Deﬁnition: Clouds are hardware-based services
offering compute, network and storage capacity where: Hardware management is highly abstracted from the buyer Buyers incur infrastructure costs as variable OPEX Infrastructure capacity is highly elastic (up or down) McKinsey & Company
By a 5‐to‐1 ratio, companies
trust internal IT systems over cloud‐ based technologies due to fear about security threats and loss of control of data and systems. Avanade Inc.
They are right... Streamload: On
June 15, 2007 system administrator's script accidentally misidentiﬁed and deleted quot;good dataquot; along with the quot;dead dataquot; of some 3.5 million former user accounts and ﬁles.
Or are they? LAX Los
Angeles 1,200 MIA Miami 1,000 JFK New York 900 ORD Chicago 825 EWR Newark 750 0 300 600 900 1200 10 U.S. airports with the highest weekly frequency of laptop loss Airport Insecurity: The Case of Missing & Lost Laptops, Ponemon Institute LLC
This get scary... Did not
protect sensitive 65% information contained on laptop 57% Worry about losing their laptop Laptop contains 53% confidential company information 42% Data on laptop is not backed up 0 0.175 0.35 0.525 0.7 Airport Insecurity: The Case of Missing & Lost Laptops, Ponemon Institute LLC
Most likely causes of data
breach? Negligent insiders 75% Outsourced data 42% Malicious insiders 26% Social engineering 2% Hackers 1% 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 2008 Study on the Uncertainty of Data Breach Detection,Ponemon Institute LLC
IT environment where data breaches
occur Off-network devices 58% Networks 50% Mainframes 41% Paper files 39% Backups 18% 0 0.15 0.3 0.45 0.6 2008 Study on the Uncertainty of Data Breach Detection,Ponemon Institute LLC
Ability to detect the loss
or theft of conﬁdential information 31% 25% 18% 16% 10% Somehow Very confident Confident confident Not confident Unsure 2008 Study on the Uncertainty of Data Breach Detection,Ponemon Institute LLC
GoodData: Innovate vs. leverage? Processing
Power Cloud makes ROLAP approach possible Elastic Scale IT builds for peak load, we don’t have to Multi-Tenancy Single instance across 1000s of customers Stateless Massive load balancing (shared nothing)
Variable pricing Reserved instance price
(AWS): “I have 10 instances running 24x7” Spot price/future price: “I want 1,000 instances at the end of the quarter” Off-peak pricing: “Run my MapReduce app 10 hours every day”
Private clouds Violate #2 of
our cloud deﬁnition: Buyers incur infrastructure costs as CAPEX Virtualization on top of traditional enterprise IT stack Encapsulation of IT infrastructure Scale?
Economies of scale Technology Medium-sized
DC Very Large DC Ratio $95 per Mbit/sec/ $13 per Mbit/sec/ Network 7.1 month month $2.20 per GByte / $0.40 per GByte / Storage 5.7 month month 140 Servers / >1000 Servers / Administration 7.1 Administrator Administrator HAMILTON, J. Internet-Scale Service Efﬁciency. In Large-Scale Distributed Systems and Middleware (LADIS) Workshop (September 2008)