Objectives Describe the goals of psychological research Learn the process of doing research Understand the different research methods Explore the advantages and disadvantages of doing research and its different methodologies Apply ethical consideration in doing research
Definition RESEARCH A formal process by which knowledge is produced and understood GENERALIZABILITY The extent to which conclusions drawn from one research study spread or apply to a larger population.
Goals of Psychological Research Description of social behavior Are people who grow up in warm climates different from those in cold climates? Establish a relationship between cause & effect Does heat cause higher amounts of aggression? Develop theories about why people behave the way that they do We dislike Duke students to feel better about ourselves Application Creating effective therapeutic treatments, more successful negotiation tactics, and greater understanding amongst groups of people
Empirical Research Empirical Knowledge based on direct observation Theory Set of ideas which try to explain what we observe Theoretical diversity A statement that proposes to explain relationship among phenomena of interest.
Statement of a Problem Inductive Method A research process in which conclusions are drawn about a general class of objects or people based on knowledge of a specific member of the class under investigation. DATA THEORY Deductive Method A research process in which conclusions are drawn about a specific member of a class of objects or people based on knowledge of the general class under investigation. THEORY Collects DATA
Design of the Research StudyResearch Design A plan for conducting scientific research for the purpose of learning about the phenomenon of interestInternal Validity The degree to w/c the relationship evidenced among the variables in a particular research study are accurate or true.External Validity The degree to w/c the relationship evidenced among the variables in a particular research study are generalizable or accurate in other contexts.
Concerns Naturalness of the Research Setting Laboratory vs. Field Degree of Control Are you able to control or manage the conduct of the research?
Primary Research Laboratory Experiment Quasi-experiment Questionnaire ObservationSecondary Research META-analysis
Qualitative Research Ethnography A research method that utilizes field observation to study a society’s culture EMIC – insider’s view ETIC – external view
Measurement of Variables Variables Quantitative Variables E.g. Age, weight Categorical Variables E.g. Gender, race
Variables Independent Variables A variable that can be manipulated to influence the values of the dependent variable. (the one that you manipulate) Dependent Variables A variable whose values are influenced by the independent variables. (the one that you measure)
Variable in I/O Predictor Variable A variable used to predict or forecast a criterion variable Criterion Variable A variable that is a primary object of a research study; it is forecasted by a predictor variable
The Process of Doing Research First, select a topic Good theory: Has predictive power Is simple & straightforward Then, search the literature Find out what others have done that may be applicable to your area of interest
The Process of Doing Research Next, formulate hypotheses Hypothesis: specific statement of expectation derived from theory State the relationship between two variables Variable: can be any event, characteristic, condition, or behavior
The Process of Doing Research Then pick your research method Experimental vs. correlational (Design) Design Field vs. laboratory (Setting) Setting Finally, collect & analyze your data
Let’s take a closer look . . .at variables Dependent variable (outcome variable) Dependent on the influence of other factor(s) How do we operationalize? Independent variable (predictor variable) Factor(s) that change the outcome variable How do we operationalize & manipulate? Control group
Let’s take a closer look . . . at researchmethodsExperimental vs. correlational designs Correlational: observe the relationship between two variables Describe patterns of behavior Types include Naturalistic observation Case studies Surveys
Correlational research Advantages Sometimes manipulation of variables is impossible or unethical Efficient – look at lots of data Disadvantages CANNOT DETERMINE CAUSATION Could be a lurking variable
Experimental Research Researcher manipulates one variable (IV) to see effect on other variable (DV) Try to hold everything else constant True experiments have Random sampling: selecting Ps randomly from population Random assignment: chance assignment to condition
Ethics in Research Should the study be done? Value vs. potential cost APA guidelines, colleagues How do we protect Ps? Informed consent Confidentiality & anonymity Debriefing
What Do We Mean ByCausality? Relationship between two events where one is a consequence of the other Determinism: A (cause) leads to B (effect) “In the strict formulation of the law of causality—if we know the present, we can calculate the future—it is not the conclusion that is wrong but the premise”. On an implication of the uncertainty principle. Werner Heisenberg
Heisenberg & UncertaintyPrinciple Certain properties of subatomic particles are linked so the more accurately you know one, the less accurately you know the other We can compute probabilities not certainties Argues against determinism “Physics should only describe the correlation of observations; there is no real world with causality” Heisenberg, 1927, Zeitschrift für Physik Psychology, like quantum physics, is probabalistic
Cause Versus Effect Effect of a Cause (Description) What follows a cause? Cause of an Effect (Explanation) Why did the effect happen?Holland, P. W. (1988). Causal inference, path analysis, and recursive structural equations models. Sociological Methodology , 18, 449-484.
Three Elements of CausalCase Cause and effect are related Cause preceded effect No plausible alternative explanations John Stuart Mill
Experiment Vary something to discover effects Shows association Shows time sequence Can rule out only some alternatives Confounds Boundary conditions (generalizability) Good for causal description not explanation Natural science control through precise measurement Sterile test tubes, electronic instruments
Studying and Performance Students randomly assigned to study amount Test scores as DV Did studying lead to test results? Encouragement led to test results Impact on studying unclear Effect of studying unclear What was cause of test results?Holland, P. W. (1988). Causal inference, path analysis, and recursive structural equations models. Sociological Methodology, 18, 449-484.
Nonexperimental ResearchStrategy1. Determine covariation2. Test for time sequence • Longitudinal design • Quasi-experiment1. Rule out plausible alternatives • Based on data/theory • Logical
Can Job Satisfaction CauseGender? Correlation of Gender and satisfaction = group mean differences Satisfaction can’t cause someone’s gender Satisfaction can be the cause of gender distribution of a sample Suppose Females have higher satisfaction than Males Multiple reasons
Alternative Gender-JobSatisfaction Model Females more likely to quit dissatisfying jobs Dissatisfaction causes gender distribution Gender moderates relation of satisfaction with quitting
More Alternatives1. Women less likely to take dissatisfying job (better job decisions)2. Women less likely to be hired into dissatisfying jobs (protected)3. Women less likely to be bullied/mistreated4. Women given more realistic previews (lower expectations)5. Women more socially skilled at getting what they want at work
How To Use ControlsControls great devices to testhypotheses/theoryRule in/out plausible alternativesBest based on theorySequence of tests
Control Strategy1. Test that A and B are related • Salary relates to job satisfaction1. Confirm/disconfirm control variable • Gender relates to both3. Generate/test alternative explanations for control variable • Differential expectations • Differential hiring rate • Differential job experience • Differential turnover rate
Validity and Threats To Validity Validity Interpretation of constructs/results Inference based on purpose Hypothesized causal connections among constructs Nature of constructs Population of interest People Settings
Four Types of Design Validity Statistical conclusion Appropriate statistical method to make desired inference Internal validity Causal conclusions reasonable based on design Construct validity Interpretation of measures External validity Generalizeability to population of interest
Threats to Validity Statistical Conclusion Statistics used incorrectly Low power Poor measurement Internal Validity Confounds of IV with other events, variables Group differences (pre-existing or attrition) Lack of temporal order Instrument changes
Threats To Validity 2Construct Validity Inadequate specification of theoretical construct Unreliable measurement Biases Poor content validityExternal Validity Inadequate specification of population Poor sampling of population Subjects Settings
Qualitative Methods What are qualitative methods Collection/analysis of written/spoken text Direct observation of behavior Participant observation Case study Interview Written materials Existing documents Open-ended questions
Qualitative Research 2 Accept subjectivity of science Is this an excuse? Less driven by hypothesis Assumption that reality a social construction If no one knows I’ve been shot, am I really dead? Interested in subject’s viewpoint More open-ended More interested in context Less interested in general principles Focus more on interpretation than quantification
Analysis Content Analysis Interviews Written materials Open-ended questions Audio or video recordings Quantifying Counts of behaviors/events Categorization of incidents Multiple raters with high agreement Nonquantitative Analysis of case Narrative description
The Value of the QualitativeApproach What is the value/use of this approach? Is this science? Must everything be quantified?
Qualitative Organizational Research:Job Stress Quantitative survey dominates Role ambiguity and conflict dominated in 1980s & 1990s (Katz & Kahn) Dominated by Rizzo et al. weak scales
Keenan & Newton’s SIR Stress Incident Record Describe event in prior 2 weeks Aroused negative emotion Top stressful events for engineers Time/effort wasted Interpersonal conflict Work underload Work overload Conditions of employment
Subsequent SIR ResearchComparison of occupations Clerical: Work overload, lack of control Faculty: Interpersonal conflict, time wasters Sales clerks: Interpersonal conflict, time wastersInformed subsequent quantitative studies Focus on more common stressors Interpersonal conflict Organizational constraints
Cross-Cultural SIR Research Comparison of university support staff India vs. U.S. Stressor India USOverload 0% 25.6%Lack of control 0% 22.6%Lack of structure 26.5% 0%Constraints (Equipment) 15.4% 0%Conflict 16.5% 12.3%
Research As Craft Scholarly research as expertise not bag of tricks Logical case Go beyond sheer technique Research not just formulaic/trends Not just using right design, measures, stats
Developing the Craft Experience Trying different things Constructs Designs/methods Problems Statistics Reading Reviewing Teaching Thinking/discussing Courses necessary but not sufficient Lifelong learning—you are never done
Developing the Craft Field values novelty and rigor Don’t be afraid of exploratory research Not much contribution if answer known in advance Look for surprises Don’t be afraid to follow intuition Ask interesting question without a clear answer Focus on interesting variables Good papers tell stories Variables are characters Relationships among variables
Constructs Theoretical level Conceptual definitions of variables Basic building blocks of theories Measurement level Operationalizations Based on theory of construct
What We Do With Constructs Define Operationalize/Measure Establish relations with other constructs Covariation Causation
External Validity: Population Link between sample and theoretical population Define theoretical population Identify critical characteristics Compare sample to population Employed individuals Do students qualify?
External Validity: Setting Link between current setting and other settings Organization Occupation Identify critical characteristics of settings Compare setting to others Lab to field
External Validity: Treatment/IV Link between current treatment/IV and others Compare treatment/IV Distance learning vs. traditional
External Validity: Outcome/DVLink between current outcome/DV andothersWill results in study work similarly innonresearch condition?Will different operationalizations ofoutcome have same result? Supervisor rating of performance vs. objective Safety behavior versus accidents/injuries
When Politics Attack Science Evolution IQ and performance Differential validity of IQ tests Others?
Quasi-Experimental Design What is an experiment? Random assignment Creation of Conditions? Naturally occurring experiment
Quasi-experiment Design without random assignment Comparison of conditions Researcher created or existing Can characteristics of people be an IV? Gender Personality Is a survey a quasi-experiment?
Settings Laboratory vs. field Laboratory Setting in which phenomenon doesn’t naturally occur Field Setting in which phenomenon naturally occurs Classroom field for educational psychologist Classroom lab for us
Lab vs. FieldStrengths/Weaknesses Lab High level of control Easy to do experiments Limits to what can be studied Limited external validity of population/setting Field Limited control Difficult to do experiments Wide range of what can be studied High reliance on self-report High external validity
Lab in I/O Research What’s the role of lab in I/O research? Stone suggests lab is as generalizeable as field. Do you agree? Stone says I/O field biased against lab. Is it? When should we do lab vs. field studies?
Challenges To Field Research Access to organizations/subjects Lack of control Distal contact with subjects (surveys) Who participates Contaminating conditions Participants discussing study Lack of full cooperation Organizational resistance to change
Population Single organization Multiple organizations Within industry/section Single occupation Multiple occupations General population Employed students
Sample Versus PopulationSurvey everyone in population vs. sample Single organization or unit of organization Often survey goes to everyone Multiple organizations Kessler: All psychology faculty Other organization Professional association Often survey everyone General population
Sampling Definitions Population – Aggregate of cases meeting specification All humans All working people All accountants Not always directly measurable Sampling frame – List of all members of a population to be sampled List of all USF support personnel
Sampling Definitions cont. Stratum – Segment of a population Divided by a characteristic Demographics Male vs. female Job level Manager vs. nonmanager Job title Occupation Department/division of organization
Instrument Issues Linguistic meaning Translation – Back-translation Calibration Numerical equivalence Cultural response tendencies Asian modesty Latin expansiveness Measurement equivalence Construct validity Factor Structure
What Is A Theory?Bernstein Set of propositions that account for predict and control phenomenaMuchinsky Statement that explains relationships among phenomenaWebster General or abstract principles of science Explanation of phenomena
Types of Theories Inductive Starts with data Theory explains observations Deductive Starts with theory Data used to support/refute theory
Common Usage of Theory Conjecture, opinion, speculation or hypothesis Wikipedia
Advantages Integrates and summarizes large amounts of data Can help predict Guides research Helps frame good research questions
Disadvantages Biases researchers “Theory, like mist of eyeglasses, obscures facts” (Charlie Chan in Muchinsky) “Facts are the enemy of truth” (Levine’s boss) A distraction as research does not require theory (Skinner)
Hypothesis Statement of expected relationships among variables Tentative More limited than a theory Doesn’t deal with process or explanation
Model Representation of a phenomenon Description of a complex entity or process Webster Boxes and arrows showing causal flow
Theoretical Construct Abstract representation of a characteristic of people, situation, or thing Building blocks of theories
Paradigm Accepted scientific practice Rules and standards for scientific practice Law, theory, application and instrumentation that provide models for research. Thomas Kuhn
What Are Our Paradigms? Behaviorism? Environment-perception-outcome approach Surveys
Ethical Practices Conducting Research Treatment of human subjects Treatment of organizational subjects Data Analysis/Interpretation Disseminating Results Publication Peer reviewing
Ethical Codes Appropriate moral behavior/practice Accepted practices Basic Principle: Do no harm Protect dignity, health, rights, well-being Codes APA??
American Psychological AssociationCode Largely Practice oriented Five principles Beneficence and Nonmaleficence [Do no harm] Fidelity and Responsibility Integrity Justice Respect for People’s Rights and Dignity Standards and practices Applies to APA members http://www.apa.org/ethics/
PreamblePsychologists are committed to increasing scientific and professional knowledge of behavior and peoples understanding of themselves and others and to the use of such knowledge to improve the condition of individuals, organizations, and society. Psychologists respect and protect civil and human rights and the central importance of freedom of inquiry and expression in research, teaching, and publication. They strive to help the public in developing informed judgments and choices concerning human behavior. In doing so, they perform many roles, such as researcher, educator, diagnostician, therapist, supervisor, consultant, administrator, social interventionist, and expert witness.
APA Conflict BetweenProfession and EthicalPrinciples Restriction of Advertising Violation of the law Maximization of income for members Tolerance of torture Convoluted statements Other associations manage to avoid such conflicts
Academy of Management Code Largely academically oriented Three Principles Responsibility Integrity Respect for people’s rights and dignity Responsibility to Students Advancement of managerial knowledge AOM and larger profession Managers and practice of management All people in the world http://www.aomonline.org/aom.asp?ID=&page_ID=239
Professional PrinciplesOur professional goals are to enhance the learning of students and colleagues and the effectiveness of organizations through our teaching, research, and practice of management.
Principles Vs. Practice Principles clear in theory Ethical line not always clear Ethical dilemmas Harm can be done no matter what is done Conflicting interests between parties Employee versus organization Whose rights take priority?
Example: ExploitiveRelationships Principle Psychologists do not exploit persons over whom they have supervisory, evaluative, or other authority What does it mean to exploit?
Privacy Anonymity: Best protection Procedures to match data without identities Confidentiality Security of identified data Locked computer/cabinet/lab Encoding data Code numbers cross-referenced to names Removing names and identifying information
Informed ConsentSubject must know what is involved Purpose Disclosure of risk Benefits of research Researcher/society Subject Privacy/confidentiality Who has access to data Who has access to identity Right to withdraw Consequences of withdrawal
Safety Minimize exposure to risk Workplace safety study: Control group Physical and psychological risk
Debriefing Subject right to know Educational experience for students Written document Presentation Surveys: Provide contact for follow-up Provide results in future upon request
Inducements Pure Volunteer – no inducement Course requirement Is this coercion? Extra credit Financial payment Is payment coercion?
Successful Research Career Conducting good research Lead don’t follow Visibility Good journals Conferences Other outlets Quantity First authored publications Important more early in career Impact Grants
Programmatic Program of research More conclusive Multiple tests Boundary conditions More impact through visibility Helps getting jobs Helps with tenure/promotion Can have more than one focus
Conducting SuccessfulResearch Develop an interesting question Based on theory Based on literature Based on observation Based on organization need Link question to literature Theoretical perspective Place in context of what’s been done Multiple types of evidence Consider other disciplines
Conducting Successful Research2 Design one or more research strategies Lab vs. field Data collection technique Survey, interview, observation, etc. Design Experimental, quasi-experimental or observational Cross-sectional or longitudinal Single-source or multisource Instrumentation Existing or ad hoc
Conducting Successful Research3 Analysis Hierarchy of methods simple to complex Descriptives Bi-variable relationships Test for controls Complex relationships Multiple regression Factor analysis HLM SEM
Conducting Successful Research4 Conclusions What’s reasonable based on data Alternative explanations Speculation Theoretical development Suggestions for future
ImpactEffect of work on field/worldCitations Sources ISI Thomson Harzing’s Publish or Perish Others Self-citation Citation studies Individuals (e.g., Podsakoff et al. Journal of Management 2008) Programs (e.g., Oliver et al. TIP, 2005)Being attacked