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Revision   PackFilm industry
Exam topics•The issues raised by media ownership in contemporary mediapractice;•The importance of cross media convergence ...
Issues of media ownership•Explain your institution – Warner Bros, Working title and Warp Films.•Explain what the main issu...
•Unlike a British independent•What do they miss out on?•Use stars•Romantic comedies/heritage films•Atonement (cost 15 mill...
The importance of cross media convergence and synergy, inproduction, distribution and marketing;   •   INTRODUCTION - Open...
•Limited audiences - normally high certificates - 18 (Meadows wanted a 15   certificate)   •Their main genre is social rea...
•   INTRODUCTION - Open up your answer with engaging with the      question and explain what case studies you are going to...
title provide British films for them, 60s music – own recording studios -       Odeon part owned by Universal   • Cineworl...
films and attract more films to be shown, Always niche films         however they know their market as they are surrounded...
and audiences;  •   INTRODUCTION - Open up your answer with engaging with the      question and explain what case studies ...
•   Their main genre is social realism and masculinity - No need for stars,       no need for set design and cheap to make...
The significance of proliferation of hardware and content foraudience and industry  •   INTRODUCTION - Open up your answer...
technology remember Phantom Menace cost 5.2 million on 35 mm and       Attack of the Clones cost $15,000 on DV – this new ...
distribution at film festivalEnd your question with personal responseIssues in targeting an audience______________________...
•   Spend lots of money on above the line costs•   They have solid funding behind them•   Can embrace all new technologies...
The ways in which the candidates’ own experiences of mediaconsumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audiencebeha...
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Transcript of "Revision pack"

  1. 1. Revision PackFilm industry
  2. 2. Exam topics•The issues raised by media ownership in contemporary mediapractice;•The importance of cross media convergence and synergy, inproduction, distribution and marketing;•The technologies that have been introduced in recent years atthe levels of production, marketing and exchange;•The significance of proliferation in hardware and content forinstitutions and audiences;•The importance of technological convergence for institutionsand audiences;•The issues raised in the targeting of national and localaudiences (specifically, British) by international and globalinstitutions;•The ways in which the candidates’ own experiences of mediaconsumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audiencebehaviour. REMEMBER THOUGH YOUR EXAM QUESTION MAY BEDIFFERENTLY WORDED THAN THE TOPICS ABOVE BUT IT WILL BE BASED ON THE ISSUES!
  3. 3. Issues of media ownership•Explain your institution – Warner Bros, Working title and Warp Films.•Explain what the main issues are with media ownership (The way they areowned)•Is it morally right?•Lack of diversity in films?•Industry able to cross promote and cross sell - convergence and synergy - ifa film has a poor cinema release able to still get the profits back from otherwindows. Helped Working Title Films•Audiences being brainwashed into watching certain films through crossmedia advertising not realising that conglomerates own the stations that arepromoting certain films•Audiences restricted to certain products•‘Dumbing’ down of quality due to lack of competition•Can dictate prices - increase no one could complain•Independent film companies going out of business as they cant afford tocompete with the domination of the major conglomerates - cant afford theprints which can cost between 1,500 - 2,500 a reel. Star Wars: A PhantomMenace spent $5.2 million on prints. Also independents can’t market a filminternationally - targeting audience•Independent production companies who get a distribution deal with one ofthe majors lose money and profit as a consequence - this may change withdigital screens and distribution•Some large companies such as Paramount own independent labels such asParamount Vantage that ensures they cover the indie market - incorporation•However helps independents such as British films Son of Rambow and TheKite Runner (Paramount Vantage) to reach a wider audience.•However can help some countries where they have invested money in localTV and film companies and as a consequence has given them a voice•This helps nations in South America where there has been state censorship•Some of these companies survive on advertising fees causing the work/filmsto possibly become effected•Add personal responseDO NOT FORGET case study examples used be used throughout!•Working Title are part of a conglomerate - Vivendi Universal (arm of GeneralElectric) - what benefits do they have?•Working Title did used to be an independent film company - they can nowafford to produce and distribute films with a large amount of money•In 2008 British cinema made 1.65 billion worldwide up 50% from 2007 showsP and D is getting better•Prefer to make their films on 35mm - why?•Spend lots of money on above the line costs•They have solid funding behind them
  4. 4. •Unlike a British independent•What do they miss out on?•Use stars•Romantic comedies/heritage films•Atonement (cost 15 million and made 60 million)•They can do synergy - Wet, Wet, Wet on Four Weddings and a Funeral•The Boat That Rocked (2009), Technological and media convergence, Bigmarketing campaign, Stars, For Universal Working title provide British films forthem, 60s music – own recording studios - Odeon part owned by Universal socan ensure that their films will be shownWarp filmsWarp pictures•Check out the website•Get financial aid from East Midlands media and the National Lottery fund•Their main genre is social realism and masculinity•An example is Four Lions (2010)Why social realist?•No need for stars•No need for set design•Cheap to make•What Britain is know for•Limited audiences - normally high certificates - 18 (Meadows wanted a 15certificate)•They use digital video - remember Phantom, Attack of the Clones cost$15,000 on DV•Highlights how important Digital is to independents!Distribution•Extremely important for British cinema•Now digital can go through fibre optic cables, portable hard drive, satellite•Four Lions (2010) is not really cinematic and makes its money from ancillarysales. Cinema sales not as important. 3.7 million profit, Optimum releasing
  5. 5. The importance of cross media convergence and synergy, inproduction, distribution and marketing; • INTRODUCTION - Open up your answer with engaging with the question and explain what case studies you are going to use. Your case studies are your film studios/films. • Remember point/explain/example – use your terminology • The question is asking you what is the impact and importance of cross media convergence and synergy on production, distribution and marketing on • Compare and contrast throughout independent with conglomerate • Independent = Warp films (a film studio on their own) • Conglomerate = Working Title or Warner Bros (A film studio part of a larger company)•Media convergence - where a business (conglomerate) owns manycompanies across a range of medias e.g. Viacom and General Electric.Synergy - multiplied business energy of using many parts of a conglomerate•Large conglomerates able to do convergence and synergy through using theother ‘arms’ of their multinational business.•Media convergence - able to cross promote films, sell through differentwindows, promote other products in film etc.•Synergy – energy created through using the different arms of the business.•More profits for industry through selling their films through different media -games, etc•Could brainwash audience into watching film by creating a ‘buzz’ and turningthe film into an event.- must see movie. Do this by advertising their filmthrough their TV channel, through their radio station, produce books by theirpublishers.•Cheaper for major conglomerates as they own their advertising avenues•Audience promote for the conglomerates through getting involved in viralmarketing campaigns•James Bond - The Quantum of Solace (2008) - convergence with otherareas of Sony through promoting HD televisions, coke zero and omegawatches (wider convergence), Sony phones, laptops.•Harry Potter - sweets, toys, merchandise,•The implications for Working Title Films of now being part of a mediaconglomerate - General Electric/Vivendi Universal. Able to cross promotefilms - convergence and synergy for their films since 2004. Remember FourWeddings and a Funeral•Remember Batman: The Dark Knight (2008)•Independents not able to create as much synergy because •Struggle to find funds – Warp Films •Get financial aid from East Midlands media and the National Lottery fund
  6. 6. •Limited audiences - normally high certificates - 18 (Meadows wanted a 15 certificate) •Their main genre is social realism and masculinity - No need for stars, no need for set design and cheap to make •An example is This is England directed by Shane Meadows (stock writer) •They use digital video - remember Phantom Menace cost 5.2 million on 35 mm and Attack of the Clones cost $15,000 on DV – this new technology has helped them! •More digital screens – helps them to distribute however only 3 at our local Cineworld multiplex – saves money! Can try and compete •Now digital can go through fibre optic cables, portable hard drive, satellite •Four Lions (2010) is not really cinematic and makes its money from ancillary sales. Cinema sales not as important. 3.7 million profit, Optimum releasing •They primarily do below the line costs – cheap websites means they can at least gain some market share when advertising might help them market internationally which the conglomerates have a foothold on. •They may be able to start to distribute their own product – at the moment they deal with Optimum releasing •Warp X films - below the line costs - created cheap website for Donkey punch (2008) budget between 400,000 and 800,000 and was successful •Can do Technological convergence – Slumdog Millionnaire – describeRemember for both it is all to do with the way the studios are owned – issuesof media ownershipConsider the impact on the audience and the industry?The technologies that have been introduced in recent years atthe levels of production, marketing and exchange
  7. 7. • INTRODUCTION - Open up your answer with engaging with the question and explain what case studies you are going to use. Your case studies are your film studios/films. • Remember point/explain/example – use your terminology • The question is asking you what is the impact of technology rapidly getting better and advancing for both independents and conglomerates • Compare and contrast throughout independent with conglomerate • Independent = Warp films (a film studio on their own) • Conglomerate = Working Title or Warner Bros (A film studio part of a larger company)Conglomorates • Large budget so can engage with any technology • Can embrace digital technology (consider star wars example) however would prefer to stay on 35mm so they can dominate the market • Can embrace digital/3D and HD – consider Avatar and the cost of that to make • RocknRolla (2007) • HD technology - Viral marketing campaign: Are you a rocknrolla?, Email spread the word quickly, Link to website to buy the films, Download content, Music used to help promote – target youth – music on website • Can do technological convergence – Consider Batman: The Dark Knight - Conglomerate example, Warner Bros, Used technological convergence, $185 million budget, viral marketing, ‘why so serious’ website - fun activities, hidden message board, downloadable content, screensavers, mobile phone wallpaper, Well known franchise and comic book series – already had an established audience and could gamble with more marketing money, Two rollercoasters - $7.5 million half of Slumdog Millionnaire distributors budget, Formula 1 car – Jarno Trulli, Batmobile drove around Silverstone, Huge amount of money spent on the technology in the film such as the batpod and costume – highlighted a more serious Batman – used this in their marketing campaign to attract audiences, Grossed over $1000 million, Created synergy • Embrace all above the line costs – Internet • Make more money from Blu-ray as people buy the same version again • Ipods • Video games console mean that they can make money from merchandise • More people buying Home cinema systems/LCD TVs – buying these from the conglomerates • Mobile Phones and Internet working together – Batman • IMAX • Consider proliferation and how conglomerates can engage with it all • The Boat That Rocked (2009), Technological and media convergence, Big marketing campaign, Stars, For Universal Working
  8. 8. title provide British films for them, 60s music – own recording studios - Odeon part owned by Universal • Cineworld Ashton Use technological convergence Bluetooth messages Orange Wednesdays 3 out of 14 screens digital watch trailers etc on your phone, website piracy Love film hate piracy campaign being shown before films being shown • Piracy doesn’t effect them! INDEPENDENT • Pleased with digital technology – cheaper remember star wars! • Cheaper to make – remember Paranormal Activity • Internet below the line – they can all embrace this! Like Slumdog MillionnaireSlumdog MillionaireIndependent exampleUsed Technological convergenceDistributed by Pathe international pictures, Fox Searchlight and Warnerindependent picturesBudget $15 millionNot expected to be a massive successRadio advert with Chris TarrantA week of E4 programmes dedicated to Dev PatelCelador and film4 produced the filmGrossed over $30 millionCreated synergyWarp films made This is England – made on digital technology, • Jack Wynne Independent British filmmaker Made a 15 minute film Disassociative personality disorder Able to shoot on 35 mm Thanks to technology was able to get this on to digital Rasied the resolution Take out the rain and snow Filmed in Wales Used Baselight to amplify the quality Place his work on Vimeo get feedback from professional filmmakers • Remember independent cinemas:Independent cinema like Cornerhouse Manchester, Use digital technology to store more
  9. 9. films and attract more films to be shown, Always niche films however they know their market as they are surrounded by multiplexes and multiscreens so show films such as ‘I loved you so long’ a French film, Have a dish on the side to pick up events such as the Rolling Stones concert • Remember piracy effects them Used technological convergence (where one technology does more than one thing or where technologies work together) Mobile phone working with Internet Audience can make their own tribute films placed on the Internet and help promote the film Discussions were even held on the Internet as to how the film would end • Struggle to find funds • Get financial aid from East Midlands media and the National Lottery fund • Limited audiences - normally high certificates – 15 Four Lions • Their main genre is social realism and masculinity - No need for stars, no need for set design and cheap to make • They use digital video - remember Phantom Menace cost 5.2 million on 35 mm and Attack of the Clones cost $15,000 on DV – this new technology has helped them! • More digital screens – helps them to distribute however only 3 at our local Cineworld multiplex – saves money! Can try and compete • Now digital can go through fibre optic cables, portable hard drive, satellite • Four Lions (2010) is not really cinematic and makes its money from ancillary sales. Cinema sales not as important. 3.7 million profit, Optimum releasing • They primarily do below the line costs – cheap websites means they can at least gain some market share when advertising might help them market internationally which the conglomerates have a foothold on. • They may be able to start to distribute their own product – at the moment they deal with Optimum releasing • Warp X films - below the line costs - created cheap website for Donkey punch (2008) budget between 400,000 and 800,000 and was successfulThe importance of technological convergence for institutions
  10. 10. and audiences; • INTRODUCTION - Open up your answer with engaging with the question and explain what case studies you are going to use. Your case studies are your film studios/films. • Remember point/explain/example – use your terminology • The question is asking you what is the impact of technology rapidly getting better and advancing for both independents and conglomerates • Compare and contrast throughout independent with conglomerate • Independent = Warp films (a film studio on their own) • Conglomerate = Working Title or Warner Bros (A film studio part of a larger company)Conglomerate • Can afford to embrace all new technology • Large budget • Consider proliferation and how they can keep up! • Batman an examples of technological convergence • James Bond - The Quantum of Solace - convergence with other areas of Sony through promoting HD televisions, coke zero and omega watches (wider convergence), Sony phones, laptops. • No real issues in targeting their audience – lots of money create viral marketing campaigns like Warner Bros did for The Dark Knight (2 x rollercoaster’s cost 17 million, promoted on the side of Jarno Trulli’s Car at Silverstone and bat mobile being at Silverstone F1) Managed to also create a viral marketing campaign through the www.whysoserious.com – consider all that you could do on the website! • Remember the Nokia N95 coming with a Spiderman trailer or the filmIndependent • Lack of money/funding so have trouble embracing with lots of technology • However the introduction of the Internet has really helped them • Internet – below the line as a cheap form of advertising • Consider case study examples • Digital technology and the digital screens network – cheaper technology remember Phantom Menace cost 5.2 million on 35 mm and Attack of the Clones cost $15,000 on DV – this new technology has helped them! • Struggle to find funds • Get financial aid from East Midlands media and the National Lottery fund • Limited audiences - normally high certificates - 18 (Meadows wanted a 15 certificate)
  11. 11. • Their main genre is social realism and masculinity - No need for stars, no need for set design and cheap to make • An example is This is England directed by Shane Meadows (stock writer) • Can do technological convergence too however remember Slumdog millionaire! • They use digital video - remember Phantom Menace cost 5.2 million on 35 mm and Attack of the Clones cost $15,000 on DV – this new technology has helped them! • More digital screens – helps them to distribute however only 3 at our local Cineworld multiplex – saves money! Can try and compete • Now digital can go through fibre optic cables, portable hard drive, satellite • This is England (2006) is not really cinematic and makes its money from ancillary sales. Cinema sales not as important. 3.7 million profit, Optimum releasing • They primarily do below the line costs – cheap websites means they can at least gain some market share when advertising might help them market internationally which the conglomerates have a foothold on. • They may be able to start to distribute their own product – at the moment they deal with Optimum releasing • Warp X films - below the line costs - created cheap website for Donkey punch (2008) budget between 400,000 and 800,000 and was successful • Mobile phones – cheap technology and audiences can now access the Internet from them so may help advertising campaigns and viral campaigns get started. Snakes on a Plane exploited this! • Niche (specialist/narrow audience) films can have a good yield of they are distributed correctly with the right number of prints • Piracy takes a huge dent out of their profits – new technology causes this to happenAudiences can do technological convergence as they can make their film andplace it on youtube and even produce their won wallpapers etc.See the exam answer I have given you!
  12. 12. The significance of proliferation of hardware and content foraudience and industry • INTRODUCTION - Open up your answer with engaging with the question and explain what case studies you are going to use. Your case studies are your film studios/films. • Remember point/explain/example – use your terminology • The question is asking you what is the impact of technology rapidly getting better and advancing for both independents and conglomerates • Compare and contrast throughout independent with conglomerate • Independent = Warp films (a film studio on their own) • Conglomerate = Working Title or Warner Bros (A film studio part of a larger company)Conglomerate • Working title did used to be an independent film company - they can now afford to produce and distribute films with a large amount of money • Prefer to make their films on 35mm – why? • Spend lots of money on above the line costs • They have solid funding behind them • Can embrace all new technologies with the money behind them • Can do technological convergence and media convergence • Brainwash audience • Consider The Boat that Rocked – posters, trailers, big budget, stars • James Bond - The Quantum of Solace - convergence with other areas of Sony through promoting HD televisions, coke zero and omega watches (wider convergence), Sony phones, laptops. • No real issues in targeting their audience – lots of money create viral marketing campaigns like Warner Bros did for The Dark Knight (2 x rollercoaster’s cost 17 million, promoted on the side of Jarno Trulli’s Car at Silverstone and bat mobile being at Silverstone F1) Managed to also create a viral marketing campaign through the www.whysoserious.com – consider all that you could do on the website! • Account for piracy – they can take into account thisIndependent • Lack of money/funding so have trouble embracing with lots of technology • However the introduction of the Internet has really helped them • Internet – below the line as a cheap form of advertising • Consider case study examples • Digital technology and the digital screens network – cheaper
  13. 13. technology remember Phantom Menace cost 5.2 million on 35 mm and Attack of the Clones cost $15,000 on DV – this new technology has helped them! • Struggle to find funds • Get financial aid from East Midlands media and the National Lottery fund • Limited audiences - normally high certificates - 18 (Meadows wanted a 15 certificate) • Their main genre is social realism and masculinity - No need for stars, no need for set design and cheap to make • They use digital video - remember Phantom Menace cost 5.2 million on 35 mm and Attack of the Clones cost $15,000 on DV – this new technology has helped them! • More digital screens – helps them to distribute however only 3 at our local Cineworld multiplex – saves money! Can try and compete • Now digital can go through fibre optic cables, portable hard drive, satellite • Four Lions (2010) is not really cinematic and makes its money from ancillary sales. Cinema sales not as important. 3.7 million profit, Optimum releasing • They primarily do below the line costs – cheap websites means they can at least gain some market share when advertising might help them market internationally which the conglomerates have a foothold on. • They may be able to start to distribute their own product – at the moment they deal with Optimum releasing • Warp X films - below the line costs - created cheap website for Donkey punch (2008) budget between 400,000 and 800,000 and was successful • Mobile phones – cheap technology and audiences can now access the Internet from them so may help advertising campaigns and viral campaigns get started. Snakes on a Plane exploited this! • Niche (specialist/narrow audience) films can have a good yield of they are distributed correctly with the right number of prints • Piracy takes a huge dent out of their profits – new technology causes this to happenRemember you do need to consider the impact on us if it mentions audience: • We need to keep up! And so Costs us money! LCD TV’s, cinema systems • So much choice to watch films however if independents can’t keep up – they may be a lack of choice of films for us • However we can now compete with cameras and digital technology coming in we can also make our own films consider Paranormal Activity (2009) • Gauntlett (2007) argues that the boundaries between audience and industry are blurring – helps us! • We can all now buy affordable DV cameras and make films - online
  14. 14. distribution at film festivalEnd your question with personal responseIssues in targeting an audience__________________________Case studies__________________________________________Warp films____________________________________________________ • Struggle to find funds • Get financial aid from East Midlands media and the National Lottery fund • Limited audiences - normally high certificates – 15 - 18 • Their main genre is social realism and masculinity - No need for stars, no need for set design and cheap to make • An example is Four Lions (2010) • They use digital video - remember Phantom Menace cost 5.2 million on 35 mm and Attack of the Clones cost $15,000 on DV – this new technology has helped them! • More digital screens – helps them to distribute however only 3 at our local Cineworld multiplex – saves money! Can try and compete • Now digital can go through fibre optic cables, portable hard drive, satellite • Four Lions (2010)is not really cinematic and makes its money from ancillary sales. Cinema sales not as important. 3.7 million profit, Optimum releasing • They primarily do below the line costs – cheap websites means they can at least gain some market share when advertising might help them market internationally which the conglomerates have a foothold on. • They may be able to start to distribute their own product – at the moment they deal with Optimum releasing • Warp X films - below the line costs - created cheap website for Donkey punch (2008) budget between 400,000 and 800,000 and was successful • Mobile phones – cheap technology and audiences can now access the Internet from them so may help advertising campaigns and viral campaigns get started. Snakes on a Plane exploited this! • Niche (specialist/narrow audience) films can have a good yield of they are distributed correctly with the right number of prints • Piracy takes a huge dent out of their profitsWorking Title__________________________________________________ • Working title did used to be an independent film company - they can now afford to produce and distribute films with a large amount of money • Prefer to make their films on 35mm – why?
  15. 15. • Spend lots of money on above the line costs• They have solid funding behind them• Can embrace all new technologies with the money behind them• Can do technological convergence and media convergence• Brainwash audience• Consider The Boat that Rocked – posters, trailers, big budget, stars• James Bond - The Quantum of Solace - convergence with other areas of Sony through promoting HD televisions, coke zero and omega watches (wider convergence), Sony phones, laptops.• No real issues in targeting their audience – lots of money create viral marketing campaigns like Warner Bros did for The Dark Knight (2 x rollercoaster’s cost 17 million, promoted on the side of Jarno Trulli’s Car at Silverstone and bat mobile being at Silverstone F1) Managed to also create a viral marketing campaign through the www.whysoserious.com – consider all that you could do on the website!• Account for piracy
  16. 16. The ways in which the candidates’ own experiences of mediaconsumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audiencebehaviour.This is about you!What is the impact of media ownership on you?What is the impact of new technologies on you?What is the impact of proliferation on you?What is the impact of media convergence and synergy on you?What is the impact of technological convergence on you?What are some of the issues in targeting an audience? Targeting you?

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