HUMAN DEVELOPMENTGeneral Psychology (1/23) photo credit:http://www.bc.edu/schools/cas/psych/meta- elements/jpg/developmental_collag.jpg
• Developmental Psychology • Branchof psychology that describes and explains change across the lifespan• Human Development • is described as how people change and how people stay the same over time
2 Forms of Change:• Quantitative • Howwe change as explained through numerical quantities• Qualitative • Change in kind, structure, or organization
Multi-Dimensional & Integrated• Development involves the whole individual and all of his different aspects: • Physical - body, structure, motor skills • Cognition - mental abilities • Personality& Emotional - Self-concept or self- perception, gender identity, emotions and feelings, self-esteem • Social - interactions and relationships with others
Development throughout life-span (8 Stages)• Prenatal (from conception to birth)• Infancy (birth to age 2)• Early Childhood (2-7)• Middle Childhood (7-11)• Adolescence (11-20)• Young Adulthood (20’s to 40’s)• Middle Adulthood (40’s to 60’s)• Late Adulthood (60’s onwards)
Stability and Plasticity in Development• Stable • There are some traits that remain unchanged• Unstable/Plastic • Can be caused by changing conditions
Normative & Non-Normative Inﬂuences • Non-Normative• Normative • are occurrences not • Biological and environmental common to most people inﬂuences which occur in a similar way for most people • they are unusual events • Age-Graded that have a major impact on an individual’s life • particular to an age group • History-Graded • particular to a common generation
Development in Context• Development is in constant interaction with the environment• Biological Systems Perspective (Urie Bronfenbrenner, 1998) • A child develops within a complex and dynamic system of relationships and is affected by them. • 5 systems: • Microsystem - primary relationships (immediate surrounding) • Mesosystem - connections among a person’s microsystems • Exosystem - settings that do not involve a person but is still affected by it • Macrosystem - describes the culture in which individuals live • Chronosystem - inﬂuence of historical time in shaping one’s environment and life experiences
ISSUES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT• NATURE VERSUS NURTURE CONTROVERSY• Is behavior innate or acquired?• CONTINUITY VERSUS DISCONTINUITY INDEVELOPMENT• Does development continue throughout an individual’s lifespan? Or does it stop at a certain point?
PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY OFDEVELOPMENT Sigmund Freud Men are more moral than they think and far more immoral than they can imagine.
3 Parts of the Unconscious• Id • The child in us • Continually seeks immediate gratiﬁcation of wants • Revolves around the pleasure principle - we seek pleasure and avoid pain• Ego • The rational adult • Seeks satisfaction of wants but takes reality into account - delayed gratiﬁcation • Revolves around the reality principle - we don’t always get what we want (we can postpone or delay pleasure)• Superego • The older, conservative senior - our conscience • Punishes misbehavior with feelings of guilt • Criticizes and prohibits our drives, fantasies, feelings, and actions
THE ID, THE EGO, AND THE SUPEREGO PHOTO CREDIT: http://www.makingthemodernworld.org.uk/learning_modules/psychology/02.TU.04/illustrations/02.IL.17.gif
• Each stage focuses on a different erogenous zone • An excitable part of the body where our sexual/ libidinal energies are focused on• Freud claimed that some people get stuck at one particular stage . . . They become ﬁxated. Manifests in adulthood.• Sometimes the ﬁxation is caused by frustration, sometimes by overindulgence . . . and it’s always the parents’ faults!
Oral Stage• Birth to 12-18 months• Mouth and lips are the center of pleasure • Source of pleasurable sensations is the mouth where the child sucks, swallows and bites.• Oral Fixation • occurs when oral needs are not met or are overindulged • gossiping, overeating, smoking, etc.
Anal Stage• Between 12-18 months and 3 years• Sexual energies are focused on the anus• First encounter with social constraints • Children are free to expel waste • Toilet-training dampens this freedom• Anal Fixation • Adult symbolically withholds feces • controlling, stubborn, stingy • Adult symbolically expels feces • wasteful, messy, disorganized
Phallic Stage• 3 to 6 years• Focus of pleasure shifts to the genital area• For BOYS: • Oedipal Complex • young boys have an unconscious urge to eliminate their fathers in order to fulﬁll a sexual need to be with their mothers • Castration Anxiety • a fear of having their penis’ cut off by their fathers upon realization of boys’ desire for their mother • causes boys to stop desiring their mothers
Phallic Stage, part 2• For GIRLS •Penis Envy • young girls realize that they are without penises •they blame the mother for their lack of penis - they then identify with their fathers •Electra Complex • an unconscious desire a young girl has for her father •precipitated by the lack of a penis for which the young girl blames her mother for
• Fixations @ the Phallic Stage • Unresolved conﬂicts with same-sex parent • problems dealing with people in authority: • parents • older siblings • teachers • bosses • uncertainty about one’s identity • problems in maintaing romantic relationships • aberrant sexual behavior
Latency Stage•6 to 11 years• temporary repression of the libido• child focuses more on social relationships
Genital Stage•Sexual drive returns with a vengeance •coupled with the onslaught of puberty•Focus of pleasure return to the genitals•Object of sexual desire - the opposite sex
• Evaluating Freud’s Theory• Pros • Changed the face of Psychology • First to highlight the role of childhood experiences in shaping adult personality• Cons • Overemphasis on sex • Derogatory to women • Overly culture-bound (Victorian era)
PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY OFDEVELOPMENT Erik Erikson Children love and want to be loved and they very much prefer the joy of accomplishment to the triumph of hateful failure. Do not mistake a child for his symptom.
• Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to between 12-18 months) • Centers around the infants basic needs being met by the parents • The infant depends on the parents, especially the mother, for food, sustenance, and comfort • If these needs are met: • Child develops trust and security, and is hopeful and optimistic • If the needs are not met: • Infant grows up mistrustful of the world and people in general
• Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (early childhood, 12-18 months to 4 years) • “Can I do things myself or must I always rely on others?” • Child asserts independence and separation from caregivers • If there is adequate balance between child’s sense of independence and disciplining the child • Child develops a sense of accomplishment, purpose, and responsibility • If child is overprotected or constantly discouraged and reprimanded in his explorations • Child will doubt his ability to accomplish things and shame for his lack of self-control
• Initiative vs. Guilt (preschool age, between 3 and 6 years) • “Am I good or am I bad?” • CHILD LEARNS TO TAKE INITIATIVE • If supported by parents - child will develop a sense of purpose and responsibility • If reprimanded by parents - child will feel GUILTY and INADEQUATE about initiating activities
• Industry vs. Inferiority (middle childhood, between 6 to 11 years) • Am I Successful or Worthless? • Child develops abilities, becomes industrious and productive, engages in hobbies • If successful - child develops sense of competence and motivation • If failure - child feels inadequate and inferior
• Identity vs. Identity Confusion (adolescence, between 11 and 20 years) • Who am I and where am I going? • Adolescents try to ﬁnd themselves or their sense of identity • Individuals often go through an identity crisis - they often don’t know who they are and who they want to be •A MORATORIUM is necessary - a “time-out” • The adolescent can be free to be who he or she wants
• Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adulthood, 20s to 40s) • "Am I loved and wanted?" or "Shall I share my life with someone or live alone?" • Individuals are ready to share themselves with others • Individualdevelops loving and committed relationships; or • Cannot commit to relationships • Float from one relationship to another
• Generativityvs. Stagnation (or Self-absorption) (middle adulthood, 40s to 60s) • "Will I produce something of real value?" •A concern for the younger generation • (+) A need to pass on or LEAVE A LEGACY • (-) No contribution to the next generation - unproductive • this stage is marked by MID-LIFE CRISIS
• Integrity vs. Despair (late adulthood, 60s and beyond) • "Have I lived a full life?" • Individuals are confronted with their mortality • (+)Develops the virtue of wisdom and readiness to face death - integrity • (-) Looks back on life with regret
THEORY OF COGNITIVEDEVELOPMENT Jean Piaget It is with children that we have the best chance of studying the development of logical knowledge, mathematical knowledge, physical , and so forth.
• Schemas • Basic units of intellect • Tools for learning about the world •A type of mental “script”, or a sketch for a situation, event, or problem
• Assimilation • Process of taking in new information that easily ﬁts into an existing schema • We change information to ﬁt into our established schemas • ex. all 4-legged animals are seen as doggies • ex. all women are seen as “mommies”
• Accommodation • Process of modifying/differentiating existing schemas to better ﬁt new information • When a child changes his or her schemas in response to new knowledge or experience • ex. can now differentiate dogs from cats, and other 4-legged animals
• Equilibrium • Balance is attained when a child learns to accommodate • Whenschemes are in accordance with the demands of the world
• Sensorimotor Stage • Infantsunderstand the world through sensory experiences and physical interactions with other objects • Object Permanence • The understanding that objects continue to exist even when outside of the infant’s perception
• Pre-operational • Child is now able to use mental images - But is still unable to perform mental operations • Hence Pre-Operational • Highlight: Representational/Symbolic Thinking • The ability to make something stand for something else
• Centration • Child’s propensity to focus on only one aspect of a stimulus at a time •A young childs tendency to focus only on his or her own perspective of a speciﬁc object and a failure to understand that others may see things differently.
• Inability to Conserve • Child does not understand the process of conservation • Cannot mentally reverse an action
• Concrete Operational • Child can now think logically about objects and events •3 abilities: • Seriation • Transitive Reasoning • Classiﬁcation
• Seriation • Ability to order objects according to some quantitative dimension• Transitive Reasoning • Can now solve transitive reasoning problems• Classiﬁcation • Ability to recognize hierarchical relations between sets and subsets
• Formal Operational • Highest stage of cognitive development • Adolescent is able to: • Reason logically • Can draw conclusions • Formulate and entertain, and test hypotheses
THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT Lawrence Kohlberg Right action tends to be defined in terms of general individual rights andstandards that have been critically examined and agreed upon by the whole society.
• Pre-Conventional Level • Moral Reasoning is based on immediate consequences • 2 levels: • Punishment Orientation • “I do what I am told so I will not be punished” • Reward Orientation •I do what is expected of me in order to gain rewards
• Conventional Level • Moral reasoning is based on conformity to social rules and expectations •2 levels: • Good Boy/Good Girl Orientation • “I will do what is good. I want to please others” • Social Systems Orientation • “I will obey the law because I wish to do my duty and help maintain social order”
• Post-Conventional Level • Moral reasoning is based on principles and ethical ideas •2 levels: • Morality of Social Contrast and Democracy • “I will uphold the values of human life, dignity, and the rights of others” • Morality of Individual Principles and Conscience • “I will try to follow the laws, but in some cases I believe they are not right and I must follow conscience”
HEINZ’S DILEMMA (ASSIGNMENT)• In Europe, a woman was near death from cancer. One drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2,000, ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said, “No.” The husband got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. Should the husband have done that? Why?
• Should Heinz steal the drug? Why or why not?• If Heinz doesnt love his wife, should he steal the drug for her? Why or why not?• Suppose the person dying is not his wife but a stranger. Should Heinz steal the drug for a stranger? Why or why not?• Suppose it is a pet animal he loves. Should Heinz steal to save the pet animal? Why or why not?• Why should people do everything they can to save anothers life? 6. It is against the law for Heinz to steal? Does that make it morally wrong? Why or why not?• Why should people generally do everything they can to avoid breaking the law? How does this relate to Heinzs case?