Grapheme-Phoneme correspondence in English

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Grapheme-Phoneme correspondence in English

  1. 1. *A phoneme is an atom of pronounced language. *A grapheme is an atom of written language. -For example, there's a-For example, there's a phonemephoneme called the "voiceless velar plosive"called the "voiceless velar plosive" that initiates the English words "catch" and "king". Its IPA symbol isthat initiates the English words "catch" and "king". Its IPA symbol is [k].[k]. -As a different example,-As a different example, there's a Latin-alphabeticalthere's a Latin-alphabetical graphemegrapheme called "c" that initiates the Englishcalled "c" that initiates the English words "chariot" and "ceiling".words "chariot" and "ceiling".
  2. 2. *In typography, a graphemeis the atomic unit in written language. Graphemes include letters, Chinese characters, Japanese characters, numerals, punctuation marks, and other glyphs. *In a phonological orthography, a grapheme corresponds to one phoneme. In English — multiple graphemes may represent a single phoneme. For example, the word ship contains four graphemes (s, h, i, and p) but only three phonemes, because sh is a digraph. In English, the main graphemes are the twenty-six units that make up the alphabet. Other graphemes include the various marks of punctuation: <.>, <;>, etc., and such special symbols as <@>, <&>, and)£(. . ..
  3. 3. *There are about 40 distinctive phonemes in English, but 70 letters or letter combinations to symbolize phonemes. *This makes pronouncing spellings easier than writing correct spellings.
  4. 4. Two related conceptsTwo related concepts Alphabetic principle- knowing that speech can be turned into print, that print can be turned into speech, and that letters are used to represent sounds in the language. Letter recognition- is the ability to recognise and name the letters of the alphabet. -recognising and recalling the shapes of letters, -identifying lower and upper case letters, --and recognising letters in isolation , etc
  5. 5. *1.  Digraph- two graphemes-one phoneme. *Sheet [∫], chick [ ,k],ʧ photograph [f] *2. “Silent” grapheme- doesn’t represent any sound at all (like the b in English debt). *3. Diphtong- a sound formed by the combination of two vowels in a single syllable *Time [ai]
  6. 6. phonemephoneme graphemegrapheme samplesample representation /i/ ee week diphthong /o/ o, a on, was Single phoneme /k/ ck clock digraph /s/ c muscle Silent phoneme
  7. 7. *Types of vowels where two vowel sounds are connected in a continuous, gliding motion. Phoneme grapheme samplePhoneme grapheme sample /ai/ e,i eye, bike /ei/ a same /ia/ y yard
  8. 8. * Two graphemes used as one. Phoneme grapheme sample / / sh shakeʃ / / ch checkʧ /θ/ th thin

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