Native american involvement

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Native american involvement

  1. 1. Native American Involvement <br />Romana Brennan<br />
  2. 2. Who was mainly involved?<br />The Indian tribes that were the most actively involved in the civil war were…<br />Cherokee <br />Creek<br />Choctaw <br />Chickasaw<br />Seminole <br />Sioux <br />
  3. 3. Confeds. tried to win Indians (Cherokee and Creek) over, but they decided to remain neutral <br />(As did most other Indian tribes) <br />Many Native Americans ended up serving as scouts for Confeds.<br />
  4. 4. Statistics<br /> Just under 3,600 Native Americans served in Union Army during war <br />Nearly 90 engagements fought by US troops in West during war (most involved Native American tribes) <br />
  5. 5. Cherokee<br />Oct. 7, 1861: Albert Pike negotiated treaty w/ John Ross <br />Treaty provided more generous terms than the other treaties w/ the US <br />Gen. Chief Stand Watie: one of signers of treaty that agreed to removal of Cherokee from Oklahoma Territory<br />This split the Cherokee into 2<br />minority: Confed. <br />majority: North <br />Watie: leader of minority party<br />Watie: organized company, which then became a regiment: First Cherokee Mounted Rifles (fought @ Wilson’s Creek, …)<br />
  6. 6. The Santee Sioux <br />Led by Little Crow<br />Summer of 1862: got into fight with settlers but lost <br />Tried and found guilty <br />303 sentenced to death<br />16 sentenced to long terms in prison <br />The rest of the Santee Sioux were arrested (1,700 people!)<br />
  7. 7. Sioux cont…<br />1863: Santee Sioux were transported to a reservation in the Dakota Territory <br />Same year Little Crow was killed (July 1863)<br />
  8. 8. Battle of Pea Ridge <br />Albert Pike started training 3 Confed. regiments of Native Americans <br />March 1862: fought @ Battle of Pea Ridge but were scared off by Union counterattack <br />After, Indian troop service was restricted to fights only in the Indian Territory<br />http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTjsJb9E7MkcNFAx7pGL6WY6xSdKr9j0u92PONCI6ethK0VSWU-0g<br />
  9. 9. Navajo & Mescalero Apache<br />Oct. 1862: Gen. James H. Carleton ordered Col. Christopher Carson & 5 companies in the Dept. of New Mexico to begin operations against the Apache and Navajo <br />(in the District of Arizona) <br />Natives were captured & kept in the Bosque Redondo Reservation (in New Mexico Territory) <br />If you resisted  killed<br />Some Apaches escaped to Mexico<br />Navajos showed more resistance<br />
  10. 10. Apaches cont…<br />Jan. to May, 1863: almost continuous fights in the New Mexico Territory (plan to control/contain Apaches)<br />
  11. 11. Navajos cont…<br />While that went on with the Apaches…<br />Navajos tried to organize a peace agreement <br />Agreement was rejected  struggle for their land started<br />Federal troops: “scorched-earth policy”: destroyed farmland and forced Navajo to the point of starvation <br />Surrendered one by one, some fled to the Canyon de Chelly <br />… <br />
  12. 12. Sand Creek Massacre<br />Nov. 29, 1863: Colorado settlers asked Col. J. M. Chivington to punish raiders b/c settlers were frightened by the raids by the warriors in the area around Denver (raids b/c of reduced military presence in West) <br />Chivington went w/ 900 volunteer militiamen & attacked village of ≈ 500+ Arapaho and Cheyenne natives<br />http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSN__Lf-bdPW22BhGubjFWwSIeP9TdtBu5VPp02ySZqz4im9a9O1A<br />
  13. 13. “The Long Walk”<br />Traveled in 1864<br />11,468 Navajos held @ Ft. Canby & marched to Bosque Redondo Reservation (425 miles away)<br />Said to have caused the death of about 3,000 Navajos <br />Within 2 years of being at the reservation, another 2,000 Navajos died <br />http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ7gCnjPOanqNtA3Rj1amaN3AWRKU4u9vv_dDPqKU5DZgSKeMXn<br />
  14. 14. After the Civil War<br />White #s in West rose to new levels<br />A lot of financial crises depressions hit the East<br />Men who couldn’t find work in the cities joined the army <br />Native Americans continued to get into smaller fights (defending land, etc.) <br />After war, treaties Native Americans had w/ fed. gov’t were nullified<br />

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