Map constraint for abstraction

  • 155 views
Uploaded on

Presented at IFAW 2012 in Tel Aviv, August 1.

Presented at IFAW 2012 in Tel Aviv, August 1.

More in: Education , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
155
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. No need to take notes :^oYou can download this powerpoint (and many more) from http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/ or http://www.slideshare.net/rolenzo
  • 2. Dimensions Island of Shikoku ofMedia Object Compehensibility KUT Lawrie Hunter Kochi University of Technology http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/ 3
  • 3. KUT TAW scenario Since 2002: - Japanese government scholarships - for foreign students - in technical doctoral programmes. ! Graduation requirements: - 2+ refereed papers in top journals - dissertation in English Further L2 acquisition to the point of near-independence during the study period is NOT a realistic strategy. 4
  • 4. SCENARIO ESP EAP EX EY EZTAW EAP HUMANITIES English for specific purposes English for academic purposes Technical academic writing
  • 5. TAW best practice Niche language Writing work acquisition to focusing on near-independence argument and in TAW info-structures Training in use of Preparation language models: for work with Style Dossier an editor Preparation for work with a mentor 7
  • 6. Obstacles to technical EAP learning and skills development Academic English writing typically presents serious difficulties for East Asian students in PhD engineering programs. 1. Weak skills in writing everyday English make a fragile foundation for the learning of formal academic English (FAE). 2. The development of foundation grammar and syntax knowledge does not lead naturally or smoothly to FAE writing knowledge and skill.3.  For students from most East Asian cultures, articulate argument is new cultural territory. 
  • 7. Previous study: using Cmap constraintto constrain text analysis Using a text-based charting approach, the subjects successfully separated persuasive from information-bearing text. Of course the mapping approach is not essential to the acquisition of that skill. 9
  • 8. Possible view of TAW:1. Process obey usage conventions obey other conventions 10
  • 9. Possible TAW teaching approaches:1. Parallel process research design/results argument supporting claim document format usage/convention grammar/surface features
  • 10. Possible teaching approaches2. layer view grammar/surface features usage/convention document format argument supporting claim research design/results 12
  • 11. Possible TAW teaching approaches2. layer view most TAW grammar/surface features programs work here usage/convention most TAW writers start document format writing here (simulacrum argument of argument) supporting claim RP language research generation design/results should start here 13
  • 12. Task type: infer research design from casual register reportIn an exercise aimed at developing awareness of argument and research design issues, students were required to  infer the details of the research design of a study from a popular-science report of that study.
  • 13. Problem 1:Writing task focus: isolation of argumentHow to get the learner to isolate argument?
  • 14. Trial pre-task: Text-based task Using a text-based, genre conversion approach, few of the control group students could produce complete, logically structured abstact summaries.
  • 15. Question:Writing task focus: isolation of argumentHow to constrain text analysis -to get the learner to isolate argument?
  • 16. Answer:Limit verb choice in writingto some distinguishing lexical units of the meta-discourse of the scientific method (or engineering research design) Citation as subject Results as subject Claim as subjectclaims (that) reveals (that) is supported byproposes (that) demonstrates (that) is contradicted byimplies (that) indicates (that) is in agreement withsuggests (that) disproves is in opposition toinfers (that) proves (that) assumes (that)observes (that) implies (that)
  • 17. Task 1:Subjects were asked to write summaries of the imagined abstract of a casual register article,using only the verbs below. Citation as subject Results as subject Claim as subjectclaims (that) reveals (that) is supported byproposes (that) demonstrates (that) is contradicted byimplies (that) indicates (that) is in agreement withsuggests (that) disproves is in opposition toinfers (that) proves (that) assumes (that)observes (that) implies (that)
  • 18. Task 1 results:Most students summary abstracts  -were structurally flawed,  -had sequencing problems and  -had missing links in rhetorical chains.
  • 19. Problem 2:What other-medium intervention will bringabout improved structure and chaincompleteness in learner writing?Trial: use graphical media -e.g. Novakian mapping
  • 20. Background: depending on the link type,there are 3 main kinds of maps: 1. Associational (mind maps) 2. Directed link (Inspiration maps) 3. Textured directed link 1. Text labels on links (Novakian) 2. Non-verbal links (e.g. ISmaps
  • 21. Joseph Novak: Concept mapping ANIMALS M can be O R E INVERTEBRATE VERTEBRATE S P mostly are can be E C I COLD WARM F ARTHROPODS BLOODED BLOODED I C can be insulated with TERRESTRIAL MARINE FUR FEATHERS e.g. beetles, e.g. crabs, e.g. sheep, e.g. robins, flies lobsters cats penguins This slide courtesy of Ian Kinchin
  • 22. When is a map Novakian?“The basic Novakian concept map...usually starts with a general conceptat the top of the map, and thenworks its way down ... to more specific concepts. Abrams, R. An Overview of Concept Mapping. In Meaningful Learning: A Collaborative Literature Review of Concept Mapping. Retrieved March 18, 2008 at http://www2.ucsc.edu/mlrg/clr-conceptmapping.html
  • 23. When is a map Novakian?“The basic Novakian concept map...usually starts with a general conceptat the top of the map, and thenworks its way down ... to more specific concepts. Concepts are placed in [boxes]... Abrams, R. An Overview of Concept Mapping. In Meaningful Learning: A Collaborative Literature Review of Concept Mapping. Retrieved March 18, 2008 at http://www2.ucsc.edu/mlrg/clr-conceptmapping.html
  • 24. When is a map Novakian?“The basic Novakian concept map...usually starts with a general conceptat the top of the map, and thenworks its way down ... to more specific concepts. Concepts are placed in [boxes]... Lines are drawn from a concept to a linking word to a concept. Abrams, R. An Overview of Concept Mapping. In Meaningful Learning: A Collaborative Literature Review of Concept Mapping. Retrieved March 18, 2008 at http://www2.ucsc.edu/mlrg/clr-conceptmapping.html
  • 25. When is a map Novakian?“The basic Novakian concept map...usually starts with a general conceptat the top of the map, and thenworks its way down ... to more specific concepts. Concepts are placed in [boxes]... Lines are drawn from a concept to a linking word to a concept. Sequences of concepts and linking words do not always form grammatically correct sentences.” Abrams, R. An Overview of Concept Mapping. In Meaningful Learning: A Collaborative Literature Review of Concept Mapping. Retrieved March 18, 2008 at http://www2.ucsc.edu/mlrg/clr-conceptmapping.html
  • 26. Making Novakian maps http://cmap.ihmc.us/
  • 27. Novakian maps (Novak & Cañas, 2006)can be used at any level of abstraction. Argument mapping Information structure mapping Syntactic mapping Grammatical mapping (pseudo) Association mapping
  • 28. Novakian links: -verbs (concept maps) -logical connectors (ISmaps) -communication moves (rhetoric maps) -argument communication moves (argument maps)
  • 29. So then, problem 2:What other-medium intervention will bringabout improved structure and chaincompleteness in learner writing?Trial: use graphical media -e.g. Novakian mapping -somehow constrain map structure. -somehow constrain map content.
  • 30. Task 2:Experimental task: Pre-writing step As a pre-writing step, constrained-link Novakian concept maps were used to express the content of the source article.Subjects were asked to create Novakian maps summarizing the imagined abstract of a casual register article,using only the listed lexical units as link relations. Citation as subject Results as subject Claim as subject claims (that) reveals (that) is supported by proposes (that) demonstrates (that) is contradicted by implies (that) indicates (that) is in agreement with suggests (that) disproves is in opposition to infers (that) proves (that) assumes (that) observes (that) implies (that)
  • 31. Task 2:Mapping task (with constraints) 1. Map link relations were restricted to those in the provided verb list.2. Number of nodes was constrained (max 10).3. Top-down visual metaphor was imposed. 
  • 32. Task 2:Mapping task with constraints 1. Map link relations were restricted to those in the provided verb list.2. Number of nodes was constrained (max 10).3. Top-down visual metaphor was imposed. Task 2:Experimental task: writing step Subjects were asked to write summaries of the content of the source article, working from their constrained-link Novakian concept maps.
  • 33. Task 2 observations:Most experimental group students were successful in generating;(a) an accurate detailed graphical characterization of the study; and(b) a FAE written expression of that characterization. 
  • 34. Mapping abstract vs text abstract1 MappingSubjects 13Dyads 6.9/subjectDyads with non-list labels 0.8/subjectMisuses of linking phrases 2.85/subject2 TextSubjects 9Sentences 3.55/subjectSentences with non-list relations 0.44/subjectMisuses of linking phrases 0.77/subject 37
  • 35. Task 2 observations Most experimental group students were successful in generating (a) an accurate detailed graphical characterization of the study; and(b) a FAE written expression of that characterization. Here concept maps appear to constitute an instance of what Tifi (2010) calls a plane of greater generality.
  • 36. ConclusionsThe value of the mapping approach in argument analysis:1. visual accessibility of the representation of text structure2. forced articulation of relations between argument elements3. faster performance (lower cognitive load?) than in text approach 39
  • 37. ConclusionsInformal observation of learner behaviorin constrained-link scenariossuggests that Constraining link content can lead TAW learners to accurate, minimal summarization of the arguments in TAW text WITHOUT INSTRUCTION. 40
  • 38. P Problem X not solvable in frame A 
  • 39. Parallel case: Tifi (2010)A problem in a frame, and the need to move to a different frame  where the problem could be solved with the students inner  resources – it is necessary to transit through a plane of higher generality to get  from the impeding frame to the enabling one. Problem X Problem X not solvable solvable in frame A  in frame B 
  • 40. Parallel case: Tifi (2010)A problem in a frame, and the need to move to a different frame  where the problem could be solved with the students inner  resources – it is necessary to transit through a plane of higher generality to get  from the impeding frame to the enabling one. Problem X no Problem X not solvable access solvable in frame A  <----->  in frame B  43
  • 41. Parallel case: Tifi (2010)A problem in a frame, and the need to move to a different frame  where the problem could be solved with the students inner  resources – it is necessary to transit through a plane of higher generality to get  from the impeding frame to the enabling one. Plane of higher generality  Problem X Problem X not solvable solvable in frame A  in frame B  44
  • 42. Speculation re Tifi (2010):Then in Hunters  infer the argument of a poorly reported study exercise:1 the challenge: to pinpoint the specs of the study2 the output: to write those specs in FAE 3 the catch: only when the specs are couched in FAE can the  students pinpoint them, since they lack grounding in research  design/scientific method 45
  • 43. Speculation re Tifi (2010):Then in Hunters  infer the argument of a poorly reported study exercise:4 the plane of greater generality: the concept map of the research  design and results. If lean enough, this map will embody the  specs - and the students can in fact arrive at a consensus as to  how the map must look.Is it true then that the visual (more abstract/non-syntactic)  representation is somehow supporting thought that text work  does not readily support? 46
  • 44. Speculation:RE: the success of mapping as an inroad to analysis of argument.Does constrained mapping constitute what Tifi (2010) calls “a plane of higher generality” -linking the structure of the argument to the structure of the abstract? Constrained Cmap  ARGUMENT ARGUMENT in study A, in study A, implied in  explicit in  narrative M  summary S  47
  • 45. Task 2 interpretationSome sources that may provide an interpretive scaffolding that can in turn to some extent account for the success of this use of constrained Novakian maps.
  • 46. Why?: does using Cmap constraintenable argument analysis? Argument mapping Information structure mapping Syntactic mapping Grammatical mapping (pseudo) Association mapping Leading the learner to create an abstract argument analysis. 49
  • 47. Target behavior? Background complaints about study of grunting response in pro tennis time in tennisVancouver study play subjects measure video quickly reaction time, ISmaps with rhetorical clips decide correctness frames: argument in Sinnett random tennis (2010) tennis strokes noise strokes to right or left with to right stroke or left Findings of Vancouver study random noise reaction to video of tennis strokes < reaction time decision errors reaction to video of tennis strokes at time hunter systems of stroke
  • 48. Target behavior? Grounds Modality Claim since Warrant on account of Backing Toulmin model of argument
  • 49. Target behavior? Grounds Modality Claim since unless Warrant Rebuttal on account of Backing Enhanced Toulmin model of argument
  • 50. Target behavior? Receiver  Server grunts  It is highly  makes more  during service  likely that errors and is  in tennis slower since White noise in  unless video caused  reaction error  and slowness Video reaction  is not   because equivalent to  tennis   White noise  reaction has the same  effect as  Toulmin model grunting of argument in Sinnett (2010)
  • 51. Novakian map links constrained to confine map content to argument  discourse  Citation as subject Results as subject Claim as subjectclaims (that) reveals (that) is supported byproposes (that) demonstrates (that) is contradicted byimplies (that) indicates (that) is in agreement withsuggests (that) disproves is in opposition toinfers (that) proves (that) assumes (that)observes (that) implies (that)
  • 52. Target behavior Sinnett  (2010) Constrained Novakian claims that rhetoric map of argument in Server grunts  Sinnett (2010) during service  in tennis cause  receiver  slowness and  assumes that error is supported by White noise is  Video reaction  equivalent to  is equivalent to  Subject error and  grunts tennis   slowness in video  reactionresponse with white  noise bursts
  • 53. Arguably important direction"Tomorrows literacies... need to be process and systems literacies.” -John Thackara, In the Bubble: Designing in a complex world. MIT Press 2005. 56
  • 54. Zoom out:future hegemonies in theexpression of argument?1 The transient mashup (database/new media, Manovich ) The end of the hegemony of narrative? (enter the hegemony of neutrality of data?)2 Ontology based research writing (Robot Scientist) 57
  • 55. Shifting sands:return to narrativeRecent shifts in journal conventionFor decades: -document structure as a simulacrum of argument -depersonalization as rigor in argument -recently: the return of first person narrative 58
  • 56.  References/sourcesChandler, P. and J. Sweller (1992) The split-attention effect as a factor in the design of instruction. British Journal of Educational Psychology 62: 233-246.CmapTools. Institute for Human & Machine Cognition. http://cmap.ihmc.us/Novak, J. D. (1990). Concept maps and Vee diagrams: Two metacognitive tools for science and mathematics education. Instructional Science, 19, 29-52. Tifi, A. (2010) The long way to deep understanding. In Concept maps: Making learning meaningful. Proc. of 4th Int. Conference on Concept Mapping. Key words: technical academic writing, EAP, argument, summarization, concept mapping, Novakian mapping
  • 57.  Constrained-link concept mapping as an inroad to abstract writing Academic English writing typically presents serious difficulties for East Asian students in PhD engineering programs. Weak skills in writing everyday English make a fragile foundation for the learning of formal academic English (FAE). As well, for students from most East Asian cultures, formal argument is new cultural territory. The development of foundation grammar and syntax knowledge does not lead naturally or smoothly to FAE writing knowledge and skill. In an exercise aimed at developing awareness of argument and research design issues, students were required to infer the details of a research design of a given study from a popular-science report of that study. Using a text-based, genre conversion approach, few of the control group students could produce complete, logically structured inferences. When, in a pre-writing step, constrained-link Novakian concept maps were used to express the content of the source article, most experimental group students were successful in generating (a) an accurate detailed graphical characterization of the study; and (b) a FAE expression of that characterization. Here concept maps appear to constitute an instance of what Tifi (2010) calls a plane of greater generality. The set of relations used to constrain the Novakian maps of the content of an imagined study were the distinguishing lexical units of the discourse of the scientific method (or research design). This paper examines some sources that may provide an interpretive scaffolding that can in turn to some extent account for the success of this use of constrained Novakian maps.
  • 58.  Secondary references Cañas, A. J., & Novak, J.D. (2006) Re-examining the foundations for effective use of concept maps. In Cañas, A. J., & Novak, J.D. (Eds.), Concept Maps: Theory, Methodology, Technology.Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Concept Mapping. 494-502.Dansereau, D.F. (2005) Node-Link Mapping Principles for Visualizing Knowledge and Information. In Tergan, S. and Keller, T. (Eds.) Node-Link Mapping Principles for VisualizingKnowledge and Information. Springer.  61-81.Horn, R. E. (2001) Knowledge mapping for complex social messes. A presentation to the “Foundations in the Knowledge Economy” at the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, July 16, 2001. Downloaded April 8, 2008 from http://www.stanford.edu/~rhorn/a/recent/spchKnwldgPACKARD.pdfHunter, L. (2002) Information structure diagrams as link icons.  Learning Technology 4(3) July 2002. ISSN 1438-0625. 2002.  http://lttf.ieee.org/learn_tech/issues/july2002/index.html#1Jonassen, D.H., Cernusca, D., Ionas, I.G. (2006). Constructivism and instructional design: The emergence of the learning sciences and design research. In R. Reiser & J. Dempsey (Eds.), Trends and issues in instructional design and technology. Columbus, OH: Merrill/Prentice-Hall.Moffett, J. (1992). Detecting growth in language. New Hampshire: Boynton/Cook.Mohan, B.A. (1986) Language and content. Addison-Wesley.
  • 59. Register Dossier FAE Cohesion Coherence UsageNominalization Conjunctions Abstract Hedging Logic links Summary Claim Plagiarism Citation Argument Communication Paraphrasing moves Readability Argument Parallelism