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Lawrie Hunter Kochi University of Technology http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/ Media as Levers alt.medium support t...
Media as Levers Determine  a  framework for CALL optimization. Assemble a  pattern language for CALL The  obvious  approac...
Media as Levers Assemble a  pattern language for CALL Taking a  contrarian  approach: Explore the notion ‘ media levers’ S...
Ubiquitous IT now Physical plant limitations =>  =>non-ubiquitous access to IT classrooms.  Yet 'virtually' every learner ...
Beyond absorption Wesch   http://blip.tv/file/2615703/ :   - stresses ‘ meaningful’ :   <Today’s IT ubiquity throws us int...
Macro creativity or micro creativity? Then creativity at what level, macro or micro?  Wesch  stresses ‘ meaningful’ :  now...
Macro creativity or micro creativity? Hunter :  in this discussion,  go for fascination  at the  micro  level . In that fr...
Design for creativity in task:  partial  or overall solutions? Task design to address  critical design issues: curriculum ...
Design for creativity in task:  partial  or overall solutions? <claim>   Task-intrinsic behavioral constraints   such as  ...
For today, let’s go non-Weschian:   Language tasks:  overall  solutions at the  micro  level
For today, let’s go non-Weschian:   Language tasks:  overall  solutions at the  micro  level Make  task support medium dif...
Non-Weschian question:  how to quantify ‘involvement’? We need a bottom line : what are the markers/degrees of ‘involvemen...
-articulating what is usually implicit We need a ‘pattern language’ : A  designer  way for talking about processing, task ...
Task design discourse Target behavior … The language, and the processes which stem from it, merely release the fundamental...
Task design discourse Target behavior Tools A  pattern language? www.patternlanguage.com Pattern language  emerges from pr...
Media lever example 1:   Task:  learners are to prepare for a challenge where they must write sentences to describe the in...
Media lever example 1 –  clever extensions   Task:  learners are to prepare for a challenge where they must write sentence...
Media lever example 1  power variation 1 :   Task:  learners are to prepare for a challenge where they must write sentence...
Media lever example 1  power variation 2 :   Task:  learners are to prepare for a challenge where they must write sentence...
Conscious threshold   Remembering that  media levers’ power lies below the conscious threshold . Remembering that  the lea...
Conscious threshold   Example:   rikai.com's  web page mouseover reading tool:  compared to a JEJ dictionary,  completely ...
Media lever example 2:   Task perception:  at times  it is motivating to  provide  a 'distractor task' so as to  backgroun...
Media lever example 3:   Task:  learners are presented with a mystery,  embodied in a ‘scene of the crime’ drawing.  Learn...
Media lever example 3:   Task:  learners are presented with a mystery,  embodied in a ‘scene of the crime’ drawing.  Learn...
Media lever example 3  variation 1 :   Task:  learners are presented with a mystery,  embodied in a ‘scene of the crime’ d...
Media lever example 3  variation 2 :   Task:  learners are presented with a mystery,  embodied in a ‘scene of the crime’ d...
Media lever example 3  variation 3 :   Task:  learners are presented with a mystery,  embodied in a ‘scene of the crime’ d...
Media lever example 3  variation 4 :   Task:  learners are presented with a mystery,  embodied in a ‘scene of the crime’ d...
Media levers point to:   The  need for a framework  for cognitive task design work. The  need for a pattern language  for ...
CALL cognitive task design work Designer WANTS Designer NEEDS … The language, and the processes which stem from it, merely...
Tensions  (to germinate pattern language) Typical tensions in CALL work Learner – PC Learner – software Learner – target c...
Tensions  (to germinate pattern language) Hunter's tensions of interest Interface/task – learner perception of curriculum ...
Tensions  (to germinate pattern language) Hunter's tensions of interest Interface/task – learner perception of curriculum ...
“ Processing”: a pattern language element L2 processing Language -> information identify sounds/words/phrases find L1 equi...
“ Processing” types INPUT TASKS Listening Looking Watching  Reading a symbol Reading text Feeling Smelling Tasting OUTPUT ...
“ Processing” immediacy and presence Immediate processing Delayable processing Minimum presence Maximum presence Tests for...
Merging content and processing to decide task type Description Classification Comparison Sequence Cause-effect  Inference ...
Sequencing of tasks Remembering Accumulating Transforming Naming Describing Classifying Comparing Finding an answer to a q...
An essential pattern language element : Baddeley and Hitch’s  1986 model of  working memory ,  with its 3 components. <ul>...
Working memory model extended (2000) Phonological loop:  Important for short-term storage -ALSO for long term phonological...
<ul><li>Working memory model extended (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological loop effects:  </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological ...
A   most  promising task design tool: Baddeley’s model of working memory,  with its (since 2000) 4 components. Central Exe...
… The language, and the processes which stem from it, merely release the fundamental order which is native to us. They do ...
Thanks for your attention. Downloads from   http://lawriehunter.com/presns/tw4/ http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/ h...
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Media as Levers

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Transcript of "Media as Levers"

  1. 1. Lawrie Hunter Kochi University of Technology http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/ Media as Levers alt.medium support task performance
  2. 2. Media as Levers Determine a framework for CALL optimization. Assemble a pattern language for CALL The obvious approach: What if video games were like schools? from Disrupting Class
  3. 3. Media as Levers Assemble a pattern language for CALL Taking a contrarian approach: Explore the notion ‘ media levers’ Search for a framework for CALL optimization.
  4. 4. Ubiquitous IT now Physical plant limitations => =>non-ubiquitous access to IT classrooms. Yet 'virtually' every learner does have some personal access to web and media. Though standardization remains an obstacle, IT uniquely affords individualization of learning activities. Then crucial question: How to heighten the learner's motivation/need to autonomously access task resources/media?
  5. 5. Beyond absorption Wesch http://blip.tv/file/2615703/ : - stresses ‘ meaningful’ : <Today’s IT ubiquity throws us into a pit of meaninglessness and insignificance.> so <education needs to move beyond absorption learning and critical thinking towards developing learner creativity>.
  6. 6. Macro creativity or micro creativity? Then creativity at what level, macro or micro? Wesch stresses ‘ meaningful’ : nowadays, IT ubiquity throws us into a pit of meaninglessness and insignificance.“ Of course, multiple-choice questions are an easy target for criticism, but even more sophisticated measures of cognitive development may miss the point. When you watch somebody who is truly “in it,” somebody who has totally given themselves over to the learning process , or if you simply imagine those moments in which you were “in it” yourself, you immediately recognize that learning expands far beyond the mere cognitive dimension. Many of these dimensions were mentioned in the issue precis, “such as emotional and affective dimensions, capacities for risk-taking and uncertainty, creativity and invention,” and the list goes on. How will we assess these? I do not have the answers, but a renewed and spirited dedication to the creation of authentic learning environments that leverage the new media environment demands that we address it. The new media environment provides new opportunities for us to create a community of learners with our students seeking important and meaningful questions. Questions of the very best kind abound, and we become students again, pursuing questions we might have never imagined, joyfully learning right along with the others. In the best case scenario the students will leave the course, not with answers, but with more questions, and even more importantly, the capacity to ask still more questions generated from their continual pursuit and practice of the subjectivities we hope to inspire. This is what I have called elsewhere, “anti-teaching,” in which the focus is not on providing answers to be memorized, but on creating a learning environment more conducive to producing the types of questions that ask students to challenge their taken-for-granted assumptions and see their own underlying biases.’ http://www.academiccommons.org/commons/essay/knowledgable-knowledge-able
  7. 7. Macro creativity or micro creativity? Hunter : in this discussion, go for fascination at the micro level . In that frame, the notion of creativity in language learning scenarios raises critical design issues : curriculum control learner time demand input/output sequencing input/output proportion
  8. 8. Design for creativity in task: partial or overall solutions? Task design to address critical design issues: curriculum control learner time demand input/output sequencing input/output proportion Recently available tools such as Cmap Tools, Yahoo Pipes and debategraph provide partial resolutions to these design issues.
  9. 9. Design for creativity in task: partial or overall solutions? <claim> Task-intrinsic behavioral constraints such as media leverage , along with content-related and structure-related constraints , can provide overall resolutions in macro scenarios while at the same time making tasks more effective in terms of motivation and available agenda .
  10. 10. For today, let’s go non-Weschian: Language tasks: overall solutions at the micro level
  11. 11. For today, let’s go non-Weschian: Language tasks: overall solutions at the micro level Make task support medium different from task medium different from performance medium same medium support task performance alt.medium support task performance
  12. 12. Non-Weschian question: how to quantify ‘involvement’? We need a bottom line : what are the markers/degrees of ‘involvement’? Possible markers: Task success Practice performance (vs. non) Practice persistence Reported experience Neuro-electric
  13. 13. -articulating what is usually implicit We need a ‘pattern language’ : A designer way for talking about processing, task shaping, involvement, media leverage. Task design discourse
  14. 14. Task design discourse Target behavior … The language, and the processes which stem from it, merely release the fundamental order which is native to us. They do not teach us, they only remind us of what we know already, and of what we shall discover time and time again, when we give up our ideas and opinions, and do exactly what emerges from ourselves. Christopher Alexander, The Timeless Way of Building A pattern language? www.patternlanguage.com Tools
  15. 15. Task design discourse Target behavior Tools A pattern language? www.patternlanguage.com Pattern language emerges from practice: look at some examples first =>
  16. 16. Media lever example 1: Task: learners are to prepare for a challenge where they must write sentences to describe the information embodied in any one of a set of line graphs with discrete data points. Media lever: provision of web- and mobile-accessible sound files containing 'answers’, i.e. model language for the powerpoint set of graphs being studied. Observations: In class practice sessions were lackadaisical and slow/stopped. ~70% of students did report accessing the web files in their own time. ~30% of those transcribed the speech. Frequent mention of having enjoyed the challenged of matching the unnumbered sound files to the numbered powerpoint graphs. line graph audio file writing task INPUT LEVER OUTPUT
  17. 17. Media lever example 1 – clever extensions Task: learners are to prepare for a challenge where they must write sentences to describe the information embodied in any one of a set of line graphs with discrete data points. Media lever 1: make sound files available on the web, each file containing the utterance for one graph in the flashcard set. Listening is foregrounded. Media lever 2: put the sound files, unlabeled, in random order on the web. Learners must match the sound files to the graph slides. Both listening and graph decoding are foregrounded. Higher cognitive load. Media lever 3: provide sound files for only some of the graph slides. Both listening and graph decoding are foregrounded, and decision-making and pattern application are forced. Even higher cognitive load. Media lever 4: make the graphs similar in content. Listening is foregrounded. Make the graphs dissimilar in content. Analytical process if foregrounded.
  18. 18. Media lever example 1 power variation 1 : Task: learners are to prepare for a challenge where they must write sentences to describe the information embodied in any one of a set of line graphs with discrete data points. Media lever: provision of web- and mobile-accessible sound files containing 'answers’ but in jumbled order. Learners must match sound levers to task inputs. 5 line graphs 5 audio files (jumbled) 3 writing tasks (jumbled) INPUT LEVER OUTPUT 1 2 3 4 5 3 2 5 1 4 4 1 2
  19. 19. Media lever example 1 power variation 2 : Task: learners are to prepare for a challenge where they must write sentences to describe the information embodied in any one of a set of line graphs with discrete data points. Media lever: provision of web- and mobile-accessible sound files containing 'answers’ to only some tasks. Learners must match sound levers to task inputs, and must transfer the training to the remaining unleveraged tasks. 5 line graphs 3 audio files (jumbled) 5 writing tasks (original order) INPUT LEVER OUTPUT 1 2 3 4 5 4 1 2 1 2 3 4 5
  20. 20. Conscious threshold Remembering that media levers’ power lies below the conscious threshold . Remembering that the learner should be placed in executive role as much as possible – or at least feel situated there. Atmosphere change => attitude change
  21. 21. Conscious threshold Example: rikai.com's web page mouseover reading tool: compared to a JEJ dictionary, completely different atmosphere. Results: completely different text attack attitude. L2 Nihongo learners have responded ecstatically to discovery of this tool. Analysis: Asked to analyze their response, the learners gave signs of not having thought analytically about the tool.
  22. 22. Media lever example 2: Task perception: at times it is motivating to provide a 'distractor task' so as to background the actual task. Low-tech example* : Task: in a textbook, learners are to copy the sentences from the left hand page and adapt them to express the data given on the right hand page (information substitution) (appealing). Writing and calculation are foregrounded, reading backgrounded. Covert task : read the left hand page (unappealing). *don’t forget: not all media are electronic
  23. 23. Media lever example 3: Task: learners are presented with a mystery, embodied in a ‘scene of the crime’ drawing. Learners are to do abduction: find a believable explanation for all the evidence in the graphic.
  24. 24. Media lever example 3: Task: learners are presented with a mystery, embodied in a ‘scene of the crime’ drawing. Learners are to do abduction: find a believable explanation for all the evidence in the graphic. Obvious procedure: brainstorm in L1; compose in L2. Media lever: learners receive pages of 'fodder’ model sentences for composition within the problem solving task. Outcome: hint searching is foregrounded; reading is backgrounded.
  25. 25. Media lever example 3 variation 1 : Task: learners are presented with a mystery, embodied in a ‘scene of the crime’ drawing. Learners are to do abduction: find a believable explanation for all the evidence in the graphic. Media lever 3.1: give the fodder in text when the task is introduced. Outcome: the reading of the fodder is foregrounded, as a source of problem solving help.
  26. 26. Media lever example 3 variation 2 : Task: learners are presented with a mystery, embodied in a ‘scene of the crime’ drawing. Learners are to do abduction: find a believable explanation for all the evidence in the graphic. Media lever 3.2: give the fodder after the students have developed solutions. Outcome: problem solving is foregrounded, and the fodder becomes the matrix for a search for L2 versions of what they want to say.
  27. 27. Media lever example 3 variation 3 : Task: learners are presented with a mystery, embodied in a ‘scene of the crime’ drawing. Learners are to do abduction: find a believable explanation for all the evidence in the graphic. Media lever 3.3: make the fodder available as sound files linked from objects in the problem picture Outcome: listening is foregrounded and cognitive load reduced.
  28. 28. Media lever example 3 variation 4 : Task: learners are presented with a mystery, embodied in a ‘scene of the crime’ drawing. Learners are to do abduction: find a believable explanation for all the evidence in the graphic. Media lever 4: make the fodder long audio files of whole solutions. Outcome: problem solving is backgrounded, listening is foregrounded and cognitive load reduced.
  29. 29. Media levers point to: The need for a framework for cognitive task design work. The need for a pattern language for professional deliberation.
  30. 30. CALL cognitive task design work Designer WANTS Designer NEEDS … The language, and the processes which stem from it, merely release the fundamental order which is native to us. They do not teach us, they only remind us of what we know already, and of what we shall discover time and time again, when we give up our ideas and opinions, and do exactly what emerges from ourselves. Christopher Alexander, The Timeless Way of Building A pattern language? www.patternlanguage.com
  31. 31. Tensions (to germinate pattern language) Typical tensions in CALL work Learner – PC Learner – software Learner – target content Learner – interface Instructor intervention – learner performance Content presentation style – learner performance Ubiquity – learner motivation
  32. 32. Tensions (to germinate pattern language) Hunter's tensions of interest Interface/task – learner perception of curriculum Representation – message comprehension Processing type – learner persistence Processing variation – learning effectiveness/efficiency Use of metalanguage – learner attack style Representation type – cognitive load in task scenario Representation type – degree of abstraction – curriculum transparency Representation type – degree of abstraction – task success
  33. 33. Tensions (to germinate pattern language) Hunter's tensions of interest Interface/task – learner perception of curriculum Representation – message comprehension Processing type – learner persistence Processing variation – learning effectiveness/efficiency Use of metalanguage – learner attack style Representation type – cognitive load in task scenario Representation type – degree of abstraction – curriculum transparency Representation type – degree of abstraction – task success
  34. 34. “ Processing”: a pattern language element L2 processing Language -> information identify sounds/words/phrases find L1 equivalent find mental construct equivalent identify anaphora/exophora identify discourse pattern identify discourse intent Information -> language mimic sounds/symbols create sounds/symbols encode visual impressions encode discourse impressions encode text impressions build discourse from intention Information processing Recognize symbols Identify a pattern Identify a problem Select a transformation Select a technique Apply a technique Evaluate results
  35. 35. “ Processing” types INPUT TASKS Listening Looking Watching Reading a symbol Reading text Feeling Smelling Tasting OUTPUT TASKS Pointing Moving Making a noise Speaking Drawing Writing Making PROCESSING TYPES Remembering Accumulating Transforming Naming Describing Classifying Comparing Finding an answer to a question Selecting an answer to a question Applying a rule Describing a rule Discovering a rule Sequencing Applying a process Inferring Analyzing Synthesizing Evaluating Deciding By carefully monitoring the modes of task input and output, the designer can lead the learner to a wide variety of cognitive activities (here &quot;processing&quot;).
  36. 36. “ Processing” immediacy and presence Immediate processing Delayable processing Minimum presence Maximum presence Tests for points Classroom paper tasks Conversation Classroom questioning Dictation Cell phone push Homework Drag n’ drop Point n’ click Chat email chat SMS chat
  37. 37. Merging content and processing to decide task type Description Classification Comparison Sequence Cause-effect Inference Pro-con Remembering Accumulating Transforming Naming Describing Classifying Comparing Finding an answer to a question Selecting an answer to a question Applying a rule Describing a rule Discovering a rule Sequencing Applying a process Inferring Analyzing Synthesizing Evaluating Deciding
  38. 38. Sequencing of tasks Remembering Accumulating Transforming Naming Describing Classifying Comparing Finding an answer to a question Selecting an answer to a question Applying a rule Describing a rule Discovering a rule Sequencing Applying a process Inferring Analyzing Synthesizing Evaluating Deciding Sample 1: False beginners (repeating same content in each task) Aural only A1:listen and repeat A2-listen and repeat cumulative A3-listen and draw/signify graphically A4-listen and complete pattern clozes A5-listen and problem-solve Read/write W1-reverse of A3 W2-A4 with no listening W3-Read cases and discover rules W4-Read cases and draw scenarios W5-Read cases and solve problems
  39. 39. An essential pattern language element : Baddeley and Hitch’s 1986 model of working memory , with its 3 components. <ul><li>Three-component model of working memory </li></ul><ul><li>-assumes an attentional controller, the central executive, aided by two subsidiary systems: </li></ul><ul><li>the phonological loop, capable of holding speech-based information, and </li></ul><ul><li>the visuospatial sketchpad, which performs a similar function for visual information. </li></ul><ul><li>The two subsidiary systems form active stores that are capable of combining information from sensory input, and from the central executive. Hence a memory trace in the phonological store might stem either from a direct auditory input, or from the subvocal articulation of a visually presented item such as a letter. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Working memory model extended (2000) Phonological loop: Important for short-term storage -ALSO for long term phonological learning Associated with -development of vocabulary in children -speed of FLA in adults Central Executive Phonological Loop Visuo-spatial Sketchpad Visual semantics Episodic LTM Language Baddeley, A. D. (2000) The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory? Trends in cognitive sciences 4(11) 417-423.
  41. 41. <ul><li>Working memory model extended (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological loop effects: </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Word-length </li></ul><ul><li>Articulatory suppression </li></ul><ul><li>Code transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Central rehearsal code, </li></ul><ul><li>not operation </li></ul>Central Executive Phonological Loop Visuo-spatial Sketchpad Visual semantics Episodic LTM Language Baddeley, A. D. (2000) The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory? Trends in cognitive sciences 4(11) 417-423.
  42. 42. A most promising task design tool: Baddeley’s model of working memory, with its (since 2000) 4 components. Central Executive Phonological Loop Visuo-spatial Sketchpad Episodic Buffer Visual semantics Episodic LTM Language The episodic buffer: -assumed capable of storing infor-mation in a multi-dimensional code. -thus provides a temporary interface between the slave systems and LTM. -assumed to be controlled by the central executive -serves as a modelling space that is separate from LTM, but which forms an important stage in longterm episodic learning. Shaded areas: ‘crystallized’ cognitive systems capable of accumulating long-term knowledge Unshaded areas: ‘fluid’ capacities (such as attention and temporary storage), themselves unchanged by learning. Baddeley, A. D. (2000) The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory? Trends in cognitive sciences 4(11) 417-423.
  43. 43. … The language, and the processes which stem from it, merely release the fundamental order which is native to us. They do not teach us, they only remind us of what we know already, and of what we shall discover time and time again, when we give up our ideas and opinions, and do exactly what emerges from ourselves. Christopher Alexander, The Timeless Way of Building Shall we compose a pattern language for CALL? ...a promising notion
  44. 44. Thanks for your attention. Downloads from http://lawriehunter.com/presns/tw4/ http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/ http://slideshare.net/rolenzo/ Contact (please)
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