R O K S A N A U M A R O V A
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Connected speech. Reduction,
elision and secondary articulation.
Connected speech -
Spoken language as it is used in a continuous
sequence, as in normal conversations.
Words flowing together to form a stream of
speech that is different from the sum of
individual words. Sounds are simplified and
reduced and the energy profile is extended
from individual words to groups of words,
that is, from word stress, which is relatively
fixed, to intonation (pitch) and prominence
(emphasis) that is chosen by the speaker.
The substitution of the weak central vowel (called
schwa /ə/) in unstressed syllables.
Two or/ə/ three; a bit of/əv/ time
the omission of certain sounds in certain contexts. The
most important occurrences of this phenomenon
1)Alveolar consonants /t/ and /d/ when „sandwiched‟
between two consonants (CONS – t/d – CONS), e.g.
The next day…. /ðə ˈneks ˈdeɪ/
The last car… /ðə ˈlɑ:s ˈkɑ:/
Hold the dog! /ˈhəʊl ðə ˈdɒg/
Send Frank a card. /sen ˈfræŋk ə ˈkɑ:d/
This can also take place within affricates /t∫/ and
/ʤ/ when preceded by a consonant, e.g.
lunchtime /ˈlʌntʃtaɪm/ - /ˈlʌnʃtaɪm/
strange days/ˈstreɪndʒˈdeɪz/ - /ˈstreɪnʒˈdeɪz/
The elision of the phoneme /t/ in a fundamental part
of the negative particle “not”. Followed by a
consonant the /t/ may easily disappear
I can speak…. /aɪ kən ˈspi:k/
I can‟t speak… /aɪ ˈkɑ:n(t) ˈspi:k/
2) A second form involves the omission of the schwa
/ə/ before liquids /l/ and /r/, e.g.
When an approximant articulation occurs at the
same time as another articulation is being made at
different place in the vocal tract, the approximant is
said to form a secondary articulation.