I/O chapter 1


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I/O chapter 1 by Jason Manaois

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I/O chapter 1

  1. 1. Psychology 49 Chapter 1 Introduction to Industrial/Organizational Psychology 1
  2. 2. Objectives • Define I/O Psychology • Describe the major activities of I/O Psychologists • Summarize the history of the I/O field • Explain the importance of the research and how it relates to practice
  3. 3. Centrality of work to human existence• In today’s society, you are what you do. Your choice of a job/occupation determines as much about what you will be, the status and prestige you will be afforded, what your children will do and who they will do it with, where they go to school, as do your choice of a spouse/partner and your own values. One of the first questions you ask someone: what’s your major? Or what do you do? Or perhaps identify by religion or spouse, not as likely• Go to a mall, your favorite bar, a construction site, etc., and ask anybody who will talk to you, “What are you?” How many define themselves in terms of their job or occupation? Success = money Success = happy Happy = what you want What you want requires $$$ or accomplishing goal. Goal usually is professional.• How does one know when one is a “success?” What is our cultural measuring-stick? 3
  4. 4. Work is a source of… − Identity - Last name ‘Smith’ ‘Cooper’ − Relationships outside the family. − Obligatory activity • Provides structure to our days. − deadlines − Autonomy--Independence • Provides money, products, & associated values. (Women) − Opportunity to develop skills. − Self-esteem • What would you do if you didn’t have college or a job • You can afford to be lazy for a break, what about when no end in sight. − Money 4
  5. 5. Implicit Themes of Work • Mentioned when work is discussed − Good Provider: Heavily influenced by social constructions of gender and gender identity. − Independence: “Stand on one’s own two feet.” • Being separate from your parents − Success: “Hard work pays off.” − Self Respect: Hard work of any type has dignity; a person’s worth is reflected in work. 5
  6. 6. Unemployment • Workplace violence: In 1996, Clifford McCree returned to his former place of work 14 months after being fired from his maintenance job with the City of Fort Lauderdale. He killed five former coworkers, wounded one, and killed himself. His suicide note said, “The economic lynching without regard or recourse was something very evil. Since I couldn’t support my family, life became nothing. I also want to punish some...that helped bring this about.” • Cross-culturally: High incidence of suicide among “ashamed” Japanese executives • Transition to adulthood: work represents a “coming of age” − Loss of a job marks return to dependency (welfare) 6
  7. 7. What is I/O Psychology? • Definition: • Application of psychological theory and research methods (principles) to issues concerned with work • Domains: − Cognition (worker perception) − Affect (worker emotion) • Influences worker going beyond call of duty − Behavior (worker action) 7
  8. 8. What is I/O psychology? • Textbook definition: − “Application of psychological principles and theories to the workplace” • What I usually tell my student: − “It is a study of how people get along at work and are able to perform effectively”
  9. 9. I/O vs Management Program • Focus: − I/O – focus on people . Uses psychological theories to better understand groups and people in organization with conflict, motivation, emotions and other issues. − Management – focuses on the running or managing as aspect of the organization such as marketing, advertising, costing, etc.
  10. 10. I/O vs Management Program • Approach: Example − Management uses unstructured interviews for example as their best way to size-up and understand applicants or people. − I/O uses standardized tests and structured interviews are just part and parcel of the process of hiring/placement program.
  11. 11. I/O vs Management Program • Methodology: − Relies extensively in Research, Quantitative Methods, and Testing techniques. − Uses empirical data and statistics to make decisions. − Scientist-Practitioner Model. Scientist when conducting research, practitioner when working in actual organization.
  12. 12. What is I/O psychology?• Subareas within I/O − Industrial or Personnel psychology • HR stuff: recruitment, job analysis, selection, training, performance appraisal, compensation, employment law (Title VII of CRA) • KSAs job performance − Organizational Psychology • Micro: motivation, leadership, teams, worker attitudes, safety & well-being, work-family • Macro: org theory, culture, org development & change − Human Factors & Ergonomics • Modifying equipment & environment to fit workers
  13. 13. Industrial vs Organizational Psychology• Industrial Psychology (personnel psychology): − Personnel selection--individual differences of employees − Prediction of job performance. − Covers job analysis • distinguish what a successful worker from unsuccessful − and selection, training, performance appraisal. • Job performance = company “bottom line” − Traditionally, correlational approach used for research (motivation, interview test)• Organizational Psychology (social life aspects applied to work): − Leadership − Not only job performance, but satisfaction, motivation, etc. − Traditionally experimental research method 13
  14. 14. The Training of I/O Psychologists (U.S.) • * Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychologists (SIOP) is the professional association with which I/O Psychologists affiliate. − www.siop.org • Training approach uses the Scientist-Practitioner Model − Stresses both the theoretical study of the field, and its application (in practice) to the workplace 14
  15. 15. I/O Psychologists Organization • PMAP (People Management Association of the Philippines) − http://www.pmap.org.ph/ • PAP (Psychological Association of the Philippines) − http://www.pap.org.ph/ 15
  16. 16. Who are I/O psychologists?• Two general groups − Academics • Professors in research- and teaching- oriented universities and colleges − Example departments: psychology, management, industrial relations, quantitative sciences, occupational health & safety • Major activities − Teaching courses, conducting research, writing and presenting research papers, attending conferences, mentoring students, performing university and professional service
  17. 17. Who are I/O psychologists?• Two general groups − Practitioners • HR and organizational specialists in consulting, private, and public organizations • Major activities − Job analysis, diagnosis, surveying employees, designing and administering selection & performance appraisal systems, training, developing psychological tests, implementing and evaluating OD & change, data analysis − “Other” category • Research institutes, think tanks (e.g., RAND)
  18. 18. Who are I/O psychologists? 6% 7% 33% 15% Consulting Academic Private Public Other 39%
  19. 19. Activities and Settings of I/O Psychologists• Concerned with practice and research − Practice activities involve the use of psychological principles to solve real-world problems − Research provides principles that can be applied in practice − Some practice activities require research to determine the best approach to solve the problem at hand• I/O Psychologists are professors − Practice settings include consulting firms, government, the military and private corporations (or consulting firms) − To create and to disseminate knowledge − Enhancing the effectiveness and functioning or organizations
  20. 20. Who are I/O psychologists?• Scientists AND practitioners − Understanding and evaluating research necessary for good practice… − …and awareness of practical problems necessary for good research• I/Oers are thieves! − We “borrow” from social, cognitive, developmental, clinical, and other areas of psychology
  21. 21. What do I/O Psychologists DO? • Careers emphasize science and research or practice. • 39% are professors employed by universities • 15% work in private organizations (Human Resources) • 15% work in public organizations • 33% work in consulting firms 21
  22. 22. The science and practice of I/O Psychology • Primary work areas for I/O work: • Selection − Develop, validate, and administer psychological tests to assess (measure) skills, abilities and interests as aids in selection and placement and promotion. • Training − Analyze: First thing I/O dude does, is try to understand nature of job--knowledge & task requirements − Conduct training programs, and evaluate the effectiveness of training. • Organizational Development − Analyze organizations’ culture/climate, develop interventions --> increase in efficiency. E.g. user interface fucking productivity 22
  23. 23. More functions of the I/O Psychologist • Performance Appraisal − Develop rating scales, and other measures of individual/organizational performance to improve employee performance. • Quality of Work-life − Previously, human workers were not viewed as human − Develop surveys that assess employees’ satisfaction with their jobs and commitment to the organization. Satisfaction: one of most common surveys. 23
  24. 24. Job Titles of I/O Psychologist • I/O Psychologist • Consultant • Psychology Professor • HR Recruiter • Research psychologist / analyst / scientist • Staffing Manager • Trainer, Training Coordinator • VP – Human Resource • VP – Organizational Development • HR Director, Generalist, Representative, Specialist, 24 Supervisor, Manager
  25. 25. History of I/O Psychology:(1900-1916) • I/O Psych was nameless at first. − W. L. Bryan… • Stressed importance of studying “concrete activities and functions as they appear in daily life.” • But not really considered father of I/O Psych because he was a precursor, before the field was established 25
  26. 26. When was the nameless named? • Frank and Lillian Gilbreth − Interested in improving productivity and efficiency of industrial engineers. • Argued for the use of psychology in the work lives of industrial engineers. − Led to the merger of psychology with applied interests. − The nameless was crowned industrial psychology in 1910. • (The “organizational” bit came in the 1970s). 26
  27. 27. The 3 Founding Fathers • 1. Walter Dill Scott (American Psychologist) • 2. Hugo Munsterberg (German) • 3. Frederick Taylor (American Engineer) 27
  28. 28. Walter Dill Scott • Walter Dill Scott (American Psychologist) − First to apply the principles of psychology to motivation and productivity in the workplace. − Would later become instrumental in the application of personnel procedures within the army during World War I. • Boosted Industrial Psychology 28
  29. 29. Hugo Munsterberg (German) • Father of industrial psychology − 1. Applied psychological method to practical industrial problems. − 2. Psychology and Industrial Efficiency (1913) − * View of I/O psychology: • 1. People need to fit the organization -- training! • 2. Applied behavioral sciences should help organizations to shape people to serve as replacement parts for organizational machines. Mechanistic. 29
  30. 30. Frederick Taylor (American Engineer)• Principles of Scientific Management (1911). • Science over intuition • The best workers should be selected and trained in the established “one best method” • Management and workers should cooperatively share responsibility for the design and conduct of work. − Motivation and monetary gain • Motivation results from monetary gain. − E.g.: Showed that workers who handle heavy iron ingots were more productive when allowed work rests. • Training when to work and when to rest raised productivity from 12.5 to 47.0 tons moved per day. • Company increase efficiency. Costs dropped from 9.2 to 3.9 cents per ton. 30
  31. 31. World War I - I/O field catalyst • Robert Yerkes and Walter Dill Scott: − Screening recruits for mental deficiency—Army Alpha and Beta intelligence tests developed. − Classification of selected recruits into jobs − Performance evaluations of officers − Job Analysis − soldier motivation and morale − Discipline • *(1917): Journal of Applied Psychology began publication 31
  32. 32. Between the Wars (1916-1940) The Hawthorne Studies• Collaboration b/w Harvard researchers and Western Electric Co. − Studied the relation b/w lighting and productivity. • Productivity went up when lighting was increased…and when light was decreased• Hawthorne Effect − Employees knew they were being watched • Following onset of novel treatment (new or increased attention usually) − If you don’t want more work given to you, purposely perform poorly.• Human Relations Movement – social factors boost worker morale. 32
  33. 33. World War II and shortly thereafter• Selection and classification work continued in the Army: − Development of Army General Classification Test (AGCT). • Sorted army recruits into categories based on their abilities to learn duties of a soldier − The Office of Strategic Services came about • Assessed candidates’ ability to deal with stressful situations − Build a cube with one passive helper and one frustrating ‘helper’ − Pilots trained to fly warplanes. • Good candidates were selected; also equipment’s HF.• Henceforth, use of employment tests increased in industry. − Industrial psychologists proved useful for selection, training and machine design. − Industrial leaders interested in applying social psychology. • Measures of attitudes and morale, now used in industry 33
  34. 34. History of the Field of I/O Psychology
  35. 35. History of the Field of I/O Psychology (I)• I/O Psychology is a 20-century invention, with roots in the late 1800s and early 1900s − First psychologists to do I/O work ere experimental psychologists who were applied the new principles of psychology to problems in organizations − Two main founders of the field were Hugo Munsterberg and Walter Dill Scott • Munsterberg interested in the selection of employees and the use of the new psychological tests, wrote the first I/O textbook , Psychology and Industrial Efficiency (1913) • Scott interested in advertising, Scott’s The Theory of Advertising (1930)
  36. 36. History of the Field of I/O Psychology (II)− The major influence on the I/O field was the work of Frederick Winslow Taylor • Developed the Scientific Management − Each job should be carefully analyzed so that the optimal way of doing tasks can be specified − Employees should be selected (hired) that related to job performance − Employees should be carefully trained to do their job tasks − Employees should be rewarded for their productivity to encourage high levels of performance− Frank and Lillian Gilberth, who were combined the fields of engineering and psychology • Their best-known contribution was the time and motion study − Measuring and timing people’s motions as they did tasks with the goal of developing more efficient ways of working − Lillian was the first to receive an I/O Ph.D. in 1915
  37. 37. History of the Field of I/O Psychology (III) − Robert Yerkes offered their services to the army • Development of the Army Alpha and Army Beta group tests for mental ability • This is the first large-scale application of psychological testing to place individuals in jobs − Hawthorne studies (Hawthorne effect) • The investigation of lighting-level effects − Determine the lighting level that would produce optimal performance on a factory task − Productivity increased and seemed to have little to do with lighting levels − Social factors can be more important than physical factors in people’s job performance• APA applied psychology, and Division 14 of Industrial and Business Psychology was formed in 1944
  38. 38. History of the Field of I/O Psychology (IV) • In 1970, the Division of Industrial and Organizational Psychology and today called the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) • I/O Psychology was the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 − Help develop procedures that would eliminate discrimination in the workplace.
  39. 39. I/O Psychology Around the World• US has had a long tradition of paying somewhat greater attention to the I side than the O side of the field − Canada and Europe focuses somewhat more on the organizational direction − Scandinavian countries concerned with employee health and stress − US , employee selection was the most popular topic• Began the 21 century, the practice is spreading as I/O techniques gain acceptance in more and more places
  40. 40. Ethics of The I/O Field• Ethical code − Psychologists should do their best to avoid harming other people through their professional work − Psychologists have a social responsibility to use their talents to help other people − Helping to improve organizations so that they function better and helping to improve the well-being of employees − Contains 6 principles • Competence, integrity, professional and scientific responsibility, respect for people’s rights and dignity, concerns for others welfare and social responsibility • Honesty, integrity, respect for others, and responsibility
  41. 41. Current Trends Affecting the Field (I)• Linked to the realities of day-to-day organizational life − Workplace affect both the practice and the research field − Deal with contemporary challenges and problems• Technology − Advances in communication and transportation changed the way in which organizations functioned − The World Wide Web is responsible for much of this changed − Organizations are simply posting their old ads on-line• Internationalization − In the practice side, DDI and PDI changed the meaning of the I in their names from “incorporated” to “international”
  42. 42. Current Trends Affecting the Field (II) − The research side, collaboration among scholars in different countries has grown − Providing cross-fertilization of the field through the introduction of new ideas• Skilled Labor Shortages − Jobs have become more complex, requiring higher levels of skills, the supply of employees has been dwindling − How best to attract applications in the first place − How to find and train people who have potential − How to retain the employees they have• Occupational Health Psychology − Focus on the health, safety and well-being of employees in the workplace
  43. 43. A Look Into the Crystal Ball: The Future• Changing nature of employees: − Fewer young people entering workforce (baby boom) − More women (2/3 of entry-level) − More minorities (1/3 of entry-level) − More temporary workers• Changing nature of organizations: − Mergers and acquisitions; failures and downsizing--layoffs-- more work, less manpower. − Smaller organizations, employing fewer people. Cynical workers/job security. − Greater focus on work teams (flatter management hierarchy) 43
  44. 44. A Look Into the Crystal Ball: The Future• Growing importance of technology: − Technology-mediated communication • 1. Workers can work anywhere (from home, etc) • 2. Loss of direct human contact--impact on social relationships, mental health, etc. − Human-technology interaction • New jobs in maintenance of technology − Replace manufacturing operatives as “worker elite” • Greater focus on decision-making and coordination of activities by humans − Because jobs are becoming more technologically complex 44
  45. 45. A Look Into the Crystal Ball: The Future• Redefinition of “job”: − less emphasis on job as a fixed bundle of tasks − emphasis on constantly changing tasks • 1. Requires constant learning • 2. More higher-order thinking • 3. Less “9 to 5”• Changing nature of pay: − 1. *Tied less to position or tenure in organization − 2. Tied more to market value of person’s KSAOs (Knowledge, Skills, Abilities and Other characteristics). 45
  46. 46. Where do you go to become an I/O psychologist?• Grad school!!! − Top MA and PhD programs • Lots of course work in years 1 and 2 • MA thesis completed in year 2 or 3 − Varies in formality by program • Internship? • Comprehensive exams in year 3 • Dissertation in years 4 and 5 − Proposal and defense meetings
  47. 47. When should you begin thinking about grad school in I/O psychology?• The sooner the better! − Stuff to think about early on • Relevant coursework − I/O (duh!), stats, research methods, tests & measures, social, personality, motivation, cognitive, OB/HR • Research experience − Honor’s thesis, RA − Experience is more important than topic • Interact with faculty, grad students − Be active (not passive) − Attend brown bags − Involvement in professional societies (Psi Chi, SIOP)
  48. 48. Why should you consider getting a degree in I/O psychology?• Applied field − There will always be practical problems to solve! • Company restructuring & downsizing • Workplace diversity• Variety of job possibilities − Academic positions in multiple departments − Internal and external consulting − Private and public organizations − Any combination of the above
  49. 49. Why should you consider getting a degree in I/O psychology?• Variety of research topics − Attitudes, emotions, behavior (social) − Learning, memory, heuristics (cog) − Employee aging, retirement (develop) − Employee counseling, coaching (clinical) − Data analysis, test development (quant)• Field is growing − More and more I/O and management department’s − Out with the old, in with the new…
  50. 50. References:• Aamodt, Michael G. Industrial and Organizational Psychology Philippines (reprint), CENGAGE Learning Asia Pte. Ltd., 2012. • Muchinsky, Paul M. Psychology Applied to Work (An Introduction to Industrial/Organizational Psychology). 8th ed. Thomson/Wadsworth. University of North Carolina, 2007.