Linguistic Vitality (AILDI 2012)

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Linguistic Vitality (AILDI 2012, University of Arizona)

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Linguistic Vitality (AILDI 2012)

  1. 1. Rolando Coto, AILDI June 2012. University of Arizona
  2. 2. How many languagesare there in the world? A. Two thousand B. Six thousand C. Ten thousand
  3. 3. How many languagesare there in the world? A. Two thousand B. Six thousand C. Ten thousand
  4. 4. How many languages are there in the world? A. Two thousand B. Six thousand C. Ten thousand Actually, there areabout 6309 languages (SIL, 2009)
  5. 5. Fuente: Harrison (2007:14)See final slide for copyright disclaimer
  6. 6. Fuente: Harrison (2007:12)See final slide for copyright disclaimer
  7. 7. Fuente: Harrison (2007:12)See final slide for copyright disclaimer
  8. 8. Fuente: Harrison (2007:13)See final slide for copyright disclaimer
  9. 9. There are manylanguages, and yetnot all of them are used for the same things
  10. 10. There are manylanguages, and yetnot all of them are used for the same things
  11. 11. What does it meanfor a language to be used?
  12. 12. What does it meanfor a language to be used?
  13. 13. Is it used… - In cultural ceremonies? - At home, when children speak with their parents? - In town, when people converse and do business? - To write letters and personal messages? - To write newspapers and publish media? - As a vehicle of new knowledge and culture? - As a means of entertainment? (Jokes, shows, movies) - To communicate with the regional or national government? - For communication that uses new technologies (Internet)?
  14. 14. Why are languages lost? Forced changeVoluntary Loss of change population Language Loss Source: Nettle & Romaine (2000)
  15. 15. Why are languages lost? Forced change Voluntary Loss of- Discriminatory change population laws- Scholarization Language aimed at reducing Loss the use of the minority language- Explicit prohibitions Source: Nettle & Romaine (2000)
  16. 16. Speakers of Occitan:1860 39% of France1920 26%~36%1993 7%Source: Ministère de la Culture et de laCommunication (2007) >>
  17. 17. Why are languages lost? - Change attitudes Forced change towards the languageVoluntary Loss of - Parents think it’s change population better not to teach the language Language Loss Source: Nettle & Romaine (2000)
  18. 18. Is it used… - In cultural ceremonies? - At home, when children speak with their parents? - In town, when people converse and do business? - To write letters and personal messages? The result is that, - To write newspapers and publish media? one by one, these - As a vehicle of new knowledge and culture? usage contexts are - As a means of entertainment? (Jokes, shows, movies) lost…. - To communicate with the regional or national government? - For communication that uses new technologies (Internet)?
  19. 19. Michael Krauss’ Scale to measure the degree of endngered of a language (1998):Class A: All generations speak the language, even small children Class B: The language is spoken only by parents and grandparents Class C: The language is spoken only by the grandparents Class D: The language is used only by a few elders (70+ years)
  20. 20. What is lost when alanguage loses all its speakers?
  21. 21. Knowledge about our planet
  22. 22. Traditional Ecological Knowledge
  23. 23. Source: Harrison (2007:30)See final slide for copyright disclaimer
  24. 24. Alternative ways forthe human brain toexpress information
  25. 25. John eats bread Subject Verb ObjectIn English, the order of most sentences is:(i) Subject first(ii) Then a verb(iii) Finally, the objectTherefore, the most common order inEnglish is “Subject Verb Object”. Otherlanguages, however, how different wordorders.Some word orders, like “Object Verb Source: WALS Database, MaxSubject” and “Object Subject Verb” are Plank Institute >>very exotic.
  26. 26. Source: WALS Database, Max Plank Institute >>
  27. 27. Source: WALS Database, Max Plank Institute >>
  28. 28. The world has many verb-initial or subject-initial languages, but very few object-initial languages.
  29. 29. Before these languages were studied, linguists believed thatobject-first languages were impossible for humans to speak.
  30. 30. Cultural diversity
  31. 31. Cultural diversity
  32. 32. Sovereignty andknowledge of one’s own history
  33. 33. The Indian people used a kind of characters orletters to write their ancient science andknowledge in their books. With these figuresand signals, they understood their things andtaught them to each other. We found a greatnumber of books with theses letters and,since they didnt contain anything in themthat wasnt superstition or falsehoods fromthe devil, we burned them all. They felt greatsorrow for this. Diego de Landa; A Relation of the Things in Yucatán
  34. 34. Video: Cracking the Maya Code (Minute 49) >>
  35. 35. Have languages ever been revitalized? ¡Sí!
  36. 36. Have languages ever been revitalized? Yes!
  37. 37. Hebrew
  38. 38. Hebrew
  39. 39. Hebrew
  40. 40. Maori
  41. 41. Maori
  42. 42. Maori
  43. 43. Maori
  44. 44. Maori Amthem 1, Anthem 2
  45. 45. Hawaiian
  46. 46. Hawaiian
  47. 47. Hawaiian
  48. 48. Hawaiian
  49. 49. Wampanoag
  50. 50. Wampanoag
  51. 51. Wampanoag
  52. 52. Source for the 3rd illustration:Wampanoag Makepeace Productions 2010 >> See final slide for full copyright disclaimer
  53. 53. Video 1, Video 2Wampanoag Fuente:Makepeace Productions 2010 >> See final slide for full copyright disclaimer Source:MacArthur Foundation See final slide for full copyright disclaimer
  54. 54. Video 1, Video 2Wampanoag Source:Makepeace Productions 2010 >> See final slide for full copyright disclaimer
  55. 55. Stages of Reversing Language Shift:Attaining diglossia (Fishman 1991:395) 8. Document and reconstruct the language and create materials for the adult acquisition.
  56. 56. Stages of Reversing Language Shift:Attaining diglossia (Fishman 1991:395) 8. Document and reconstruct the language and create materials for the adult acquisition. 7. Cultural interaction in the language, primarily involving the older generation
  57. 57. Stages of Reversing Language Shift:Attaining diglossia (Fishman 1991:395) 8. Document and reconstruct the language and create materials for the adult acquisition. 7. Cultural interaction in the language, primarily involving the older generation 6. Communication in the intergenerational and demographically concentrated home-family- neighborhood; the basis of mother-tongue transmission.
  58. 58. Stages of Reversing Language Shift:Attaining diglossia (Fishman 1991:395) 8. Document and reconstruct the language and create materials for the adult acquisition. 7. Cultural interaction in the language, primarily involving the older generation 6. Communication in the intergenerational and demographically concentrated home-family- neighborhood; the basis of mother-tongue transmission. 5. Schools for literacy acquisition, for the old and for the young, and not in lieu with compulsory education.
  59. 59. Stages of Reversing Language Shift:Trascending diglossia (Fishman 1991:395) 4. Usage in schools in lieu with compulsory education and substancially under curricular and staffing control of the Native group.
  60. 60. Stages of Reversing Language Shift:Trascending diglossia (Fishman 1991:395) 4. Usage in schools in lieu with compulsory education and substancially under curricular and staffing control of the Native group. 3. Usage in local/regional (non-neighborhood) work sphere, both among people in the community and people outside the community.
  61. 61. Stages of Reversing Language Shift:Trascending diglossia (Fishman 1991:395) 4. Usage in schools in lieu with compulsory education and substancially under curricular and staffing control of the Native group. 3. Usage in local/regional (non-neighborhood) work sphere, both among people in the community and people outside the community. 2. Usage in local/regional media and government services.
  62. 62. Stages of Reversing Language Shift:Trascending diglossia (Fishman 1991:395) 4. Usage in schools in lieu with compulsory education and substancially under curricular and staffing control of the Native group. 3. Usage in local/regional (non-neighborhood) work sphere, both among people in the community and people outside the community. 2. Usage in local/regional media and government services. 1. Usage in education, work sphere, media and government at regional/national levels.
  63. 63. Read More:UNESCO’s Language Vitality and Endangerment(1) http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/endangered- languages/language-vitality/(2) http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/doc/src/00120-EN.pdf (Free)Fishman, Joshua. 1991. Reversing language shift : theoretical andempirical foundations of assistance to threatened languages Full text (through the UofA library) Full text (EBSCOHost)
  64. 64. Créditos de fotografías:Hand Writing at 4 am (June Hong, CC 2.0 BY-NC-SA). People speaking different languages(Ericka Chaves, todos los derechos reservados). Map of the main languages of the world(bab.la, todos los derechos reservados). Pirámides de idiomas más hablados, mapas decontinentes según lenguas y ciclos de vida del reno todzhu (David Harrison, 2007. All rightsreserved. This use is thought of as being “fair use” in that: (i) The examples will be used foreducational purposes, (ii) the illustrations are considerably less than 10% or one chapter ofthe book, and (iii) it does not affect the capability of the author to exploit his original work).Lenguajes de la internet (Internet World Stats, todos los derechos reservados). Dance Bot(Jenn and Tony Bot, CC 2.0 BY-NC). Dancing in the Dark (Mario Inoportuno, CC 2.0 BY-NC-ND). Libros de biología (Fergus Ray Murray, CC 2.0 BY-NC-SA). Tintin and friends greetArmstrong (Daniel Bowen, CC 2.0 BY-NC-SA). Billete de Guatemala (dominio público). SpeakFrench (dominio público). Mapa del occitano (Norrin Strange, CC 3.0 BY-SA). ChiricahuaApaches (dominio público). Uncle Sam’s New Class (dominio público). Corn Diversity (GlobalCrop Diversity Trust, CC 2.0 BY-NC-SA). Thank you in languages (Gee Ranasinha, CC 2.0 BY-NC-ND). SVO Maps (WALS & Max Plank Digital Library, CC 2.0 BY-NC-ND). KekiongaStorytelling (rsteup, CC 2.0 BY-NC-ND). Maori Wood Carving (Sids1, CC 2.0 BY). Danza piede(eart threepointzero, CC 2.0 BY-NC-SA). Mayan Codex (Pietro Izzo, CC 2.0 BY-NC-SA).Hebrew Sacred Text (TikkunGer, CC 2.0 BY-NC-ND). Street Sign in Hebrew (FishHeadNed, CC2.0 BY-NC-SA). Coca Cola in Hebrew (iainsimmons, CC 2.0 BY-NC-SA). Te Kura KaupapaMaori O Nga Mokopuna (Tom Law, CC 2.0 BY). Maori lesson (unincorporated, CC 2.0 BY-ND).Sitio de la Biblioteca Nacional de Nueva Zelanda y de la Universidad de Auckland (todos losderechos reservados a sus respectivos dueños).
  65. 65. Créditos de fotografías:All Blacks at the Tri-Nation 2010 (Prime Channel, All Rights Reserved. This use is thought ofas being “fair use” in that: (i) The examples will be used for educational purposes, and (ii) itdoes not affect the capability of the author to exploit his original work). Tropasestadounidenses del USS Boston en Hawai’i (dominio público). Ka Lama Hawaii (dominiopúblico). Isla Aquinnah, Massachussetts (dominio público), Squanto demostrando cómocosechar maíz (dominio público). Biblia de John Eliot 1663 (dominio público). Escritos enWampanoag, Mujer enseñando Wampanoag (Anne Makepeace, All Rights Reserved. Thisuse is thought of as being “fair use” in that: (i) The examples will be used for educationalpurposes, (ii) the illustrations are considerably less than 10% or one chapter of the book,and (iii) it does not affect the capability of the author to exploit her original work).Diccionario Wampanoag (MacArthur Foundation, All Rights Reserved. This use is thought ofas being “fair use” in that the example will be used for educational purposes). EstuarioOnkaparinga (Magnus Manske, CC 3.0 BY-SA). Biblia y fotografías de Clamor Schürmann yChristian Teichelmann (Adelaide City Council Reconciliation Website, All Rights Reserved.This use is thought of as being “fair use” in that the examples will be used for non-profiteducational purposes). Sitio Kaura Warra Pintyandi (Universidad de Adelaide, All RightsReserved. This use is thought of as being “fair use” in that the examples will be used fornon-profit educational purposes). Portada del libro "Sounds Good to Me!" (Rob Amery y elKaura Warra Pintyandi de la Universidad de Adelaide, All rights reserved. This use is thoughtof as being “fair use” in that: (i) The examples will be used for non-profit educationalpurposes, (ii) the illustrations are considerably less than 10% or one chapter of the book,and (iii) it does not affect the capability of the author to exploit his original work).

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