t r t t c p c r l t c l l yl fI L D i d N l v r a t i l o v a s r e c o r c c c r u a lB i l l i c - J c a t rK i r t g s l l the verb u/ish[SGE 16.20]Exercise162 Hypothesis:t lhc v c r - bl i , i / rl a k c s I I t c s u n r cl c r l s c sa s h y p o l h c t i c l l c o t t t l i l i o n s : I l l r r r r r r c a lc yc v c r - . . I " v i s lIt l r l t r c a l l y c l c v c t . . . ll . l f o n l y v o t t l r t t t lt t t t t r t c a r l i c t . . . W c r r l l r v i s l t v o t t l t u t l t t t t t r t c : r t l i c rL__C h o o s c s i t L t a l i o nh a t 1 , o ut l o n o l l i k c l . n r n r u c h o l t h c l i r l l o u i n g s c t s .l r n t ll h c r r u t cwish thc opposilc. I You urc vcrl r;uick tctupcrctl/cltsilyrl olrictl/sol t ltcitrtctl. Y o u s a y l l i r l c x l r n p l c l : r r s r ll l , l { t : N t o c a s i l y w o t l i c t l . s ) Y o t r a r c n o l u r l r r i c kl c u r l c r / ub r i l l i u n t s p c i t k c r / u o o t l l i s t c t t c r . g 3 Y o u c l r n l s 1 - r c rc t l o L r g hi r u c w i l h l o u r p a r c t t t s / s p c l kl i r u l o l f i v c l a r t g t r a g c s / rn t tcrt.tctttbcr cveryl h itre ytlu rctttl. .l You rlont untlcr-slund youfsclt/kno"r,whut lo rkr lirl thc bcst/lceI itl clsc with s tr a n g c r s . 5 Y o u w u s t c y o L t trl o n c l , / w u l c l t 1 o o r t t t t c l t V / r i t l t v a l o 1 .I L J s c . r rrrr r t r r l r ] T t 6 Y o u d i t l n 1 h a v c r h o l i d u y l a s t 1 c a r / s a v ct t u c h t t t o r t c vl a s t 1 c a r / r v o rlk a l t l I t cnoulth last ycitr. Y o L r e c c n t l y a t c h c ( l r c u l l ; n a s t y o r r o rl i l r l o n I V / b o u g ha C [ ) y o u c l o n 1 w a . h t l i k c / b o L r g s o n r c l o l h e s h a lt l o r t tl i t . I l J s cr l t i s l.l t u t c l c . l ht c t You havcnl got an interr-sting.iob/a rcally uliclerstrndirlgfricncl/cnoughtrntc to clo cve rything you r.vant.
    • Nonfiniteclausesand fhat-clauses 127 9 You havc a lot of problerns/toomuch to do/dilficult hair. IUse so or sltclt]l0 You havc not bccnto thc Unitcd States/Rr.rssia/China.l l P c o p l c i l l k c c p- u i v i n g o ua c l v i c e / c r i t i c i z iy o u / t s k i n g o t t l t r r r n o n e y w y ng yl2 You will ncvcr bc ablc lo ntcct your |avouritc lilrn star/rnake lbrtunc/sail a r o u n ctlh c w o r l d .I u s c t t r t t t l u t lExercise163Verb + to-infinitive verb + ing? [SGE 16.23] orf i o n t p l c t c t h c t i r l l o w i n g u s i n g t h c c o r r c c t n o r t l i t r i t cl i r r t n o l t h c v c r b g i v c n .I : . r u t t t l t l t . I ) o o u w a n l ( w i n ) f r i c n c l sa n c l( i n l l t r c n c c )p c o p l c ? y I c l o I c l o n tr n i n t l ( l c l r n i t ) i t ./ 1 r i . r u t , D : y ( ) t tw a t l t 1 1t)v l x f r i c t t t l si r n t l ( r r l ) l l l 1 .L N ( l ll l c t l p l c ? r 0 ( I d o I d o n t r t t i n c.lr t r l t t t t t r ; x it. I Avoid (cliticizc) ...... llcoplc. I l ) o n 1l r c s i l a t c p a y ) . . ( .... cotuplirrlcltts. -l Airn (tkr) ... . . . s o r l l c k i n d a c t i o n e v c r y d a y . :l D o n t p o s l p o n c( d o ) . . . . . . s o n t c t l t i n g . j l t sb c c a t r s c t s c l i f l i c u l t . t i 5 P r a c t i s cl i s ( c r t ) ( . . . . . . t o w h a t o t h c r ss a y . 6 R c s o l v c( b e) . . . . . . i t g o o t ll i s t c r t c l . . 7 D o n 1 s p c t t t ll i r t t c ( w o r . r y ) . . . . . . r t b o u ll h i n g s t h l t l l l l l l y l l c v c r h a p p c n . ll C u r r yo n ( l r y ) . . . . . . . Y o t r l l s t t c c c c ts o ( ) l l c trh a r ry o u l h i n k . l 9 Ncvcr agr-ccdo) ( ...... sortlcthitlgotl kttow [o bc wrottg. ) l0 N c v c r l a i l ( s p c a ku p ) . . . . . . i t l i t g o o c lc i t u s c . I I N c v c r t h r c a t c n( | 9 ) . . . . . . s o l t t c t l t i n g r t l c s sy g t t r c p r - c p a l ctc l c a r r y u o out your tllrcilt. l l N c v e l s l o p1 1 1)1 . . . . . . . . l3 B c p r c p a r c t lt o i t c l t t t i ( r r r l k c ) t ...... rlristakcs. l:1 Dont c l c n y( b c ) ...... in thc wrons if you arc. l - 5 L c a r r r( u n c l c r s t a n c l ) . . . . . . o t h er p c o p l c s 1 l o i n t o l v i c w . s l6 Dont oflcr clo) ( ...... Illorc than is rcastlnablc. lry 11 (realizc) . . . . . . h o w t h c o t h e r p c r s o nl c c l s . lll Dont cvcn c o n s i d e r( s t o p ) .l 9 J u s tk c c p o l t l t r y ) . . .20 You will cleservc(succeecl).Exercise 164 Nonfinite clauses and that-clauses ISGE 16.11-37]E,xplain by the with the vcrbssiven. what happenecl complcting selltcncesE.runtplc. Why clontyctutry againl Hc:ArrsNcr.r: thought(THA1) He rrl/surlljt.l) A(;AIN. I <lt,c;ttt TRY He encouragecl to rRv i(ilN. Itl- Shcto ltim.Haveyou sccrtthisjob atlvertisnrentl shoLrlcl You appll.
    • 128 Complementation verbs and adjectives of I Shc wantcd 2 Shesuggested. 3 S h ea d v i s c d . . S / r c :W e l l . t h i n k a b o u t i t . 1 She hoped .5 She told S / r c :I t s u p t o y o l l . o f c o u r s c .b u t y o t r w i l l w r i t e i n . w o n t y o u / 6 S l r ck n c w s h c c o u l c l n tt n a k e . . 7 Shc coultl only proposc /1t: May I borr,.twthc cltr this cvcning/ Slrc: No, Irn sorry, Irn not going to lcncl rDy car to allyollc not aficr what happenccl. l J S h cr e l i r s e t l. . . . . . . . 9 S h cw o u l d n t a l l o wl 0 S h cw o u k l n t l c t .I I b c c a u s cs h c h a c ld c c i d c d ... hcr carcvcr agrtitt ,hc: Irn sorry, but nry nrintl is rllaclcup.l 2 S I r ci n s t s t c t l will rnakc rtrc cltatrgcttty rttitltl S/ir: Nothilt-1lI 3 Nothirtgwoulclcitusc 1 / t : Y o L r r cc r o s sl l t a l I a s k c c l . . S / i c N o . I t r t t t o t c r o s s .B l t t l l c v c r . n c v c r a s k l t : r l t i t l . :1 . 1 S h cr l i d n t n t i t t c . . ll5 But shclilrbltlcExercise 165: Complex-transitiveverbs ISGE 16.24-30]Crlnrplcte tltesc vcrb + objcct + cornplcrtrcntsclltcllcesusirtg thcsc ob.iccts(onccc a c h) . ( a ) t h c c l u b ( b ) t h c n r e r t r b c r s h i p c ) t h e P r r c s c r stt l t t ct l t 1 h cc l u b ( t ( d ) t h c i o b ( c ) t h e b a r ( l ) J a n c t ( ! l ) c v c r y o n c ( h ) h c r ( i ) h c r s c l f ( . i )i t I W c v c a p p o i n t c c( l ) I r r t l t t r c a s l l r c r . l 2 Wc cxpcct ltcr ltt ntitkc ... it sLlcccss. J Shc callccl ... i.tlltcss. .1 Sheclcclared ... . . . . . . . . h o n o u r c t lt o l t a v c b e c n c h o s c n . 5 Shc tinds ... challcnging. 6 S h e h o p c st o k c c p ... haPPY. 7 She plans to make .. larger, to raisc subscription incotnc. lJ She wants ... opcn at lunch-tintc. 9 We think ... a goocl idet to irnprovc the bar.l0 Icall ...asuperPerson.
    • Verbs + object + prepositional object 129Exercise 166 Passive + fo-infinitive [SGE 16.271Rcwritethe fbllowing usinga passive verb + a ro-infinitivc. Onritthe agcnts. WcE.runtple. expectthat thc reportwill be publishcdshortly.Attslrtr". reportis expcctccl bc published The to shortly. supposes I Everyclne sonreprogrcss bcenmacle. has 2 Evcrvonc cortsiclcrs tlrat thc chairntan is an cxDcrl 3 Thc rurnour is that sonre rlenrbe rs arc unhappy 4 W c u n c l e r s t a nh c f i n d i n s s r c f i r i r td a -5 Pcoplc prcsunrc thc rcconlnenrlatiorrslr-c raclicul (r Wc belicvc tlrattcrrpt-rs high. ran 7 P c o p l e r e p o l t r t lt h a l l h e d i s c u s s i o n s a d b c c n t o u s l r h l { P c o p l e s r t l l l t e t e s t t l l : r u t l i u r ( i rl ( i n ! ) 9 l)coplc thirrk sornc proposalshavc [rccn droppcdl0 Wc know that sornc n.rc-r.nbers rlisagtccExercise167:Verb + object + prepositional object [SGE 16.32] Sornc vcrhs takc an ob.icct i r n t l t h c n u n o l h c r o b . j c c l a l i c r prrr-t u Iur ic (l prclrosition. utltlrc.s.stdtlrc lctttt ro thc Chairrnan).C o r n p l c t ct h c s eI r t e r t c c su s i n g l h c i n f i r r r t t i t t i o n i v c n . A c l d s u i t u b l cp r c l . r o s i t i o n s . . sa n c lr n a k c a r t y o t l t c r e r a r n r n i l t i c ac h u n g c sn c c c s s a r y . ll i . t u n r l t l t T h c h o t c l g i v c s y o u c v c r y l h i n g e x c ep t u t o o t h b r u s h ! .A t t . s x c tl" . p r o v i d c sy o u n l r l r l : l t y u n N ( i . r x t , l t , t ) ( n l l t J R t r s l t . { l ( I Shc looks likc nry cousln. S l t . r t t n i t t t ln l ( . . . . . s Wcll 2 d o n c . I n t s o g l i t c ly o u v c p a s s c cy o l l r c r u ) . l I r(]rll.lilttllill(tl . . ltcr 3 lts wrong to keep olleringpcoplc clrinks. D o r t l k c c p p l l i r r g. ,1 They saiclIcl borrowecl thc car without asking. The 1 ltecusctl 5 Icl likc to nrcct your parents. P l c l t s cn l r o d u c c. . . . . i .
    • 130 Complementation verbs and adjectives of 6 My aunt sent Ine a wonclcrfttl prcscnt. I n . r u sw r i t e a n c lt h a n k t ...... lt. 7 S o r n cp e o p l c r u i n t h e i r o w r t l i v e s . B t t l ) o t t . i t t sttl l l l l n r t c l l t It tl(X) sounrlsrersorrablclirr thal cunrcra. Havc you l<tokccl priccs in olht-r at shops? Havcyoucotttparccl . ...........l t) Its not sufcthcsc days to trtakc rctrtarksaboul il wolllans appcarancc. scxist ...... hcrllppcarilllcc. F c n r i n i s t tsh i n k i t i s t o c o n r p l i t n c t t.l. . . . .l 0 T h c y p r o b a b l y l i n t l i t d c g r a t l i n g i l a r l y o l l c w a l l t s l o b L r yt h c n r i t t l c a l . I t i s p r o b a b l yc ^ V Ctrt ll o r c s c x i s t t ot r v a n ( lt r c a t . . .Exercise168Verbs with/withoutan indirectobject [SGE 16.33] ob.jcct(1lrc S6ltc vclbs which arc lirllowccl by a l/ral-clauscttcctl art irtclircct p c r s o no r p e o p l c l o l t l ) : I l c t o l c lt l r t t t r l h i t l. . l a n t l r t o tt r s t r a l l y r l ltc l t l l h a t . . . l . o O t h c r v c r . h s l on o t p a t t c n ll i k c t h i s .u l t h o r r e lltl r c v c u n o l . l t i o n a l l yr t d i c l l c l h c c i indilcct oh.jcct ith a /rr-pltrasc: u H c s u g g c s t c t tl h l t . . . r r l I I c s t t g g c s l c ttlo t l t c t t l / t r s h a l . . . t( o r r r l t l c t ct h c l i r l l o w , i n gb y i n s c r t i n g r r , rw h c t . ca t t i r t t l i t . c co b i c c t i s l i c c c s s i l r v lW h c r c i t i s o p l i o n u l .u t l t l/ r r t t , i .l i . t t t r t r l t l c I.e p c r s u a d c t t s t h l l l t c w l t s t h c i d c a l l ) c r s o l ll i r r . t h c . i o b . I ltlc r l i d n 1 l i s c l o s c t o u s l t h l t h c l t a t lt r o e x p c r l c l l c c . t l I Ilc ldnrittctl ...... h i s l l t p l i c l r t i o t tc o t t t t t i t l c tc r . t . o tt.ts l l t c t . l l I I I c a s s u r - c r l . . . . . . . . . . . .i t w l t sa l l i t t ti t t l t o c c l t tl t i s t a k c . ... -j O b v i o r r s l yh c w o t r l c l n t o l i l c s s c . . . . . . t h l t l t c h a c lw u t t t e t l o t t t i s l et t l u s l -l I l c s o n r c h o wc o n v i t t c c t l . . . . . . l r c r v a sw c l l s t r i t c t l o l h c . i o b . 5 IIc cxplaincd..... . t h a t h c h a t l. i l r s t h c r i g h t c x p c r i c t r c e - . t ( r H c i n l i r r r t r c c.l. . . . . t h l t l t c c r t . i o l c ct c h i t l l c r l g c . rl 7 Hc tlidntrncntiott . . . . . . t h a t h e r l l i g h to n l y s t l y i l y c a r . l { I I e p r c d i c t c t l. . . . . . hc wotrltlhc it trcat sllcce s. s 9 H e r c r t r i n d c c.l. . . . . t h l t l r i s t t t r c l ch a c lb c c n i l t t h c f i r r r l . l0 Hc rcpcrtcd..... . hc was wcll clualiticd. I I Hc sworc . . . . . . t h r t lc v c r . y l h i n g v o u l th c a l l l i g h t . r l ll Hc tolrl . . . . . . h c w a s r c a l l yk c c r r .Exercise169Adjective+ to-infinitive [SGE 16.40]R c w r i t c t h c t o l k r w i n g w i t h a n a c l . i c c t i v+ a r - i n l i n i l i v c p h r l t s c . cl..ttlrr1tlc. Bob wailed for us. Ihal ults kintl., l r i , r i l c r : o t r l v r . t s i r r dt o u l t i t l i r r u s . B k
    • + Adjective fo-infinitive131 I Marie alwayspaysher bills regularly. Shescarefulthat way. S h e sr r l u ) . . . . i r 2 S h ca l w a y s p o t s m i s t a k e u i c k l y . s a q S h e r r r l w r s . . . . . .. i l 3 When we linally hcarcl that Daviclhad arrivecl, werevery rclicvccl. we Wc r,i relicvctl . . . . . . cre ltl -t Why huve- thrown up your.job? volr Yourc nracl. Y o t tr t r e - 5 W h a t I w a n tt o c l oi s s t a r t l y o w n b u s i n c s s .r n k c c n . u I I l r r t.t. . ( r I t i s r l i s a p p o i n t i n s a tw c h a v c n th c a l cfl k r r nM o l l y . th We lttt 7 W c t h o u g h l s h c w o r - r l ttlc l c p h o r r c . u t p c r h a p ss h c c o u l c l n 1 . B P e l l t l r p r l t cu r r rt t t u t l r l e s . 8 C o n t u c t i n gh c r u t w o r k i s u s u a l l vq u i t c c a s y . Slrtisrsrrrlll r 9 W t l l . I t r i c d t o r : c t h o l t l o l h c r y c s t e r d l y . l r t r ti l u , l r si n r P o s s i b l c . Shc wasl 0 C r u r y o u s i t n t l r c p a p c r sl l l e a s e 1 l t c y u l c r c u r l y n o w . l Tlt.pltp1lr 11. 1ll D o n t l c r t dT o n t l n y l l l o n c y . J h a t w o u l t l b c t t t r r s t t l t r r i s c . Yrttt... .l 2 B c i n g a b l c t o h c l p r . c l r l l y l c u s c t tl t s . p Wt tlr
    • 17 ThenounphraseExercise 170 Noun phrases: identifying the head ISGE 171-21Identify thc head nouns in thc following passage.The noun phrascs have beenpicked out and numberecl-cxccpt fbr singlc pronounsanclone-word nantes,whicharc ignorccl.tsBC weatherman Michae I Fishslrrilrrrz to givc a warning of the grcat stolnt tlf.Octoberl9lJ7(l)wasa spcctacularcxarnplc of how nroclcrnntcteorolouy lails (2)says;t h c C o n s u n t c r s A s s o c i a l i o n( 3 )ina rcport (;l)toclay. I t c l a i n t st h u lthc Met Olliccs ncrlr ltlotlopoly on trtctcorology (5)cilstsa c l o u c l( 6 )ovcfc o n s u r n c ri n t c f c s l s .( 7 )and argues firra n O l l i c c o l F l i r T r a c l i n g i n v c s t i g a t i o ni n t o l h c w c a t h c r l o r c c a s t i r t q n d u s t r y .( 8 ) i The associationsW/rirlr,) trtagazitrcrcport (9)strcsscsthiltfirrecasting( l0)is clcarly inrprovinl ovcrall.but it tlrkcsthe Met Ottcc ( I l)tot a s k( l 2 )firr tirilingto cxpllint h c w c a t h e r( l 3 )lna u s e r - f i i c n d l yw a y . ( l 4 ) It sayst h c l a n g u a g co l i s o b a r sa n d a n t i c y c l o n c s( l 5 ) whctheri s l c s s i m p o r t a n tl h a t t S t r t f o l k s h t l r . r l p lu t o u l i t s w a s h i n g cand callsforb e t t e rt r i l n s l a t i o n s f w h a l f i r r c c a s t s c l u a l l v t n c a n . ( l 6 ) o a W h i c l t . ( l l )favours
    • Relativeclauses 133a new style of forecasting based on probability. ( lt3)Closer tothe scienceofplacing a bet on a horse ( l9)thana traditional fbrecast, (20)this would include therephrasessuch as is a 70 per cent chance of rain in thc South (2 I ) thererather than thc morc usual ntay be scattercdshowers.Exercise 171 Relative clauses: whose [SGE 17.6]Rewritc thc lbllowing sentcnccswith nltrr.rc possiblc.anclsce what thc original ifwritcrs wlolc. But onc scntellcc cannot bc changecl- whylE.runrplt. They have given thousatrdsol pouncls ttt various pressure groups, r n i s c h i e f - r n a k i n g o d i c s t h c r n a i n p u r p o s co l w h i c h i s t o s t i r u p h a t r c d a n c l b clisorclcr.A t r s u c r ... . r n i s c h i c f - r n a k i n g o d i e s ,w h o s e n t a i n p t r r p o s ci s . . . bI I carnc to rcalizc this through the study. not of ccorttlntics that abstractscicncc t h c p r o l c s s o r s t f w h i c h n c v c r s c e n )a b l c t o i l g r e c- b u l o f h i s t o r y .w h i c h i s t h c t rccortl of causc ancl e-ffcct.2 Bcrrnonclse turns ttut to havc bccn unique as thc first by-clcction olwhich thc y rcsull has bccn clairttctl by all party spokcslttenas a victory.3 Whcn Dorscy dccidcs. lirr plot rcasons ol which it takcs an acconrplishcd scriptwritcr to convirrcc you. lo auclition lirr that lernalc part in a claytilnc t e l c v i s i o ns o l p o p c r a , h c b e c o m c so v c r n i g h t a c u l t s u c c c s s .4 T h i s i s a t o u r t h c f u n c t i o n o f w h i c h i s l o i t t t r o d u c e h e P r i n c c s st i l C a n a t l a . t5 When you havc l(X) rnillion dollars thc value of which you must t.tttintlin against inflation. therc arc ltot l-nitnysafc placts to P1l1 i1.6 The clccorntionof Chinesc ncolithic pottcry nearly always cottsistccl abstract of anclgt:ornetricclesigns. thc rneaning of which is n<ttuncle rsttlocl.Exercise172 RelativeclausesISGE 17.5-11]Cornpletc thc passagc by inscrting relative words as ncccssary. lnclicalc allp o s s i b l ca l t e r n a t i v c s i.n c l u c l i n g c r o ( - ) . zT h c r n y s t e r yo 1 t h cB er r n u d aT r i r n g l e i s i n t a c t .A r n c r i c a nd c c p s e ad i v c r s ( I ) w r t r tclairrrecllast month lo havc firund the wrccks of five US Navy planes (2) . . . . . . d i s a p p c a r c dn c a r B c r m u t l a h a v c a n n t t u n c c dt h a t t h e y a r c n o t t h cfanrous l,ost Squadrttn. Thc wrccks(l) ..... . t h c c l i v c r sf i r u n d l a s t r t t t t n t h n 7 5 0 t i c t o l w a t e r l 0 inriles oflthc coast of Flclricla wcre of an carlierr rnoclclofTB M Avcngcr than thefivc (-1) . . . . . . v a n i s h e do n t r a i n i n g f l i g h t l 9 o n a h a z y a l j c r n t t o t ri n 1 9 4 5 . T h e s q u a c l r o n s i s i t p p e a r a n c c e l p c c lb u i l t l t h e r c p u t a t i o n o l t h c B e r m u d a d hIrianglc. in ( - 5 ). ..... p c o p l e .p l a n e sa n t l b o i t t sa r c s a i t l t o v a n i s h w i t h o u ttrace. When the wrecks wcrc lbund it sccrnccl if thc myth haclbeen shattered.But asMrGrirharn awkc. H (6)..... . l e d t h es e a r c h . a n d t o ( 7 ) ...... tellthe
    • 134 The noun phraseunenviable task of iidr.r.ritting mistake. saiclycsterday: We arc now quitc ccrtain at h a t t h e f i v c a i r c r a f t( t i ) . . . . . . w c t i r u n d a r e n o t t h o s eo f f l i g h t 1 9 . H i s ev i d e n t c l i s a p p o i r r t n r c n t .) . (9 . . . . . p c r h a p sr e f l e c t c d h c l o s t f o r t u n c t( l0) ... . . . h i s c o m p a n y h a c ls t o o c t o r n a k c l r o m s a l v a g i n - t h c d i s c o v c r y , l ew i l l b c r n a t c h c cb y t h c p l e a s u r e f o t h c r s ( l l ) . . . l o ... en.joy hc mystt-rioLrs tpower ot the Triangle. thc thrcc points of ( 12) .. .... are tirrmed byBcrnrutla. uclto Rico and Miarni. P Mr Tccl Darcy. an archleokrgical aclviscrto Thc Scicntific Scarch Prcr.jcct. saidthatthc arcain ( I 3 ) ... . . . t h c f i v c w r c c k s w c r c t i r u l t dw a s u s c d h y t h c l - l SN a v y a s a p r a c t i c cr a n g e l i r r l o w - l c v c l t o r p c d o r u n s ,a r t c t h a l t h c l i v e p l i t n c s( 1 . 1 ) l . . . . . . w c r c l i r u n d w c r - cp r - o b a b l l l o s t i n s c p a r - l t c c c i d c n t so v c r s c v c r a l aycars. S u s a nP o r v c r s - S p a n l l c r(. l - 5) . . ... lathcr lisappcalcd ith thc littnous t wl - o s t S c l u a t l r o nn l 9 : 1 - 5s a i c l : r r r s a d t h u t t h c y w e r c n t l i r L r n db u t k i n d o l g l a d i n i . I .l uu l y t h a t i t r v i t s n tt h c n r . So thc wrccks( l6) ... . . . t l i s c o v c r vu r o u s c ds u c h i r r t c r c s lta s l n r o n t ha l c ll (n o t r l u i l cw h a t t h e y s e c r t t c r n.c i d c n t a l l yl.h c p l a c c l 7 ) . . . . . . t l t cl v r c c k swerc tirurrtlhus also cluinrcrl nrarrlshi1.rs. it was thc hopc of finding Spunish attdg u l l c o r r s h a t o r - i g i r t a l l y l r c u ,t l t c t l i v c r s t o l h c s p o l . t cExercise173 RelativeclausesISGE 17.5-121. l o i n u p 1 h c i n f i r r - r n u l i o n i v c n , s o t h a t i n c u c l t c u s c y ( ) r . lh a v c o r t c s c n t c n c c gc o n t u i n i n g c l u l i v cc l u u s c s . r -fhcyli.rutttltlt: Sontc ;-rcoplc ntlcrtukclortq.jourrtcys. u will rctttctttbct-thcsc .journcys all theirlivcs.; l r r . r r c rS:o n r ep e o p l cu r r t l c r l a k co n g . j o u r - n c y s / r i t t t c t t / t r r . r r / - - tw clyr c r t t c r t t b c r - l hi l all thcirlives. Iravclle I r s o n t h c T n r n s - S i t r c r - i lr a i l w a v t u k c l 3d l v s . 1 h o u r - s - 5n r i t t u t c s t t l h c n r o llrt- .jountcl. l r a n s - S i b c l i u r - a i l w a ys l r c t c h c sf h r n r M o s c r t w t o t h c l ) a c i l i c n O c c u n . I ) L u i n g h i s . j o u r n c vl h c r e u r c 9 7 s t o l r s l lnr!ian-PacilicrailwalcrosscsAuslraliallonrPcrtlt()11I The thelndianOccur) t o S y c l n c y n t h c P a c i f i c .I l s l e p u l a l i o ni s p c r h u l . rls s sl c u r s o n r c h a n l h c l r u n s o c t S i b el i i t t t .I l t c u v t r su t l i s t a n c co l 2 . 7 1 0 n r i l c s ( . i . - l - 5 1 n r ) . O l t h c s c . 1 9 7 n r i l c s ( - l 7 l Jk r n t k a c n l s st l . r c L r l l u r b o r P l a i n a r c t l c a r ls t n r i g h t . h i s i s t h c l o n g c s ts t n r i g h ts l r e t c l t T o 1 n r i l w i t vi n t h c w o l l d .: 1 J h c s c . j o r . r r n c as l r c u l ou c c r t o i nl t p c ( ) f t r a v c l i c r A c er t a i n t y p c o l t r a v e - l l e t tP 1 . is nol i n a I i r . r r r rJ.- o t h i s t _ v p c t t r a v el l c r t h c . j o u r n c y .n o t t l t c l t r r i v a l .n r a l t c r . o
    • clauses 135 Appositive5 Gary Sowerby(Canada) Tim Cahill (USA) clrove fbur-rvhccl and a drivepick- L r p r u c kf l o m U s h u a i aA r g e n t i n at) P r u d h o c a y ( A l a s k a U S A ) i n l 9 f t 7 i r t t ( o B . just unclcr clays. 2,:l Tirn Cahill was Gary Sowerbys ctl-clrivcr arlcl navigator. F n r r nU s h u a i ao P r u d h o e t B a y i s a d i s t a n c o f l : 1 . 7 3 9 r i l e s 1 3 . 7 2 0 r n ) .J u s l c n ( k undcr2zldaysis a recolcl timc lbr thc journey.6 They wcrc howcvcr surfacc lreightcdovcl thc Daricn (ia1l. Daricn Ciap is bctwccp Colortrbia ancl Panarla. IIcre thc Trans-Atrtcrican highway tlocs trol cxlst.Exercise174 AppositiveclausesISGE 17.13] Whcn tw0 ltoun pl-rritscs in ap1-rosition. lroth rclcrlo thc sittllcpersoll arc thcy t l r t h i n g . s 6 t h a to n c g i v c s u s r n o r cd c t r i l s a b o u tt l t c o t h c r .S o t t t c t i t t l c a / / r { 1 I s clausc is irr apposiiion ltl itrt abstracl Iloun likc./ircl. ilLu. irtfttr-rrtttlirttt.R c w r i t c t h c i n t i r n n t t i r l ns o t h u t i n c a c hc a s cy o L lh a v c a s i r t g l cs c t l l c t l c c o l l t l l l l l l l l l l ca llor.llr arr aplrositivc + clitttsc. fl i 1 u t t t p l t ,S o n r cp c o p l ch c l i c v c t h a l w c c a n a b o l i s hw a r . h i s s c c t t t s t . r p c l r r la t h c t . . l thanrt:alistic.A2,rn,r,r: lrt lttlic.f tlrtttr1( ( dtt oltolislt 11(//sccnls l hopclirl ralltcr tharl rcalislic. I I ) c o p l cs o n t e t i n t c s u s g c s tl h i r t w c l r c n o I i t l l c c l u l r l T h i s r t t l t k c s t l t l l cp e o p l c s . s vcfy angry. Any ...I Sornc 1-rcoplc cxplain thul uccidcntsarc ttftctt ttobotlys llrr-rlt. ttrltllv pcoplc BLrt (lo Ilot lcccpt lllis. lllny pcoplcJ I w l s t o l d t h a t l l t c r c a r c r n o l c s c i c n t i s l s l i v c l o t l a v t l t a r tI t a v cc v c r l i v c t l b c t i r r c . a ls that a firctl lsita..: l S c i c n t i s l s s a y t h a t t h c r c l t t . ci t l o t o l b l a c k h o l c s i n t l l c r - r n i v c r s cI. t l o t t t un(lcrstaltcl this thcorY. I ckrnt unclcr-staltd tlte-5 Thc unive Isc slarlctl with a big birrrg.Thcrc is also that itlca. T h c r c i sa l s ot h c . . . . . . .6 C)1coursc hopc ttt ricl thc wtlrlclof povcrty. Bu1 clttl wc/ wc I s t l r c ra n y e ...... .------.! Jhats7 Nc-il Armstrong rcrnarkecl rvhcn hc stcPpctlon to the rttOtln. ttlle sttlall step litr a tnalt. onc gianl lcap tirl ntrnkinrl." Evcr)ot-tc rcntct-tlbcrs lhis. E v e r v o t t er c t t r e t b c r sN c i l A r r r r s t r r l l l !s . . . n lf i S h i l k c s l t c a t r ( ) t - , s c r c ( i t h i r t u l l t i t c u os tl i(tl ! r i. 1 t l t t - t o t s t t t - c $ h c t l t c r l a g . r e c r c I r n n i . rs u r i :r v l t e t h c iI r t g r u c ,i l h . . . . . t t
    • 136 The noun phraseExercise 175 Postmodification by nonfinite clauses [SGE 17.14-181Rewrite the sentences changing the finite relative clausesinto nonfinitc fbrms. byUse -il,q tbrrns. -cr1lbrms or lo-infinitives as suitable.N1arkthe new noun phrasesyou have made.E.rurnplt: The rnan who wrote thc obituarics is rny fiicnd.Ansncr. THEMANwRrlrN(; oBrrLlARrES nty friend. rnrr isE.runtpla. Any coins that arc fbund on this sitc rnust be hanclcdto the policc.A r t . s u , t t : , N yo t N S : o l N r )o N l r r r s s n t ,t r u s f b c h a n d c c t o t h c p o l i c c . ( r lE.runtltlt,: Thc ncxt train that arrivcd was llorn York.Attsvct". tntt NItxtTRAIN ARRtvt.. lront York. To wasM i l l i o n s o f i n s o m n i a c s o u l d b c n c f i l f l o r l a n e w t c c h n i q u e( l ) r . r f i li ir n t u ( u r ( c (2) thou,qltt-.juntnritr,qslceltlt.s.ttrt,s.r. ultit h i,sbustd otr . Thc idca is that a simplc word like tlu.(3)vhith is rcpcutetl utrltr tltc ltreutlttlrttcrtr.fttuttirnt.sst,ttttrtl, block stirnulatinglhoughts anclincluccslccp.This u cananti-itrsorttnia techniquc (1) ultit lt is ltcitrc tcstcl lt.t rt.scurrltcrs.fionrConrbritl,J(offcrs pill-fiec hopc tirr ntillions ("5)nlrr,, .sufttt.frontslccplc.sstrt.ss.is basedon Ita t h e o r y t h a t t h c b r a i n h a s a k i n d o 1 l n e n l o r yt r a l l i cc o n t r o l , ( 6 ) u , h i c h l t t r s t u t hc u l l c d t l r t c c r r t r u l t . r c t u l t l r " . a n ctl h a t t h i s c o n l r o l s i n t i r r r n a t i o n ( 7 ) t l r u t t t r t c r . ; t l r t ltttrtr. i T h c C a r n b r i t l g cl c a r r r b e l i e v c s t h a t w i t h i n s o r n n i a c s 1 h c c c n t r a l c x c c u t i v c i n s i s t s o n f i n c l i n g t a s k s w h c n n o t h i n g ( 8 ) t h u t i . s l t u r t i c u l u r l . t i t r t t , t t , t t i r rs: i,happcnirrg.Thc tcant clcciciccl look lirr ways (91 itr uhit h thc.rcotrld to proyidLu itr.forntutiotrsttud.t.flouof irrtrtthc brrriri,which woulcl prcvcrrt it front looking firrotlrer tasks (10) tlrut it t otrld do. Thc agc-olcltcchniquc olcounting shccpas a rnethocl(l l) tltut nru.y- itttluccslctpr c c l u i r c s o n c c n t r a t i o na n c ls t i r l u l a t c s t l t o u s h t sa b o u t t h c i n r a g i n a r ys h c c - p 1 2 ) c (tltut ut( lnitre toturtcrl. Rcpcating a boring littlc worcl like t/ic is so clull that theonly thing 13) tlrur rtto.st 1ttoplcttrtr tht is to go to slccp. Tests (11) thut huyt ltcctr.tpccittll.ttlcsigrtad tr_()ut to the thcort, wcrc carricclor.rt uncicrcontrollcclconclitions.A third o1those(l-5) rlro v,(t( t(stcl haclquick Ihcysucccss.But other peoplc staycclawake. wcrc ablc t<tr.nouthsinrple wordsw h i fc s t i l l t h i n k i n g o l l r c r t h o u e h t s . l h c r c s s t i l l w o r k ( 1 6 ) t l u t t n ( ( ( 1 . ( )b e t l o t t t . i tExercise176 Postmodification prepositional by phrases[SGE17.19-231 P r e p o s i t i o np h r a s c a r cf i c q u e n t l y s e d o p o s t r n o c l i f y n o u nts .a ti s t o al s u t h aclcl inlirrnration afier thent.F i l l i n t h cg a p s i t h s u i t a b l p r e p o s i t i o na n du n d c r l i n eh en o u np h r a s els a tt h c w e s. t hprcpositional phrases part of. are T h i s i s u s u a l l ye a s y- ( l ) u r t t u w n n I 1 1 1 l f u n t i l N . t i c c ,h o w e v e r , h a t t o tsometimes prepositional a phrase contains anolhcr. Thus at (9) thereis no nounphrasc rlicrilulvrell-bcing phtsitul ott hcrrlr/r. Instead prcpositional thc phrase r.,lpltvsitalhealthbelongs the biggernounphrase: to t h el a t e ss t u d y. . . [ t h ee l f e t t s . . . m e n t aw c l l - b e i n go np h v s i t u lh e u l t h l t ( l )
    • Nominalization 137If you have a row ( I .)u rrH your family today, you could end up with a cold by theend (2 ) . the week. Research(3 ) . . . . . . . . . . psychologistssuggestthatjoylessdays iull of irritation (4) .......... a social kintl can lead to a weakening (-5)..........thedisease-fightingimmunesystem,andthattburdays(6).".....a row your system can becomc too weak to stop cold viruses fitlm attacking. T h c t h e o r y i s t h e l a t e s ts t u d y ( 7 ) . the effectsU) ......... mentalwcll- (being (9) p h y s i c a lh c a l t h . E v i c l e n c e( 1 0 ) . . . . . . . . . . s u c h e f f b c t s h a s a l r c a d y b e c n l b u n c l f o r a n u m b c r( l l ) . . . . . . . . . . s c r i o u sc l i s c a s e s .y p i c a l l y t h t l s ew h t l h a v e p r o b l c n l sc x p r c s s i n g Te m o t i o n s( 1 2 ) . . . . . . . . . . a n g e ro r w h o h a v es u f l t r e c lt r a u m a t i ce x p e r i c n c e s f i c r t h c ad e a t h( l 3 ) . . . . . . . . . . a s p o u s e p p e a r o b c m o s t a t r i s k . a t Now a sirlilar effccthas been tbuncl( ll) . . ... . . . . . the conllnon colcl.A hunclreclc l e r i c as t a t f ( I 5 ) l .ataxofficc(|6)..........thcnorth(I1)..........Englanclw c r e a s k c d t o k c c p a c l i a r y( l l t ) . . . . . . . . . . t h e i r h c a l t h .t h c i r t n t t o d sa l t d w h a l s o r t( 1 9 ) . . . . . . . . . . d a y h c yh a d . t Aficr tcn wecks, sevcntccllvoluntccrs haclcolds. It thcn cmergcd that tirur days (21) .".......1 2 0 ) . . . . . . . . . . c o n t r a c t i n g h c c o l c l .t h c r c h a c lb c c n a r t t a r k c d l r o p t cc l i a r y c n t r i c s r e c o r d i n Cf r i c n t l l y r el a t i o n s ( 2 2 ) . . . . . . . . . . t h e i r s p o t l s c s .r t n t l l r ti n c r e a s c 2 3 ) . . . . . . . . . . t h e t r u t n b e ( 2 4 ) . . . . . . . . . . s t l c i a la n l l o y a r l c c s . ( r The rescarchcrs bclieve that all th is shows a dc lilitc link ( 25 ) . rttoocl atttlintcction.So - if you dont wltnt a c<lld.dtlnt gct itnnoyccl! [SGE 17.23]Exercise177 NominalizationNoun phrascstltat corrcsponclto vcrbs and 0thcr clause clclltcnts arc sottletirttcsc a ll c d n o r n i n a l i z i t t i o n s .R e w r i t e t h e t i t l l o w i t r g ,u s i n g n o u n s i n p l a c c o t t h c v c r b s i n i t a l i c .i t r t t ln t a k i t t t r t t r yothcr changesIlccessary.E.runtplc. She rtfrrscrito ltnswt:r,which was disapppointint.Atrsutr.Ilcr rathsuI |() d|Ish(t was disappointing. | | fulitttthat thc hrc was startcclon purposc. Its Iny 2 Thcy corrcsltttttLlcrl twcnty years. lirr l u s t e di r r l 3 Is the wrrrd cooccur everhv-phctratctl! Is thcrc zl Thcy ltchuved rcally baclly,which upsetevcryone. Their.. 5 Thesepeopleinhubitone of thc remotcst placcson earth. Thesepeople . . .. . . arc 6 Everyone competing must put down their nilmcs. Allthe. 7 Did anyone strrttie crashJ the Werethere 8 The way they organi:erl the event was brilliant. T h e. . . .
    • 138 Thenounphrase c) Those children wcrc not very well ttlucutetl. Thosechildrens..... l0 You should pru(tisc n1ore. You ncctl I I It was wondcrful when the hostageswcre relcu.sctl. The hostagcs l 2 l d o n t l i k e t h c w a y y o u c o n t i n u a l l yc r i t i c i : t . I d o n tl i k cy o u r . . .lJ Carr wc dtturt,q( rrreell 1o Can we rnakeIl What do thc slars anclstripes synrltoli:cl W h a ta r ct h c . . . . . . . . .o l ll - 5 P e r l r a p s c s h o u l dl t u b l i c i : t t h c c l u b m o r c . w P c r h a p st h c c l u b n c c c l s. .l6 Havc you ltd thc cat/ W l r er e i s t h e t l r l sl 7 I t s a h o t c l w h c r c y o u c u nd i t r t i n t h c g a r d c n . I t s a h o t c lw h c r cy o u c a nh a v c . .l 8 W h c n o f f i c c s t t l o t t t t t .t h c s t a f f d o r r t u s u a l l v l i k c i t . Olficc . . Lrsually upsctsthe statl.l9 I coulcl lrltclly brcuthc. I w t t s o u l o. . . . . . l20 You didnt olt jcct bclirrc. Y o u t l i t l t t lr l r i s tlr r t yExercise 178 Apposition [SGE 17.271Two or nrorenotll phrascs in ilpposilion arc whcn they rcfcrto thc samcpcrsonor thing.C o n r p l c t ch c s c u t h c n t i r l u o t a l i o nb y a d d i n g h c f i r l l o w i n g p p o s i t i vp h l a s s t a c s t a e ei n t h c r i g h tp l i r c c s .E.tuntplc. Hc greatly -5(a) clislikcs Britishl-ibrarybuilding. fhst-rising on thc a blot thc EustonRoad.(a) a fast-rising blot on thc EustonRoacl(b) thc latcstworclin anti-tiaudknow-how( c ) t h e p o l i c ec l e v i c ci r r i r n r n o b i l i z i nigl e g a l l y a r k c ccl a r s t l p(d) the willingncssol acaclernics pay tribute to the lcadersof bloodthirsty to rcgilnes(e) thosericherthanhirnsclf(f) thcnr or us(g) MillieI Threediplornatic carswereamongthelirst46 victimsof thc wheelclampwhen it cameinto operation Londonin 1983. in2 Murauchihasa low opinionof the scramble the new rich tbr European by art.3 The Bushesspaniel the latestin a long line of White Housepets. iszl It was gangwart-are. had to kill them or they would havekilled us. We-5 He greatlydislikesthe BritishLibrary building.6 Australias new plastic banknotestill cannot cope with earlier fbrms of
    • 139 Premodification technology. People leavingthe Sl0 notc itl trouscrpockctshavc fbund that it s h r i n k s h e ni r o n e d . w7 T h c l 0 t i n go f t h e c l i c t a t o r w i t eb y t h e p o l y t e c h n i ics a c l a s s i c x a r n p l el f a s e t p c e t r I i l r rh t n o t t t c t t , t t l . PExercise 179 Premodification by participles ISGE 1728-331C o r l p l c l ct h ct i r l l t t u i n g .s i n g r e r t t o d i l y i n g r t i c i p l c+ l l o L r r - -b u to n l y w h c r e u p pa s )spossiblc.fittrtttltlt. Sonrcltlaystotlayclisgr,rsl rttc.r l l t . r t l c l : T h c r c a r c s () N l l ,I ) l s ( i tr s ll ( i I l - i s t ( x l a Y . I The llllrr lr ety rltlerlrlillillJ. I tw u s . . I litlwartlFoxs pcrliltttlattcc tts. lttl.titzctl Hc gavc. I I u r l r n i r ch i r n l i r r t l l c w i t v h c t i r n c t l h i s r r c l i t r s c a t r t i l i r l l l b I a r l n t i r cE d w a r d l r o x s . 4 I dont likc pcoplc wlto arrivc llttc. Itfc il n l-lI sllllcc .5 Thc langultgc otsott.tc plavs ralhcr surpriscsttlc. Sonlc plaYsct)lltalll. . ( r O n c n l u n w i l s l c a l l y s h o c k c dl n d l c l l . C ) t t c. . . 7 T h c c l r i l d r c n b e h i n t l[ l s w c r c l a l k i n g , w l t i c h r v a sl t l l L l l s l t l l c c . -lhe ll sccnc that tl p c n c d t h c p l a y w a s b r i l l i a n l T h c. . . . . . . . . .. . . 9 Wc got icc-crcatttsin thc ilrlcrval artd atc thctll. D u r i n g t h c i n t c r v a lw c . . . . l 0 | c l o n tu s u l l l y b u y a p r o g r a t r l n l c c c a u s cI w o n t p a y t h c p r i c c st h c y d c r t t r t n t l . b T h e. . . . . . . . .a r ct o oh i g h . I I Wc always rcscrvc our scitts. W c a l w a y s a v c. . . . . h l2 Thc plot was rathcr corlplicatecl. Theplayhad.... l3 Thc play encled ith atwistlltat was not unrclatccl. w Therc was at thc e ncl l4 Wc certainly were no1 e xpccting that encling T h a t w a s c c r t a i n l y. . Exercise 180 Attributive nouns [SGE 17.35] Make compound nounson thc patternnoun+ noun. Example:a book of cheques= Ansv,er: chequebook a e o = I s o m e o na d d i c t etd d r u g s . . . . . . . . . 2 insurance on PeoPles lives= 3 s t r a i n n t h ee y e s= . . . . o
    • 140 The noun phrase 1 a bulletinof news= 5 fhe skin of a banana = o an outbre of measles ak = 1 c h a i r s l o u s e i n t l t c g i l r d c n= 6 decayin the teeth u h o l e s( i n a . l a c k e t ,h i r te t c )f b r o n e s arms= s l 0 a brushfor brushing onesclothes = l l an intellectuawhosc headis saidto look likc an cIs = l t 2 a f a m i l y w i t h t w o c a r s= I --) an ol.liccwhcre you can post lcttcrs(and buy stanlpsetc ) = t 4 a placcwhereyou can wait tbr buscsto stop= l-5 s o r n e o n ew h o s i t s w i t h ( a n d l o o k s a f i e r ) b a b i e s ( a n d v o u n s c h i l d r e n ) =l6 an olficc block oftcn storcys =ll a holiday arranged as a packagc =ilt control of arrns (wcapons) =l9 a shop scllingdrcsses =20 l i x x l t h a t i s r e a l l yj u n k =Exercise181 Noun phrasesin general[SGE Chapter17]Study thc filllowing passage.and then altswcr thc cprcstions that firllow.Itr Nove ntber thc sportsrncnchangc thcir ckrthcs.Thc fishing roclsarc pul lwly inf a v o u r o l s h o t g u n s a t r d h u n t i n g b o o t s . E a c l r y c a r -1 h c s p o r t s l n a ni s b c i r r ur r r o r cc l o s c l y r n a r k c r lb y a n a n t i - s p o r t s n r a no f i c n t h c s l r a d o w o l h i r n s c l f . T h e a n t i - .s p o r t s l n c n r c p a r l o l a l o o s c c o l l c c t i o no l a c t i v i s to r g l r r i z l r t i o n sr,o l t e c r n e dw i t h aa n i r n a l w c l l l r c . a n d r a n g i n g a c r o s st h c w h o l e s k c i n < l f r e l a t i o n s h i p s c t w c c n bIturnan kincl anclthe aninral w<lrkl. T h c a n t i - s p t l r t s n r cs c c kl o c l i r n i n a l ch u n t i n g ,s l r o o t i n g n c l i s h i n ga sa p a s t i n t c . n aT h c y a c l o p tm e l h o c l s l b c h a v i o L r w h i c h a p a r t f i o n rb c i n g u n c i v i l , i l n o t i l l c g t l , o rrcvcal a wcakrtessfirr thc chasc- their cluarryin this instanccbcing lhe sportsrnrrra n d h i s a c t i v i t i e s- w h i c h b c a r s a s t r i k i n g r c s c r n b l a n c c o t h c w c a k n c s s c s h c y t taflcct to deplorc in othcrs. So lirr thc carnpaign has prospercclrnore against tbx hunting than ugairrstshooting or fi shing . . . Interntittcnt harassmcntof hunts ancltheir supportcrsoccurthroughout thc winter sonrcwhere across the country. Neverthelesslbx huntings i n c e t h e w a r h a s p r o s p e r c c.l. . Opposition to ficld sports in Britain is alnrost as traditional as the fielcl sportsthcrrtselves. Both sidesof the argurnenthave litcrature and a culturc which stretchback fbr centuries.Hitherto the argurnenthas been conductecltnirly; but therc iseviclencethat a new war is now being waged with f-ewerholds barrcd by thoscwhose purpose is to eliminate ficlcl sports tiom the British scene . one disconcerting aspectof the argument is thc extent to which it rcveals thatcountry habits and perspectives becoming lessand lessunderstoodor respected areby city dwellers; and it is more often the city dwellers who command the moneyand the acccssto the media which gives them a better opportunity to press theirarguments to successtulconclusions.
    • Nounphrases 141(a) Premodification. Completc nounphrases thcse from thetextwith adjectives or a n a d j e c t i v e - l i k ca r t i c i p l e . p I a loosc conncctlon skein 3 ... hutnan restrlblrne r 5 ... sccnc 6 ... opportullrty(b) Cornplcte thcsc noun phrasc-s whcrc thc prcrnoclificr is a noulr or nor-rn-like -il,q firrrn: 1...... rotls ll shot 9 ...... bootslo .. .. or.ultttizrtlitlttsI I .. .. spoilsIr country . . . a l t t l.( c ) P o s t r n o d i l i c a t i o n . o r n p l c t ct h c s c n o u n p h r a s c s . h c r e t h c p o s l n r o d i l i c a t i o n C w is a prcpositional ltrasc. p l 3 r . c l a t i o n s h i p. . . .t lrl .... .......irslplstirlte l 5 l t w t l t k l t c r.s . . . . . . l 6 i n l c n n i t t c r th i t r a s s r t t c l. t. t. . . . . tl 7 t i r x l t u n t i n .g. . . . .l 8 t h t i r t v t t l r e t l l ( t.) ll(, btrllsitles.. t20 .. . . . . . . .. . t o t h c r n c c l i a( d ) F i n d l h c r r o t r np l r r a s c s h i c h l r c c o n r p l c l c db y l l r c r c l a t i v c c l u u s c ss h o u l n : w2l .... . . . . . . . . w h i c h r c v c u la w c a k l t c s si r r l l r c c h a s c l)2 .... . . . . . . . . w h i c h b ea r s i t s t r i k i n gr c s e t t b l a l t c c o t l t c t t w c a k n e s s e .s. .l3 .... . . . . . . . . l h c y a l l c c t 1 ot l c p l o r ci n o t l t c r s21 .... . . . . . . . . w h i c h s t r c t c h a c kl i t r c c t r t t t r i c s b25 .... . . . . . . . . w h o s c p u r p o s ci s t o c l i n r i n a t c h c s p o r t . . . t26 .... . . . . . . . . t o w h i c h i t r c v c a l st h a l c o u n t f y h l b i t s a n d perspcctivcs arc bcconritrg less atttl lcss Ltttclcrslttocl21 .... . . . . . . . . w h i c h g i v c s t h eI t t a b et t c r o p p o r l u r r i t y o t p r c s sl h c i r a r g u n r c n t s o s u c c c s s f u c o r t c l u s i t t n s 1 l( c ) l r i n c lt h e n o r t l i n i l ev e r b s / c l a u s c t h i t t p o s t l l l o d i t yt h c s c r l o u n s : sl X l e t i v i s tr r t l t t t i z l t l i o t t s g29 tcwerholds........ l () l b c l l c r o p p ( ) r l u n i l y
    • 1 8 Theme, focus,andinformation processrngExercise182 Given and new information[SGE 18.1-4]I T h c r c i s o l t c nr n o r c t h a n o n c w a y o l s a y i n u t h e s a n r ct h i n g . l l o w w c s a y i l d c p c n d so n s ev c r - a l a c l o l s l h c c n r p h a s i s c , , i l l t t g i v c t o w o lncssagc d i l l l r c n tp a r t so l t h c a n t lw h l t w c t h i n k i s t h c n r o s ti n r p o r t u n p a r t . l O t t c n i , c b e g i n w i t h s t l r n c l h i r r gl r c a t i y k n o u , n o r ( ; t v r , . a n d k c c p t h e l i r t t D o r t l r r t , t t : ( ) l i N tt.t.o Nt o l h c c n t l ( ) l t h c s c n t c l t c c . . t D c c i d c w h i c h i s t h c l i k c l i c s t ( u t t r n a r k e du n s w c r l o c a c h o l t h c l i r l l o w i n g )q u c s ti o t t s .l , t t t t r r l t l t W h c n s h u l l w c k n o w w h a t M a r y s s o i n g t o ( l o l .( a ) N c x t w c c k w c s l r a l lk n o w .( t r ) I l s n c x l r . l c c kw c s h u l l k n o w .(c) Shclllcll us rre t weck. x( d ) N ex t w c c k s h c w i l l t c l l u s .Al,rrtr-:(c)I What havc you donc with your carl ( a ) W c l t a v c s o l c lo u r c l r . (b) Wcvc soklit. ( c ) O u r c t r h r s b e en s o l c l . (rl) Thc citr wc havc solcl.r Is lhcrc a post officc ncar hercl ( a ) T h er c s o r t c n c a r h c r c . ( b ) N e a l h c r c t h e r c so n c . ( c ) T h e r e s o n e . j u s lb e y o n c l h c c h c r n i s t s . t ( d ) J u s t b c y o n c lt h c c h c n r i s t si s a p o s t o f l i c e .3 Whcrc do you kccp your car/ ( a ) I h a v e t o p a r k i t o u t s i d et h e h o u s e . ( b ) O u t s i c l e h e h o u s ei s w h c r e I p a r k i t . t (c) Its outsidc that I park n1y car. (d) Park it outsiclcis what I have to do.4 Which newspaperdo you rcad/ (a) Thc Guuttlian I sornetimesread. (b) Th(lintcs is my favouritc papcr. (c) I-Isually The Dail.v Telegraph. fhc (d) What I read is lntlependent.
    • Theme and focus: end-weight 1435 What are the most popular TV programrncs in your family? (a) Comedy programmes and the news are watcheclby all the family. (b) Comedy and thc news are our favouritc TV programmes. (c) We regularly watch comedy programmes anclthe ncws. (d) Its comedy anil the news that are lnost popular with us.6 How ofien cltt you go 1o the cincrnal (a) About once a wcek on average I go. (b) About once a wcck on avcragc I go to thc clnclllll. ( c ) T o t h c c i n c n t a I g o o n a v e r a g ea b t t u tt l t l c c a w c c k . (d) I go about oncc a week on averrtgc.Exercise183 Themeand focus: end-weight[SGE 18.7-12] Although we do not always bcgin tr scntencc with sotncthing kntlwll or givcn. - t h c b c g i n n i n g i s t r s u a l l yt h c t t t t , r t ro r l o p i c o f o t t r s c t t t c t t c e w h a t l wc arc going to talk aboul. stt that wc can thcll put thc t<lt t s of attentiolttltl thc ncw irrlorttttttittrr. cottsccluctlcc thc shapc tlla serttcllcc. This has an ilrrllortitrtt litr Wc oltcn givcn ncctl rnorc worclslbr the rtcw irtlitrrlatiorl than firr-thc or thc thctttc. so tlrc enclolthc scnlcltccoficn has to bc thc lollgcst pitrt with t,Ntr-wtllt;ttt. Scntcrrccs with a lot of wcighty ittlirrrtratiolt thc bcgilrning arc rruch ttr<trc at ditficult to unclcrstarrcl.T h c s c n t c r r c eb c l o w h a v c b c c n w r i t l c n o u t h c r c i n u l t t t l a r k c d w t l r d o r c l c r s( S V O C A) . B u tt h e w c r co r i g i n a l l y r i t t e n n a d i t f b r c no r c l ctrt l g i v ec n d - w c i g h t y w i l(andcncl-fircus) thc nroreintp<lrtant to inlorrnation. you rcconstruct Can thctnast h e yw c r c o r i g i n a l l y r i t t c n l w IS I V haclextractecl O the aclrnission whilc thc fronlicrwould in cffect that. havcbccnclttsecl to e v e r y o n c l s c , c w t l u l d ,i n v i e wo l m y o ff i c i a l h p o s i t i t l ni . p r i n c i p l c a v c n h lcl mc crossi1.if therchadbccnany nreans gcttingnrc- of [:,lrl:"n"*,lto A atteran hour or lwct A f}om rny interlocutclr IBeginwith one of the advcrbials. Whcre shouldthe end-we i-eht lbc]2 S The Rcvolutionary Guards V beat up and V detained O Mr EdwardChaplin,a Britishdiplomat A tbr one day A in apparentretaliation theanest in Manchester oneof theirconsular fbr of officialson shopliftingcharges. [Move one of the adverbials give end-weight the objectand to the other to to adverbiall
    • 144 Theme, focus, processing and information3 S D a v i dS y l v e s t e r V argues (that) A i n h i s c o n t r i b u t i otn L u t c P i t a s s o( f 2 - 5 p a p e r b e r I 1 7 . 9 - 5 ) o . ck S these picturcs V lry O the horrorof growingolcl Cl nakccl I M a k ct h ea d v c r b i atlh eo p e n i n g o p i c .T h e nc r n p h a s i ztrh c f i n a lo b . j e c r . l t -4S Wc V clnnol dcclucc O any very conficlcntpoinlers towards thc next gcncral clection which rnay bc as nruch as fi)ur ycars hcnce A l l o r - n n c l c c t i o n i n w h i c h t h c < k r r r k n o w s a n c lc k r n tc l r c s w o n b y a a t clislancc { G i v e e n c l - w c i g h t o t h e o b . j c clt5 S Wikl horse-s V w o r r l tllr o ll r l r v r t l r l r u g e r l O thctruth A tronr nrc I E r n p h a s i ztc c o b j c c l h tExercise184 Theme and focus ISGE 18.5-12]B c a r i n g i n n r i n d t h i . t itr t a n s w c t i n e c o p l c sc l u c s l i o n s c s h o u l dl i t c r - ro n t h c n c w , p w si n t i r n l a t i o n t h u t t h c - yw t n t . c h o o s ct h c l i k c l i c s t i t n s w c r si n t h c f i r l l o w i n s .I Who wls the first nritrrto walk to both [)olcs] ( a ) R o h c r t S w a n ( G B ) l c c lc x p c c l i t i o n s o t h c S o u t h P o l c i n l 9 1 1 6u n d t o l h c t North in l9ll9. ( b ) R o b e r tS w t n ( G B ) . w h o l c d c x p c d i t i o n s o t h c S r l r . r tP o l c i n l 9 l J 6a n d t o t h c t h North in l9lJ9. ( c ) A s n t a l lc x p c c l i t i o n o t h c S o u t h P o l c i n l 9 u 6 a n d a n o t h c rc x p c c l i t i o n o t h c t t North were both lccl by Robcr{ Swan. (d) Robcrt Swan becarnethe lirsl nliur to walk to both Polcs.2 What was thc namc-othis South Pole c-xpc.clition? ( a ) T h c F o o t s t e p s f S c o t t w a s l h c n a r n eo l h i s S o u l h P o l c v c n t u r c . o ( b ) I t w a s c a l l e c t h c F - o o t s t c po f S c o t l . l s ( c ) H c l e d a S o u t h P o l e e x p e c l i t i o n a l l c d t h e F o o t s l c p so f S c o l t . c (d) The Footstepsof Scott was the nanle given to this expeclition.3 How big was this FootstepscllScott cxpeclition/ (a) Thcrc werc just three men. (b) Thrcc mcn took part in thc Footstepsof Scott cxpedition. (c) A three-rnanexpeclitionis what it was. (d) Three men walkecl to the South Polc.
    • Markedfocus 145 How long did the SoLrthPole trek take theml (a) Through the worst Antarctic wintcr fbr ye ars they trckkeclfbr scvctlty clays. (b) For sevcnty claysthey trekked thrrtugh the worst Antarctic winter for years. (c) For sevcnty claysthrough a terrible Antarctic winter thcy trekkecl. (cl) It took thcnt seventy days - through thc worst Antarctic winter filr years.-5 Ancl was thc North Pole walk also a threc-man e xpedition? (a) No. the internationalcxpcclition haclcight ntcn. ( b ) N o , i t w a s a r rc i g h t - n r a ni n t e - r n a t i o n a lx p c t l i t i o n . c (c) No, cight rncn - tlorn diftircnt countrics walkcd to thc North Ptrlc, (d) No. thcre wcre cight ntcn walking to thc POlc- fronl diflcrcnl cor.ttltries. Did this North Polccxpcclition avc il ttartlc/ h (l) Ycs. Iccwalk it was callccl. (b) Yes. Iccwalk thcy callcd it. (c) Ycs, Iccwalk wits its natllc. ( d ) Y e s . i t w a s c a l l c c lI c c w a l k .7 W a s r r l t h c r c s o t n c c o n n e c t c dc n v i r o n n r c n t a p r o . j c c t n v o l v i n g s t u t l c t l t s l l i ( a ) Y c s , 1 c o n n c c t c c l n v i n r n n r c n l u lp r o . j c c t r t v t l l v c t li l t t c l - n a l i t l n a lt u c l e n l s . c i s (b) Yes, twcnty two sturlcntsll-ornfificcn countricstook parl in sorttccolltlcclertl (nv i r()liltlrrll irI P11r.i(11. ( c ) Y c s . u n i n t c r n a t i o n a g r o u p o t s t u r l c n t s l i d s o r r l ci t t t c | c s t i l t g o t k . l t w ( r l ) Y c s , t f i c r c w a s a c o n n c c t c ( c n v i r o r . t r t t c r t tp rl t t . i c cilr t v o l v i l t gs t u t l c r t t s . l atl Whcrc dicl tlris part ttfthc pro.iccltake placcl ( a ) A t t h e p o l a r l e a n t b l s c o t l C a r l a t l a s l l c s t l l c r cl s l l r n t l . E (b) Canaclas llcstttcrc E I s l l n c l i s w h c r e t h e p r o . i c c lto o k p l l c e . (c) Ellcsrncrc Islttlrcl, whcrc thc ptllar bitse is, is part olClrrtltcla. ( r l ) A t t h c p o l t r t c a r n b a s c o r r E l l c s r r e r c I s l a n t l c n v i r t t l l l l l c l l l l l ls t t t c l i c s c r c w citrricclou1.Exercise185 Markedfocus [SGE 18.7-12] [hcn, lirllows,tnarktlle slre sscdwortlsinRcld thc passage . in thc cxcrcisclhal.t h ea n s w c r sh a tp r o b a b l yc c c i v ct h c r n a i nl i l c u s . t lMFPA is not a charity but a cotnpitnycntircly ownctl by scriouslyclisablcclrlcrnbers 9lthcAssociation olMouthancl FootPainting Arlists.Itsnrctlrbers havclulllcarnccl clrawrnd painl with the brushhelcl irl tlrc Inouthor with thc tocs to Pcrhaps bcstkn0wlrMFPA artistwasChristyBrown.who died in lc)76. thc ThcOscar-wintrirrg liirn. Mt Lalt /"trol.wits basccl his autohiography. ort Cihristy Brownwasbornwith a tlisability, sornc but MFPA artists havcbccotltcclisablecl thc resultof accidcnts. as BrucePearckln in the Navy whetta st: was rlousroaclacciclent hirn with a pernrancnt left spinalinjury. During his long stay inhospital me1 he two MFPA artists who encouragcd to paint.He is now a very hima c c o m p l i s h e a n d s c a pa r t i s t h o i s w c l l k n o w nf b r h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n s c h i l d r e n . ld e w of I MFPA doesntsoundlike a realcompany. - But it is a real conlpany. But it ts a company.Answer.
    • 146 Theme,focus, and informationprocessing 2 It must be clifficult to paint with your ntouth ttr feet. - Very difficulr. 3 So the Association was fbundccl in ninetccn sixty-six. - N o , n i n e t e e nf i f i y - s r x . zl Ancl do thc mentbers manage to support thcir farnilicsl - I c l o n l k n o w a b o u t t h c i r t a r n i l i c s ,b u t t h e y s u p p o r t thcmselves. -5 I saw the filrn aboutChris Brown on tclcvisitln. - Not C--hris Brown. Christy Br-own. 6 O h y e s o f c o u r s e T h c f i l n r s h o w e ch i n r w r i t i n g a n c l l r a w i n sw i t h 5 i s r i g h t l i r 6 t . . l c - FIis lcfi lixrt. 7 H c s c l c a cn o w . i s n t h c l l Y c s . h c c l i e di n 1 9 7 6 . 8 I d l i k c l o s c c s o l n c u l B r u c c P c a r s o n sw o r k . - [)carclon. nclt Pcalsorr. c) llow lu,lul lo havc an acciclcnt allcr lcavinethc Navy. N < 1h c w a s s t i l l i n t h c N a v y . . l 0 A n d h c s n o w a n a c c o r n p l i s h c d o r t r a i tp a i n t c r . l p I t h i n k h c s n t a i n l y a l a n c l s c a pa r t i s r . c I I A n d h c m e t s o n t c M F P A a r l i s t sw h i l c h c w a s i r r h o s n i l a l . l - A c t u a l l y . h c r n c t t w o M F P A a r t i s t s ,w h < tc n c o u n r r c c l hirn. I 2 T h e r c a r e p l c n t y o f a b l c - b o c l i ep c o p l c w i t h t h c u s c o l t h e i r h a n d s w h o c a n t tl clrilw or paint at all. - I t s a r n a z i n gt o d r a w a n c lp a i n t w i t h o u t h a n c l s .Exercise 186 Fronting ISGE 18.14-17] Decicle whcthcr Ittarkccl the frclnlccl clcrnents ob.ject, arc cornplcrnent, aclvcrbialgr prcclicate. Thcn rcwritc the scntcnces unrnarkcd in wor.cl ortler. E.runtplL.ImlnatLrrc over-crrthusiastic said I was. and thcy Atr,vct". [Cornplcrncntl rhey saidI was irnrnature ovcr-cnthusiastic, and I That srtrtof rcrnarkI can do without. 2 Objectivcit is not. 3 U n k i n dI c a l l i t . 4 T h c y d s a i dt h c y w e r c n tg o i n gt o c r i t i c i z cb u t c r i t i c i z e h e yc l i c l . . t -5 To thentI rnusthaveseemed chilcl. a 6 Threeor lbur carsthesepeoplewoulclbring i at a tirnefbr servicing. 7 (andthen)aboutsomef l0 itenrrx the bill theyd grumbleancl grurrble. fi Always grumblingrheywerc. 9 Millionaires they probablywere,l0 (but)generous they werenot.I I This parlicular law nobodycan defend.l2 About the needlbr a libel law nobodyis argurng.l3 We can accept that nceded is. itl4 In its present statethe law cannotbe seriously defended.l -5 still, unsatisfactory thoughit may be,we couldendup with something worse.
    • Subject-verbinversion 147Exercise187 Subject-verbinversion[SGE 18.16-17]Reconstruct thcse sentencesas thc authors originally wrotc thcttt. so that thc cncl-weight.subiccts follow the verbs anclrcccivcE.rurtrytlr. The body ofSarnuel Ta1krr Colericlge/lies/bcncath this stonc. (SVA),,1ri.rN Bcnctth this slonc lics the botiv o1SrrnucI Taylor Colcridgc. ( AVS - thc rr: w o r u l so n a r n c r t t o r i a s l o n c i n l t r t o r t h l , r t t t t l o n h u r c h ) l c I T h c n c w g c n c r a l i o n l ( o r n r n u l r i s trs .v o l u l i o n i t r i c s o l o r t g c ri r t t h c o l d s c r r s c , o c n b u t w o l s h i p l - r c r s f t h c c s t l [ r l i s h c to r t l c r . d c c p l y s u s l r i c i o u o l t l a n g e r o u s o l s t h o u g h t s / s a t / s t a r i n g u t h i r ) 1r. o w u l ) ( ) n up r o w . s r ) l u g . c l f - s a t i s l i c ta n r lh o s l i l c . s l 2 lOl clsc wc would find our r"u [rrrlcrlhl, a sancl clunc.l Tlrcrr/lltcsl.ratlcs. sarttl r n a t s l r r d t o w i n g r o p c s / c a t t t c / o ultl n d t h c wholc drcary trtrsirtcso1ttn- s s t i c k i n g w o u l c l s t u r t a r a i r t .I Ihcn .. J T h c t i r s t o l t h c n r n g c so l h i l l s , w h i c h l a v b c t u c c nu s a r t r l l r c c o l s l / r o s c / a c r o s s t h c v a l l c y , t l u r k a g l t i r t s t h c s c l t i r t gs t r r t . . 1 A c l r a i no f s u r r riis l a r r t l a n d b l a c k . i r r g g crto c k s ,s h c l t c r . i n t l t c h a r b o u t l l o r n h c s l g l w c s t c r l v g a l es a n t l s c l L r a l l sl t h c A d r i a t i c / s t r c t c h c d / a c r o sls c b a y . o l t 5 T h c c o l l c c t i o n o l I r g y p t i u r rp a s h a s C i r c c kr r r i l l i o r l t i r c sc x i l c t l P r . i r r c e s .r s h , , h ranking tlritish olliccrs anrlcosnrol-rolitlur lrclutics thitl cortstilr.rtctl Cuilc-rtc socicly during thc war/sat/rourtcl at ttlltcr tablcs. r-ts 6 Crics of tcrror/rosc/oul olthc Iir.ciurrl srnokc. (Shiva Naipaul: Atr Ll tr.futisltcd .lttLtttttl) 7 T h c b a r c w h i t e r i b s u l a b o a t b c i n g c o n s l r u c t c c lo t h a t c l c s i g n n c h a n g c d i r r c c t u s t h c d a y s o l N o a h s A r k / c o u k l b c s e e n / c v c r ys o o f t c n a l o n g t h c s c i t l i o n t . l (Robcrt Laccy: lrt Kingdrtnr) U lln 1925Raganrah a sinrple was fann ancl Thc agreernetrt unifiedArabia/ I that l was .:nactccl/therc. (RobcrtLacey: lte Kittglttnt) 9 Two retired lactory workcrs whosc faccs wcrc witherecl cttrtttlur rnaps/sat/ oppositc mc. (Colin Thubron: Rehind tltt Wull)l0 A bar by which the Chainnancould haul up his ageingbody/ hung/abovc it and/a buttonlor emergencies/was/neartap.(ColinThubron: hindthe red the Bc Wull)
    • 148 Theme,focus, and informationprocessingExercise188 Subject-operator inversion[SGE 18.171 Subject-operator inversion is needed when a negative adverbial or ob.ject (in sentencestructure) is fionted: Never had I expected this. None of the fbod coulcl we eat. or when rtcither or iror introduccs a second clause. Nor do I. But this does not apply whcn thc negativcword only belongstolocal n c g a t i o n : Nothing interestins ver happcns! cR c w r i t e h e t b l l o w i n ga s i n d i c a t c cn . a k i n g n y o t h c rc h a n g c s c c c s s a r y . t lr a n I I havc nof seen a lnore wonclcrlulbuilclinq anvwhere Nowlrerc 2 T h c r c r cn o k r n s c rr c g u l a r a s s c n p eirn c r sc a l l i n ga t B o n r b u y . a p l No..... I Jhere is nowhcrc thal I havc sccn that surpasses thc Ta j Mahal. Nowhcrc z l I c l o n t l i k c t h c h c a t . M y s i s t c r d o c s n o t l i k e rt h c h e a t c i t h c r . Neither. S h c c l o c s n tl i k c i t . A n d I c l o n l c i t h c r . Anclncithcr Wc: haclno soonerr lrrivcd than thc slonn brokc. No..... I h a v c n o t c x p e r i c n c c cs u c h a s t o r n t s i n c c I w r s a c h i l c l . l N o t. . . . Idicl not know wlral woulcl happcn, and I cliclnot carc what r.",ould lrappcn. I ncithe r Tonr arrivccl Iate and startcd contplainin-e. Not onlyt0 I l l r r c v c r n v i l el r i r l u g a i n . Ncvcr.ll Nothing good will come olthis. No ..... This will clo you no goocl NoExercise189 Cleft and pseudo-cleft sentencesISGE 18.18-20] Clefi anclpseudo-clcfi arc deviccs fbr splitting A scnrcncLintoru,o to givc erlphasis to a particular part. _qreater
    • Cleftand pseudo-cleft sentences 149 givento makecleft or pseudo-cleftComplete fbllowingusingthe information thesentences indicated. as Drugs worry many govemments.[the increase drug-taking]Eromples. inC I e f i S e n I e n ( e : I t S T H E I N C R E A S I N D R U ( ] - I . A K I N G H A TW O R R I E S A N YG O V E R N M E N T S . E T MPseudO.CICTi: W h A t W O R R I E S A N Y G O V E R N M I ] N TIS T H E I N C R E A S E I ) R U G - T A K I N G . M S IN I Whatmakespeople experiment with drugs? (perhaps boredom, longingfbr a cxcltement) P e r h a pt s . . . . . . is 2 Do wc find drug-taking (I amongall agc-groups? think rnainlyamongthe young) I t h i n ki t s 3 We nccdto makc pcoplerealizethat drug-taking self-cle is slructivc. Whul.. 4 But somepcoplethink that all drugsshouldbe legal. What.. 5 Thcy say the glamouroldoing sornelhing illcgal attracts pcoplc. T h c ys a yi t s . . . . . 6 Somegovernl.ne ltavcsuchtoughlawsabouttraflicking, arnsurprised nts I any peoplc ecomccouricrs. b Whatsurpriscs....... ........ hen w 7 I supposc hopcoleasymoncyternpts the theln. Isuppose ....... 11 tl Many pcoplcdont rcalizcthal orclinary clrugtakersncccl nroncyto buy big drugswith. What.. c) Thc drug barons libcratclyinvolvc snrallpcoplc. de W h a t. . l 0 T h c C u s t o r n p e o p l e r el o o k i n gl b r t r a v c l l c r s h o b c h a v c u s p i c i o u s l y . s a w s What.. l l O f i c n t h e s r n a l p e o p l c n o l t h e b i g p c o p l c g e tc a u g h t . l . , s It otien. l2 Most governmcnts want to stttpdrugscottlit.tg thcir countrics. into Whltl ..Exercise 190 Postponement:extraposition ISGE 18.23-261 Sometimes the sakeof cnd-lbcus cnd-weight scnlence fbr or: a elementts postponed. put laterin thc scntence. and Whcn this kind of postponcmcnt involvcsusinga pro-fornrearlicrin the sentcnce is callccl it cxtraposition. o1subjects objectsis conlmon. E,xtraposition and (=To do this exercise It wont takc long to tltt thise-terLisc. wont takc long.) (=l I anrsurcyou will lind rteasydoin,q, c,rer<ise! am sureyou will this find doing this exercise casy.)
    • 150 Theme, processing focus,andinformationRewrite following.whcrepossiblc. thc withoutrt,andwith nonnalSV wordorder. I It wont bc easyto persuade him. 2 I lind it difficult to talk to him. 3 I t s t r i k e s e t h a ti t l l b e d i f f i c u l t . m ; 1 I t s c c m s l c a rt h a tw e r c q u i t cl i k e l y t o f a i l . c .5 | think it cxtrernely odd that he saysnothin_u. ( r I v c a l w a y s h o u g h t t c a s i c r r i t i n gt o h i r n . t i w 7 Itll prohahlynrakcno clille renccwhal you say. 13I lcavc it to you to do your bcst. 9 I1seerns that I rnis.judgccl hirn.l 0 I t a k ci t t h a ty o u r l o n tw a n tt o c o n s u l ( i c o l f r c y / tExercise 191 Discontinuities ISGE 18.27-281 S o n r c t i n r c sn t h c i n t c r c s t s l c r r d - l i r c u s n d c n d - w c i r - l ha s c n t c n c c l c r n c n t i o a t c g c t s s p l i t u p . T h i s s o r l o l d i s c o n t i n r , r i lo t t c n i n v o l v c s n o u r rp h r a s c s . v Slrcs ir /rcllcl tcnnis pl:rycrtlrtrtr1alr. Ianclnol iabcltcr lhart I unr tcnnis- playcrl.I I n d c r l i n t h cc l i s c o n t i r r u or o u n h r i t s cu l t d t l t c r d i s c o n t i n u i tiin ts cl i r l l o w i n g . e r us p s o ch I S c v c r a a c c i d c n t h a v cb c c nr e p o r l c c lc c c n l l vi n v o l v i n gp a s s c n g c r s l l i n g l s r fu from trains. f L u s tm o r r t hl t c l cw u su n o u t c r yi n t h cp r c s s b o u t h cs a l c l y t c a r r i a gd o u r s . t a o c 3 This lblkrwccl acciclcnl whichlr youngrnanfcllto hisdcallr an in who hacl bccn drinkingfirr rnostof thc .journcy. 4 He hacl. alas.clrunkrlthcr nrorcalcoholthanhc shouldhuvc. - 5 N o w a c l a i n ri s b c i n gr n a c l c y t h c y o u n gr n a n sp a r c n t sh a tt h e r a i l w a yi s b t rcsponsiblc his clcath. lirr (r Accusations havcbccnrnadcagainst railwayo1netligcncc. thc 7 Anclycl anolhcrinvcstigation beingderrrtandccl salctystanclarcls. is into tt Railways clcarlyhavca clutyat all tirncsto cnsurc thatcloors winclows antl arc notlaulty. 9 But it is surclyup to passcngcrs to consume nol murc alcoholthanis goodtirr thern.l 0 A l o t o f n o n s c n sic t a l k e ctlh e s c l a y s b o u t h u m a n i g h t s . s c a rI I And thc idea has got about that there is always soffleonc blamc fbr an to accident, who shouldpay compensation thc victinrs their farnilies. to orl 2 B u t t h e r ei s , a l a s . o a b s o l u t e h u m arn g h t ,a s s c x n c e o p l e o u l dh a v eu s n i p w b e l i c v c l.o s u r v i v c j o u r n c y . aI 3 lt is a fact lifethatjourneys at any time- by train,car,plane, of - evenon lbot, carry sclme risk.l4 Airlines,railways, bus companies, shippingfims havc a duty as passenger carriersto maintainhigh standards.I 5 But fbr passengers time hascometo realizethattheytoo mustexercise the care.I 6 In any caseaccidents happen this imperfect will in world, someof which are nobodysfault.
    • Existentialfhere 151Exercise 192 Existentialthere [SGE 18.31-351Rcwrite quotations theywereoriginally these as writtenby aclding thcreanclrlakin-c any othcr csscntial changes.L..rumplc. l9l3 occurred one of those anrazingevents that nrakc you lee truth In I really is strangerthan fiction.Attsv,cr. I 9 I 3 there occurred one o1those amazinq evcnt L-te In .E.runtplc:A morc cxtraordinary coincidence coulcl hardly havc bccn. Thcrc could harclly havc bcen a rnorc cxtraordinary coincidcncc.Art,svcr.I F o r , i n a m y s t e r i o u s i t y r e l e r r e do a s l - o n d o n .l i v e d a b r o t h c r .( S h i v a N a i p a u l : c t A rr U t r.firi.s ctl .l ttutt rtt) t lt2 Now ancl again appcalccl on the front steps of thc house nexl cloor a goocl- Iooking wonriin. (Shiva Naipaul: Atr 11 trfini.rhctl .lout rtcr) Honcy3 S o n r c n i c k n a r n c sa r c o b s t a c l c st o f r i c n c l s h i p . is onc of thcrn.(Paul Thcroux :[ hc Lt t t tdttrt Entltu.s.st 4 A nronth ulicr Dostoycvsky clicd was cnacteclu sccnc such as he rnight have lol.stot) writtcn into Tlic Dcvils. (A N Wilson:-5 A plcasantc-r pliicc to buy a cottage firr thc sLlnlnlcrcoulcl not bc. (Lawrcncc Durrcll:lhc G rcrk Lslutrds
    • 1 9 Fromsentence text tor-I We ofien think of gritmmar as thc grarnnrarof scntcnccsor clauses, but a text Ionger i s n o t j u s t a c o l l e c t i o no f s e n t e n c e sA g r o u p o 1 s c n t e n c e sn l y . o fbrrn a mcaningful tcxt if they are connccteclby cohercnce olscnsc (cg: re lateclvocabulary) and sranrnraticalcohcsion, which rcsults from the useI o f p l a c c a n d t i m c r c l a t o r s [ . s G t 1 9 . 3 l 4 ] . p r o - f b r r n sa n c le l l i p s i s I S G E 19.l-5-201, con.juncts otheraclverbials arrcl l,(;C lt).21 2.5 coordinating l, arrrl subordinating conjunctions ISGA19.26 29] andthe scquencing thc of i n f b r r l a t i o n i n a s u i t a b l c o r d c r I S G I. 4 0 - 4 2 l . I n t h i s c h a p t c r t h e r c l i r r e t h c I9 cxcrciscs basecl longcrtexts. arc on rathcrthan singlesentcnccs. providc ancl p r a c t i c cn i t r n i x l u r c f c o h e s i ved c v i c c s . i oExercise 193 A Brief History of TimeC o n t p l c t ct h c t i r l l o w i n g w i t h t h c s c w o r c l s : altcr alrcacly bu1 did cr;uatiorr lhtc halt howcvcr in thc cntl il rnathcrrratrcs n()l rlucstions so (2) suchas thcrctirrc thcsc this (2) 1o whcre whcthcr which withoutI d c c i d e dt o t r y a n d w r i t c a p o p u l a rb o o k a b o u ts p a c ca n c l i r n c ( l ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I tg a v c t h c L o c b l c c t u r c a l l l a r v a r cn l c ) l J 2 . T h c r c w c r c ( 2 ) il ......aconsitlcrablcn u r n h c r o l b o o k s a b o u t t h c c l r l y u n i v c r s ea n d b l a c k h o l c s ,r a n g i n e f i o n r t h c v c r . ygtrtrd.(3) . . . . . . S t c v t : r tW c i n b e r g s b o o k . 7 7 r c I i t s t l l t r a a M i n u t c s .(4)..... . t h c v c r yb a d ,( 5 ) . . . . . .I w i l l n o ti c l c n t i l y . ) . . . . . (6I f e l tt h a t n o n c o l t h c r nr ea l l y a c l d r c s s c t h c ( 7 ) cl ...... thathad lcd ntc to clor c s c a r c hi n c o s n r i l l o e ya n c lq u a n l u r n t h e o r y : ( t t ) . . . . .. did thc unlverscc o t n ef i o m l H o w a n d w h y d i d ( 9 ) . . . . . . b c g i n ? i l l i t c o r n et o a n e n c la n c l Wif(10).. .....howl(ll)... ...arcqucs{ionsthatarcofinteresttousa l l .( l 2 ) n h ( . . . . n r o c l e r s c i c n c c a sb e c o m e l 3 ) . . . . . . l e c h n i c atl h a to n l y a v e r v s n r a l l n u r n b c ro f s p e c r i a l i s ta r c a b l c t o n t a s t e rt h c ( l 4 ) sused to describe thern. Yct the basic icleas about thc origin ancl( l5)o 1 t h c u n i v c r s c c a n b e s t a t c c lw i t h o u t n r a t h e m a t i c s n a f i l r n t t h a t p e o p l e ( 1 6 ) i . . . . . . a s c i c n t i f i c c l u c a t i o n a n u n c l c r s t a n d1 7 ) c c (. ...... is what Ihaveattemptedtodointhisbook.Thereaclernrustjudge(lll)... ... lhavcsucceeded.Someonc told me that each cquation I included in thc book would halvc the salels.I (19) . ..... rcsolved 20) ... ( . . . t o h a v ea n y e q u a t i o n s t a l l . ( 2 1 ) a . . . . . . , h o w e v e r . l( 2 2 ) . . . . . . p u t i n o n e e q u a t i o nE i n s t e i n s a m o u s , f123).... ...E= mi.I hopethat(24) ... . . . w i l l n o t s c a r eo f f ( 2 5 ) . . . . . . of rny potential readers.(Stcve W Hawking : A B r i ef ft i st o r 1-olT i me)
    • 153Exercise 194 ScurvyChoose bestanswers the tbllowing: the in I S c u r v y s a d i s e a sc a u s c d y v i t a m i nC d e f i c i e n c y ( a ) i t ( b ) t h a t( c ) t h i s( d ) i e b which itselfis caused a lack of fleshfiuit ancl by vegetables. 2 It was probably biggcstmenace crewson Pacilicvoyascs(a) alier (b) thc to fbr (c) until (cl)since the nineteenthcentury, 3 a s . ( a a l t h o u g h b ) d e s p i t e c ) h o w c v c r( d ) s c c i n g h a t s c u r v yt o o k a l o n g ) ( ( t timc to kill thcm. it rnaclc thcnrwcak anclwa" z l ( a ) h o w e v e r ( b ) a d c l i t i o n a l l y ( c ) o t h e r w i s c ( d ) trh u s o n s i b l e f i r r a c c i d c n t s . csp including hipwrccks. s -5 Thcrcwcrccilscs ships of that,rcaching hol.ne wate aficrrnonths sca, rs at wcrc u n a b l eo n r a k c o r t( a )a l t h o u g hb )b c c a u s(e )c v c nt h o u g h t l )u n l c s s t h e r e t p ( c ( wi-rs onc on boarcl llo strongenoughto haul a rope. 6 Thc syrnptolns wcrc various.First thc gunrsswcllccland thc tccth bccarnc loosc;( a ) o n l y ( b ) r a t l r c r( c ) t h c n ( d ) s t i l l . u s t h c c l i s e a sw o r s c n c ci lt c pnrcluced protiluntltiredness. 7 M c n l i v i n ge x c l u s i v e lo n s a l t c c lr o v i s i o n( l ) c a r l i c r b ) f i n a l l y( c ) s i n r i l a r l y y p s ( ( c l )s o n r e t i r n e s c l c v c l o p ctd c s y n r p t o r nw i t h i n s i x w c c k s . h s f l T h o u g h v i t a r n i n s e r e l l o t i c k r n t i f i c r ln t i l t h c t w c n t i e l hc e n t u r y .a s ( r ) w u p r c v i o u s l yb ) e a r l y( c ) r c c c n t l y c l 1 i r r - r n c r l y a s 1 . 5 9 3 ( ( f it 9 ( a ) h a sb c c nc l i s c o v c r c d ) h a db c c nc l i s c o v e r c d ) w i l st o b c d i s c o v c r c ( c l ) (b (c d woulclbc discovcrecl that orangcs antl lenrons wcrc an clf ectivc ren-rccly.l 0 a n dt h ec x p l o r e r J a r nC s o k( 1 1 2 8 - 1 9h a c(l a ) a l i t t l c( b ) l i t t l e( c ) r n u c h c l ) co ) ( vcry nruch t r o u b l cw i t h s c u r v ya n r o n gh i s c r c w s o n h i s l o n g P a c i l i c voyagcs.l l ( t ) A l t c r a l ( b ) I r v c n t L r a ( lc ) F i n a l l y d ) I n t h ce n c l . i n 1 7 9 5 c n r o n . j u i e c l l y ( l was maclc cornpulsory thc Royal Navy. inl 2 L a t c r .t i r r a t i n r e . h i sw a sr c p l a c c d i t h l i r n c . i u i c ( a ) a l t h o u g hb ) h o u c v c r t w e ( ( c ) w h e t h e r d ) w h i l c l c m o ni s (l 3 ( a ) i n c a s e b ) i n t h a tc a s e( c ) i n l i r c t( d ) b y a l l r l c - a n s b e t l e r . (l 4 T h c A r . n c r i c an a v y ( a ) a t t h a t t i r r e ( t r ) r n e a n w h i l ec ) o n t h c c o n t r a r y c l ) n ( ( n c v c r t h e l e s s h a c n o s u c hr u l ea n c l a u g h i n g l d c s c r i b e t l n g l i s h a i l o r s s l y E s a linreys.Exercise 195 Young boy makes newsHcrc is a newsitcnrlrom TlrcDuil.tTcleg,ruph -5 on June199l. but thc paragraphshavcbccnrnuclcllecl. What orrlerwercthey in in the pape r?lWithaninstructorbcsiclchirnhctookotTfronrSanDicgo,Calitbrnia.on26May andlanded Mondaycvcningin NorthCarolina. on homcof OrvilleandWright, l h c p i o n c e ro l f l y i n g . r2 Mr Art Greenficld. sccrctary its Contcsts Records of ancl Boarcl.saicl would he not enterthc fliglrtasan aviation recordbecause boy wasofliciallynot solo. the
    • 154 From sentence to text3 Mr Ken Shanklin. 59, a plastic sur-qeon tiom Califbrnia, said his grandson hacl brokcn the rccord.currentlyheld by anine-year-old, the NationalAeronautical but Association had doubts.4 Daniel Shanklin, fiom Texas, flcw a singlc-cnginedCcssnalor ttrur hours a clay lbr ninc clays. and is claimin-e the rccorcl fbr thc Youngest person to cross Amcrica by air.5 But what worriccl Danicl was that he haclnot managccla strtttother landing at the e n d o l h i s t c a t . l w a n t c di t t o b e t h c b e s t . h c s a i d .6 Thc cockpit had to bc adaptcclslightly. with extcnsions placetl on thc ruclclcr pcclals to acconrlodatc his short lcgs. and llc sal on a boostcr seat with a c u s hi o t t .7 A scven-ycar,olcl boy wlroscgrancll athcl gavc hirn fl ying lcssttns a Clrt istrttas as prcscnt has pilotecla planc acrttsslhc tlnilcd Stittcs.Exercise196 CousteausunderseaworldThc words in italic arc itt thc wrong placcs.Can you put lhctlr whcrc thcy bclong/N r r n . . l a c q u c s - Y v c so u s t c i r un v c n t e l t h c a q u l t l u l t g n l 9 : 1 3i t t a s s o c i a t i o lw i t h h i s C i r i tcolleaguc,E,rlilc Ciagnan. who rlcsignctlthc crit ical tlcrttarrcl valvc or rcQultrlor uttllulcr lltt trttlrrrul lti.strtttttitltc nrutitttttttitrtttrtttttt. tly cnahlirrt swirnnrcrs Io llrovc lrccly unclcrwltcr. his invcntion prtlvctl tttc o n s i c l c r a b l s t r a t c g i ci r n p o r t a n c c n o c c u p i c t l F r a n c cd t r r i n g t h c S c c o n d W o r l t l c iWar. It was (ouslcaus filrns olsunkcrt wrccks xhit h orultlctl tlivtr.s ltt ltrcullt ttlrfipnr .qu.s cutristtt.s ttttut lrtd to tlrrit /rrrlls. which blought tltc unclcrsca worltl ttrt l r c a l t c n l i o r ro l n r i l l i o n s o l p c o p l c n l t L t t t . s t d r t p l t t t r t s u l t r t t u t r Lt t r i t t t . s . r t ir l l r n , t t c r l t e h a s t u l n c d h i s c l l i r r t st o c a r r t p a i g r t i n gi r r t h e c o t t s c r v a t i o nt t f lAnlarctlcil.Exercise197 Stressat workThc tirllowinu phrases und scnlcnccs arc rnissitiu llttrn thc pltssltqc.Put lhcrlrwhclc thcy bclong.( a ) Y o u n r a y l c c l y o u l r a v ch c a r d t h i s b c l i r r c .( b ) N o r a r c i l l - h c a l t h ,a b s c l t t c e r t t .h c a v y d r i n k i r l g t t t i t l s o t l t l t i r t . is(c) that is. too nruchwttrk, loo littlc tirnc( d ) A n o t h e r .b y a c l i n i c a l p s y c h o k l g i s t a l l c c J c n n y F i r t h . l c x r k c ca l t h c c t l c c l so f c l l slrcss on rncclicalstutlentsanclcloctors.( c ) t h i s a p p r o a c hi s c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v c .( t ) l 1 i s . i u s ta q u c s t i o no l u s i n g t h e i n r r n c n s c o w c r o f y t t u rb r a i n t o t a k c t h c l o a d p clff vottr shoulilcrs.( g ) A n c l t n t i g u e a n d s t r c s sa r e t w o o f t h c b i - r : g e se n c u r i e so l p r o c l u c t i v i t ya n t l t cfficicncy.(h) a n c lw i t h h i g h l ev el s t l f a b s e l c c i s n t . n(i) ti)f cxanrplc(i) t o o n r u c h t o t l r t .i o i r l i t t l c t i n r e t o t l o i t . r t t t t l l t r t t t t t t - t i u c h r c s s u r c . p(k) thillorir-livcsa r eo t h i n g t r u l : r n c n c l l c s s g t alrt r d;t l l t t c v c t t t h i s g l i r l d l l l a ) t l o l r i .l [ r tc r t o u g i r[ o s i . l v c r s l r t l l r t i l r i l u | c . t
    • 155(l) which is the key to efficiency.(m)Another experimcnt showcdthatthis detcrioration be much worse.if the can fatigueis exacerbated noise- which fbr mostpeopleit fiequentlyis. by(n) It doesntmatterwhat you worry about(o) until you stoppretending. areunlikclyto conlcup with ii rnoreintclligcnt you s o l u t i o no y o u r p r o b l e r n s . tMost pcoplesecwork asa problcnr. Insidcandoutsiclc officc.the cornplaints thca r ca l l n o s itn v a r i a b l t h c s a n r c :l () . . . . . . y T h c p r o b l c nirs a l r n o su n i v c r s a l . tB u 1 h c r ci s a s t t l u t i o n 2 ) . . . . t (. Most o1us r.csl.roncl a daunling workload by workinr harcler anclby toworrying.Wc worr thatthcrcarctoo nranydcrnancls our tirncarrd on cncrgy;(3) . . . . . . I l o w c v e rh a r r lw e w o r k . t h i n g sn c v c rs c f a n y e a s i c r B u t s t i l l w c .rcsporrcl wolking hardcr anclby worryint. by ly (r+ LJnfirrlunatc ) . . . . . . Harcl work- whcthclit isofticcwork.l.rouscwork,v o l u n t a r yw o r k 0 r -a n y t h i n gel s c c u L r s cls t t i g u c .W o r r y c a u s c s t r e s s ( - 5 ) i s . . . . . S i n r p l y t l y i n u h a r d e . t h c l c l i r r e w i l l n o l h c l p y o u 1 og c t r n o r c c k r r c r , (6) ..... . B u l r l o y o u r c l l l y a c c c p ti t ?I l i s c a s yl o p r c t c n dt o v o u r s c l l l h a tl a t i g u cd o c s n o t r c a l l v a f l c cy o u . . j u s a s i t i s c a s vl o p r c t c n ctl h a t d r i n k i n g t l o c sn o l t lr c a l l y a f t c c ty o u r d r i v i n g . A n r l ( 7 ) So hcrc. bcfirrc wc go arrv Iurthcrarc sor)rcf lcts. Fatiguc tklcs al1cctcllicicncy.C - o u n l l c s s s y c h o l o g i c a ls t u d i c sh a v e s h o w t t l h i s . O r t c s t u t l y . { X } ps h o w c t l t h u t i n c r c l s i n q a w o r k i n g t l i t y l i r r n r c i g h t h o u l s t o t w c l v c Itottts clttti n c r c l s c c r r o r r a t c s b y a s r n u c h a s c i g l t t y J l c rc c n l . ( 9 ) . . . . Noisc harlIrlarnr n g c ffcctson sLr i b.jccls alcrlncss and .juilgcrncnt. S i n r i l l u l y .t h c n c g a t i v cc f l c c t s t w r l r r y i n ua r c w e l l - d o c r r r n c n l c (O. n c c o r r r l l l n v o |s r . t r v c y u g g c s t c d h a t 7 5 p c r c c n t o 1 s c n i o r l a l l a g c r s i r u n c li t c l i l l i c u l t o s l c c p u s s t n la l c s u l t o l . j o b u r r i c s .{ l 0 ) . w . . . . . . S h c l i l u n d t h a t n c l f l v i l t h i r r lo t l l r c l i l u r t l r1 , c a r n e d i c a ls t r r t l e n l s h o w c r ls i g r r s l c r r o t i o t l t l d i s t u r b a n c c u t t r lr o u s h l l l t u l l r oof thc jLrnior krctors( | |) ... . w o r r y i s s i r n p l y l t r t tg o o t l l i r r v o u . M o r c d c t a i l c t l r c s c u r c h ,c o n r l u c l c di r r H o l l a n r l , i d c n t i f i c d p u r t i c u l a rl v p c s o l Ovcrloacl (s t r . e s w i t h p a r . t i c u l as y l l ) p l o n i s . s r ll) . is associaletl Rolcw i t h h i g h b l o o i l p r c s s u r . c . o b e s iuv c lh e a v y s r n o k i t t g . tn a n r b i g u i t r "i n w h i c hp e o p l cs i n r p l yt l o n o t k n o w w h u t t h c y a r c s u p l r o s ctc l b e d o i r r e i s a s s o c i u l c dv i l l r o lr u l ls o r l so l p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r n p l u i n t - ( I l ) c s T h c i r n p l i c a t i o r i s r c o b v i o u s . P s y c h o l o t i c u l d i s t u r b a r t c c s n o t c o r t d u c i v c1 o u ic l l i c i c n c y(.l : l ) . . . . . . I l u l i f y o u a r c h c u l t h ya n d h l p p v r t n dn o t s u f l c r i n gl . n r n c r h a u s l i o n . o r r l r c n r o r el i k c l y t o r v o r k w c l l ( 1 5 1 . . . r y . . . [ - l r cb c s tw a y o f l o o k i n q u l t c ry o u r r v o r k i s t o l o o k a f i c r y o t t t s le . l Punctuation ISGE 19.30-34] P u n c t u a t i o n s u s o r -o l r v r i t t e ns u b s t i t u t c i l r a l l t h o s e 1 e a t u r co l s l r c s su n t l i t f s i n l o n a l i o nt h a t r v c u s c i n s 1 - r c c cIh .h c l p st o r r i a k co u r n ) c s s u g c l c l r r -a n c lt h c t . r o n l l p u n c t r . u r l i oc a n s o r t t ei r t t c sI t o [ o r t l y r n a k c u n d c r s l a r t t l i r trg i l l i c u l t n t l i l t l r r t r r tt t t r r l l r S i r t t l r e r i l r l : l I l ) L l r i l
    • 156 From sentenceto textExercise198 The meaningof punctuationPunctuate fbllowingitemsin two dilferent the wayseachto showdifferentmeanings. capital Use letters, apostrophes, where etc necessary. I my brotherwho lives in Australiais retired (a) (l havconly onebrother) ( b ) ( l h a v e n o r e h a no n e ). . . r t you haveany problcrns me know2 clowrite soonshoulcl let (a)(Writcif youhavcprobler.ns) t h ) t W r i t e n y w i - r y. a ).3 if thcscboyswcrc cncouragccl play nrorcf ootballthcy wouldnthavr-tirne to pursuits filr othcrdangcrous (a) (firotball dangcrous is ) ( b )( t o o t b a il s n t c l a n g c n r . .s .). . l u..1 this ycarscxnnl papcrswcrc unusually clifficult ( a ) ( t h c y r ea l w a y sa i r l yd i f l i c u l t.) a l ( h t t t l r c y r r c ( ) u s u r r l t l i l h e u ) t. . . . . . . r n l ly l5 thc island evitle ntly clicl cvokctoo rnanyse not ntinrcntal nrenrorics churlcs lirr a n dd i a r r a u b s e q u c n l hy l i d a y c dh c r c s lo t ( a )( t h c yp r o b a b l w c n tt o g c t h c r..). . . . y { h t ( D i l r r t i r p p l r r ( n trl.y r t ll r l o r r) l cr e6 rnichacl dobbss novcl houscol carcls was aclaptccl tclcvisionlastycar. tilr (tr (lIouscrl (urtls is an unusual work olsomckincl) ( h ) t i t i s r rr ao r k o l l i t t i o r t l an okl bonrb cxploclcdin the capital ye sterclaykilling a 1.5 ycar-olclyouth who w a s c x a m i n i n - ut a n d i n l u r i n g h i s f a t h c r i { l l ) { l h eh o y w u su l t r r r k i nh i: s l u t l t c r t r t h ; l t h c h o r n ht l r r i r r r eltw o v i r t i r r r s l l thc docurnerrthas alrcaclyannoyed thc govcrnrncnt which says thc socicty is not really intcrestecl the zo<lsproblcnrs in (r) (it is clairncclthat the governnrent ckresnot care) ( b ) ( i t i s c l a i m c ctlh a tt h c s o c i c l y l o e n o l c a r e c s )t) my neighbours ()ur cioghasattacked crt
    • 157 ( a )( t h e n e i g h b o u r l i v e s a l o n e ) . . . . . . . . ( b ) ( t h e o gb e l o n gts a f a r n i l y . . d o ) sandwiches drinksl0 the night porterserves and (a) (you can gct fbod and drink at night in this hotel) ( b ) ( t h c n i g h tp o r t c ri s a b i t o f a n a l c o h o l i c )Exercise 199Among fhe RussiansPur"rctuatc firllowing passage,aclding collllllits, full sttlps. quotation trtarks, thccapital lctlcrs, ctc. as ncccssary.cvcn now i was unsurt-whut drcw nrc irtto this cttuntry i llarcd i hclongcd to agcneration too younlt lu rornanticizc about sovict corttntunisntyct nothing in thcintcrvcnirtg yc-arshacl clispcllcclrny childhoocl cstraltgcnrctrtancl igrtorancc Inyr l i n d w a s f i l l c d w i t h c o n l u s c d i c t u r c sp a r a d o xc l i c h c r u s s i aw r o t c t h c t t t a r q u i s l c p tcustinc in l tiSg is it cttuntry whcrc cvcryonc is part ol a cotlspiiacyto rnystily thcfirreigncr propagandastill hangs likc l grountl-nristovcr thc llrcitcly contplicatcdtrulh ncwspapcrs unlil you know how to rcad thcrn arc orllrtttsoldisinlbrrtrationt h c a r t sa r c c o n s c r v a t i v c r s i l c n t c v e n i r t r t o v c l sw h i c l t s o o l t c np a i n t l h c o l i l i n a r y or r a t u r co l t h i n g s t h c v i s i o n t r i c s a n r lr l r u n k sw h o i n h a b i t t h c p a t c s t l l r t i t t c l c c r l t l tc e n t u r y f i c t i o n h a v c s h r i v e l l e d t o t l r c p o o r w o o t l c n h c r o c s o 1 I t t o d c r ns o c i l r l i s lrcalisrn it is as ill glcat larnp harl bccn tuntcclclttwtr.(Clolinlhtrbron. Anttttr.q Iltt I 9ll-lRrr,i.sirrrr.r, )Exercise200 A final puzzleHcrc is a chilclrcns puzt,lc.(ian you punctuatc this to rnakc scnsc? ((/rrc: Wc arctalking about what (icoffrcy altclJan wrotc.)Jan whercas Gcollrcyhaclhad hatl had haclhatl hld hlrd haclhaclhaclthcir lcllclw approval.luutJrors
    • KEY- Suggested answers tttal b c a c c c p t a b l cN()Ir: In sonre cAscsothcr answcr-sChapter1 The Englishlanguage g | a r n r n i l t i c i r lu s i t q c . l . r r r u s u a l l v l i l t t 0 l bc u lirilulcolslvlc.I, l l l b r c a t l r ca l r t t l c c a s i c r t: l i s p u t e cu s u g c . l I i t ( l i d n o l / / ( ( 1 ob e : t l r i ss l t c l l i l r l . 1 I ) r r r i s l sw a n t a r r l r t l v c l b I r c l c ( l r r o l r i r t s l c a to l i t ( l i d I l o l I / . r ( t ol ) c . c a t t t t o l l r,/.11). b c t l c l c r r t l c r lb u t i s o l t c r t s c c t t . . l - l t l i l l r r - c r.r.t. l h i t r t :n t o r c t l i s p u l c r l I i l i t h l d r r l / r r r l r b c e r.t. . : t l t i s i s l t t r u s r r g c .I ) u r i s t s " l t r l l I i . l f ( t ( r I tI t ( ) | ) t . r r r r o r - l l r o t l ottc t t s c .t l t t i l c ( ) l t c r t h r l t t ( ll l s l J l r r c g t r l l r r c u s l o n l er c r c . . . u i t l r t h ei r l r r ra l t c r r l t l i v t I i r r t l r c I n o l c c o r r e c l l / r l o r , , rb l a n c h . i l r r L r ) b c . . . : l o r I t u L l t tl l t r r t p r o b l c r r r s c l e - P r - c s c r i p l i v i s os j c c t h tb . 1 s u g g c s l c r s h t / r r { r t t p :l t t t e r l t t t t p l co l l l o l r s i r r g u l u r o r r n+ / / r r i r .l . r o L r g hl r i s n l t t h c s r r h j r r n c l i v c .i l r i c l t i s i n c r e l t s i n g l l r i s : r c c c p l l r b l eo I r i l r n n l l r n i l n s i.u r ( l l h c i n g r r s c t li n [ : n g l i s l rt o d i t v . l ) c l l t c l l 1 r r r c l c a s i n g l v o p r r l a r - i rls u a v o l p r i r c c c l )l rl l l e . l r v o i t l i n ! t l t e t r s co l r t t i t s c u l i t t c - l I l r r r . rh a v c l i r l l o u c t l :l t a t l i t i o r t a g t i t r t r l l l f o n o u n s . l r h et c r t t c r tl t n t l u o t ) t c t ti t r c r t t i . t r c t ; t ti l c s t t t i . q t t I t , tt L l i t I I t v t , l I r el i r - r c t o . . . I ) u r i s l su l s o o b l e c l l t r l h e l e . s i r t c cc l c l r r l tt l r i s i s n t t l o t t ! c r r t / / / . / . n s l c i r (o l n t i q l t t( s c c - l ) . i l ; , , r . i l r i l r t rl.l t r t t l t r t t i l r ( i ( ( r t l l t t l , r l . | 5 c i t h c r i r r r p o s s i b l.e . . l i r l l o l r n i s t u k c s . - 5 i l h e r l r , r r :h , p c l c o l l c c l i o r t l o r r r i r . r . o r l r o l h . I ) u r i s t sr n u i r r l u i rttl t i t l c i l l i r r . . . [ ) o n o l u s e t l t c s L r h j t t t t c l i vic r i n r l i l e c l r , l c r u to l t l t r c l c rl o l l l o c h o i c c s .t t o t r l u cs ti o ns . t h f c c ( i l s h e r c ) .( i n r r l r r l r r i l t r t s k l t t t t (r As lirl n r lirrglislr: pelcot-tccliort. h n ll t 1 0 . A l l e r l r p r t p o s i t i o nl t t to b j c c l l ) r o r t ( ) t t t l I ( r N o n c . . . c r c : p c r l c c t l vl l l r i g l r t . i s r r c c t l c r( . l l t rt r . s ) . l crcl)l lo pur-ists lro * rorr{lv u 7 1 1 .s l ) c c l l l o r s : t l r c r - c v c r s cr r r i s l a k c ! l l r t t t i t i t t l l t i t t l t t l t o l i r - n o ( ) n ei u l u lh . . . l r ( / , ( r 7 r l .f 3 u t l l r o r ) o u r lu s i . l g c ( l l t e l c l i r l c n c c t l sa s i t t g u l u lv c r - b l totllrt is vclv cortlitsetl. l 7 e t l r r e l r l i r r r.t.s . t t l t r t t t t i t t r t s t t s t t t l l r l r . i f J / / r r l i i n t h c l ( ) 7 0 s :l r i u l i t i o t t i t r r i u t r l l i r r l n ( ) n c o u n lr t o t r t t b r r l t l t i s p l u r l r l t t s l t g ei s . r c t l t r i r c s t . n t ( u t . . . ( 1 i t t t h c 1 9 7 ( ) s . ( lcccpleblc. r . g l t i n t : l t g es een l l ( ) b c t h r t t t t i t t g . r I f i 1 o l r c t L r a l l cr r r r o L l t :t h i s b l c l r k sl r ,l r , / ( ( t i l : I ) t i r t l i | l i r i l : l t l l/ ; r { / 1 r 1 i . 11 i ; r 1 1 1 1t t l t l l l ; t l r l l I l ) l l l l l I l splil r i i t h l r p l L r r l r(l( ) L l n t ( ) r . r rb t t l / r . r ri s n . r r r ri n l i n i t i r c . b r r t i t i s p r r l L c t l r cf colllilloll. llcccl)lrtl)lc.l 0 / i , ( r g l l s sl o c k s i r t :t l c l i n i t c l l l I ( ) N o s o o n e i r r c ( ) n ( s c l o l p c r i l s . . . : r t l i s p r r l c ru s a t c . P I - t s c r i I l i v i s lc l t r t t t o l l s p r r r i s t s r l r ir r s l l n l! f i u l l n l l l l i c l l l h c a r 1 r ( r l ob c t t s c r l t s l r c o t t . j u r t r l i t t t t . t t r n c o r t l n t ) . t t ( ) n ( ti . : t t t t t . s c l. . . ) - h u l l r L r i l h a s b t e l r s o r t s e i ll i r n l t t t r l r r o l i o r l l l c c r t c o t i l i s l t r . : c e p l l t bhc t e . lc ) eafs. J 0 p l L r : :I ) r . l r i s t(s( ) t t o l l i k r 7 t / r r r s c t l u s l t l uI I ntinr: .... u letling: u tttisattarltcti i o r r j u r r c l i o r th L r t l r i r i : l t u : l t g e l l l t l i s . p a r t i c i [ ) l cA g l t i t te c ( ) l l l l l l ( ) l l . pltrirlllll llctel. :lltt.
    • KEY- Suggested answers 159Chapter2 A generalframework Ex12 I r e s t c t l I s a i d . 1 b e g l r t - 5t h o u g h t 6 s a i c lFlx 2 7 nccclecl ll rocle 9 tolcl l0 wavcdl ( f ) - l ( . i )- l ( i ) . s ( h )6 ( c ) 7 ( d ) f i ( g ) t ) ( b ) I I p c c h l l c c l l l r v a t c h c c ll 3 t h o u g h t l0(a) l - 1 p u t l 5 r o c L - l 6 u a s l 7 l c d I l t k ep t l 9 t h o L r g h tl 0 r e v e l l c d l l d a r - t c t lF}l (vclb + atl.j 2 clsting 11 pullerl l3 snrppccl lJ intcndcclI waserlraustctl ) 25.jlnrrnctl 26.jlrlcd 27 catapultccll , r r l r.,l l r r r l o st I l i r l l 0 ui r r : .r:t r -l irnnrctliatclv holttclv lll ucnt atrovc -5rtltttost Fl l-lFlx ;l v i:ltttl uatcirttl. snltl-r1-rctl:ti,qhctl vJ srrb jccl 3 obicct -l cotttplcttlcrl{ (r u , u v c t l . 1 r c d i t I l c t r. v c I l c t l . p u I l c d . lc5 objectol prcpositiott cotttlllctllcrtl7 conrplttncttl ll ctttttplctt.tctt9 llitrl ol l . j u r r r r r r c t l . . j u r r c tl lu l / r r 1 r c s t c t l . r t c c c l c t l . l tlurtctl. intcntlctl.cutltpttllcclNI) I0. I l. ll ltlvcrbills F] l.lF]5 ()(c) J l v i n g . 1o l l e r c r l J r r r i s l a i d 5 r c p a i t ll ( i l ) l ( c ) - l t i r t5 ( b ) 6 ( c ) 7 ( b ) f i ( b ) 6 iranicking 7 suirtg ll ultrrtgcrrtg l0(b) () d)ctl l0 tievclopctlF6 l.r l5 ivcs -l lltottottltsI rtotuts.1lrd.icct I R i o l r r t - : . 1 1 r Irt r : t r l l ( ) l l l i l l l l l c . 1: 1.5atlvcrbs(r prcPositiolts tlcteltttittcrs 7 I r t l r c l t t t t I r i t sc t t t t t e l r L l c l ( ) r l l l l,3con.jurtcltotts rlcloucnariitIt.l.r 7 . 1 A h r y h r r ss l c p l t l r r t l u g hl t p i l o l t l c l t l .I u l n t I g 1 1 1 11c n e t J u l t u t t r t l s 5 l t t t r - - l l o t t c n l u u t tl l t v c l o s l o t t t . . .(r lcarrr 7 obvitlttslv x tltttst (Jll() - 5 l h o t r s a r r t l s l r v c g o t t e o r t s lr i k e . . . h I0 ll icnrllr (r I)oslalchltrgcsllltve rtscttltgltttt. 7 A r n u t l t r l l t th a s s l t o l I i v c p c o p l e .Chapter3 Verbs and auxiliaries li An MIhus loLrgholl it tlcrrtltltrcltl t lroln a llluggOf. F} ll ( ) I ) & O p r o l i t sl r t v c l a l l e t t . . . I l i s t e r ) i r r r p J l i s t c r r b i r r ci t t l i r r l0 A llr-rv assuttk... h - l I i s t c l l s u l r . jJ l i s l c r r l o - i t t l i r t 5 l i s t c r t I I lle Iirgccsltlvc llctl . .. p t i . ( r t i u r ( l I l t t i i t t l i t t . : t l i t t r ; ll l h c l a s to l t l t c t c l t r g e e h l t v e l l o u t r s 7 gcl / r r - i t r l i t tf { w o r k b l t r c i t t l i t t . . t c l ltonlc. s u b j . l i n d s t r l - r 1) t c tt pres lO ktrow l l T h c W e s t C o u r t t r l l t l t sl t o r r t c. . . b : r r ci t r l i r r . c l g b r t r ci r l l i t r l : i A g u n v i c t i r t t h r t st t t t t l c r g o t t c. . . Flx 9 l 5 A f l h c n c p f es s r l r cg r o t t p h l t s I g u v c 2 s c t - l r v r l t p p c d - 1l c t l s u l l g. . . llrc - 5p o p u l a t e t l ( r p e r c h c t i 7 t l c s c c t l t l t t l I(r c o u p l el l ( l c r h i l s b r o a t l c l t s l . . . 8 tlisappcltrctl 9 tlropllctl lO rost I 7 r l e t t o r l t i t sh i t b l r c k . . . I I rtlulttlctl ll stootl I,,r l6 j f h c l c i s . . . I I l t t t t. . . - l [ ) o t l t r l . . . F] l() . l W e * i l l . . . 5 l t h i t s . . . ( r l h r r t l. . . sirrrplc astl. l. 1.7. 8. 9. 10.ll p r r o n l i r t i t c l r - t i c i p l c. 1 .) . 6 . I I p 7 h o r . i o L r l .c. l. f i I h a r c . . . I i t t t t . . . F ll l.r l7 ( : . i r t rto t t l t l t i l . irililr 1 ] l i l k ! ) s l. c l l l l l i . . 1 ! P t 1 l t 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ; . I [ ) r r t t l o t t ] I t i l . I i c o r t t l l r l s :r rr i 1 l l . r l f i i i . l ) f ( ) . i { i t . t l : . . i I ) i r . l . , o t t tL i i r i r t 1 . H : r t l , ) l : l i l l : i l l r r t l + r l.c:ritts. i ,trii.. r,1-! lt:i(l,1 l1i/l( - - l l r r r c I o u . )i h t r r c t l t . ( , l i : r : i i r . I i ,.trlClrf :, ILir... ii:rilf : i r : r , . c n 17. ! r n l h r . " . i t L t rlrr i l t , . i i l i
    • 160 KEY - SuggestedanswersInr not. 9 Dontyoul We do. l0 Will planned l4 had beentargetcd l5 wasyoul We wont. I I Would you?I laterfirund l6 is not knownwoulclnt. 1.2Haventyoul We have. Chapter4 The semanticsof theEx ltl verb phrase2 do you 3 cloesnt ;1ckrnt 5 Doeshe do6 docshc do 7 did he 8 diclhe do Ex 26t ) c l o e s n tl 0 d o n td o 1 l d i d n td o S t a t c5 . l l . I 3 . 1 . 1 ll dont H a b i t 2 . - 1 .6 . l 0llx 19 Instantlncous t), l l 3.Your orvrtar)swe but rtoticcI 13l4l511 rs. I Past I F t r l u r c7 . 8 . l 51 3 / n e e ra b a r ci n l i n i t i v t 2 1 6 l l ( l l l l ) 9 l l.x 27rrcctl /rr-irrfinitive [ : v c n t . 1 .. 1 . 6 . l J . I ] . 1 3 . 1 . 5 .1 9 . 1 0 .Flx 20 ll. 13.2.1.25l ( b ) l ( c ) : 1 ( c ) . s ( i6 ( a ) 7 ( g ) l t ( l ) ) I l a b i t 7 . 1 0 . l - 1 .1 7 .2 2t . ) ( . il)0 ( d ) State . 9. ll. llt 5 Inclircct spccch 2F l x2 l AttitutlcIrnightsecnr/hutl hccndoirrg/hirdrrt Hvpollrcsis 6. 26 1choscn,4lul workctloul/waslrorn/rlietl/was/clcc lo rnake/hatl itlcd i nhcritctl/r.i as/ l, 2tJnlrrratctlto scrapc/spent ploullring/ I lectl .l pick up/arcpickingup -1cal( spent canocin!t/( spcnt skiing/gar,c 5 l h l i v e / l r c t h r - i v i n g r c r r r p h a s i z c si s ( 7 ) ) shoun l{ al)pe 9 tlo nol irltlrck l0 ncsl ilrsr r o n l i r r i t e(:)P l a n / ( t oc a l r vo u t / r r r a k i r r g / t )rcce vetl/conrnranrling i I I ncst I I ureudapting I.1says/suy l - 1u r er t o wi t s k i r t gF} 22 F,r 29H c o r - r l c r c t l a ta l l p r i s o n l l i c c r s l r i c t l v th o s I urn lvutchin! -l is !.ivinLl-l is nrakingo b s c r v c . . i n s i s t c r h a tt h c yn o l l c t . . . . tl 5 kttoir (r tt[tkt 7 kttrru X iil(rr)iilill.-v i t a lt h l t l i s i t o r s c s c u r c h c r l . .c s s e n l i l r l h . 9 crt.joy l0 proruisc | | crtrls ll lirrishcst h a ll r l l s c c l i o n o l t h ep r i s o rb c s c a r c l t c t l . s t I I i r r i n l ( r r u l ) t i r t r i l t t r tt t t i r . i r t : . : I... rccorrrnrcntlc(l exlrii stall bc that l5 uhisk l6 stan(l l7 rrtakc lll looksl c c r u i t e r.l. . I() lirltl/anrclre lirlll, Iirltling l0 whiskllx 2-l Fh 30I i s b u i l t - 1a r ep u b l i c l y r l v et i s c t i- l b c a r I have bccn ovcruorking -l huven1bccninlirrrned-5is given 6 be llllv inlirrnrctl s l c ep i n g : l h a v c b c c n o v e r e a t i n g . 5 h i r v c7 be obllincrl li arc tlirectlyallccte(l 9 is put on 6 Havc you booketl 7 hus.juslp l l c c d | 0 a l c n o t i l i c c lI I h e s c n t I I ( b c ) fetun)e(l 8 llts bccn goirtg 9 ltitvct o l d l l b c i n s p r c t c t ll - 1a r ck c p t l 5 b c s o r r r e i i n r cts o u g h t l 0 h a V eb c c n halkructl I(r Iravehccnhcarcl I I havc sprnt l 2 huvc always rvantetlFlx 2-l l J h a v c b e c n t c a c h i n g 1 . 1h a v c h c a r r lI . . . a r c r a i s e tb y 1 1 1 ; .i1 c o n t l u c t c b y l s cl I 5 havc bccn sltving I6 havcnt savctl( c ) :: l . . . b c r c p r c s c n t e d i( c ) :5 i s n r a r l e b) l 7 h a v en 1 h a t l l l 3 h u v r :b c e n l 9 h a v eh1{tl) . l r - l sn l o v c ( l l 0 h a v c r n u c l c tF} 25 F} 3lI sat/uus sitting 3 arebclievctl I hasonly rcccntlvslartcd 3 is nraking-1approachecl ran 6 uas pitrkccl,4rtcl -5 - 1e r r . j o l s / i s n . j o y i n g - 5h a s a l r v a y s l i r u n d ehccnpurked 7 shot u ran 9 llccl l0 was 6 likcs 7 belongs 8 borrtiws 9 does noth i t l l i s s a i d l 2 c o r d o n c cllJ w a s* e l l I r x r k u p l 0 c l o c s n tk n o u l I trics
    • KEY-Suggested answers 161I 2 s a i s I 3 i s g e t t i n g 1 4 l i k e s I - 5o f l e r s .1 Scotts party had only eot 2,000 f-eetl6 tlcclares l7 writes l8 tind/hiive tbund ruhovc .. u hcn thc Noru egi:rns .l9 are lbrever rlaking 20 has tbuncl r e a c h e dt h e P o l e .2 l h a s a l r e a c l yw r i t t c n 2 2 ( h a s ) r c c c i v c d 5 Scott did n()t know tlrat Amundscn23 have cvcr done 2:l have always h a c lh e a t e n. . . fhcw a n l e c l 2 - 5s a y s 2 6 h a s j u s t b e c n i n v i t e c l 6 ... Scottbegan... and scnl ...27 fccls 2u nrcds 29 is attending other lssault parly hatl bccn sentJ0 mcans 3l sai"s 32 anr looking firrwitrd back... 7 S c o t t r t a c h e dt h e [ o l e . . . t o d i s c o v e rFlx 12 A r r r u r r t l s c n a d r a i s c c ll h c N o r w e g i a r r h2 u,nrte 3 havc written 11 ave beconte h l l a . u. . .5 puhlishecl 6 havc ncvcr bccrt 7 havc l l T h e y h a c lc o v e r c t l . . . b u t t h c yh c c r rl r u n s l a t c c l l l h a v e a c t u a l l y i n c r e a s e t l lrrced...9 diecl l0 fcll I I rcvivctl l2 were nrade t) ... thcy lirundthat ... oil harllcaLecllJ huvc rnorc rcccntly bten lirllowccl l 0 . . . O a t c sd i c c l .E v u n s h a t l t l i c d l i r u rl4 bror.rght/havc rought l-5honoured b w ec k s ea r l i c r .l ( r r . v a s l 7 h u s b r o k en l l l h i r s l r c c n I I I h c y r v er c d e l c u t e t l b c l i r r - et h e y h i r drrarncd lt) have cn.joyed l0 has cvcr rttirrlrgcrl...becn ll ltts bccotttr: I I S c o t t . . . l t a t l b c c n t l c u c l. . . l n ( ) n t l l sFl -l-l w l t c r tl l t c y w e r e t l i s c o v c r c t l . I J u l i u s ( - u c s a rr v i l sp u r s u i n g . . . w l t c r t l -15 h c l r r s tn l c t . . . I a r c g o i n g . l w i l l l o v c - 1l r r c v o u l c a v i r r g I W h c n J L r l i u sC i t c s a r l ) ) c t ( l c o l ) a t n i . h c i : r r r l l r i r r r : t r u i l l h r 7 i l r ( . - o i n ! lell... 8 W o n t ) , o r -s c t t ) w i l l c c r t a i r r l y b c r . j I ) h i l r p I I . . . w u s u s s u s s i n u ( crt" h i l ch e l I0 lrc visitins I I will gct II erc 1,,oLr w u s p l a n n i n g. . . s l l l i n g l - l a r c o r t l t , h a v i r r gl J w i l l . l M a r c o P o k r b eg a n t o w r i l c . . . r , r " h i l e ults a c t u u l l v t a v l 5 r v i l lc o n t s l(rqorrt hc t l o i t t gl i n r c . . . l 7 a r c h u v i n g l l l w i i l . j u s lr c l a x 5 ( o l u r n b u s r v i t sl o o k i t t g l i r t A s i a . w h c n h c r l i s c t i v c r c t. . . l Fl -l(r ( r W h e r r h c r c l u r n c c lt o S p l i n . h c Ill be I lrc vou going to takc ... Irrr r - c c c i v e t.l. . g o i r r gt o l r y 3 l l l l c r r t l . 1 I l l p h o n c 7 ( a p t a i n C o o k w a s r n a k i r r g. . . w h c t t h e 5 l r r r g o i r r gt o t r y 6 * i l l y o L rc l o 7 I n t ll w a s k i l l e t l. . . s o i n r t o t a k e l JW e kccp () Will vou 8 Whcrt(ook tlicd.his crcw took ... F} 17 9 . . . M l n r l u , u ss i l t i n g . . . w h c n l ( l ) - l ( c ) . 1 ( u 5 ( c ) 6 ( i r )7 ( a ) l t ( b ) t ) ( a ) ) ( l r l r l o t l c C o r t l a yr u s h c t l i n a n d k i l l e d l0(a) I l(c) ll(c) I3(u)l.l(b)l5(c) hinr. l 6 ( r ) l 7 ( r ) 1 , 3 ( a l)9 ( a ) l ( X c )l 0 W h c n s h c u s s a s s i r l t t c t r i r t t .s h c w i r s ll i l r r c s t c ( l. . . Flx ltlI I t)r I-rvingstone ls travclling... w Ilast7. I I. I 7 l)rcscnt .i. 5. 13. 0. I I . l. I r v h e n S t a n l c y l i r u n c lh i n t . 1 . 11 6 .1 9 .l l . l f F u t u r c . 3 . 6 . 9 .1 3 . . 1il Whcn Stanlcylirundhinr hc srid ... l-5 frutr.rrc the past lE. 20 inF]x l"l F,x19 I S c o t t h a t l r c a c h e c lM e l b o u r t r c v n h c n c h Abilitll0 fccrtvc(l ... Pcrnrission 1.1 f W h c n S c o t l s c t u p . . . A r n u n s d c nh a c l P o s s i b i l i t l ." 7 . l - 5 r n o t y e t r e a c h e d. . . O b l i g e t i o n / n cs s i t y2 . 3 , - 1 . . 6 . l l . l 3 ce 5 3 S c o t t s p a r t y : i e to u t . . . A m u u s c l e n s Logicalnecessitv I I Partl had alreadYlett l-entative inference ll 9.
    • 162 KEY - Suggested answersEr 40 9 shouldnthaveclonc/oughtnt have to2 ( c ) 3 ( b ) , 1 ( a )5 ( b ) 6 ( b ) 7 ( a ) 8 ( c ) 9 ( c ) done l0 must havecaughtthe Maryl0(c) l1(b) l2(a)l-3(a)4(b) l5(a) l Ccleste, ropc musthavc/willhave thel 6 t b ) l 7 ( c ) l 8 ( c ) i 9 ( c ) 2 0 ( b )2 l ( b ) brokenand cveryonenrustl-rave/will havc22(b) tlrowr.rcdFi,x 4l Chapter5 Nouns and 2 We coulcl haveboughtticketslirr determiners Friday. 3 We thoughlyou might havcmacle ... FX;16 .1 Wc coulclnt havcconreon Friday. I onc achicvernent/lailurc/succcss ,5 Wc shoulclrthavc/oughtnt havc to 2 cmployrnent/work 3 advertising/ l c l ii t . . . publicity/nrarketing :1a bar-gain/saving/ (r Wc slroulcl huvebookctl/ought havc to r c r l u c t i o n - 5a l i r r t u n c / a n i n c o r n c 6 a n e w h o o k c d. . . suil 7 Moclern utntrtunitiot.t/ccluipnrent/ 7 Motlrermay/could havciLrrivccl by wcaponry is ... ll l pass/pernit 9 a gtxrtl r tllcn expcricncc/tinre l0 one sccrrc/vicw f,iSheclnt havc/coulclnt havc F} .17 tclephonetl ycslcr(lay .. 2 g l a s s / ag l a s s 3 a n c x p c r i e : n c c / 9 W c w i l l / s h a lh a v ch e a r t . . . l l c x p c r i c n c c t l a p l e a s u r e p l c a s u r c - 5i t /l 0 . . . s h ew i l l h a v c / r n u s ta v cl i r r g o l t c l t h painting/painting 6 a worry/worry 7 a n o i s c / r r o i s c l l B u s i n e s s / ab u s i n c s s c ) aI I S h cc a n th a v c / w o t t h a v c / w o t t l t l t t t t vcry special clrccsc/chcesc l 0 clinner/t haveli)rgottcn. t l i n n c r I I a v c r y a c t i v cl i l c / l i l c l l a nI 2 n c c c l n h a v ca p o l o g i z c t l . . . t icc/iccFlx 42 F}.lliI h i r v i n go t J dclail/explunation 3 behuviour/cotrcluct3 t l i t l n tl t i t v e o p l a y l i r o t h a l l t . 1t l u r n a g e / h a r - n r i r n p o r l u n c e / v a l u e / 5,l were allowetlto worth 6 slonns/wcather 7 blg/suitcasc5 to bc rblc to ll cornputcr/nraclrinc 9 lirn/.joy6 being ablc to play garttcs well I0 couralc/pitticnce7 huvcnttrccrt uhlc lo continr-rc playing lcr)nls Flx .19ll hlve to I rro 3 no ,1 Any -5 sorttc (r sotnc 7 sorne ll any 9 any l0 noFl,x,13 ll sornething l2 nol ( b ) 2 ( t l )3 ( b ) , 1 ( a ) ( c ) 6 ( c ) 7 ( c ) 8 ( c ) 5 Flx 50Er 44 lhcrc I lrc scveral rnore corlplainlsI was sightcd 2 dincd/hrid dinecl3 set about lhis onc lnaltcr alone.saillradsct sail ;1realizcd 5 was sailing 3 Both thcsc two surgical drcssings6 wonclercd wcrtt l{ was t had all 7 h a v c t o b c c h a n g c d c v c r y s e c o n c ld a y .vanishccll0 hacl bccn I I was hclcllater/ - 1 l h e y n e e d e r lt h r c c t i m c s t h a t a r r x ) u n twas latcrhclcl I 2 hasncvcr beensolved ollirod lirr all thosc people.Ex,l5 5 Takc half a tablet every lbur hours.I cant have 2 woulclhavcbeert firund 6 Thosc lirst lew days wele worse thitn3 musthavegot drunketc .1ntairhave/ all the rest.rnighthave/could etc haveboarclcd 7 I t s c l i s g r a c e l ub e c a u s ey o u n o w g e t l5 would theyhavcdonethat 6 cant havc half a packet at double the pricc.been/cannot havcbccn 7 nrusthave l l B o t h M a r y s l i t s t t w o l r u s b a n d sw c r cexplodedll nravhavedecidcd trvice hcr agc-.
    • KEY - Suggestedanswers 163 9 She bought anotherten new dresses 8 criteria the other day. Ex 58 dozenlittlel0 You could get several 2 Thesebelongings were 3 This ... onesfor the sameprice as one big farnily need/Thisfamily needs 4 these one. binoculars they arent ... 5 The butEx 5l p o l i c e a v e. . . 6 W h a t w a st h en e w s. . . hI F e w 2 a f e w 3 l i t t l ez l a l i t t l e 5 A f e w 7 Therc are a couple of peoplewho want6 A l i u l e T l i t t l e8 f e w . . . 8 T h e P M s o l h c e a s / h a v. . . 9 T h e h e outskirts... are l0 A majorityof theEx 52 strikers zlnt .. ll Our MPsntajority w .I the2the 3a 4a 5thc 6A 7a l{the w a s . . . l 2 W h y a r ct h e r e e r n a n r.s . r .9 a l 0 t h e l l t h e 1 2 a n 1 3 t h e1 4 a l3 The publichas ... in its narne/Thel - 5t h e l 6 a l 7 T h c l U t h e l 9 t h c p u b l i ch a v c. . . i n t h e i rn a m e l 4 T h e20 the audience was/wcrcEx 53 Ex 59 I 2-3Thc4The5 6theTThe I . . . r n y p a r c n t sin s i s l c n co n t a k i n gt h e cl l t h e 9 t h c I 0 t h c I I t h e 1 2t h c 1 3a d o g . . . 2 M y u n c l e s c l u c a t i o r r ., 3 M y c . 14 l5A l6- l7thc l8the l9A r r u t t l ts t i t t g . . . - l . . . l J i l l s r t t l i r s i o t l l r r20 the 21 22 thc 2l - 2.1the 25 the -5Bills loyalty 6 my grandmothers26 27 ,t 28 - 29 thc 30 a 3l the spectirclcs My grandlitthers 7 atlvisers3 2 t h e3 3 - 3 ; 1 3 5 - 3 6 a 3 7 - 3 8 t h c 13 nrothers My clisappointtnenl39_ 40_ 4l^ l1an.13r[c/_4,1hc r45 a 46 rhe 47 a 4l{ thc/ 4c)thc/ Ex 6050 thc 2 St PaulsCathedral in thc City. is 3 Thc Houscs oJParliamcnt at arellx 54 Wcstrlrinster.2 afterbreaklast3 to school zl on lixrl Ihe 4 TravcllcrsClub is in Pall Mall. 5 by car/by bus/bytrain 6 in thc -5Poslnrcns Parkis nearlhe Gcncralnrorning/in alicrnoon/in evcning/ thc the PostOffice.at night 7 hontc U at night,by day/ 6 Cleopatras Nceclle on thc isduringthc day 9 by air l0 on thc plane Embanktnen{. I I an infeclious diseitse suchits - 7 Thc RoyalAcaclcmy Arts is in of -mcaslcs, mumps()r whoopingcouglr. Piccadilly. l 2 i n h o s p i t a ll 3 o n h o l i d a y l 4 i n ( t h e ) u Madanrc Tussauds nearBaker isspring,(the)sunlmer, (thc) autumnor Street station.(rhe)winter/ 9 The Museurn Childhoodis in ofEx 55 Bethnal Grccn.t l r ci s n e c t l c i n 3 , 4 , 6 , 9 . l l . 1 6 .1 7 , 2 0 , d l0 Thc Tower of Ltxrdon is at Tower2 1 ,2 2 , 2 1 , 2 5 ,2 6 . 2 8 . 2 9 ,3 3 . 3 4 , 3 5 , 3 6 , Hill.38, 39, 40, 41, .13. 4tJ. ,15, 49. Zero in all I I NelsonsClolumn in Trafalgar isotherplaccs. Square. l2 TraitorsGatc is at the Tower ofllx 56 London. I snowmen2 bookshelves scarves 3 ...handkerchief.s plaice -5dozen 6 stories 4 Chapter6 Pronouns... spacecraft hundred [i pound(s) 7Ex 57 Ex 6l and2 encyclopaedias inclexes 3 I o u r s e l v e.s . t h c m s e l v e.s . t h e m . .appendices.1crises 5 memoranda/ 2 t h e m. . . t h e m. . . t h e m s e l v e 3 h c r s c l f smemorandums6 prospectuses stimuli 7 . . . i t 4 r n e . . . y o u r s e l f5 o u r s e l v e .s. .
    • 164 KEY - Suggestedanswerso u r s e l v e.s . u s 6 h i m s e l f. . . h i m . . . h i m . Ex 667 t h e r n s c l v e s. r n y s e l f8 y o u . . . y o u . . . .. I This 2 this 3 thosc,1thisandthatrnyself .. yourslf . e 5 that 6 those 7 these lJThis 9 that l()Thcsc I I thir ll thoscEx 62 Flx 67I . . . c r y i n go v c r s p i l tm i l l : 2 - 3 t o I sornething nothing 3 someonc/ 2know what 1odo .1- 5 to keepour sorncbocly4 Everyonc/cverybodyoptionsopen 6 - 7 - ltif Im late 5 e-vcryonc/cverybodySomcthing 69 w h e ny o u t a l k l i k c t h a t l 0 h a v i n g 7 arryor.tcs/anybodys one/Nobocly ll Nonothingto cio I I to tell you whal to do 9 sornethingl0 anyone/anyboclyl2 I I anythirrg l2 No onc/NobodyF} 6l l3 everytlring l.l nothing s2(b) there nothinlllirr it 3(a)(to havc) F} 6lt had it l(ci)haveit brxh ways 5(e) livc I a l l 2 H a l l 3 h a l f 4 a l l - 5H a l f 6 h a l l it up 6(h) hirveit in firr (sonreonc) 7(l) 7 N e i t h e rl { B o t h 9 N c i t h c r l 0 ei t h e r go il alonc ll(g) roughit I I b o t l r l 2 b o t h I 3 N c i t h c r 1 " 1l o t h l l-5cachF]x 64 I All thoselatenightswerethe troublc. F} 69 . l I r r r l l i n l i l ( ) u r o l r i st r y i r r gg : r i r r . u rr 2 It 3 thcir ,1thcnr 5 it 6 onc 7 wlrich .1 Irn alraid that lrc is lazr. l l w c 9 T h c I 0 t h i s / t h c I I a n 1 2t h c i r 5 Wc haveto lacc the luct thal hc is nol | 3 their/the l -1thcy I 5 the I (r a gollrg.. . 1 7w h a t l u w h i c h l t ) u s 2 0 t t s 2 l I t (r llr :rppelrrs r(]scillk) lr(lvi(!" ll thcir lJ wc/onc14 thcir 25 lt 7 W h a t r c a l l ya r r n o y r n c i s a l l h i s t a l k s 26 thcy 27 thcnr 2ll thc 29 this/the ol povcrly. -10hcir t lJ I doubt illwhetherhell lsk lirr a krart. 9 Inr not kcenor.r iclcrollcrrding thc Chapter 7 Adjectives and hirn lnorrcy. adverbsl 0 I f y o u h a d n th c l p c c l . c w o u l cb e i n a r l F} 70 worscIncss. I irshanrcd allaid 3 arroccasional 2 evcrrt ,1inncrstre ngth -5iur oulrloorparlyF} 65 6 an only chilcl 7 glacl fi the nrainworrv I Who did thcy get irrside help liorll 9 contenl l0 thc maxinrunr spcccl 3 What wcrc they lookingfirrl I I rcady | 2 your clclcrbrother :1 What clucshavcwc got so lar? Flx7l 5 What hclp arc wc likely to get liorn the stall.) 2 fiightening 3 tlisappointed annoycd 4 6 Which thiel/Whichof thc thievcslclt 5 horing 6 is rcally irrtcrcstecl his.facket behincll 7 surprisingll worrying 9 puzzling 7 Whosckcy did thcy r.rscl l0 arc exhausted t3Who tlid thisjackct bclongto l/Whosc h,x72 jackct is tlrisl/Whose this.jacketl is I our latc chairnran3 thc peoplcprcscnl t) Which ckror theyentcrbyl clid 4 ccrtainpeople -5peoplcabsent liorn thcl0 someonc who/that lracl meeling 6 thc only properthing 7 thcI I sonreonc uhor.n tn prescnt addresses is conscious 9 his li oll 2 anyonewhose subscriptiolr late l0 hcr latehusband wasI 3 everyone who/that has had alwayspaid I I a conscious eflirrt1.1 evcryone wltont to I 2 all the peopleconcernecl/involvedl-5anythingwhichlthat coulcl l3 is certainthat l1 a long and involvedl6 someone whose business
    • KEY - Suggestedanswers 165Ex 73 Ex 7tt2 glad of the opportunity 3 awareof the I the highest 2 in the 3 higher 4 highdiflicultics 4 different tiom all nty 5 the highest 6 the highest 7 higher ofpreviousjobs5 worriedaboutany aspect than ll as high as 9 the highest l0 asol thc wrrrk h :uhjectto negtrlilttiott high as I I higherthan I 2 the highcstof7 good at coping 8 gratetultirr yourremarks borecl 9 with rny last.job Chapter8 The semanticsand10 answcrable the board 1o grammar of adverbialsl-,x71 Flx 792 an impossible cantera a bcginncr titr . s i r t , q lu d t e r b s . c v c r y w l r e r e . l h e r e . c3 a sirnilarInodclto thc lastone ;1an a r o u n t l , s o r n e h o w , s u d c l c n l y .o v e r , t ( x ) .eitsycilnrera(o usc -5any cliflercnt nrakes now, out. just. always. vcrylrorn thcsc 6 a rnorcstlitablc canrera ior nourtpltrust.t. all tlre tintc. one wcck. thea child 7 a big enoughbag to carrysparc ncxt wceKfilnr in tl any cheapcrbagsthanthese prcpttsitiortul ltltrusts: on the stairs.ilt9 as big an albutnas possible l0 a hard t h e r r x r r n .w i t h h i s t o c . l o r t c n y e a r - scustonlcr pleit!;e to l c r l r 1 t , rr l o r r , r t .w h e n c v c r p o s s i b l c sllx 75 rrrt n . frt i I t r l r r r r . s c . c a r i n g h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i h I rourrtl walks rouncl circlcs in fittittt luust. ifl coultl be bothcrcd 2 also alsowitlks in straight lincs Fl,x ttO 3 vcry very long I 2 rlont play again until Thursdrty.so I ;1 somctirncs he rcarrangcs the c l n r e l a x a r t r lp r a c t i s c a b i t . larrdscapc photographs rcsull and the J said thc dctcntlint sttookcr chatnpiotr -5hallway hallwrtyttp l a t c r a t S l r c l f i el d s C r u c i b l c I h e a t r c . 6 out - trtakcottt w h c r c t h c c h a n r p i o n s h i p sa r c b e i n g 7 o n c e o n c cc l c s c r i h c t l. . . w a l k . . . a s a hcld. a... sculplurc ,1This nriry bc thc last tirnc arr IAAF tl quitc- quitc thc wortl c o n r p c t i t i o n i s s t a g e ( li n L o n d o n t i r r t h i g h l y- h i g h l yt a l e t c ( l n sonlc ycars. l0 rathcr- rathcrl.iokcr 5 According to her coach, Rosit Mtltlts I I f a i r l y l a i r l yq u i c k l y n t o s l i t t t I r e s : i v c p t r l o r t t t : t t t t cr r l t si t ) l t l J q u i c k l l q t r i tk l y c r e t t i r l !! r c : r l i rrrinorroatl race last sumlncr. circlcsand othersltaltes thc walls on 6 S h c r : r r t l 0 k r n a t B o u l c l c r .C o l o r a c l t r anclfltxrrsttf art galleries only two tlays ... ll well wcll over 7 F I L r l ls a w W o l v e s s k i p p c r R o r t l4 technically technicallyclillicult llincinrarchclear tltc ball fionr near l 5 t l t n t r r- l t l n t o : l: l n y r ) n ( t thc Iine in thc closingsecortds .. . - l6 prcviously prcviously clone this ancl l 3 N o t t i n g h a r n F o r c s l b e a t C l r e l s t : a7 - 0 a t callecl art it City Ground ycstcrd:ty - I 7 togethcr galhertogcthcr 9 G o l l c r F r c dC o u p l e s o l t h e L J S A l c d Itl too loo rlucli lhc fielclin thc Tournois Perrier dcIix 76 P a r i s a t l a B o u l i e i n P : r r i st o d a y .2 rightly 3 wrongly 4 harcl5.iLrst Ihc l0 trlented young Yugoslav tennis6 First/Firstly7 Ncarly tl hardly 9 latc player hit 22 aceson clay to beall0 high I I ncar l2 highly l3 LastlY Becker at the Flench Open last year.l4 right I I B.iorn Borg won the WimbleclonEx77 tennis champion ships five timesI hard 2 last -l lirst 4 in a cowardlyway betwcen 1976 and l9lt0.5 early 6 late 7 high liin a leisurelyway l2 ... he returnedto tennis in thc Monte9 ncar l0jusllY Carlo Open on 23 April 1991.
    • 166 KEY - SuggestedanswersEx 8l contrary 9 thus l0 Anyhow I I So l(a) I badly needyour help.(b) They l2 by contrast 13 In otherwords organizedthe meetingbadly. 14 though l5 In fnct 16 On the other 2 ( a ) I d o n t e v e nt r y . . . ( b ) E v e nI d o n t hand l7 First l8 Thus l9 Secondly try ... 20 Similarly 3 ( a ) I j u s t s a ta n dw a i t e d. . . ( b ) . . . f b r Ex 84 just ten minutes. I havestill not studied z l ( a )K i n d l y e x p l a i n. . . ( b ) . . . i f y o u 2 is merclyone of those speak me kindly. to 3 entirelyundcrstandable - 5 ( a ) h a v eo n l y c o m e. . . . ( b ) I t h i n k I 4 not suggested a moment/notlbr a for only you can hclp. momentsuggested 6(a) Possibly guidetold us/The the 5 considering evitlence the with great g u i d ep o s s i b l yo l d u s .( b ) . . . w e t care c o u l dn o t p o s s i b l y c t . . . g 6/Tsurely too much to hope nol 7(a) I reallyenjoyedit. (b) I enjoyedit fl reasonably open nrinds really. 9 Aftcr all. thereare .../There are,alicr t t ( a ) . . . s i m p l yt r y t o c x p l a i n. . . ( h ) t r y a l l ./ . . . i n t h c w o r l d ,a ft c r a l l t o e x p l l i ns i m p l y. . . l0 which wereonce 9 ( a ) I s t i l ld o n th a v c . . .( b ) I d o n ts t i l l I I vcry dubiousindecd h a v e. . . l 2 f i r s th i tI 0 ( l ) h c k x r k e cvl e r y r n u c hl i k e . . . ( b ) I l 3 t h c w o r l d sp r e s s n 1 9 3 3 i haventthoughtaboutit very lttuch l:1 a strangc animalin this rcmotelake alall ... l-5 hacl circulated locally l6 unfirrtunatcly turnedoutEx 82 l7 ttl trackNcssicdown 2 ... lirr sonrcpcopleto talk frankly. .. . It3/19within tirur dayshc and his photo- . l F r a r r k l ) .r k r t t k n , r u. . . J l grapher lirunrllixrtprints thc shorc on 4 . . . t h a tt r u t h f u l lty c s c r i b e . . . l d 2(l2l Hc cvcn gavca talk aboutit on the 5 . . . a n dt r u t h f u l l y ,d i d n t w a n th i t n I BBC any nlore. 22 But, satlly.the tbotprint/But the 6 Ilorrestly, donl rnind/l honcstly I lirotprinthad,sadly,becnmade clontmind. 23 over the yearsnurnerous sightings/ 7 Dcalingwith leclings honestly ... nunlerous sightings havc becn ll ... sinccit hasbeengenerally rcportcdovcr the ycars a c c e p t e. . . d 24 lallegedly ofthc anirnals) 9 The poor havegcnerally bccn in t5 protluced cvidcnce in l a v o u r. . . ?6 clescendecl thc lakc intol0 ... beforcit was showngenerally. 27 a rniniature with echo-sounding subI I ... we do, generally speaking, dreant equipmcnt/searched with echo- in colour. sounding equipment.l l L i t c r l l l l u l l I h a t lt o d o . . . 2ll shown in thc House of Parliamentto/sl 3 . . . w c l i t e r a l l y i d n th a v e. . . d shownto MPs, scientists andl4 ... literally xplode. e journalists the Houscsin ofI 5 ... literallydanced. Parliarnentl6 He personally wantsto secyou. 29130 largcaninrals undoubtedlyl7 I didnt know her personally. existedirr the lakel8 Personally, think .../l personally I 3 I stron-qly clisagreed t h i n k. . . 3 2 p u b l i s h e dn l 9 9 l illx 83 33 painstakingly examines2 for example 3 As a rcsult ,1Further 3zl is that, sadly,she doesnot anclcannot-5then 6 Hence 7 However 8 on the exlst
    • KEY - Suggested answers 167 andChapter9 PrePositions 7 I didnt breakit tln Purpose.prepositional 8 What are you doing at Present l Phrases 9 lm not doing anythingin particularEx85 t h i se v c n t n g . I inlcrestedirr ... What is Andrew l0 Ill bewithyou in lt mrnute. i n t c r c s t e di n l I I No way. lt is just out of thc (luestiotl. 2 W h a t i s A n d r e w g o o c la t l l 2 A l i c r a l l . h e sv e r Yo l c ln o w . 3 What is Andrew kecn on / l3 Evcrythingis in order. .1 What cloes Atrdrew worry about/ l1 By thc wry. htvc you seenAnclrcw 5 What clid Arrdrcw hitve to contelld latclyl r.rithl l-5 Il you go on trying.you11 in rnanagc 6 What is Andrcw sullcring lrorrl? thc cncl. 7 What is AtrclrewhoPing firr/ Fl,x90 tl What is Anclrew lirnd ofl l ( l )o u t o f 2 ( k ) o v c r 3 ( i ) i n / a t 4 ( r r ) n i o f o 9 Whnt tiocs Alttlrcw tltrjcct tol 5 ( h ) w i t h o u t 6 ( a )i n 7 ( c ) l i k c 8 ( l ) i r rl 0 W h a t c l o e sA n c l r e w b e l i e v c i n l t l l g ; o l l 0 ( i ) l i r r I l ( c ) w i t h l 2 ( b )i t lI I W h a t t l o c s A n d r c w c l c p e n co n l l I 3 ( n r )o l l ; l ( c l ) t al 2 W h a t c l o c sA t l c l r c w l o l l g l i l r l Flx 9lFlx lt6 I orr 3 to ,1agairtst5 to 6 li)r 7 lo ll f<lrI C o n l r i t r y t o 3 b c c a u s co 1 1 e x c e p t l i r r 9 a t l 0 w i t h / t i r r I I l i r r l 2 o n l - Jw i t h5 As lirr 6 apart lrtltn 7 instcatl ol 1 , 1 n l 5 o r t l 6 o l 1 7w i t h l l J u i t h / o1 lP r i o r t o 9 o u t o l l 0 a l o n g w i t h about lt) lirr 20 to f I llorn 12 olI I l h a r r k st o l 2 i r r c s p c c t i v c o l Ex 92Fl,x tl7 :l ill I ... thcrchavcbee tro rcpot-ts tltc tt in2 With rclerencc to J tltt accotllltol { r l l i r i rrll l c ( l i :o l l h e l r , r w i t l l l ( l l i ( r t l. . la t l c l i t i o nt o 5 i r t c x c h a t r g e l i r r ( r l i r r t l t c f . . . r . r a s l c s c r i b c cb y L a n r b e t h f ) a l l c e c lsakc of 7 in spitc ol 13tr cotlrpartsolt i as a rttisurttlerstantling r la clillcrcllt owith 9 in touch with l0 by llrcatts l o r n c a n i n g l. . . w a s t l c s c r i b c t l s a a II by way ol 12on bchall ol r n i s t r n t l c r s t a t t c l i t ro t l t h c p a r t t l l gFlxlttt LartrbcthPitlitcc.I ott 2 across/ltrtluntl/ol lirni 1 lront/ -l - l T h c t h i r c l I t r a t th r s . o t r t l r e a t l v i c c o l l t i sout of 5 atiby (r at 7 otr lJ lo 9 in lawycr. rtot ltlr(le hinrsclfavailable .l0 with l l on/about l2 througlr ,l IIe was lirrcetl. ot.t Morrtlay itttcrttotitr.l 3 d u r i n g 1 , 1l o r n 1 . 5o l ( r b y l 7 l o r l t to atlatrclot... ll l l o l l t ) w i t h ( ) u t2 0 a t 2 l i n 2 f o r r 5 D e t c c t i v c sa r r c s t c ( t h c g i r l s l a t h e r l23 in 21 likc 2-5 alier (ArlE lirr) aficr spending lwo tlays rvatchingthc26 frorn 17 ln lll ol 29 bY 30 lirr llal hc Irad rcnted.J I betwecn32 in l3 a1 31orl 6 B c n t l y o u r l c g s w l r c np i c k i n g u p h e a v y35 outsicle By 37 about 313 39 as 36 lbr wcights like sroccrics or chilclren.:10to :ll in 42 at :13in ,1zl 15with ol,16under 47 with lll off 49 since -50exccpt Chapter10 The simPle Ex lt9 sentence I I only know thernbY sight. 2 He neverarrives title. on Ex 9l 3 But for oncche did. 2 SV 3 SVOO 4 SVO 5 SVOA . 1 . . . s e e m u i t eo u t o f h a n d . q 6 SVOO 7 SVC] It SVA 9 SVO 5 W h a t I w a r r t b o v e a lils . . . a 1 0S V O A I I S V 1 2S V O C 1 3S V A h . . . 1o u l t r cr i g . l tu p l , r u p t i t t l . t 1 4S V A 1 5S V O C
    • 168 KEY - Suggested answers Ex 9il Ex 99 I ... money to that dreadful man. 2 was 3 is ;l was 5 were 6 was 2 . . . b e g g i n g l e t t e r st o p c o p l e . 7 are lJ is 9 r.rasl0 were I I have 3 . . . a p r o p c r l e t t e rt o y o u . l2 sccms l3 is l;l watch l-5reitches .1 ... a.iobfbr hirl. 1 6h a s 1 7 i s l l i a r e 1 9i s 2 0 i s 2 l i s 5 ... work tbr hinr. 22 protest 6 ... that loan to Tom. Ex l(X) 7 ... a tablelirr irs. 2 thcy 3 use ,l has -5is 6 thcrn 7 cosrs fl ... a drink lbr you. t, ... a lnenu [o us- lJcosts 9 ilnswcrs I0 was/were | | is/ gocs lf wirs/wcrer I0 ... a table bv thc winckrw firr nrc. I I . . . t h c s a l tt o r l e . lix l0l l 2 . . . l s p c c i a lp u d c l i n gl i r r u s . 2 arc thcy/ 3 cloyoul 4 shouldntthcyl 5 c a r r o u l 6 i s n ti t l 7 h a v e n t h e r c l yF} 95 l l w o n t i t l 9 i s i t l l 0 h a v c r r w c ? c k r n t t /I Woultltltcr:rllounr(ctlr tint(t() pay/3 B u t t h e y r e l u s c d l r r et h i s r c a s o n a h l c llx 102 rcqucsl, I Ycs thcy wcrc. I Ycs it hls. -l No wc. 1 s a y i n g I t l c a u s c t l t l r er n a l o t o f l r o u b l c c a n 1 .. 1N o t l t c vw o u k i r r 1-.5N o t h c y5 . . . t h ey t l p r o r n i s el r r r ea t l i s c o u n l . t h a v e n t .6 Y c s i t i s . 7 Y e s i t d i d . I N o i r( r . . . o n c h a r g i n gr ) l c l l l c l i l l l p r i c i , r . w a s n t .9 N 0 i t t k r c s r r tl.0 Y e si t w i l l7 I cnvy thcrnthcir scll conlitlcncc. Fl l0lfl llut it cost nrc a lot ol nl()ncv. I Not long irgoI llcw to lrsypt. I No lottgcrtlo pcoPlcgo by scaF 96 rtowlrdavs. I I lclt rcllly Iirolislr. . l N o t s i r r c c w c n t t o M c x i c oh a v eI I I ll sounticrcxccllcnt. l trccnso inrltrcsscrl. - 1 . . . p n r v c t l p a r - t i c u l a r ls u c c c s s l l l . y .1 Nolvhe will you lincla rnore rc l . . . l o o k e c ls c n s i b l c . l u r t t a z i n q i l d i r r gh u nl h a l p y r a n r i t l . bu t -5... crtdup rich- - 5N o t l i r r t l r cl i r s tt i r u e I l o s tr n y w e l l c t . . 6 . . - b c c o n r cl l r o r o u t h l y b o r i n u . 6 I - i t t l cd o y o u r c i r l i z ch c t r o u b l e o u t v 7 . . . s c c n r su t t e r l y r u a ( lt ( ) n r c . call cilusc... ll ... is.just cl{ish. s 7 S e l t l o n rh i r v c I h e a r t ls u c h . . . 9 . . . r c r r r i r i r r clrl l i e n t l l v . li Rarcly rlo vou rliscovcr lhc wholcl0 ... turncdout nicc l-{uirr. truth... 9 Nol oncerlitlthe tuidc cornplain.lir 97 l 0 H a r - d l ye v c r t k r y o u l i n ( l s u c h h o n c s t v .I brovn,n I oltl I rcutlv .1 opcn -5 llat6 calnt 7 tlclicious 8 bud 9 pcculiirr F]X l0.ll0 lruc I t h c y l l e v er c o n t c 2 h c e n w a i t i n g k r n l 3 . . . i t s o v er v c t : l . . . w a i t a n v l o n g c rF} 9tl 5 its uny bcttcr 6 knows rluch 7 cithcrI laking phototraphs 2 Have/takc l ltiokl t i . . . l a r 9 . . . i s u l a l l l 0 . . . a n y o n cc l o c s3 d o h i n r s c l f a n i n i u r y . 1r n l k ealrllngcnrents 5 giving lrint adi,ice 6 tlo Fl 105hinr good 7 sivcs rnc lccturcs tl clrnc l ( a ) I a d v i s eh i n rn o tt o c o n r p l a i n . da n y o n e a n v l r a n n t ) h a c la g o o c l c r v l ( b ) I d i d n t a d v i s ch i r n t o c o r r i p l a i n .l 0 d o e s n tt a k c u n i n t e r e s t I I H c g i v e s l(at I delinite-lv ont kr.row hats d wnrc sucl.r unrry looks. ll havc a talk t happcning.l 3 t a k e s o f f e n c e 1 . 1m a k e e r c u s e s f b r 3 ( b ) I c l o n tk n o w c l e l i n i t e l y h a t s w1 . 5w c m a c l c a m o v e Itappe inn. n
    • KEY - Suggested answers 169. 1 ( a )I d o n - t e v c l l t r y . . . 9 How many people managed to linish. 1 ( h ) L , v e nI c l o n t t r y . . . the Lonclon Marathon in 1990l- 5 ( a ) O n c e . h e c l i c l n ta r r i v e o n t t m e . l 0 W h i c h i s o l c l e r- c r i c k e t o r f i r o t b a l l l5 ( b ) f t c c l i c l n to n c c a r r i v e o n t i m e . I I Whosc lnotor racing win at Asheville.6 ( a ) l d o n t p a r - t i c u l a r l lyi k c o y s t e r s . N o r t h C l a r o l i n ai n l 9 t t t { s c l a r e c o r d l6 ( b ) I p a r t i c u l a r l yd o r r t l i k c . . . l 2 W h y $ a s t h i s a c h i c v c t r t c ns p e c i a l l t7(a) I rcalll clont untlerstancl. Flx 1097(b) I dont rcalll" unclerstltllcl. I Who catr I borrow oltc lrontl8(l) Thats sinrply not acccptilblc. I W h o c a r t I t l i s c u s si t w i t h l1 l ( b )T h a t s n o t s i r t r p l va c c c p t a b l c i t s J W h a t t l o t h e l c t t eI s W I I O s t a n t l l i r r l vcry rlclcotnc ! . l W h a t l r c y o r - lg e t t i n g i l t ) 5 W h a t i l r c v ( ) r . u o r t - 1 " i r tlg b o u t l l tChapter11 Sentencetypes and 6 What hitvc I got to look titrward tttldiscoursefunctions 7 W h o t k r y o u t h i n k I h t t r t t p e dn t o / i I t W h i c h o l l t i s p a r c n t s. . . l t c t i t k c sa l t c r lFX106 () Which shirll I gct rid ol? I Didnt you llet ttty tncssitgel 2 I ) o n l v o u e v c r c o t r s i t l c rt t t l r c r p c t l l l l c l l0 Who arc you rvititing lirr/ I D o c s n t s o r t t ct i l t h i s w o r r v y o L r l F} It0 :1 Arcnl you going to say yottrc sorr1"/ I W h a t d c l i c i o u sl i x r d l I s n l t h i s I t x r d - 5H i t v c t t l) o u ( g o t ) a r r y t t e l i n g s / tlclicious l 6 C o u l c l n ty o u h a v c l e l r n e k t t o w , ) I W h a t s l o w s er v i c c ! I s t r t t h c s c r v i c : 7 W o n t y o u r p a r c l t t sh e w o r r i c d l s k r wl l { ( a n t y o r . ls e c h o w t l r c y l c e l l - l W h a t g o o d l t x r k i n gw a i l c r s ! A r c t r t 9 M i t h t n t i t b c b c t t e t o g o i t n d s c c l h el n l r t l r c w a i t c r sg o t x l - l o o k i r t g / l 0 S h o u k l r r tv o t t t r y a t t t lc x p l a i n l -1 FIow quickly you catl L)ottt vou cat I I W o u l t l t t t i t b c r t g o o t l i c l e a( l i r r y o t t ) quicklyl to tcll youl llthcrl - 5 W h l l c x p c t t s i v c v c g . c t i t b l c s !A r e I l t l2 Cant llc (hoth) lirrget this rtowl / t h c v c g c l a b l c sc x p c r r s i v cFlx107 6 What u krl lhcy churgt! [)ont tltcy I haclnt1oul 2 wont youl 3 hatl youl c h i r r g eu k r t l. 1 w o u l t l y o u l 5 w i l l y o t r ?6 w i l l y o u l 7 [ I o w v e r y l r c s h e v e r y t h i n gi s ! I s n t7 urcnt Il tt shall wcl 9 shall wcl c v c r y t h i n g f l es h . ) l0 is thcrcl lJ How I lovc lirocl! i ) H o w I c l i s l i k cr l i c t i n g ! ll,x l0tt l0 How I wish I coultl cotttc ltcrc trtttrc I Whcrr wcrc the first Olyrtrpic (ianlcs oltctr. in rnodcrn tinrcs ittaugLtratccl. 2 W h a t o t h c r c v e n t s b e s i d e sr u n l l l l l l l F l xl l l constitute athleticsl I f l r c | o l i c e l t u t l l t : t tt l t e r c i . l r l . l W h a t d o f i e l d ev c n t s i r t c l u d e g a r r i l l a n t ll i u t l . :l What cloes the worcl clccitthlotl nrcartl 2 A h o a x c r w h o c l a i n r c c lt h a l t h c r c w a s -5How olicn arc the Olyntpic Ganlcs a h o r l b o t t a p l a n c h a s b e e t rj a i l e c l l i r r now helcll thirty years. 6 Which country hostcd the l9ulJ 3 The Colonys police hrtvebecn givert Olyrrpic Garncsl a surprisc pay awartl. 7 W h o b e c a m e t h e ) - o u n g e s tc v e r p l a y e r 4 A nran who took out a battk loan is r to win the nrens singles s a i d 1 o h r v e h a c l s e c r r tp l a n . championship at Wimbledon - and 5 Six peoplc died in a Icarl crash whenJ I y e s t e r c l a y. ] 8 [{ow old was he at the tirre] 6 A cash machine was rippcd fion-r the
    • 170 KEY - Suggestedanswers w a l l I o f a b a n k .i n a r a i d ] . measules 7 HeathrowIrirport] is goingto havea I 0 another visa fifth terminal. F]x I 15 ll Six pcopleappearecl court in 2 ( b ) . . . t h e m a t t c rw i t h i t . . . b u y a n c w IyestcrdayI aftera battlein thc strccts onc o f ac i t y . 3 ( l ) . . . t o h e a rt h c r r 9 A body hasbccn firurrcl washed lon up - 1( c ) . . . g e t t i n g o n c . . . w h i c h o n e w o u k l a beach l. be bestl0 A prisoninnrate who swappccl clothcs 5 (a)looking lt sornc... oncsthat takc ... Iwith a visitor] scapcrl c (r(c)show you it. Borrow it ... buy onc.I I S o t t t t h o r l 1 l t s r l r t l r h r to r t : r t r i l i t t . u l Oncswith ...I 2 A nrissingcouple havc becn lirurxl s al c . Ex l16l . j I h i r t y p e o p l e r e a c h c t lt h e t o p o l t h c I ( a ) I ( a ) 4 ( a ) 5 ( c ) ( r( c ) 7 ( c ) l l ( a ) w o r l c l l t h c s u n r r n i to t M o u n t E v e r c s t l 9 (a) l0 (c) I I (c) l2 (c) i n t h c s a r t t et l i t y . F,r l 171 . 1A h i g h - t e c h s p y c a r n c r a i s g u a r t l i r t g a n I that I so I it :1it 5 lhal (r it 7 that l o l t l l b r i d g c l a g a i n s tl a r g c s p c e t l i n g l{so 9so I o r r i c sl . -fhcrc F} l lttl-5 arc/will bc rto ltuclcitr wcapons o n s h i p s o l t h c I l o y a l N a v 1. I I t h i n k s o . 2 I h o p e n o l . 3 l t s c e n r ss o . . 1S o I h c a r t l . 5 . . . e v c n s o . . . 6 I tChapter 12 Pro-forms and appcafsnot 7 So woukl I. ll Nor do I.ellipsis 9 Mavbc not. llut ... l0 So pcoplcsur. I I p c r h a p ss o . l l I d o n t t h i n k s o / l t h i r r kF} I12 n o t . | - l i l r r o t .w h a l a b o u t . . . 1 . 1 o i t i s . SI thc instructions thc lirrnr -l cach 2child ,1noncol your answcrs5 sonrcol Flx l 19lhc clue stiotts6 lewcr clucstions O l c o u r s c a b a b 1 , sn c e d l i r r s l c c P i s g r e u t c r t h a n a n u c l u l t s .T h l t s d i l l i r - e n t .7 N c i t h c r l u c s t i o n- i n o r q u c s t i o n J ( / 1ll rnanytprcstions hoth partsol t tsut thc cllccts olttxr rnuclr slccp arcc;ucstion l0l wonnn Ii llral /1 n o t t l i s s i l n i l a rt o t h c c l l c c l s o l t o o l r t t l cq u c s t i o r r 2 t h i si n l i r r n r a l i o r r l l i r e r l r r c s si . r i t a h i l i t y a n t l s o o n . M o s t r h c a l t h y a d u l t s s l c c p b e t w c c n s i x a n c laF]x I l-l h a l l a n r l c i g h t u n c la l r a l l h o u r sa n i g h t .I one 2 thosc 3 oncs tl one 5 tltat 6 ortc [-cssthan 5 pcr ccnt sleep rnorc than ninc7 that tithosc 9 oncs l0 those I I thitt a n t l a l r a l f o r l c s st h a n f i v e l n c l a h a l l . B u tI2 those s o r n e c c l e b r a t c d s h o r t s l c e p c r sc a nFlx l l,l rnanlgc with a merc live. How do thcy I Orrcof theselittle statucs il has rnanirgcl c h a i r. . . S t u t l i c si n d i c a t ct h a l m o s t o l u s c o u l t l I ... a drcss.. . cut down on our slcep - though we 3 O n et a l k b e g a n . . . c a n n o t p e r h a p sc u t c l o w n t o t i v e h o u r s - i l :1 sorne otheryoungpeoplc w e p r a c l i s e c l .A t e a m o f ex p e r i m e n t a l sleep 5 . . . w i t n e s s ea w i l l o n t h c b a c ko f a n d s l i r n n r e r s c r a d u a l l y r e c l u c e dt h e i r envclope. s l e e p b y t w o h o u r s . a n d r e s e a r c hs u g g e s t s 6 ... to krok afier the peoplewho are. t h a t s h o r t s l c e p e r si m p r o v c t h e q u a l i t y o f 7 One mernber the f amily was in a of thcir sleep. T e s tt e a m. . . Short slccp, it is claimed, is the best 8 Only one person five of thosewho in you can have, and of course if you are not startoff doinggeneral medicine... in becl when other people are, think of all 9 ... nevera woman/person half fbr the things you could do.
    • KEY- Suggested answers 171Ex 120 Ex 123I (to) bring the letter. 2 Johns job is I T h e ye n j o y . . . y e t w i l l b e g l a d . . .g o i n g p e r l e c t l yw e l l . 3 h a v e y o u f i n i i l l y 2 Otherpeoplcrecognizc lthatthey willspentmy book token todayl l realize haveto rctirel,but fear boredomIoncehed becn to thc Lake District. 5 so t h e yn o l o n g e r l. . .t h e y d o n t . j u s ts t a y 6 I w o n t l r y l o 3 O t h e r s . . . l o o ki r r w a r d . .b u t [ w h e n f .pronounce it. 7 No. we wercllt togethcr they dol find [they long firr... antlwhen we saw thesc. f{ I arrtintcrestecl m i s st h c s t i m u l u st h e yh a d ) l (about t() thc satlc cxtent as Jo is : l [ 1 p e o p l c t o p. . . a t t dh a v e. . . o r f c e l sinterested. (theyarc)l they rnayrapiclly declinc. - 5M o s tr e t i r c d c o p l cw i l l b c . . . l i l t h c y pF]x l2l s t i r n u l a t.e . I a n dw i l l b e n r c r t t a l lly f . iI S o w c / t h e p l c s i c l c n t / t h cc o t n t r t i t t c c t h c yt a k e. . .I clclecd thc oltending wortls ... bttt t 6 . . . t h c yw a l k ,p l a l g o l l . w o r k i r rt h c i r p c r h a p s w c er c w r o n g t o c l o s o . l l r r r 1 o garclctt s. . r ( )c l u r n o t s u b s t i t u t e l i r r a p a s s i v c v e r h 7 O t h c rp c o p l c a t t t. . . s o s o t o w vrtrt dLlLttdl c l a s s c.s ..2 I l 1 o u h a v c r c l i r e c i( o r a r c . i t l s ti l b o t l t I T h c y l c u r n. . . o r s t u t l y. . . a r t l t h c y t0) r, ll you arc fclirc(l (or.lust abotll huvcrte exploredlatrcl ver stttltlcttly t o b c ) l r l r / 1 l i / a . 1h c r c = v e f b + lind... a t l . j c c t i v c .w l t e r c a s ( u t r ) i t r . su l x t t t t t 9 1 . . .h c c n u s t l t c yt l i s c o v e.r. . a t t t l c / o . . . t t c c t l sa v c r b l c u r t n ol t r t t l . . . I i-l ... il tlrcyarc not cllicientlyctrlirrcctl t0 No cllipsis a n r l c l r r t o t w o r k b c t l er . . . l W c c a t l t t o t ll No cllipsis t l c r i v c r / o / ? r ) /l l 1 ) t t tu r c t t t t l l l l S h c h l r l n o t h a c lt i r t t c . . . l w h i l c s l t c 1 . . . l r u t w h i c h i r t s l c t r dt l c v c l o p c t l r t t r t s l c b r o r . r g h u p . . . a t r t i p u r s t t c c l. . . I l . . . l i n t r t i l r r t t l i s a p r t s s i v cp a r t i c i p l c h c r e ( = w l r i c h * c r e i t t t r o t l u c c t l ) .h u t llx l2.l tltrtlttpctl is ittt itctivc pilsl lenscl I E,ithclwe nr.lst protcct tltc worltl s5 . . . d c c a y , t t t r l c s sl l t c y a r c p r c p a r c t l t o w i l d l i l c , o r s o l n e s p c c i c so l i r n i r t t l t l r i s k . . . l T h c p r c c c c l c t t ts eI b y t l t c r l ew rvill tlic ottt- tlecision is surely llot cxpectc(l lo I B o t h t h e p a t t t l i ta t t t l t h e b l i r c k r h i l t o a t e c l t c o u r a g eo w l l c r s l o p r o t c c t . . . o r t o i r r t l a n g e r o l c x t i t t c li o t r . r i s k . R a t h c r t h c s c r r t c t r c cl l u s t l t t c l t l l l J S o r t t c s p c c i c s l t a v e b c c t t t t e a r l y r . li p c t l thirt the ncw tlccisiotrwill cttcourttgc oul by ntatt eithcr litr littxl or (lirr) o w n er s t o p r o t ec t t h e i r b u i l d i n g s .i r t sport. l h e k n o w l c d g e l l r a t o l / t r r r lts c t h c y , 1 I p c r s o n a l l y t l o n t l i k e c i t h c r s n a k e so r will lacc large billsl r bats. 5 M a n y p c o p l e n c i t h er u n t l c t s t l t l t dt t o r Chapter13 Coordination apprecialewhat the problcnt is. .x122 6 Peoplc both ittlrnirc ligcrs its heautilul , 1 S o t h a t w e c l o t t t o l l c n dp e o p l e, w c a n i r n a l s a n c l f e a rt h e l n a s l t t a n - el l t e r s . n e e c lt o b c a w a r c o t t h e s c d i f l e r c n c e s . 7 N c i t h e r r h i n o c e r o s c sn o r t i g e r s a r c t h c fl Becauschis girl-lricnd ..., it f alllous rnost valuablc atrimalsin the world. m u r d er e r . . . 8 Elcphants are firund in both Africa l0 Although shc was ... Ethel lc Neve ... and Asia. I I Whcttevcrhc .... :hc ... : 9 The Afiican elephant is ncither the l2 That the couplc were Crippen and le l a r g e s tn o r t h e h e a v i e s t r n a m m a l i n t h e Neve, the captain was convinced. world. l 0 S o r n e s p e c i e ss p e n d m o s t o f t h e i r l i r n c IThe other sentences cannot be c h a n g e d .I either eatir-rgor sleeping.
    • 172 KEY- Suggested answersEx 125 Ex 127Drivingthrough Outback an the in 2 ... are wastingtheir tincancient Land-rover enablecl us to to enjoy 3 ... and (thot)th( ntusttrain their lipsthe changing sceneryand (to) appreciirte lr I 6t;ra llO mOVCmClltst h e c l e s e r t sc h a n g i n , em o o d s . I d o n o t 1 nor should ellicient re ading bcthink I have ever felt so close to nature o[ t t t r i h t t l t r l f t ) g ( ) ( ) t lo n c .i n a s e n s e s o c a r e t r e e .O c c a s i o n a l l y , 5 Sf ow reatlers are using lubits nrtrewhcrr thc desertssilcncc tcll upon us. we stritahle lo ()tttl! t ltiltlrut, or aIw o u l c l c o n s i c l e ro u r i s o l a t i o n a n d l c a s t. . .vulnerahility, saze in wondcr at thc vast 6 . . . c a n s l o u t h L r a u d i t t g l ) r ( ) ( ( s s .c r n p t y p l a i n , a n d w a t c h t h c b i r c l so l p r c y 7 ... the siune rs qtritk rtodirt,q. ntrtlcircling ovcrheacl. n r u s tn o t b c . . . Thc road ilscllr,ls narrow hut snrooth. f l b u l s o n . r c t i n . se t , r 1 , r r 1 o l i n c l s p c c i l i c r n 1So thc driving wits casy cxccpt whcn wc in lirrrnllion. road-h a c lt o p L r l la s i c l cl i r r o n c o f t h e 9 and tttorc carclul reading nu., l)(, nt()t (l r a i n s - h u s c l i n k e c ll o r r i e s w l r i c h s l i r u p . s r r i f t t l t l tl < l -. . .g r c u t c l o u t l s o f r e d d u s l a r r da r c d c l i n i t c l y l 0 a n r l r z a r l i r r r 5 5 0 7 0 0 u r t r d sa n r i t t u t t l a c k i n g i r r r o a c ln r a n n c r s ! i . t , q et c r t t I l . t t t tt tsi d c r c I c x c c p l i o n a l l v t fhc o t h c r h a z a r t lo l c l r i v i n s i n t h e Ia s t .O u t b a c k i s t h e w i l d l i l e . r c s i l i c r r lt o l h c | | r r r t r f / t , l l u i l l l t , l 1 ,( v r r ) ) n c l o i n l I r r r v t l rc x t r er n e e n v i n r n n r e r r t .b u t n o t t o t h c a bil.n r ( , [ o rc a r . A t c l u s k u n s u s p c c t i n g l} l2ttk i r n g a r t x r sc, o w s a n t l b u l l a l o w o u l t l l ( b ) l ( a ) l ( b ) 4 ( b ) . s ( b6 ( a )7 ( a )8 ( b ) )w a r t d c r ( ) r tt o t l t c r o i r ( 1 i.l t l r i l c t c ( l b v t h c 9(c) l0(a) I l(a) l2(b)t : l i r r ( ( ) l L i r r l r e r r t l l l r n t p l t. u r r : r r r r i r t r i l