*A phoneme is an atom of pronounced language.
*A grapheme is an atom of written language.
-For example, there's a-For example, there's a phonemephoneme called the "voiceless velar plosive"called the "voiceless velar plosive"
that initiates the English words "catch" and "king". Its IPA symbol isthat initiates the English words "catch" and "king". Its IPA symbol is
-As a different example,-As a different example,
there's a Latin-alphabeticalthere's a Latin-alphabetical graphemegrapheme
called "c" that initiates the Englishcalled "c" that initiates the English
words "chariot" and "ceiling".words "chariot" and "ceiling".
*In typography, a graphemeis the atomic unit in written
language. Graphemes include letters, Chinese characters, Japanese
characters, numerals, punctuation marks, and other glyphs.
*In a phonological orthography, a grapheme corresponds to one
In English — multiple graphemes may represent a single
For example, the word ship contains four graphemes
(s, h, i, and p) but only three phonemes, because sh is a digraph.
In English, the
units that make
various marks of
<;>, etc., and
symbols as <@>,
<&>, and)£(. . ..
*There are about 40 distinctive phonemes in
English, but 70 letters or letter combinations
to symbolize phonemes.
*This makes pronouncing spellings easier than
writing correct spellings.
Two related conceptsTwo related concepts
knowing that speech can
be turned into print, that
print can be turned into
speech, and that letters
are used to represent
sounds in the language.
is the ability to recognise and
name the letters of the
-recognising and recalling the
shapes of letters,
-identifying lower and upper
--and recognising letters in
isolation , etc
*1. Digraph- two graphemes-one phoneme.
*Sheet [∫], chick [ ,k],ʧ photograph [f]
*2. “Silent” grapheme- doesn’t represent any sound at all
(like the b in English debt).
*3. Diphtong- a sound formed by the combination of two
vowels in a single syllable
phonemephoneme graphemegrapheme samplesample representation
/i/ ee week diphthong
/o/ o, a on, was Single phoneme
/k/ ck clock digraph
/s/ c muscle Silent phoneme
*Types of vowels where two vowel
sounds are connected in a continuous,
Phoneme grapheme samplePhoneme grapheme sample
/ai/ e,i eye, bike
/ei/ a same
/ia/ y yard
* Two graphemes used as one.
Phoneme grapheme sample
/ / sh shakeʃ
/ / ch checkʧ
/θ/ th thin