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Adolescence

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A presentation I created for a Human Behavior in the Social Environment course at Radford University on several key ideas of adolescents. Feedback is appreciated.

A presentation I created for a Human Behavior in the Social Environment course at Radford University on several key ideas of adolescents. Feedback is appreciated.

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  • 1. ADOLESCENCE ADOLESCENCE ADOLESCENCE ADOLESCENCE
  • 2. Discussion Discussion Discussion Discussion DiscussionDiscussion Discussion Discussion Discussion DiscussionDiscussion Discussion Discussion Discussion DiscussionDiscussion Discussion Discussion Discussion DiscussionDiscussion Discussion Discussion Discussion DiscussionDiscussion Discussion Discussion Discussion DiscussionDiscussion Discussion Discussion Discussion Discussion key ideas of ADOLESCENCEDiscussion Discussion Discussion Discussion DiscussionDiscussion Discussion Discussion Discussion DiscussionDiscussion Discussion Discussion Discussion DiscussionDiscussion Discussion Discussion Discussion Discussion
  • 3. 1what is adolescence?2child to adult3biological (adolescent body)4psychological5social6spirituality7 sexuality8threats to development9protective factors
  • 4. 1what is adolescence?
  • 5. Late 19th & early 20th century U.S. becomes Child labor & Juvenile justice urbanized/ education system industrialized policies passed developed Juvenile & adults viewed differentlyStanley G. Hall “storm & stress”
  • 6. 2child to adult?
  • 7. adolescence originated from adolescere
  • 8. adolescence originated from Means “to grow into maturity”” Latin verb adolescere
  • 9. Many cultures haverights of passagewhich mark thetransition fromchildhood toadulthood
  • 10. •Tanzania: male/female circumcisionMany cultures have •Jewish: bar mitzvah •Latino: quincea erarights of passage •Native American: vision questwhich mark the •United States: Protestant confirmationtransition from ceremonies, H.S.childhood to graduation, voter registration, etc.adulthood
  • 11. 3biological?
  • 12. PUBERTY= stage of reproductive systemmaturity Increased hormone levels stimulate the development & functioning of the reproductive system
  • 13. PUBERTY= stage of reproductive systemmaturity Increased hormone levels stimulate the development & functioning of theMales: androgens reproductive systemFemales: progestins & estrogens
  • 14. Primary Sex Secondary SexCharacteristics CharacteristicsDirectly related to Not directly related toreproductive organs & reproductive organs &external genitalia external genitalia
  • 15. Primary Sex Secondary Sex Characteristics Characteristics Directly related to Not directly related to reproductive organs & reproductive organs & external genitalia external genitalia Penis & scrotum growth Facial hair & deeper voiceOvary, uterus, vagina, clitoris & labia growth Enlarged breasts & hips Hair & sweat gland changes
  • 16. For reproduction to occur…Females must reach Males must reachmenarche and ovulate spermarche
  • 17. For reproduction to occur… Females must reach Males must reach menarche and ovulate spermarcheSloughing off of the The onset of the ability touterus lining ejaculate spermThe release of an egg from an ovary
  • 18. Pubertal changes usually occur between the ages of: 9-17 11-16
  • 19. adolescents experience
  • 20. adolescents experience
  • 21. Adolescents demonstrate behavioral 3changes: increased novelty seeking, increased risk taking & greater peer affiliation * means original, unique*
  • 22. Research raises questions onextent of adolescents capacity for decision making
  • 23. Cold cognition: problem solving when SUPRISE!!!adolescents are alone & calm etc. Adolescents Hot cognition: problem perform wellsolving when adolescents are with peers & have with this….. NOT this! elevated emotions/ sexual tension, etc.
  • 24. Adolescents don’t get proper nutrition orenough exercise & sleep
  • 25. 4psychological?
  • 26. Adolescents display interest in discovering & forming their psychological selves, humanitarian issues, ethics, religion, &
  • 27. Responses to puberty… Males focus on increased muscle mass & physical strength Females focus on increased body weight & fat deposits
  • 28. Consequently, m ales usually view puberty more positively than femalesAdolescent pubertalexperience is greatlyinfluenced by others reaction to their biological changes
  • 29. Adolescents canhypothesize beyond thepresent. This allows forengagement in decisionmaking based on a cost- benefit analysis
  • 30. Adolescents canhypothesize beyond the a’ la Jean Piaget’s 4th stagepresent. This allows for of cognitive development-engagement in decision FORMAL OPERATION.making based on a cost- benefit analysis
  • 31. Adolescents aredeveloping multicultural identities as they areincreasingly exposed to diverse cultures through first-handexperience & the media
  • 32. FreudKohlberg Erikson Theories that address self/ psychological identity in adolescentsPiaget Kegan Marcia
  • 33. Scholars generally agree thatidentity formation is structured by the sociocultural context Roman, W.T. H. does that mean?
  • 34. It means the options offered toadolescents will vary across cultures
  • 35. It means the options offered toadolescents will vary across cultures e.g. North America places a high value on autonomy & therefore offers more options than more collectivist-oriented societies
  • 36. There are aspects of identity that adolescents shape themselves. There are 4 ways of trying on & developing apreference for certain identities
  • 37. 1 future Orientation: comtemplate potential outcomes of behaviors & potential future selves2 role expectation: sampling membership in different cliques, experimenting with social roles3 exploration: refers to comfort level w/ trying new things4 self-Evaluation: personal reflection & observation of oneself in relation to others *George H. Mead: generalized other (how others are likely to view & respond)
  • 38. Culture plays a LARGEpart in the process of gender identity
  • 39. Ethnic origin is central to the identityof ethnic minorities- not so much for Caucasian North Americans develop skills to operate develop strong in @ least 2 cultures ethnic (bicultural) identities because of this
  • 40. 5social?
  • 41. 4 components to Individuation (development of identity that is unique & separate):1 functional independence: functioning independently from parents2 attitudinal independence: developing a set of values & beliefs3 emotional independence: not dependent on parents for approval, intimacy & emotional support4 conflictual independence: recognizing one’s separateness from parents w/o negative emotions
  • 42. Even when these components are consistent with an adolescentsculture, not all are able to achieve these levels of independence for varying reasons
  • 43. Early adolescents select friends who are similar in gender & interests.
  • 44. Early adolescents select friends who are similar in gender & interests. Later their groups will include opposite-sex friends as well.
  • 45. Participation in certain peer groups maynegatively influence an adolescents behavior
  • 46. Adolescent romantic relationships fulfill 4 needs:affiliation, attachment, ca regiving, and sexual gratification
  • 47. In the U.S. & many other wealthy nations, youth are required to stay in school. Girls have been found to be moreinvested in school & school activities than boys. In school, adolescents gain skills &knowledge for the workforce or furthering their education
  • 48. Work providesopportunities for social interaction & greaterfinancial independence Adolescents who work 10+ hrs a week have poor academic performance, psychologic al & physical problems
  • 49. SchoolSports Leisure & Uninvolved ActivityWorking clusters Volunteer High- Involved
  • 50. Large numbers of adolescents areusing cell phones & the internet to stay connected. This brings new sets of benefits & risks toadolescent identity development.
  • 51. 6spirituality?
  • 52. Adolescence & young adulthood are stages when religious conversions most likely take place. Religiousorganizations target these groups to exert influence in their lives
  • 53. Youth who participate in religious services have:1 more positive identity development 2 more supportive relationships3 Engage in less risky behaviors (sex & substance abuse)
  • 54. 7sexuality?
  • 55. Adolescents are strongly influenced by their peers & families attitudes towards sex.When & how they begin engagingin sexual activity is linked to the perceived actions of their peers
  • 56. Adolescent boys masturbate morethan adolescent girls
  • 57. Adolescents like having sex & they do it often- reportedly earlier than adolescents in other industrialized countries
  • 58. U.S. incidences of adolescent pregnancy, childbearing, an d STD’s are higher than those of other industrialized nations
  • 59. Adolescence is a time when youth develop awareness of their sexual orientation
  • 60. 8threats to development?
  • 61. Many adolescents experiment with Drug Use the use of nicotine, alcohol, & other psychoactive substances- especially highUnited States Industrialized schoolers
  • 62. Adolescent reasons for using alcohol& other psychoactive substances…. deal w/ get high have aopposite good time sex alleviate boredom relieve cheer up appear tension/ adultlike anxiety
  • 63. Substance abuse affects metabolism, internal organs, central nervous system, emotionalfunctioning, & cognitive functioning & pose a threat to adolescent health
  • 64. Children older than 5 but younger than 18 can be arrested for anything an adult can. They can also be arrested for status offenses- behaviors notconsidered crimes when committed by adults. Crimes by adolescents are referred to as juvenile delinquency
  • 65. Juveniles are more likely than adults to be bothvictims and perpetrators ofviolence (including bullying)
  • 66. Because of their underreporting, date rape & dating violence may be more prevalent among adolescents than the data suggest1 acquaintance rape: forced, manipulated, orcoerced sexual contact by someone known to thevictim2 statutory rape: individuals have voluntary &consensual sex but one too young or unable tolegally consent (e.g. mentally retarded)
  • 67. Additional threats to physical and mental health stem frompoverty, low educational attainment, & obesity
  • 68. 9protective factors?
  • 69. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services proposed adolescent health objectives1 Increase school involvement & achievement2 Increase sex/STD education3 Decrease adolescent bullying4 Decrease adolescent substance abuse & criminal activity5 Equip adolescents w/ skills & services to successfully transition into adulthood