Objective Define the basic terms pertaining topsychological and educational tests
TESTSare measurement devices or techniques usedto quantify behavior, to aid in theunderstanding and prediction of behavior.
An ITEM is a specific stimulus to which aperson responds overtly.This response can beevaluated or scored.
A PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST or educational test is a set of items that is designed to measure characteristics of human beings that pertain to behavior.
TYPES OF TESTSINDIVIDUAL TESTS: those that can be given to only one person at a timeGROUP TESTS: can be administered to more than one person at a given time by a single examiner.
CATEGORIES OF TESTS:according to the type of behavior that they measure1. Different types of ability 1.1 ACHIEVEMENT: refers to previous learning
1.2 APTITUDE: potential for learning or acquiring a specific skill (given a certain amount of training, education or experience)1.3 INTELLIGENCE: refers to a person’s general potential to solve problems, adapt to changing circumstances, think abstractly and profit from experience
ALL THREE (achievement, aptitude, intelligence) are highly interrelated- NO clear-cut distinctionBUT there is a clear-cut distinction between ability tests and personality tests.
PERSONALITY TESTS: are related to the overt and covert DISPOSITIONS of the individual. They measure TYPICAL behaviors.
TYPES OF PERSONALITY TESTS1.STRUCTURED PERSONALITY TESTS: provide a statement, usually of a “self-report” variety and require the subject to choose between 2 or more alternative responses.
2. PROJECTIVE PERSONALITY TESTS: UNstructured; either the stimulus (of the test) or the response – or both-- are AMBIGUOUS. SPONTANEOUS response is required of the test takers
Projective tests assumes that a person’s interpretation of an ambiguous stimulus will reflect his or her unique characteristics.
PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING refers to all possible uses, applications and underlying concepts of psychological and educational tests.