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I/O chapter 3

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I/O chapter 3 by Jason Manaois

I/O chapter 3 by Jason Manaois

Published in Technology , Spiritual
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Transcript

  • 1. By:
  • 2. ORGANIZATIONS It is not easy to grasp the whole idea of an “organization” because they are abstractentities. Nevertheless, they are real and can be considered “alive”. *Authors use metaphors to enhance the understanding of the concept.
  • 3. What is an Organization?
  • 4. Organizations are collectives of parts thatcannot accomplish their goals as effective if they operate separately. *It’s easier to understand why organizations exist than to precisely define what they are.
  • 5. THREE THEORIES OF ORGANIZATIONSClassical Theory Neoclassical Theory Systems Theory
  • 6. CLASSICAL THEORY- first few decades of 20 th century FOCUS: form and structure of organizations
  • 7. FOUR BASIC COMPONENTS OF ORGANIZATIONS1.) A system of differentiated activities 2.) People 3.) Cooperation toward a goal 4.) Authority * Superior-subordinate relationships
  • 8. FUNCTIONAL PRINCIPLE- Division of labor; organizations should bedivided into units that perform similar tasks -Work is broken down to provide areas of specialization *Horizontal growth of organization
  • 9. Organization: Xavier University Unit 1: Unit 2: Unit 3:English Dept. Psychology Dept. RS Dept.
  • 10. SCALAR PRINCIPLE-Refers to the chain of command that grows with increasing levels of authority -Unity of command - each subordinate should be accountable to only one superior *Vertical growth of organization
  • 11. Organization: Xavier University Unit 1: Unit 2: Unit 3: Unit 3:English Dept. Psychology Dept. Philosophy Dept. RS Dept.Department Department Department DepartmentChairperson Chairperson Chairperson Chairperson Faculty Faculty Faculty Faculty
  • 12. LINE/ STAFF PRINCIPLE Line functions - primarily responsible for meetingthe major goals of the organization * production department Staff functions - support the line’s activities but are regarded as subsidiary in overall importance
  • 13. SPAN-OF- CONTROL PRINCIPLE-the number of subordinates a manager is responsible for supervising -May be “small” span or “large” span “Small” span-> flat organization * 1 manager: 3 subordinates “Large” span-> tall organization * 1 manager: 10 subordinates
  • 14. ManagerStaff 1 Staff 2 Staff 3 Staff 4 Staff 5 Staff 6 Staff 7 Staff 8 “LARGE” SPAN; FLAT ORGANIZATION
  • 15. OrganizationManager Manager Manager Manager “SMALL” SPAN; TALL ORGANIZATION
  • 16. NEOCLASSICAL THEORY There is really no theory; but rather a recognition of psychological and behavioralissues that question the rigidity with which the classical theory originality stated.
  • 17. ISSUESDivision of labor depersonalizes the activities ofthe units, where a sense of alienation developsfrom highly repetitive work, that the individual finds little meaning in their activities. *less rigid division of labor, more humanistic work
  • 18. Individuals are influenced by interpersonalactivities that extend well beyond the prescribed formal organizational structure. * Many sources operating in an organization influence the individual.
  • 19. SYSTEMS THEORY “Systems approach” Views an organization as existing in an interdependent relationship with itsenvironment, where all parts affect the otherparts and their interrelatedness make up the “system”.
  • 20. 5 PARTS OF AN ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEM 1. Individuals - personalities, abilities, attitudes 2. Formal Organization - interrelated pattern of jobs 3. Small Groups - facilitates adaptability within the system
  • 21. 5 PARTS OF AN ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEM 4. Status and Role- differences define the behavior of individuals within the system 5. Physical Setting- external physical environment and degree of technology
  • 22. Small Group 1 Small SmallGroup 2 Organization Group 3 Small Group 4
  • 23. Although the systems theory appears to be abstract, the systems perspective of organizations allows us to understandphenomena of organizational life that earlier theories would not permit.
  • 24. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
  • 25. COORDINATING MECHANISMS Mutual Adjustment – simple process of informal communicationDirect Supervision - one person takes responsibility for the work of others Standardization of Work Process – standardize or specify work process Standardization of Work Output – standardize or specify the product of the work to be performed Standardization of Skills and Knowledge – specifying in advance the knowledge, skills , training required to perform work
  • 26. THE FIVE BASIC PARTS OF AN ORGANIZATION Operating Core - employees responsible for conducting basic work duties Strategic Apex - the “brain” of the organization Middle line- mid-level bosses Technostructure - employees who posses expertise that facilitates the overall operation of the organization Support Staff - provides services that aides the basic mission of the organization
  • 27. COMPONENTS OF SOCIAL SYSTEM Social System - the human components of a workorganization that influences the behavior of individuals and groups -it has no formal structure apart from its functioning -when a social system stops functioning , no identifiable structure remains
  • 28. COMPONENTS OF SOCIAL SYSTEM ROLES - a set of expectations about appropriate behavior in a positionNORMS - a set of shared group expectations about appropriate behaviorCULTURE - the language, values, attitudesand beliefs and customs of an organization
  • 29. THREE LAYERS OF CULTURE IN AN ORGANIZATIONObservable Artifacts - artifacts are the surface level actions that can be observed from which some deeper meaning or interpretation can be drawn about the organization. e.g. legends, taboos and ceremonies Espoused Values- beliefs or concepts that are especially endorsed by management. e.g. “Safety is our top Priority” and “ We Respect the Opinions of our Employees” Basic Assumptions- unobservable and are at the core of organization
  • 30. THE END