Biology essay


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Biology essay

  1. 1. POLIO DISEASE<br />Biology essay - Rolla Tyas Amalia<br />Polio comes from the word poliomyelitis, which refers to a disease caused by virus that effects the central nervous system and can cause temporary or permanent inability to moves and feels. Polio is a contagious disease, which the virus spread through the human interaction. Up to 95 percent of people who are infected the polio will not have serious symptoms. However, even without symptoms, infected people can still spread the virus and cause others to develop the disease. Polio also known as the civilization disease, they become more known by the world at that time. On that era the people who got that disease are uncountable because they are very many, especially in Europe and Asia, and polio could happen to any ages. Polio used to be one of the most dreaded childhood diseases of the 20th century in the United States. There were usually about 13,000 to 20,000 cases of polio reported each year before the introduction of the Salk vaccine in 1955, for prevent the virus of polio.<br />This disease caused by a virus called poliovirus or well known as PV. It is a single-stranded RNA virus from the family Picornaviridae and genus enterovirus. The virus only infects humans and is more common during summer months in temperate climates. In tropical climates, there is no seasonal pattern. The poliomyelitis virus is rapidly inactivated by heat, formaldehyde, chlorine, and ultraviolet light. It can enter our body through our mouth and not only will destruct our nerve system, but they also can cause infection to our intestine. The virus work on blood and vessels that flow to our brain and central nervous system, which weakened our muscle and body systems. Polio can spread widely in secret because the majority of polio patients have no serious symptoms, so they do not know if they are infected with polio. Polio transmission most often occurs through contact with stool from an infected person. This spread of poliovirus can happen in one of several ways, which include:<br /><ul><li>Eating food or drinking liquids that are contaminated with poliovirus. Poliovirus is commonly found in sewage water.
  2. 2. Touching surfaces or objects contaminated with poliovirus (for instance, by changing diapers), and then placing the contaminated hand in the mouth.
  3. 3. Sharing foods or eating utensils with someone infected with poliovirus.</li></ul>People with polio usually will have difficulty in their economic life and their environment. They will need a lot of money to struggle against the polio that they had because there is no cure for polio. The treatment for polio usually only consists of treating the symptoms like fever and stomachache until the patient recovers, but it does not cure the polio. This treatment is called supportive care; it can include fluids, medications, and rest. Supportive care as treatment for polio will depend on the symptoms of polio that a person experiences. There are two types of polio, which are mild aseptic meningitis and paralytic paralysis. Aseptic meningitis is the polio with mild symptoms, the treatment will include fluids, medications (such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen) to control fever or pain, rest until the fever improves. Paralytic paralysis is more dangerous polio rather than aseptic meningitis, the treatments will include medications to reduce pain and improve strength, antibiotic medications for bacterial infections, breathing assistance with a mechanical ventilator.<br /> Polio is largely a disease of young children; infection in adulthood is very rare. Children 5 years and younger (particularly those under 3) are at the highest risk for infection. The very old are also susceptible.

Risk factors for the polio virus include lack of immunization, poor hygiene, poverty, unsanitary living conditions, or travel to a high-risk area or area experiencing a recent outbreak. Trauma to the mouth, nose, or throat, such as a recent tonsillectomy or dental surgery, increases the risk of the disease. In those exposed to the virus, unusual stress or exertion can heighten the chances of infection.<br />In 1938, President Roosevelt established the National Foundation for Paralysis of the Child, which aims to find a polio prevention, and treat those already infected. The foundation was established the March of Dimes. The mothers visiting from house to house, the children help do things for other people, cinema advertising, all aimed at asking for help one dime, or ten cents. Incoming funds were used to fund research that Dr. Jonas Salk produced the first effective vaccine. In 1952, in America there are 58 thousand cases of polio. In 1955 the Salk vaccine began to be used. In 1963, after tens of millions of children vaccinated, in America there were only 396 cases of polio.<br />