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ES COMMUNICATI ON TECHNOLOGIINFORMATION ICT A ND DISASTER M ANAGEMENT
• ‘Disaster’, means ‘bad star’ in Latin. ICT & DISASTER ’a social crisis situation occurring when a physical phenomenonof natural, socio-natural or anthropogenic origin negatively impactsvulnerable populations causing intense, serious and widespreaddisruption of the normal functioning of the affected social unit.Need forThe Asia-ICTPacific isamong themost disasterprone regionsin the world.
characterized by profound damage to the human societyDisaster phasehuman life, loss of property, environment & healthAmbulances and medical personnel arriveResponse phaseremove the injured for transportation to medical camps orhospitalsprovide first aid and life supportimmediate medical help, food, clothing and shelter•victims actually realize the impact of disasterRecovery phase•perceive the meaning of the loss•need intensive mental support so as to facilitaterecovery•Rehabilitation
•need for certain measures - needed to reduce theRisk reduction phaseextent or impact of damage during the next similardisaster•Tsunami ‘green belt’- a thick stretch of trees adjacent to the coastline•Mitigation - making the impact less severe•development of awarenessPreparedness phase•education on warning signs of disasters•methods of safe and successful evacuation•first aid measures.
Channels Used for Disaster Warning* Radio and Television Effectiveness of these two media is high because the tele-density isrelatively low, they can be used to spread a warning quickly to a broadpopulation.Drawbacks: Effectiveness reduced at night, when they are normallyswitched off.Advantage: Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004, radio manufacturers considered introducing new digital radio alert systems.* Telephone (Fixed and Mobile)•Nallavadu in Pondicherry. Telephone call saved the village’s populationof 3,600 inhabitants & three neighboring villages•M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation’s Information Village ResearchProject. Vijayakumar, a former project volunteer working in Singapore
• ‘Telephone trees’• An individual represents a ‘node’ in a telephone treeDrawbacks:• Rural and coastal areas, is still not satisfactory.• Phone lines that occurs immediately before and duringa disaster, resulting in many phone calls in that vitalperiod that cannot be completed.*Short Message Service• 2005 Hurricane Katrina disaster in the US• SMS more easily when the network was functional.• Voice calls in that one message can be sent to a groupsimultaneously.*Cell Broadcasting• A public warning message sent to all mobiles with anygroup of cells of any size to the whole country.•CDMA, D-AMPS, GSM and UMTS phones have thiscapability.
Channels Used for Disaster WarningAdvantages:• No cost to implement cell broadcasting.• Not affected by traffic load• Cell broadcasting is geo-scalable, millions of people across continentswithin a minute.• It is geo-specific, avoid panic and road jamming.Disadvantage:• That not every user may be able to read a text message when theyreceive it.Pioneers:The Dutch Government already started the operations with the operatorsKPN, Telfort and Vodafone with government use.
*Satellite Radio• Digital radio that receives signals, which covers a widergeographical range than terrestrial radio signals.• Functions anywhere there is line of sight between theantenna and the satellite, no major obstructions such astunnels or buildings.• Satellite radio audiences can follow a single channelregardless of location within a given range & can play a keyrole during both disaster warning and disaster recoveryphases.Advantages:• Ability to work even outside of areas not covered bynormal radio channels.• Transmission towers of the normal radio station aredamaged in a disaster.
* Internet/Email• Penetration within a community and usage byprofessionals such as first responders, coordinating bodies,etc.• 5 percent of the population uses the Internet and eventhose who are users do not use it on a regular basis.• A new proposal for using the Internet to quickly warnlarge numbers of people of impending emergencies iscurrently being drafted by the Internet Engineering TaskForce.* Amateur and Community Radio• When traditional communications infrastructure breaksdown, amateur radio operators transmit emergency.messages on voice mode about the well-being of survivors.•Indian Ocean tsunami - amateur radio operators were thecritical link between the islands and the Indian mainland.
• Amateur radio broadcasters are authorized tocommunicate on high frequency (HF), very highfrequency (VHF), ultra high frequency (UHF) or all threebands of the radio spectrum.* Pactor• Airmail as email client and Winlink2000 as network onshortwave• User can address any valid email address worldwidethrough hf-radio and winlink.• The effectiveness of this medium is being tested through adisaster warning system implemented by Sarvodaya, themost widespread NGO in Sri Lanka. Major radio communications services involved in Disaster phases are Meteorological services Amateur services, Broadcasting services, Mobile services, Fixed services.
Channel Benefits ChallengesRadio & TV Widespread Takes time to get the warnings Limited use at nightTelephone(fixed Messages delivered Problems ofmobile) quickly authenticity Does not reach non- users congestionSMS Quick Congestion Messages can be sent Does not reach non- to groups users Local language problemsCell No congestion Does not reach non-broadcasting users Can address a group simultaneously Local language problems
Satellite radio High reach ability Cannot be used to educate masses Only good for specific pointsInternet or e- Interactive Not widespreadmail Multiple sources can be checked for accuracy of informationAmateur / Excellent for rural poor Not widespreadcommunity radio and remote People lose interest if communities used only in case of disasterSiren Can be used even at Maintenance of night systems cannot disseminate a detailed Good in rural areas message
GIS for DM PlanningEvents: It forecasts, receives, records and provide scope for future use ofinformation about Hurricane wind, storm surge, earthquake, chemicalrelease, reactor release, weapons of mass destruction, wild fire.Communication links: It provides communication through internet,landlines and satelliteDatabases: The huge and immense information including Population,housing, business, topography, geology, Infrastructure, structuralvulnerability is stockpiled.Ground truth: Imagery and aerial photography of the venue, victim andintensity of the disaster are shot down and disseminated through theabove said communication links.
Web Portal for DM ResponseMissing Person Registry: Helping Families Find EachOtherOrganization Registry & Volunteer coordination :Coordinating All Aid Groups and Helping Them to OperateEffectively As OneCamps Registry: Capturing the Location of All TemporaryCamps and SheltersRequest Management System: Effectively UtilizationInventory Management: Keeps track of inventories at ahigh enough granularity to account for the chaotic transferof goods and aid.
Disaster Risk ReductionRole of Information and Knowledge“Knowledge management is all about getting the rightknowledge, in the right place, at the right time”• information about disaster preparedness, dos’ and don’tsin emergency, disaster management plans, policies andguidelines• lack of adequate coping mechanismsnot getting transformed into the life saving knowledge forthe communities at risk.• to enhance the information sharing and management ofthe knowledge generated in these institutions - closely knitthe organizations/institutions and moreover people• create a common platform – enable to capture, organize,share and reuse the knowledge
Creating an Environment for KnowledgeManagementcollaborative platform which is in the form of an electronic platform willfacilitate interaction among the program partners.Connecting the program partners:• Disaster Management practitioners in State Government DisasterManagement Departments of 35 States/UTs.• National Programme for Capacity Building of Engineers for EarthquakeRisk Management (NPCBEERM) involving 11 National ResourceInstitutions(NRIs) and around 125 State Resource Institutions (SRIs) inall 35 States/ UTs.• National Programme for Capacity Building of Architects for EarthquakeRisk Management (NPCBAERM) involving 7 NRIs and around 110Colleges in all 35 States/ Uts
Indian road map to ICT in Disaster Manageme Under the Ministry of Home Affairs, GOI-UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) National Disaster Risk Management programme, Knowledge Networking an initiative to establish networks and partnership among •prime government agencies •policy makers •disaster managers •specialists from allied fields of engineering, architecture, planning, seismology, hydrology, agriculture and social science - to reduce the risk of disaster
covering institutional mechanisms, disaster prevention strategy, early warning system, disaster mitigation, preparedness and response and human resource developmentComputerized monitoring system - daily water levels asCommunication tools observed at 0800 hrs. and forecasts issued by field units are transmitted to CWC headquarters in New Delhidata received from field divisions:• Special Yellow Bulletins - whenever the river stage at the forecasting site - a level within 0.50 m of its previous HFL• Red Bulletins highlighting security of the problem - the water level at the forecasting stations equals/exceeds previous HFL• Bulletins are also updated on CWC Web site:
An accelerated urban earthquake vulnerability reductionWorkshopsprogramme has been taken up in 38 cities in seismic zones III,IV & V with population of half a millionSensitization workshop for engineers/architects, governmentfunctionaries and voluntary organizations have already beenheld in 36 of the 38 cities Disaster Risk Management•need to ensure sustainability of the programme Programme•development of training modules, manuals and codes•up-scaling partnerships in excellence•focused attention to awareness generation campaigns•Institutionalization of disaster management committees anddisaster management teams, disaster management plans andmock-drills and establishment of techno-legal regimes
MHA has compiled a set of resource materials developed byCapacity Building & Awareness Generation various organizations to be replicated and disseminated byActivities State Govt. based on their vulnerabilities in local languages The material - 4 broad sections in 7 volumes - planning to cope with disasters, education & training, construction, information, education & communication toolkit & multi-media resources on disaster mitigation & preparedness Extended to District Magistrates, Sub Divisional POLNET Magistrates, Control Rooms Emergency communication, mobile satellite based units which can be transported to the site of the disaster Parameters - location of the public facilities, communication GIS links and transportation network at national, state and district levels
National Database for EmergencyThe Ministry of Home Affairs in collaboration with variousManagement (NDEM)Govt. Ministries, agencies - Dept. of Space, Dept. of Science &Technology & Ministry of Communications & ITDatabase - provide multi layered maps on district wise basis3 maps taken in conjunction with the satellite images availablefor a particular area enables the district administration & StateGovt. to carry out hazard zonation and vulnerabilityassessment, coordinate response after a disasterA reliable GIS-based database will ensure the mobilization ofright resources to right locations within leastresponse time of ICT •faster response Advantages •effective decision making •develops well informed practitioners
IDRNThe IDRN (India Disaster Resource Network – www.idrn.gov.in )nation-wide electronic inventory of essential and specialist resources fordisaster response, covering specialist equipment, specialist manpowerresources and critical suppliesInitiated by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) in collaboration with UnitedNations Development Program (UNDP)To systematically build the disaster resource inventory as an organizedinformation system - specific equipments, human expertise & criticalsupplies database from District – State levelTo provide availability of resources for disaster response, so that disastermanagers can mobilize the required resources within least response timeThe IDRN is a live system providing for updating of inventory everyquarterEntries - at two levels – District and State level
IDRN602 District administrationsTarget Audience5000 member corporate bodies with Confederation of IndianIndustry (CII)33,000 builders, contractors & construction companies with Builders’Association of India (BAI)Indian Railways & public sector undertakings226 items - equipments, human resources and critical supplies are collectedWorkingfrom the line departments – entered into portal – district levelAuthorized users -enter portal -User ID and Password - IDRNDescription of the PortalAdministratorThe inventory data of the specified item are collected from variousCapturing Inventorydepartments below District level in a paper formatThe user can choose one or multiple - Activity, category, item and State,Locating Resources
GIS based databases - the National Database for EmergencyRisk Assessment and Vulnerability Mappin Management (NDEM) and National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) Aims of NSDI •To collect, compile, analyse and prepare value-added maps for use by various agencies in the field of DM; for management of natural resources, industrial applications •To work towards interoperability of data and information sharing protocols •Two-way interoperable link will be established between NSDI and the National Disaster Emergency Communication network
Disaster Recovery Investing in a disaster Softwarerecovery plan and software is important especially for mission critical businesses such as Banks, Telecoms and Hospitals •Recovery of lost dataBenefits of a Disaster Recovery Plan •Ensures business continuity •Insurance against loss of business due to unforeseen disasters Vision SolutionsDisaster Recovery Technology Companies UltraBac Software CYA Technologies, Inc SunGard NSI Software EMC Corporation
DesInventarMethodical way to gather and store information aboutcharacteristics and effects of different types of disastersAllows for the observation and analysis of accumulated dataregarding these ‘invisible’ disasters at a global / nationalscaleExampleIt is possible to trigger an earthquake in the virtualenvironment and analyse its impact on a geographical arearanging from a municipality to a group of countriesThe system forecasts information on the possible loss ofhuman lives, impact on the economy and damage toinfrastructure
Other Software involved in DisasterManagementGroove, http://www.groove.net• Desktop software designed to facilitate collaboration andcommunication among small groups and key concept is the sharedworkspace• All data is encrypted both on disk and over the network, witheach workspace having a unique set of cryptographic keys• A workspace is a private virtual location where membersinteract and collaborate.• It has been used widely by disaster management in Iraq, theIndian Ocean tsunami response and in other emergencies.Voxiva, http://www.voxiva.net• Voxiva’s Pyramid Platform is designed to bring technology tothe so-called ‘bottom of the pyramid’• Voxiva is currently being used by organizations such as the USDepartment of Defense, USAID, the Rwanda Ministry of Health,the Ministry of Health of Tamil Nadu (India), the InternationalRescue Committee and the Ministry of Health of Peru.
The role of media in disaster warning: ReutersThe aim of Alertnet was that there was a need for a service that would:Alertnet • Deliver operation-critical information to relief charities worldwide • Encourage relief charities to exchange information • Raise awareness of humanitarian emergencies among the general public AlertNet Website 1. health-related 2. sudden onset 3. food-related 4. conflict Alertnet tracks all emergencies for which it is possible to find reliable information. In particular, one will find coverage of emergencies that, for a variety of reasons, receive only sporadic coverage elsewhere in the media, so called forgotten or hidden emergencies.
The Tsunami Early Warning System (TEWS)•In the aftermath of the tsunami - arrangements for afor South-East AsiaTsunami Early Warning System (TEWS) in the IndianOcean and South-East Asia•Integrated into existing warning systems to promote amulti-hazard approach• The partner countries - Cambodia, China, Lao PDR,Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and VietNam•The Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) is anon-profit organization supporting the advancement of safercommunities and sustainable development throughimplementing programmes and projects that reduce theimpact of disasters upon countries and communities in Asia•The donor agencies - UNDP, The Danish NationalDevelopment Agency and the United States Agency for
The technical components - a network of seismographicstations, sea-level gauges and deep-sea pressuresensors, a data-processing and tsunami forecastingcentre, and communication links to regional tsunamiwarning centresThe network of accelerographs , to be located in islandsclose to the coastlines of Indonesia and the Nicobar andAndaman Islands, will provide rapid estimation of thetsunamagenic potential of an earthquakeDeep-ocean pressure sensors detect the early passage ofa tsunami before it reaches shallow waters and the coastHigh-frequency sea-level data will be transmitted viathe European Organisation for the Exploitation ofMeteorological Satellites Meteosat-5 and the JapaneseMeteorological Agency’s Geostationary MeteorologicalSatellites, and is connected to the Global Sea-LevelObservation System Core Network