Cb 4 Motivation Personality And Emotions


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Cb 4 Motivation Personality And Emotions

  1. 1. Motivation, Personality & Emotions Dr. Rohit Vishal Kumar Reader, Department of Marketing Xavier Institute of Social Service Ranchi - 834001
  2. 2. Motivation
  3. 3. Motivation <ul><li>Motivation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the reason for any behaviour either consumer or otherwise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a construct representing an unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioural response and provides specific direction to that response </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Five Levels of Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological Needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety Needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esteem Needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self Actualization Needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An individual first fulfills the baser needs and then progresses to higher level needs </li></ul><ul><li>Manifestation of need may be different in different culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany (Self Actualization): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Washing a self owned luxury car with mineral water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India (Self Actualization) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Giving up worldly wealth for religion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. McGuire’s Psychological Motive <ul><li>16 categories of basic motives divided in to 4 groups </li></ul><ul><li>Based on 4 categories on two broad Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mode of Motivation: Cognitive / Affective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive motive focuses on a persons needs for being oriented towards the environment and achieving a sense of meaning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affective motive focuses on achieving a satisfaction state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on: Status Quo / Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation motive focuses on achieving a state of equilibrium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth motive emphasizes development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Further subdivided using two more criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source for Behaviour: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actively Initiated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Response to Environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective of Motive: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New Internal State </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New External Relationship </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. McGuire’s Psychological Motive <ul><li>Cognitive Preservation Motive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Consistency (Active, Internal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to have all parts of self consistent with each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Attribution (Active, External) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to understand the reason for what is happening to us </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to Categorize (Passive, Internal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need for understanding information in a meaningful way </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Objectification (Passive, External) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need for hints to understand what people know and feel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Growth Motive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Autonomy (Active, Internal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The need for individuality and independence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Stimulation (Active, External) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The need for variety seeking behaviour </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telological needs (Passive, Internal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need to modify environment to suit a person’s perception </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilitarian Needs (Passive, External) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The need to approach any problem logically and rationally </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Affective Preservation Motive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Tension Reduction (Active, Internal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Expression (Active, External) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Ego Defense (Passive, Internal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Reinforcement (Passive, External) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affective Growth Motives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Assertion (Active, Internal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Affiliation (Active, External) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Identification (Passive, Internal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Modeling (Passive, External) </li></ul></ul>McGuire’s Psychological Motive
  8. 8. Purchase Motives <ul><li>Manifest Motives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motives that are known and freely admitted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motives which conform to social norms may be more manifest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EG: I Should have a Nokia Phone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latent Motives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motives that are either unknown or the person is reluctant to admit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are not readily expressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EG: Wearing a Stiletto makes me appear more sexy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discovering Purchase Motives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Projective Techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laddering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefit Chain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marketing Communications normally done on multiple motives </li></ul>
  9. 9. Motivational Conflicts <ul><li>Approach – Approach Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the customer has to choose between two alternatives both of which are equally attractive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EG: Buying a Nokia Phone or Buying an Apple iPod </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approach – Avoidance Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the customer has to choose between two alternative one of which is attractive and the other is unattractive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EG: Joining VLCC to loose weight and stop eating ice-cream </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoidance – Avoidance Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the customer has to choose between two alternative both of which are unattractive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EG: Repair an old washing machine or buy a new one </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Personality
  11. 11. What is Personality? <ul><li>Personality is an individuals characteristics response tendency across similar situations </li></ul><ul><li>Five Factor Model of Personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extroversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prefer Large Group / Talkative / Bold </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moody / Temperamental / Touchy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreeableness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic / Kind / Polite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness to Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imaginative / Appreciative / Find Novel Situations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Careful / Precise / Efficient </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The model finds most use in marketing and has been validated in Bargaining, Compulsive Shopping and Complaints </li></ul>
  12. 12. Brand Personality <ul><li>Is defined as the set of human characteristics that become associated with a brand </li></ul><ul><li>Key aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers readily assign human characteristics to brand even if the brand is not managed or characteristics are not wanted by marketers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand Personalities creates expectations about key characteristics, performance, benefits and related services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand Personalities offer the basis for long term relationship with a brand </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Exercise <ul><li>Groups to Present E and F </li></ul><ul><li>Have a Power-Point presentation ready (4-5 pages) </li></ul><ul><li>The group would be called to present in the class </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation will be out of 15 marks </li></ul>Question E Find and describe an advertisement which contains direct appeal to manifest motives and an advertisement which contains indirect appeal to latent motives Question F Ask five people to describe the personality of the following products in terms of a Bollywood film actor. Analyse the responses and show where is the personification similar or different? Chevrolet Spark Wagon R Hyundai i10
  14. 14. Emotions
  15. 15. What are Emotions? <ul><li>Emotions are relatively strong, uncontrolled feelings that affect behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Features of Emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are generally triggered by external forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are accompanied by physiological changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions are generally accompanied by non cognitive thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions have associated behaviours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions are attached with subjective feelings </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. PAD Theory of Emotions <ul><li>Pleasure Arousal Dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Duty Interest Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Faith Hypo-Activism Guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Pride Activation Helplessness </li></ul><ul><li>Affection Surprise Sadness </li></ul><ul><li>Innocence Déjà Vu Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Gratitude Involvement Shame </li></ul><ul><li>Serenity Distraction Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Desire Playfulness Hyper-Activism </li></ul><ul><li>Joy Contempt Disgust </li></ul><ul><li>Competence - Skepticism </li></ul>
  17. 17. Emotions & Marketing <ul><li>Emotion Arousal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Products are sold by using emotional triggers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EG: Casino, Amusement Parks, Disney </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotion Reduction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Products are also sold to reduce negative emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EG: Alcohol, Sleeping Pills, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marketers are increasingly using emotions to sell products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotion enhances attention to an advertisement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional messages are processed more effectively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional Advertisement is remembered better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is increase in brand preference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions may lead to strong brand liking </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. A Video for the Class
  19. 19. Exercise <ul><li>Groups to Present G </li></ul><ul><li>Have a Power-Point presentation ready (4-5 pages) </li></ul><ul><li>The group would be called to present in the class </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation will be out of 15 marks </li></ul>Question G Find and describe an advertisement with strong emotional appeal and another advertisement from the same product category with limited emotional appeal. Discuss why do the companies use different appeals?
  20. 20. Thank You