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Chapter 2            Perspectives                 in1/23/2012            Management     1
Management in Antiquity                                                      D Greeks             C Babylonians           ...
Early Management Pioneers• Adam Smith      – A renowned economist      – Writer of the book – Wealth of Nations        (17...
Early Management Pioneers• Robert Owen (1771–1858)      –British industrialist who was       one of the first managers to ...
Early Management Pioneers• Charles Babbage (1792–1871)      –English mathematician who       focused on creating efficienc...
An Integrative Framework            of Management Perspectives            Systems Approach                               C...
Approaches to Management theories:• Different approaches to management theories evolved• can be classified as:      1. Cla...
1. Classical Theory:• emerged in the early year of the twentieth century to  increase efficiency and productivity due to e...
1. Classical Theory (contd.) :   A. Scientific Management Theory (contd.) :• prominent contributors of scientific manageme...
1. Classical Theory (contd.) :   A. Scientific Management Theory (contd.) :F.W.Taylor’s Scientific Management Theory (cont...
A. Scientific Management Theory (contd.) : F.W.Taylor’s Scientific Management Theory (contd.) Taylor’s Principles:    conc...
A. Scientific Management Theory (contd.) :  F. W.Taylor’s Scientific Management Theory (contd.)Taylor’s Principles (contd....
A. Scientific Management Theory (contd.) :     F.W. Taylor’s Scientific Management Theory (contd.)  Taylor’s Principles (c...
Scientific Management Theory (contd.) :  Taylor’s Followers (contd.):  1. Henry Gantt  • replaced Taylor’s differential pi...
Scientific Management Theory (contd.) :Taylor’s Followers (contd.):2.Frank and Lillian Gilbert• used motion pictures to st...
Scientific Management Theory (contd.) :Contributions:    developed performance efficiency techniques ( like scientific    ...
2. Administrative Management Theory • also referred to as the universalist or functional approach • focuses on the managem...
B. Administrative Management Theoryi. Henri Fayol (Contd.)• believed that a managers job could be divided into five  funct...
B. Administrative Management Theory i. Henri Fayol (Contd.) Functions of Management 1. Planning    Managers forecasting th...
B. Administrative Management Theory (contd.) i. Henri Fayol (Contd.) • activities to be accomplished in industrial organiz...
B. Administrative Management Theory (contd.)i. Henri Fayol (Contd.)Principles of Management1. Division of work• specializa...
B. Administrative Management Theory (contd.)i. Henri Fayol (Contd.)Principles of Management6. Subordination of individual ...
B. Administrative Management Theory (contd.)i. Henri Fayol (Contd.)Principles of Management10. Order• resources kept in ri...
B. Administrative Management Theory (contd.)i. Henri Fayol (Contd.)Conclusion• argued management as a continuous process b...
B. Administrative Management Theory (contd.)ii. Max Weber• Bureaucracy is efficient and effective way of     –      divisi...
Max Weber’s TheoryFeatures of Bureaucracy Structure1. Division of Labor     Complex work broken down into simple jobs2. Hi...
B. Administrative Management Theory (contd.)ii. Max WeberConclusion• Every systematically managed organization regardless ...
B. Administrative Management Theory (contd.)Contributions Foundation for the development of other management   theories ...
Behavioral Perspective• Hawthorne Studies• Human Relations Movement• Emergence of Organizational Behavior1/23/2012        ...
Behavioral Management Perspective • Behavioral Management       – Emphasized individual attitudes and behaviors, and      ...
2. Behavioral Science Theory (contd.)   A. Human Relations Approach (contd.)   The Hawthorne Studies (contd.)    Illumina...
2. Behavioral Science Theory (contd.)A. Human Relations Approach (contd.)The Hawthorne Studies (contd.) Mass Interviewing...
The Hawthorne Studies (1927–1932)• Conducted by Elton Mayo and associates at Western  Electric      – Illumination study—w...
2. Behavioral Science Theory (contd.)A. Human Relations Approach (contd.)The Hawthorne Studies’ conclusion:• Productivity ...
Behavioral Management Perspective (cont’d) • Human Relations Movement       – Grew out of the Hawthorne studies.       – P...
The Human                      Source: Van Fleet, David D.,  Relations View of   Contemporary Management,    Management   ...
Behavioral Management Perspective                (cont’d) • Abraham Maslow       – Advanced a theory that employees are mo...
Need Hierarchy Theory• Unlimited needs – when one need is fulfilled,  another arises• Unfulfilled needs creates anxiety wh...
Classification of Needs:                   Self        Desire to become what one is               Actualization           ...
1/23/2012   40
Theory X and Theory Y• Developed by Douglas McGregor• Theory X Assumptions        – People do not like work and try to avo...
Theory X and Theory Y (cont’d)• Theory Y Assumptions      – People do not dislike work; work is a natural part of        t...
Two Factor Theory• Developed by – Frederick Herzberg for work  motivation.• Hygiene Factors = Dissatisfaction vs no       ...
Organizational Behavior• A contemporary field focusing on behavioral  perspectives on management.      – Draws on psycholo...
Behavioral Management               Perspective…Today • Contributions       – Provided important insights into motivation,...
Behavioral Management            Perspective…Today (cont’d) • Limitations       – Complexity of individuals makes behavior...
Quantitative Perspectives    Management Science   Operations Management
Quantitative Perspectives• Developed during World War II• Mathematicians, Physicists, and Other  Scientists helped in war ...
Management Science• Primarily concerned with decision making.• Emphasis on application of mathematics and  statistics for ...
Operations Management Theory• Concerned with managing the process of  converting the inputs (raw-materials) into  outputs ...
Quantitative Management                   Perspective • Contributions       – Developed sophisticated quantitative techniq...
Quantitative Management                   Perspective • Limitations       – Quantitative management cannot fully explain o...
Integrating            Perspectives• Systems Perspective• Contingency Perspective1/23/2012      Quantative and Integrating...
System Perspective (Theory)• A system is a set of inter-related and inter-  dependent parts, arranged in such a way that  ...
Elements of Systems Theory•   Goal Orientation•   Subsystem•   Synergy•   System boundary•   Flow•   Feedback•   Open or c...
Contributions and Limitations• Contributions of system theory:      – Provides conceptual framework for meaningful        ...
Limitations of Systems Theory• Too abstract and difficult to apply• Does not offer tools and  techniques• It does not offe...
Contingency Perspective (Theory)• The theory focuses on situational factors.• Main logic behind the theory:      – There i...
Four Contingency Variables• Organization size• Routineness of Task  Technology• Environmental Uncertainty• Individual Diff...
Contributions and Limitations:• Contributions of Contingency Theory:• Encourages innovation in problem  solving• Requires ...
Limitations of Contingency Theory• Ignores universally applicable  principles• Fails to enlist all contingency  variables•...
Emerging Management Issues and                Challenges•   Globalization•   Development of Environmentalism•   Quality an...
Chapter 2: Outline• Precursors:      – Management in Antiquity      – Early Management Pioneers• Classical Perspective:   ...
Thank You      Chapter Finish1/23/2012   Quantative and Integrating Perspective   64
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  1. 1. Chapter 2 Perspectives in1/23/2012 Management 1
  2. 2. Management in Antiquity D Greeks C Babylonians G Venetians B Egyptians E Romans A Sumerians F Chinese3000 B.C. 2500 B.C. 2000 B.C. 1500 B.C. 1000 B.C. 500 B.C. A.D.500 A.D.1000 A.D.1500A Used written rules and regulations for governance E Used organized structure for communication and controlB Used management practices to construct pyramids F Used extensive organization structure for government agencies and the artsC Used extensive set of laws and policies for governance G Used organization design and planning concepts toD Used different governing systems for cities and state control the seas 1/23/2012 1–2
  3. 3. Early Management Pioneers• Adam Smith – A renowned economist – Writer of the book – Wealth of Nations (1776) – Division of work for economic advantage – Increasing individual worker’s skill and dexterity1/23/2012 1–3
  4. 4. Early Management Pioneers• Robert Owen (1771–1858) –British industrialist who was one of the first managers to recognize the importance of human resources and the welfare of workers.1/23/2012 1–4
  5. 5. Early Management Pioneers• Charles Babbage (1792–1871) –English mathematician who focused on creating efficiencies of production through the division of labor, and the application of mathematics to management problems.1/23/2012 5
  6. 6. An Integrative Framework of Management Perspectives Systems Approach Contingency Perspective • Recognition of internal • Recognition of the situational interdependencies nature of management • Recognition of • Response to particular environmental influences characteristics of situation Classical Behavioral Quantitative Management Management Management Perspectives Perspectives Perspectives Methods for Insights for moti- Techniques for enhancing vating performance improving decision efficiency and and understanding making, resource facilitating planning, individual behavior, allocation, and organizing, and groups and teams, operations controlling and leadership Effective and efficient management1/23/2012 6
  7. 7. Approaches to Management theories:• Different approaches to management theories evolved• can be classified as: 1. Classical Theory a. Scientific management theory b. Administrative management theory 2. Behavioral Science Theory 3. Management Science Theory 4. Decision Theory 5. Systems Theory 6. Contingency Theory1/23/2012 7
  8. 8. 1. Classical Theory:• emerged in the early year of the twentieth century to increase efficiency and productivity due to evolution of large scale business.• constitutes the discipline & process of management in an organization.• also referred to as the traditional theory,• includes two different approaches i. scientific management ii. administrative management A. Scientific Management Theory:• developed to increase productivity through labor efficiency in the early 20th century.1/23/2012 8
  9. 9. 1. Classical Theory (contd.) : A. Scientific Management Theory (contd.) :• prominent contributors of scientific management theory were Frederick W. Taylor, Frank & Lillian Gilbert and Henry Gantt.• F.W. Taylor was the greatest contributor and played the dominant role.F.W.Taylor’s Scientific Management Theory:• F.W Taylor known as the “Father of Scientific Management”.• worked at the Midvale steel company, Philadelphia and Bethlehem Steel company, Pennsylvania.1/23/2012 9
  10. 10. 1. Classical Theory (contd.) : A. Scientific Management Theory (contd.) :F.W.Taylor’s Scientific Management Theory (contd.) :• Observed (in these companies) that production & pay were poor, inefficiency existed, wastage was high, workers put into job without matching their abilities and the workers used different techniques to perform the same work.• realized that work efficiency was low due to lack of order and system• This led him to come out with “The principle of scientific management” in 1911 A.D. in which the explained the principles of scientific management.• emphasized one best method of doing work to increase efficiency & productivity.1/23/2012 10
  11. 11. A. Scientific Management Theory (contd.) : F.W.Taylor’s Scientific Management Theory (contd.) Taylor’s Principles: concluded his studies by laying down certain principles : Standardization • referring to the speed & rate at which work should be done • Using standard & right equipments and tools for the jobs. • development of true science of doing work by studying the nature of work and replacing rule of thumb. Time and task study: • required to determine one best method of doing work. Systematic selection & Training: • scientific selection of employees and providing proper training and developing them to undertake the task assigned • not letting workers choose the work but rather placing1/23/2012 11
  12. 12. A. Scientific Management Theory (contd.) : F. W.Taylor’s Scientific Management Theory (contd.)Taylor’s Principles (contd.) :Systematic selection & Training (contd.) : right person on the right job.Pay Incentives:• referring to the increment in the payroll in accordance with the amount of work done in order to increase productivity.( paid according to piece produced)• employees motivated by economic incentives• greater pay for greater output and vice versaCooperation between managers and operatives:• referring to harmony between the employer and employee to accomplish work by dividing the work scientifically and systematically.• managers involved in planning the work, determining the working procedure, time of doing work etc & supervising1/23/2012 12
  13. 13. A. Scientific Management Theory (contd.) : F.W. Taylor’s Scientific Management Theory (contd.) Taylor’s Principles (contd.) : Cooperation between managers and operatives (contd.): the employees • employees executing the plans as per the instructions • a mental revolution to be created by establishing understanding between employer and employees Taylor’s Followers: 1. Henry Gantt • One of the followers of F.W. Taylor • a mechanical engineer who worked as a close associate of Taylor at the Midvale steel company.1/23/2012 13
  14. 14. Scientific Management Theory (contd.) : Taylor’s Followers (contd.): 1. Henry Gantt • replaced Taylor’s differential piece rate system by combining a guaranteed day rate (minimum wage) with an above standard bonus. • however, known for originating a Graphic chart (Gantt Chart) as a scheduling device for planning & controlling work & this is his contribution to scientific management. • emphasized on the recognition of human factor and service rather than profits. 2.Frank and Lillian Gilbert • A team of husband and wife • Frank a construction contractor and Lillian a psychologist who too followed Taylor’s footsteps.1/23/2012 14
  15. 15. Scientific Management Theory (contd.) :Taylor’s Followers (contd.):2.Frank and Lillian Gilbert• used motion pictures to study hand and body motion by use of micro chronometer that recorded the time to determine the time spent on motion in doing a task.• conducted motion and fatigue study with the (help of) brick layering experiment• suggested economical motion (decrease unnecessary motions) to upgrade performance of each individual.• Developed performance efficiency techniques (scientific training, selection & development)• Improved working conditions by redesigning various machines & tools to fit people thereby reducing fatigue.1/23/2012 15
  16. 16. Scientific Management Theory (contd.) :Contributions: developed performance efficiency techniques ( like scientific training, selection, development etc.) improved working conditions by redesigning various machines and tools to fit people for efficiency of work emphasized over specialization and standardization for smooth flow of workLimitations• viewed worker as undimensional beings interested in more money and motivated them i.e. Men were considered as machine.• Assumed that environment of organizations were predictable, stable & simple which is not realistic.• focuses on production, ignoring other sectors of management• no one best way of doing work1/23/2012 16
  17. 17. 2. Administrative Management Theory • also referred to as the universalist or functional approach • focuses on the management of total organizations effectively; especially larger organizations • assumes that management process remains the same across all organizations • Prominent administrative theorists are Henri Fayol and Max Weber Henri Fayol • A French engineer, an industrialist as well as a successful administrator in a French mining company • Published a book in 1916 A.D. that was translated into English in 1929, entitled “General and Industrial Administration” • conceptualizes management functions & principles for the successful management of all types of organizations1/23/2012 17
  18. 18. B. Administrative Management Theoryi. Henri Fayol (Contd.)• believed that a managers job could be divided into five functions planning organizing commanding essential for managerial success coordinating controlling• also stated a series of principles of management to guide managers resolve problems in a particular situation and carry out their functional duties.Functions of Management• Emphasized that all managers must perform functions as1/23/2012 18
  19. 19. B. Administrative Management Theory i. Henri Fayol (Contd.) Functions of Management 1. Planning Managers forecasting the events and developing an operating plan to guide future decisions 2. Organizing Determining appropriate combination of resources (machine, material and human) to accomplish task. 3. Commanding Directing the activities of subordinates through two-way communication 4. Coordinating Arranging and integrating group efforts towards unity of action 5. Controlling Ensuring actual activities are according to the plan set1/23/2012 19
  20. 20. B. Administrative Management Theory (contd.) i. Henri Fayol (Contd.) • activities to be accomplished in industrial organizations: 1. Technical: activities concerned with production. 2. Commercial: activities like buying,selling and exchange functions. 3. Financial: obtaining capital and optimum utilization of capital 4. Security: protection of persons and property. 5. Accounting: financial transactions recording. 6. Managerial: activities of management like planning, organizing, commanding and controlling1/23/2012 20
  21. 21. B. Administrative Management Theory (contd.)i. Henri Fayol (Contd.)Principles of Management1. Division of work• specialization to increase output.2. Authority• the right flowing from responsibility.3. Discipline• follow rules and regulations (being obedient).4. Unity of command• report and receive orders from only one superior.5. Unity of direction• similar activities grouped under one plan and directed by one superior.• efforts focused and coordinated in same direction1/23/2012 21
  22. 22. B. Administrative Management Theory (contd.)i. Henri Fayol (Contd.)Principles of Management6. Subordination of individual interests to the general interest• organizational interest must be given priority over individual interest.7. Remuneration• fair wage service to the employees (performance based)8. Centralization• the final decision making power retained by the top level• maintaining balance between centralization and decentralization.9. Scalar chain• flow of work authority and communication in a chain from top to bottom. 1/23/2012 22
  23. 23. B. Administrative Management Theory (contd.)i. Henri Fayol (Contd.)Principles of Management10. Order• resources kept in right place.11. Equity• just and fair towards subordinates.• leads to devotion and loyal service12. Stability of staffs• reducing high absenteeism and turnover of staffs.( as people need time to learn their jobs)13. Initiative• employees taking initiative and being creative.14. Esprit de corps• harmonious relation and promote team spirit1/23/2012 23
  24. 24. B. Administrative Management Theory (contd.)i. Henri Fayol (Contd.)Conclusion• argued management as a continuous process beginning with planning and ending with controlling• a framework for analyzing management process• theory is useful as it specifies what managers should do [but not why & how]• Fayols concept is a skeleton that is to be fleshed out with concepts, techniques and situational refinementsii. Max Weber• A German sociologist who developed a theory of authority structure, the ideal model for management i.e. the bureaucracy approach1/23/2012 24
  25. 25. B. Administrative Management Theory (contd.)ii. Max Weber• Bureaucracy is efficient and effective way of – division of labor, – hierarchy of authority, – framework of rules and regulations and – impersonality• Recommended bureaucratic organization model for doing work in groups for large organization• however recognized that it didnt exist in reality1/23/2012 25
  26. 26. Max Weber’s TheoryFeatures of Bureaucracy Structure1. Division of Labor Complex work broken down into simple jobs2. Hierarchy of Accepted chain of command to direct individuals effortAuthority towards organizational goal accomplishment3. Framework of Rules Effort directed and coordinated by rules4. Impersonality Hiring and promoting people on the basis of objective merit rather than favoritism (on the basis of what they know, and not who they know)5. Formal Selection Technical competence members selected accordingly on the basis of training, qualification, education etc.1/23/2012 26
  27. 27. B. Administrative Management Theory (contd.)ii. Max WeberConclusion• Every systematically managed organization regardless of its size and purpose has to some extent a moderate degree of bureaucracy to enhance organizational efficiency• However, taken too very high bureaucracy can hinder efficiency far can hinder the efficiency• The bureaucratic system, however, is a very rigid system to be followed in practice1/23/2012 27
  28. 28. B. Administrative Management Theory (contd.)Contributions Foundation for the development of other management theories Identified important management aspects as a frame of reference and basis of management in organizationLimitations Prescribed universal procedures to be applied in organization ignoring the situation, complexity and environment in which organization operate Ignored the human element in the organization and viewed them as tools.1/23/2012 28
  29. 29. Behavioral Perspective• Hawthorne Studies• Human Relations Movement• Emergence of Organizational Behavior1/23/2012 29
  30. 30. Behavioral Management Perspective • Behavioral Management – Emphasized individual attitudes and behaviors, and group processes, and recognized the importance of behavioral processes in the workplace. • Hugo Munsterberg (1863–1916) – A German psychologist, considered the father of industrial psychology, who advocated the practice of applying psychological concepts to employees selection and motivation industrial settings. • Mary Parker Follett (1868 –1933) – Recognized the importance of the role of human behavior in the workplace.1/23/2012 30
  31. 31. 2. Behavioral Science Theory (contd.) A. Human Relations Approach (contd.) The Hawthorne Studies (contd.)  Illumination Programme  Experiment carried out to study the relationship between the intensity of light and productivity over a selected group of employees  result showed illumination did not affect output  Relay Assembly Room Programme  Manipulation of physical surroundings to study the effect on productivity  working conditions changed to observe its effect on productivity  concluded that team feeling, recognition and social settings important for higher productivity1/23/2012 31
  32. 32. 2. Behavioral Science Theory (contd.)A. Human Relations Approach (contd.)The Hawthorne Studies (contd.) Mass Interviewing Programme  20,000 workers interviewed to find out factors responsible for human behavior at work  social relations and interrelationship among employees influenced the group to enhance performance Bank Wiring Observation Room Programme  to find out the functioning of small groups over individuals  importance of informal group highlighted that set their norms and protect the employees or workers1/23/2012 32
  33. 33. The Hawthorne Studies (1927–1932)• Conducted by Elton Mayo and associates at Western Electric – Illumination study—workplace lighting adjustments affected both the control and the experimental groups of production employees. – Group study—implementation of piecework incentive plan caused production workers to establish informal levels of acceptable individual output. • Over-producing workers were labeled “rate busters” and under- producing workers were considered “chiselers.” – Interview program—confirmed the importance of human behavior in the workplace. – Bank Wiring Observation Room Program 14 workers were formed into a work group and observed for seven months1/23/2012 33
  34. 34. 2. Behavioral Science Theory (contd.)A. Human Relations Approach (contd.)The Hawthorne Studies’ conclusion:• Productivity was much affected by the attitudes of the worker (Relationship between members of a work group and between members and their supervisors) rather than working condition and incentive plan (like hours of work, wage incentives, etc.)• the informal work group formed at the work places, determined the worker behavior by setting the group norms, standard worker output, hierarchy of member, creating group security and group sentiments, thereby exercising strong control over the behavior of the workers• emphasized more on humanistic and realistic view of social man from economic man• Group or social factors played a dominant and significant role in the functioning of the organization in achieving their goals, since it provided the members the feeling of acceptance and dignity and satisfied employees1/23/2012 34
  35. 35. Behavioral Management Perspective (cont’d) • Human Relations Movement – Grew out of the Hawthorne studies. – Proposed that workers respond primarily to the social context of work, including social conditioning, group norms, and interpersonal dynamics. – Assumed that the manager’s concern for workers would lead to increased worker satisfaction and improved worker performance.1/23/2012 35
  36. 36. The Human Source: Van Fleet, David D., Relations View of Contemporary Management, Management Second Edition. Copyright © 1991 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Used with permissions.1/23/2012 36
  37. 37. Behavioral Management Perspective (cont’d) • Abraham Maslow – Advanced a theory that employees are motivated by a hierarchy of needs that they seek to satisfy. • Douglas McGregor – Proposed Theory X and Theory Y concepts of managerial beliefs about people and work.1/23/2012 37
  38. 38. Need Hierarchy Theory• Unlimited needs – when one need is fulfilled, another arises• Unfulfilled needs creates anxiety which leads to motivation• Needs arise in order – Classification of needs:1/23/2012 38
  39. 39. Classification of Needs: Self Desire to become what one is Actualization Needs capable of Esteem Self respect, autonomy, etc. Needs Social Affection, acceptance, friendship Needs Security Physical, financial, psychological Needs Physiological Food, shelter, clothing, sex, maternal need. Needs1/23/2012 39
  40. 40. 1/23/2012 40
  41. 41. Theory X and Theory Y• Developed by Douglas McGregor• Theory X Assumptions – People do not like work and try to avoid it. – People do not like work, so managers have to control, direct, coerce, and threaten employees to get them to work toward organizational goals. – People prefer to be directed, to avoid responsibility, and to want security; they have little ambition.Source: Douglas McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise, Copyright © 1960by McGraw-Hill. Reprinted by permission of The McGraw-Hill Companies.1/23/2012 41
  42. 42. Theory X and Theory Y (cont’d)• Theory Y Assumptions – People do not dislike work; work is a natural part of their lives. – People are internally motivated to reach objectives to which they are committed. – People are committed to goals to the degree that they receive rewards when they reach their objectives. – People seek both seek responsibility and accept responsibility under favorable conditions. – People can be innovative in solving problems. – People are bright, but under most organizational conditions their potentials are underutilized.1/23/2012 42
  43. 43. Two Factor Theory• Developed by – Frederick Herzberg for work motivation.• Hygiene Factors = Dissatisfaction vs no Dissatisfaction• Motivation Factors = No satisfaction vs Satisfaction1/23/2012 43
  44. 44. Organizational Behavior• A contemporary field focusing on behavioral perspectives on management. – Draws on psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, and medicine.• Important topics in organizational behavior research: – Job satisfaction and job stress – Motivation and leadership – Group dynamics and organizational politics – Interpersonal conflict – The structure and design of organizations1/23/2012 44
  45. 45. Behavioral Management Perspective…Today • Contributions – Provided important insights into motivation, group dynamics, and other interpersonal processes. – Focused managerial attention on these critical processes. – Challenged the view that employees are tools and furthered the belief that employees are valuable resources.1/23/2012 45
  46. 46. Behavioral Management Perspective…Today (cont’d) • Limitations – Complexity of individuals makes behavior difficult to predict. – Many concepts not put to use because managers are reluctant to adopt them. – Contemporary research findings are not often communicated to practicing managers in an understandable form.1/23/2012 46
  47. 47. Quantitative Perspectives Management Science Operations Management
  48. 48. Quantitative Perspectives• Developed during World War II• Mathematicians, Physicists, and Other Scientists helped in war techniques• Quantitative approach to management involves use of quantitative techniques like: – Statistics – Information models – Computer simulations etc.1/23/2012 Quantative and Integrating Perspective 48
  49. 49. Management Science• Primarily concerned with decision making.• Emphasis on application of mathematics and statistics for decision making and problem solving.Techniques of Management Science:• Linear Programming• Game Theory• Sampling Theory• Probability Theory• Simulation etc.1/23/2012 Quantative and Integrating Perspective 49
  50. 50. Operations Management Theory• Concerned with managing the process of converting the inputs (raw-materials) into outputs (finished products)• Concerned with quality, customer service and competition.Techniques of Operations Management:• Quality Control• Total Quality Management• Just In Time Technique• Six sigma etc.1/23/2012 Quantative and Integrating Perspective 50
  51. 51. Quantitative Management Perspective • Contributions – Developed sophisticated quantitative techniques to assist in decision making. – Application of models has increased our awareness and understanding of complex processes and situations. – Has been useful in the planning and controlling processes.1/23/2012 Quantative and Integrating Perspective 51
  52. 52. Quantitative Management Perspective • Limitations – Quantitative management cannot fully explain or predict the behavior of people in organizations. – Mathematical sophistication may come at the expense of other managerial skills. – Quantitative models may require unrealistic or unfounded assumptions, limiting their general applicability.1/23/2012 Quantative and Integrating Perspective 52
  53. 53. Integrating Perspectives• Systems Perspective• Contingency Perspective1/23/2012 Quantative and Integrating Perspective 53
  54. 54. System Perspective (Theory)• A system is a set of inter-related and inter- dependent parts, arranged in such a way that produces a unified whole. Feedback of System1/23/2012 Quantative and Integrating Perspective 54
  55. 55. Elements of Systems Theory• Goal Orientation• Subsystem• Synergy• System boundary• Flow• Feedback• Open or closed1/23/2012 Quantative and Integrating Perspective 55
  56. 56. Contributions and Limitations• Contributions of system theory: – Provides conceptual framework for meaningful analysis and management of an organization – Emphasis on interrelations- interdependence – Helps in problem solving – It integrates various management theories by emphasizing on physical aspect, behavioral aspect, and environmental aspect1/23/2012 Quantative and Integrating Perspective 56
  57. 57. Limitations of Systems Theory• Too abstract and difficult to apply• Does not offer tools and techniques• It does not offer unified body of knowledge.1/23/2012 Quantative and Integrating Perspective 57
  58. 58. Contingency Perspective (Theory)• The theory focuses on situational factors.• Main logic behind the theory: – There is no one best method in all different situations• The best method to solve a problem varies according to situation.• Every organization is unique.• There are four contingency variables that determine management Practice:1/23/2012 Quantative and Integrating Perspective 58
  59. 59. Four Contingency Variables• Organization size• Routineness of Task Technology• Environmental Uncertainty• Individual Differences1/23/2012 Quantative and Integrating Perspective 59
  60. 60. Contributions and Limitations:• Contributions of Contingency Theory:• Encourages innovation in problem solving• Requires the use of analytical, critical, and multidimensional techniques• Increased freedom to managers• Required managers to be more sensitive and alert1/23/2012 Quantative and Integrating Perspective 60
  61. 61. Limitations of Contingency Theory• Ignores universally applicable principles• Fails to enlist all contingency variables• Focuses only on situation and not on tools and resources• It ignores human behavioral aspects.1/23/2012 Quantative and Integrating Perspective 61
  62. 62. Emerging Management Issues and Challenges• Globalization• Development of Environmentalism• Quality and Productivity• Ethics and social responsibility• Workforce diversity• Innovation and change• Empowerment of employees• Knowledge management• Technological development• Multicultural effects1/23/2012 Quantative and Integrating Perspective 62
  63. 63. Chapter 2: Outline• Precursors: – Management in Antiquity – Early Management Pioneers• Classical Perspective: – Scientific Management: F.W. Taylor – Administrative Management: Hanri Fayol – Bureaucracy : max Weber• Behavioral Perspective: – Hawthorne studies, Human Relations Movement, Organizational Behavior• Quantitative Perspective: – Decisional Theory and Management Science and Operation Science Theory• Integrating Perspective: – System and Contingency Perspective• Emerging Management Issues and Challenges1/23/2012 63
  64. 64. Thank You Chapter Finish1/23/2012 Quantative and Integrating Perspective 64
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