Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL

595

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
1 Comment
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
595
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
1
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Gadgets pwn us? A Pattern Language for CALL Lawrie Hunter Kochi University of Technology
  • 2. JALTCALL 2011 "Gadgets pwn us? A pattern language for CALL" The IT environment, particularly web 2.0, suggests collaboration and sharing of successful practice and materials. To date, efforts in this direction have not been thrilling; issues of findability and matchability appear to be obstacles. In that light, the Pattern Language Network project, which ended in March 2009, worked to create an Alexander-esque pattern language for e-learning. The project did generate an array of ‘patterns’ for the representation of practice in, and for application to, e-learning work. The product of the project was arguably successful, but whether that product was an actionable pattern language is questionable. This paper explores the notion of a pattern language as implicitly defined by Alexander et al. in “A Pattern Language”€ and explicitly defined elsewhere, and proposes a framework for the creation of a pattern language for CALL in the era of web 2.0. As well, the paper takes some salient notions from the design world" and seeks useful equivalents in CALL work. For example, the “formal financial expression” proposed by Jaron Lanier in “You Are Not a Gadget”€ is reworked as “formal learning design expression”. The notion of “story arc” in literary criticism is recast as “task arc”, “acquisition arc” and “knowing arc”. To activate this presentation, participants will be given graphical brainstorming challenges, the results of which should point to elements for inclusion in a pattern language for CALL. For example, the ELT notion of “scaffolding” and the WIRED notion of ” gadget ” will be intertwined in a provocative open framework. --- [Note: “pwn” (pronounced "own") is standard gamer/geek language for "own", so "I beat you." becomes "I pwn you."]
  • 3. Gadgets pwn us? A Pattern Language for CALL /pwn/ is leetspeak A way of speaking that hackers used to conceal their sites from search engines. Now, taken over by n00bs.
  • 4. Gadgets pwn us? A Pattern Language for CALL /pwn/ is leetspeak A way of speaking that hackers used to conceal their sites from search engines. Now, taken over by n00bs. /elite/ => leet => 1337 Translator: http://www.brenz.net/services/l337Maker.asp
  • 5. left brain right brain
  • 6. CALL: devolving? Is CALL a field? Has it ever been? Why is CALL isolated and fragmented? Is CALL as a field suffering the same fate as hypertext?
  • 7. CALL: time for a frank look Where does CALL work fit in education? If IT is ubiquitous, does CALL exist?
  • 8. L2 learning support* as a black box *ELT and CALL are L2 learning support systems aren't they?
  • 9. Curriculum Content Task Content management Course management Task management Data management Full frontal nudity: CALL parameters
  • 10. Curriculum Content Task Content management Course management Task management Data management Goals Motivation Content perception Task perception Language perception Information perception Full frontal nudity: CALL parameters
  • 11. Curriculum Content Task Content management Course management Task management Data management Goals Motivation Content perception Task perception Language perception Information perception Perception Memory Retention Manipulation Application Interaction Information Communication Full frontal nudity: CALL parameters
  • 12. Quantum levels of CALL work Task array design Metalanguage and learner perception of syllabus Task orchestration Interface design and learner perception of task flow Task design Interaction design and learner perception of task Learner perception of language learning Learner perception of language Learner perception of information Micro-cognition is little explored!
  • 13. Doubts about CALL work Why haven't LEARNING OBJECTS become the default work? Why are fields such as CALL and hypertext fragmented? Why is interest in CALL so low? Why do newbies often back away? Why is there so much focus on instances of IT use, when those instances are destined to be ethereal? Why are central learning notions like WORKING MEMORY not central in CALL? Where are the design units for CALL work?
  • 14. Doubts about CALL work Where is the CALL equivalent of FAB1? http://jalt.org/events/osaka-chapter/11-07-10
  • 15. Doubts about CALL work Usci Felix: "The unreasonable effectiveness of CALL: what have we learned in two decades of research?" "...enough data in CALL that suggest positive effects on spelling, reading and writing." ReCALL 20(2): 141-161.
  • 16. Doubts about CALL work
    • Usci Felix: "The unreasonable effectiveness of CALL: what have we learned in two decades of research?"
    • "...enough data in CALL that suggest positive effects on spelling, reading and writing."
    • Recommendations for future research:
    • 1. Rigorous meta-analyses ..... in the light of new variables emerging in recent social constructivist learning contexts, such as the role of collaboration, meta-cognitive skills and knowledge or online presence and identity.
    • 2. Further qualitative and discursive syntheses of a body of research investigating similar variables related to one larger issue such as our study on writing .
    • 3. Further high-quality, single experimental and non-experimental studies of areas relatively unexplored, such as speaking online.
    • Replication studies of excellent previous work would strengthen existing data, especially if larger subject pools could be found. It is interesting to note that the Language Learning Journal has dedicated an entire future issue to such work.
    • *ReCALL 20(2): 141-161.
  • 17. Doubts about CALL work http://www.khanacademy.org/
  • 18. “ Student ” User Rote method- ology Learner Control group research SLA Theory CALL gizmos Learning theories Cognitive Science Ethno- graphic research Designed Learner centered Curriculum centered Virtual learning environments User experience research Social software reality Learning management methodology Emergence Literacy Web/info literacies Social literacies: mobs/crowds Linear text Hyper- text Text fragments (database) Open learning commons Digital native Digital immigrant body mind body/mind Design-based research Static text Searcha- bility (database) Findability, tags, folksonomies Back to narrative? or on to 5? 4.Theoretic culture 3. Narrative culture Paradigm palette Expanding the paradigm palette (Hunter, 2006)
  • 19. Disruptive innovation Big Three assembly line training: -fixed training time -variable results Toyota assembly line training: -variable training time -uniform results
  • 20. What process are we simulating in CALL? What was the structure of the predecessor process? What was the pattern language that encompassed the patterns of the predecessor process? Why do Europeans shake their heads at Hunter's presentations at EuroCALL? Questions about the state of CALL hunter systems
  • 21. How does large scale learning (like L2 French learning) proceed? How much does that process vary? When should platooning/lockstep transition to instruction , to teaching , to mentoring , to __________ ? hunter systems Questions about the state of CALL
  • 22. Component related: In IT supported ELT, where are -parallel text? -working memory development? hunter systems Questions about the state of CALL
  • 23. Phenomenon related: Are TED Talks with subtitles good for L2 learning? How? How to maximize that goodness? hunter systems Questions about the state of CALL
  • 24. Questions about the state of CALL Are TED Talks with subtitles good for L2 learning? How? How to maximize that goodness? hunter systems
  • 25. When does overgeneralization matter? When does L1 rule use in L2 matter? e.g. Corf e.g. even it rains e.g. "I find very useful that dynamic." When does L1 interference matter? Globish hunter systems Questions about the state of CALL
  • 26. Lanier (2010): lock-in e.g. MIDI e.g. UNIX e.g. the file Casting about for insight hunter systems
  • 27. Problems according to Lanier: Cybernetic totalists vs. digital Maoists Fragmentation of the person Success in finance = = manipulating the cloud at the expense of principles Success in science = ? ...... to be determined Pop culture devolving to trivial mashups Attempts at a hierarchy of patterns for (IT-supported) education hunter systems
  • 28. Solutions according to Lanier: Make things that don't fit into pre-existing templates like social networking sites Make things that take much longer to make than to consume Blog only after extensive reflection Twitter only if you reveal your own inner state hunter systems Casting about for insight
  • 29. Does Lanier's crit apply to CALL? What major lock-ins are we committing / have we committed? What aspects of learning/learner are we fragmenting/have we fragmented? Are we trivializing some human behaviors in ways that matter? hunter systems Casting about for insight
  • 30. Brainstorm #1 What major lock-ins are we in CALL committing / have we committed? hunter systems Casting about for insight
  • 31. Wait a minute! Undrill up* please. What is the full framework within which we in CALL are working?
  • 32. Wait a minute! Undrill up* please. What is the full framework within which we in CALL are working? Is there a healthy equivalent case?
  • 33. Healthy equivalent to CALL in terms of field design? Leading question: who has a successful roadmap / toolkit ?
  • 34.
    • '…The language, and the processes which stem from it, merely release the fundamental order which is native to us. They do not teach us, they only remind us of what we know already, and of what we shall discover time and time again, when we give up our ideas and opinions, and do exactly what emerges from ourselves.'
    • Christopher Alexander,
    • The Timeless Way of Building
    A successful roadmap / toolkit? hunter systems Now at the meme level: www.patternlanguage.com -though arguably a sham.
  • 35. Alexander et al reaches everyone who reads it. The work is framed wide enough to embrace everything about habitation. Everyone involved in the field recognizes the PL's comprehensivity. What's so great about Alexander? hunter systems
  • 36. "A pattern language has the structure of a network... However, when we use the network of a language, we always use it as a sequence, going through the patterns, moving always from the larger patterns to the smaller, always from the ones which create structures, to the ones which then embellish those structures, and then to those which embellish the embellishments. . . . Since the language is in truth a network, there is no one sequence which perfectly captures it. But the sequence which follows, captures the broad sweep of the full network; in doing so, it follows a line, dips down, dips up again, and follows an irregular course, a little like a needle following a tapestry. The sequence of patterns is both a summary of the language, and at the same time, an index to the patterns. If you read through the sentences which connect the groups of patterns to one another, you will get an overview of the whole language. And once you get this overview, you will then be able to find the patterns which are relevant to your own project. And finally, as we shall explain in the next section, this sequence of patterns is also the "base map," from which you can make a language for your own project, by choosing the patterns which are most useful to you, and leaving them in more or less the order in which you find them printed here." Alexander's approach hunter systems
  • 37. "A pattern language has the structure of a network... However, when we use the network of a language, we always use it as a sequence, going through the patterns, moving always from the larger patterns to the smaller, always from the ones which create structures, to the ones which then embellish those structures, and then to those which embellish the embellishments. . . . Since the language is in truth a network, there is no one sequence which perfectly captures it. But the sequence which follows, captures the broad sweep of the full network; in doing so, it follows a line, dips down, dips up again, and follows an irregular course, a little like a needle following a tapestry. The sequence of patterns is both a summary of the language, and at the same time, an index to the patterns. If you read through the sentences which connect the groups of patterns to one another, you will get an overview of the whole language. And once you get this overview, you will then be able to find the patterns which are relevant to your own project. And finally, as we shall explain in the next section, this sequence of patterns is also the "base map," from which you can make a language for your own project, by choosing the patterns which are most useful to you, and leaving them in more or less the order in which you find them printed here." Alexander's approach hunter systems Alexander: choose elements of the pattern language to shape the project you are making.
  • 38. "A pattern language has the structure of a network... However, when we use the network of a language, we always use it as a sequence, going through the patterns, moving always from the larger patterns to the smaller, always from the ones which create structures, to the ones which then embellish those structures, and then to those which embellish the embellishments. . . . Since the language is in truth a network, there is no one sequence which perfectly captures it. But the sequence which follows, captures the broad sweep of the full network; in doing so, it follows a line, dips down, dips up again, and follows an irregular course, a little like a needle following a tapestry. The sequence of patterns is both a summary of the language, and at the same time, an index to the patterns. If you read through the sentences which connect the groups of patterns to one another, you will get an overview of the whole language. And once you get this overview, you will then be able to find the patterns which are relevant to your own project. And finally, as we shall explain in the next section, this sequence of patterns is also the "base map," from which you can make a language for your own project, by choosing the patterns which are most useful to you, and leaving them in more or less the order in which you find them printed here." Alexander's approach hunter systems Hunter: remember that in PL work you must always start from the whole language , then choose patterns and compress to form a project.
  • 39. "A pattern language has the structure of a network... However, when we use the network of a language, we always use it as a sequence, going through the patterns, moving always from the larger patterns to the smaller, always from the ones which create structures, to the ones which then embellish those structures, and then to those which embellish the embellishments. . . . Since the language is in truth a network, there is no one sequence which perfectly captures it. But the sequence which follows, captures the broad sweep of the full network; in doing so, it follows a line, dips down, dips up again, and follows an irregular course, a little like a needle following a tapestry. The sequence of patterns is both a summary of the language, and at the same time, an index to the patterns. If you read through the sentences which connect the groups of patterns to one another, you will get an overview of the whole language. And once you get this overview, you will then be able to find the patterns which are relevant to your own project. And finally, as we shall explain in the next section, this sequence of patterns is also the "base map," from which you can make a language for your own project, by choosing the patterns which are most useful to you, and leaving them in more or less the order in which you find them printed here." Alexander's approach hunter systems Why doesn't CALL work have this kind of design tool?
  • 40. I. Top layer: "that part of the language which defines a town or community. 1. INDEPENDENT REGIONS 2. THE DISTRIBUTION OF TOWNS 3. CITY COUNTRY FINGERS 4. AGRICULTURAL VALLEYS 5. LACE OF COUNTRY STREETS 6. COUNTRY TOWNS 7. THE COUNTRYSIDE" Alexander's hierarchy of patterns hunter systems Question: what is the CALL equivalent of a town or community?
  • 41. Alexander's layer I: towns/communities hunter systems
  • 42. Alexander's layer II: shape hunter systems
  • 43. Alexander's layer III: buildings hunter systems
  • 44. Attempts at a hierarchy of patterns for (IT-supported) education hunter systems
  • 45. Philosophies of Education by Ron Kurtus (revised 26 February 2001) Perennialism This is a very conservative and inflexible philosophy of education. It is based on the view that reality comes from fundamental fixed truths-especially related to God. It believes that people find truth through reasoning and revelation and that goodness is found in rational thinking. As a result, schools exist to teach reason and God's will. Students are taught to reason through structured lessons and drills. Idealism Idealism believes in refined wisdom. It is based on the view that reality is a world within a person's mind. It believes that truth is in the consistency of ideas and that goodness is an ideal state to strive to attain. As a result, schools exist to sharpen the mind and intellectual processes. Students are taught the wisdom of past heroes. Realism Realism believes in the world as it is. It is based on the view that reality is what we observe. It believes that truth is what we sense and observe and that goodness is found in the order of the laws of nature. As a result, schools exist to reveal the order of the world and universe. Students are taught factual information. Experimentalism Experimentalism believes that things are constantly changing. It is based on the view that reality is what you experience. It believes that truth is what works right now and that goodness comes from group decisions. As a result, schools exist to discover and expand the society we live in. Students study social experiences and solve problems. Existentialism Existentialism believes in the personal interpretation of the world. It is based on the view that the individual defines reality, truth and goodness. As a result, schools exist to aid children in knowing themselves and their place in society. Students learn what they want and discuss subjects freely. http:// www.school -for- champions.com /education/ philosophies.htm Attempts at a hierarchy of patterns for (IT-supported) education
  • 46. Learning theories Can you name some? Attempts at a hierarchy of patterns for (IT-supported) education
  • 47. The PLANET project Executive summary The Planet (Pattern Language Network for Web 2.0 in Learning) project aimed to develop and demonstrate an effective community-based mechanism for capturing and sharing successful practice, based on the pattern approach. A pattern describes an effective solution to a recurrent problem embedded in a specific context and is characterised by being drawn from successful practice rather than from theory. Patterns are easy and intuitive to use, so supporting transfer of practice to new contexts. However, the process of eliciting and capturing patterns from authentic practice is not trivial and is rarely an inclusive community-based activity. It is this problem that Planet has sought to address. To achieve its aims the project worked with a wide range of educational practitioners to develop an effective process for pattern capture. The overall approach of the project was to invite practitioners to provide case studies of their successful practices, particularly around web 2.0 and education. These practitioners then attended a series of workshops designed to facilitate the process of identifying and refining potential patterns evident in that practice. The case studies and emerging patterns were captured, stored and edited through a community wiki-based platform, which provides templates to guide practitioners, together with shared editing and commenting facilities. The quality of the emerging patterns was maintained by moderation and review by the project team. Once a body of patterns was available they were categorised against a representation of the learning design process, again by groups of practitioners. This led to the creation of a number of organising structures that are closely allied to the needs of practitioners. In addition, cases, patterns and scenarios are tagged using a structured tagging framework. The final Planet methodology that has emerged through this process has four key stages: sharing and exploring case stories from practice; eliciting and elaborating candidate patterns by examining commonalities across the case stories; mapping the relationship between patterns and learning design processes; and applying patterns to new problem scenarios. Each of these is supported by a set of facilitation activities that can be applied in a workshop setting. The Planet methodology is expressed as a set of patterns, which are available at http://purl.org/planet/Outcomes/Methodology. http://patternlanguagenetwork.wordpress.com/ http://patternlanguagenetwork.myxwiki.org/xwiki/bin/view/Main/
  • 48. The PLANET project Executive summary (cont'd) The Planet process has been very successful in enabling practitioners to share practice effectively. Feedback has been overwhelmingly positive about the workshops and activities in this regard. However it is also clear from the evaluation that the workshop-based elicitation process has been more important than the pattern products for practitioners. This is perhaps inevitable in a relatively short project: the interactive and iterative nature of our activity meant that, although there are many case stories and candidate patterns under development, there are still relatively few fully developed patterns. The process of editing, reviewing and expanding patterns is continuing, as part of the sustainable plan for the project, and through interaction with other funded projects, for example, CETL ALiC (CETL ALiC, 2005-2010) and the NTFS project, Share (Share Project, 2008-2011), led by University of Kent. Findings from the project show that many potential patterns arising from web 2.0 examples of practice are actually more generally applicable, for example to other areas of communication and collaboration in assessment, learning and teaching. The organising frameworks for patterns are also able to accommodate existing pedagogical pattern collections, such as those arising from the Pedagogical Patterns Project (Pedagogical Patterns Project), allowing for the possibility of a much broader scoped integrated pedagogical patterns resource. Additionally the outcome of other JISC Users and Innovation projects could undergo a shortened version of the pattern identification process and be represented as part of the pattern framework. An example would be the AWESOME project, where their good practices for extended student essay and dissertation work could be moderated against the criteria for identifying patterns and, where appropriate, represented as patterns. Similarly there is evidence that the process of facilitated sharing of stories of practice is beneficial in itself and could be adapted for use in other areas where reflection on practice is required.
  • 49. E-LEARNING PATTERNS: AN APPROACH TO FACILITATE THE DESIGN OF E-LEARNING MATERIALS Manuel Caeiro, Martín Llamas, Luis Anido (2004) Seventh IberoAmerican Congress on Computers in Education. VII Congresso Iberoamericano de Informática Educativa
  • 50. Pattern languages If materials/tasks/content/moodle, etc. are different layers of elearning, can we merge those layers for design work? Only if we have a unifying schema, pattern language. Attempts at a hierarchy of patterns for (IT-supported) education hunter systems
  • 51. The “formal financial expression” proposed by Jaron Lanier in “You Are Not a Gadget”€ 2008 financial crisis Need: innovative financial structures Obstacle: regulators who don't understand instruments Economics: rules we can't change + rules we can change Human failing: using a tool that has failed repeatedly e.g. cars Capitalism: the buzz of freedom vs. the boredom of safety Attempts at a hierarchy of patterns for (IT-supported) education hunter systems
  • 52. The “formal financial expression” proposed by Jaron Lanier in “You Are Not a Gadget”€ 2008 financial crisis Lanier solution: use AI to create formal versions of instruments -existing transactions: keep traditional methods -inventive contracts: new formalized expression -restrictive but fully accountable -variable interface for variable stakeholders Attempts at a hierarchy of patterns for (IT-supported) education hunter systems
  • 53. The “formal financial expression” proposed by Jaron Lanier in “You Are Not a Gadget”€ Rework this as “formal learning design expression”. That would be a pattern language. Attempts at a hierarchy of patterns for (IT-supported) education hunter systems
  • 54. I. Top layer: that part of the language which defines a town or community . II. That part of the language which gives shape to groups of buildings, and individual buildings, on the land, in three dimensions . These are the patterns which can be "designed" or "built"—the patterns which define the individual buildings and the space between buildings; where we are dealing for the first time with patterns that are under the control of individuals or small groups of individuals, who are able to build the patterns all at once." BY THE END OF THIS STAGE, you have a complete design for an individual building . If you have followed the patterns given, you have a scheme of spaces, either marked on the ground, with stakes, or on a piece of paper, accurate to the nearest foot or so. You know the height of rooms, the rough size and position of windows and doors, and you know roughly how the roofs of the building, and the gardens are laid out." III. The last part of the language tells how to make a buildable building directly from this rough scheme of spaces , and tells you how to build it, in detail. Before you lay out structural details, establish a philosophy of structure which will let the structure grow directly from your plans and your conception of the buildings. Alexander's hierarchy of patterns hunter systems
  • 55. Alexander's hierarchy of patterns hunter systems Question: what are the CALL equivalents of community, group of buildings, building ? I. Top layer: that part of the language which defines a town or community . II. That part of the language which gives shape to groups of buildings , and individual buildings, on the land, in three dimensions . These are the patterns which can be "designed" or "built"—the patterns which define the individual buildings and the space between buildings; where we are dealing for the first time with patterns that are under the control of individuals or small groups of individuals, who are able to build the patterns all at once." BY THE END OF THIS STAGE, you have a complete design for an individual building . If you have followed the patterns given, you have a scheme of spaces, either marked on the ground, with stakes, or on a piece of paper, accurate to the nearest foot or so. You know the height of rooms, the rough size and position of windows and doors, and you know roughly how the roofs of the building, and the gardens are laid out." III. The last part of the language tells how to make a buildable building directly from this rough scheme of spaces , and tells you how to build it, in detail. Before you lay out structural details, establish a philosophy of structure which will let the structure grow directly from your plans and your conception of the buildings.
  • 56. Alexander town or community shape of groups of buildings, and individual buildings how to make a buildable building directly from this rough scheme of spaces Before you lay out structural details, establish a philosophy of structure which will let the structure grow directly from your plans and your conception of the buildings. hunter systems
  • 57. Alexander town or community how to make a buildable building directly from this rough scheme of spaces hunter systems CALL? shape of groups of buildings, and individual buildings Brainstorm #2
  • 58. hunter systems Hunter's half-baked blind elephant feel-up Learning theory Philosophy of education Psychology of education Curriculum design Methodology Materials
  • 59. hunter systems L2 learning support* as a black box Learning theory Philosophy of education Psychology of education Curriculum design Methodology Materials *ELT and CALL are L2 learning support systems aren't they?
  • 60. hunter systems The world according to Usci Felix
    • "The unreasonable effectiveness of CALL: what have we learned in two decades of research?"
    • "...enough data in CALL that suggest positive effects on spelling, reading and writing."
    • Recommendations for future research:
    • 1. Rigorous meta-analyses ..... in the light of new variables emerging in recent social constructivist learning contexts, such as the role of collaboration, meta-cognitive skills and knowledge or online presence and identity.
    • 2. Further qualitative and discursive syntheses of a body of research investigating similar variables related to one larger issue such as our study on writing.
    • 3. Further high-quality, single experimental and non-experimental studies of areas relatively unexplored, such as speaking online.
    • Replication studies of excellent previous work would strengthen existing data, especially if larger subject pools could be found. It is interesting to note that the Language Learning Journal has dedicated an entire future issue to such work.
    • *ReCALL 20(2): 141-161.
  • 61. hunter systems The world according to Usci Felix Learning theory Philosophy of education Psychology of education Curriculum design Methodology Materials
  • 62. hunter systems The world according to JALTCALL topics Learning theory Philosophy of education Psychology of education Curriculum design Methodology Materials
  • 63. hunter systems The world according to FAB1 Learning theory Philosophy of education Psychology of education Curriculum design Methodology Materials http://jalt.org/events/osaka-chapter/11-07-10
  • 64. Some elements for a CALL pattern language Learner characterization (to decide what to monitor) -learner view of the target -learner view of self as learner -learner view of learning -not what is learned (:^o) How to situate the LEARNER's transition from slave to serf to employee to executive learner? Attempts at a hierarchy of patterns for (IT-supported) education hunter systems
  • 65. Watts' “Eight-Point Story Arc” 1. Stasis 2. Trigger 3. The quest 4. Surprise 5. Critical choice 6. Climax 7. Reversal 8. Resolution Attempts at a hierarchy of patterns for (IT-supported) education hunter systems
  • 66. The notion of “story arc” in literary criticism Recast this variously as “ task arc”: the multi-perceived experience of a task “ acquisition arc”: the LONG TERM process of SLA “ knowing arc”: the personal experience of knowledge Attempts at a hierarchy of patterns for (IT-supported) education hunter systems
  • 67. Graphical brainstorming challenges -the results of which should point to elements for inclusion in a pattern language for CALL. Attempts at a hierarchy of patterns for (IT-supported) education hunter systems
  • 68. Graphical brainstorming challenges 1. Intertwine: the ELT notion of “scaffolding” and the WIRED notion of ”gadget” in a provocative open framework. Attempts at a hierarchy of patterns for (IT-supported) education hunter systems
  • 69. hunter systems ELT “scaffolding” -what supports are given? Learner goal Scaffolding WIRED 'gadget' -what extension of human? Human capability Extension
  • 70. Executive Serf Executive Serf Gadget: extension Picture of the target of an oral question Picture suggesting a topic for exploration
  • 71. 2. What elements would you use to define the spectrum of a 'task arc'? Task arc? hunter systems Watts' “Eight-Point Story Arc” 1. Stasis 2. Trigger 3. The quest 4. Surprise 5. Critical choice 6. Climax 7. Reversal 8. Resolution
  • 72. 3. As far as learning, what elements would you use to define the spectrum of an 'acquisition arc'? Acquisition arc? hunter systems Watts' “Eight-Point Story Arc” 1. Stasis 2. Trigger 3. The quest 4. Surprise 5. Critical choice 6. Climax 7. Reversal 8. Resolution
  • 73. 4. As far as knowledge, what elements would you use to define the spectrum of a 'knowing arc'? Knowing arc? hunter systems Watts' “Eight-Point Story Arc” 1. Stasis 2. Trigger 3. The quest 4. Surprise 5. Critical choice 6. Climax 7. Reversal 8. Resolution
  • 74. The 3* CALL arcs hunter systems Watts' “Eight-Point Story Arc” 1. Stasis 2. Trigger 3. The quest 4. Surprise 5. Critical choice 6. Climax 7. Reversal 8. Resolution Learning arc Acquisition arc Knowing arc
  • 75. Thank you for your kind attention. Don ’t hesitate to write to me. Lawrie Hunter Kochi University of Technology http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter
  • 76. http://www.delicious.com/rolenzo/patternlangs+elearning http://www.patternlanguage.com http://davidtjones.wordpress.com/publications/the-case-for-patterns-in-online-learning http://davidtjones.wordpress.com/2009/02/22/patterns-for-e-learning-a-lost-opportunity-or-destined-to-fail http://blog.hansdezwart.info/2010/06/15/christopher-alexanders-a-pattern-language http://www.elearnmag.org/subpage.cfm?section=case_studies&article=45-1 http://www.ifets.info/journals/6_2/2.html

×