Basic concepts in psychological testingPresentation Transcript
BASIC CONCEPTS INPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING
Objective Define the basic terms pertaining topsychological and educational tests
TESTSare measurement devices or techniques usedto quantify behavior, to aid in theunderstanding and prediction of behavior.
An ITEM is a specific stimulus to which aperson responds overtly.This response can beevaluated or scored.
A PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST or educational test is a set of items that is designed to measure characteristics of human beings that pertain to behavior.
TYPES OF TESTSINDIVIDUAL TESTS: those that can be given to only one person at a timeGROUP TESTS: can be administered to more than one person at a given time by a single examiner.
CATEGORIES OF TESTS:according to the type of behavior that they measure1. Different types of ability 1.1 ACHIEVEMENT: refers to previous learning
1.2 APTITUDE: potential for learning or acquiring a specific skill (given a certain amount of training, education or experience)1.3 INTELLIGENCE: refers to a person’s general potential to solve problems, adapt to changing circumstances, think abstractly and profit from experience
ALL THREE (achievement, aptitude, intelligence) are highly interrelated- NO clear-cut distinctionBUT there is a clear-cut distinction between ability tests and personality tests.
PERSONALITY TESTS: are related to the overt and covert DISPOSITIONS of the individual. They measure TYPICAL behaviors.
TYPES OF PERSONALITY TESTS1.STRUCTURED PERSONALITY TESTS: provide a statement, usually of a “self-report” variety and require the subject to choose between 2 or more alternative responses.
2. PROJECTIVE PERSONALITY TESTS: UNstructured; either the stimulus (of the test) or the response – or both-- are AMBIGUOUS. SPONTANEOUS response is required of the test takers
Projective tests assumes that a person’s interpretation of an ambiguous stimulus will reflect his or her unique characteristics.
PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING refers to all possible uses, applications and underlying concepts of psychological and educational tests.