Concept matching pitfalls: metaphors and branching
Architectural metaphors in concept maps passage through time more important less important more salient less salient rhetorical flow argument direction Tools: architecture confusion software default faults mind map softo: metaphors 'center is topic' 'outward is quasi-random' Cmap Tools software: default starting point is mid-screen, despite top-down architectural metaphor double-click to create a concept Concept mapping pitfalls: metaphors and branching overarching subordinate abstract concrete
Japanese is a between-the-lines language: priming effects are derived from syntactic factors. Priming in metaphor comprehension Kurosawa, M., & Kawahara,T. (1999). Alignment or Abstraction? Metaphor comprehension in Japanese. Proceedings, Second International Conference on Cognitive Science . http://www.jcss.gr.jp/iccs99OLP/p3-19/p3-19.htm In Japanese: Target- primed metaphor processing Base-primed metaphor processing (inverted form of metaphor) > fast Gentner and Wolff (1997): primacy of abstraction factors in metaphor comprehension in English , a specificity-oriented language. . Gentner,D., & Wolff, P. (1997). Alignment in the processing of metaphor. Journal of Memory and Language , 37, 331--355 !! discontinuity In English: Lawrie Hunter Kochi University of Technology http://lawriehunter.com
Branching in syntax Japanese is a left-branching language Mazuka, R. (1998) The development of language strategies: a cross-linguistic study between Japanese and English. Erlbaum. Sentential Japanese has delayed reveal of significand. Right-branching Yesterday I 1 went 2 to the DIY 3 to get 4 a screwdriver 5 to repair 6 my glasses 7 Left-branching 昨日、眼鏡 7 を直す 6 ためのドライバー 5 を買い 4 にホームセンター 3 に行きました 2 。 Kinou, megane 7 wo naosu 6 tame no doraibaa 5 wo kai 4 ni houmu sentaa 3 ni ikimashita 2 . Clause semantic completeness is not the primary processing unit in initial segmentation In English clause semantic completeness is the primary processing unit in initial segmentation Branching in mapping software -in mind maps: radial, random -in Novakian maps: top down, articulate, nodes sentences or nouns -in CmapTools: Novakian, default radial -in RST tool: bottom up (conceptually), nodes tend to be sentences.
Western Visual Design Grammar : English mixed media layout signifies relationships in two ways: New Left to right images/texts are GIVEN , Mediator and NEW Mediator Given Top to bottom images/texts are IDEAL , Mediator and REAL. Ideal Mediator Real Kress, G. and van Leeuwen, T. (1996) Reading images: The grammar of visual design. Routledge. <ul><li>Systemic Functional Linguistics says that rhetoric hinges on </li></ul><ul><li>GIVEN, </li></ul><ul><li>what the listener/reader already knows, and </li></ul><ul><li>NEW , </li></ul><ul><li>what the speaker/writer is going to 'break.' </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Halliday, M.A.K. (1985) An introduction to functional grammar . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>London: Edward Arnold </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>-Japanese rhetoric </li></ul><ul><li>doesn't do things that way. </li></ul>Japanese Visual Design Grammar : Japanese media/graphic arts don't do things that way. Japanese Visual Language: The Structure of Manga. Neil Cohn. http://www.emaki.net/essays/japanese_vl.pdf