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Biofuels Complete ppt
 

Biofuels Complete ppt

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    Biofuels Complete ppt  Biofuels Complete ppt Presentation Transcript

    • FUELS • Fuels are any materials that store potential energy in forms that can be practicably released and used as heat energy. • Fuels are required for a variety of purposes,but are utilized chiefly for..
    • Transportation • Globally, transportation accounts for 25% of energy demand and nearly 62% of oil consumed.
    • Power Generation • The generation of electricity is the single largest use of fuel in the world. • More than 60 % of power generated comes from fossil fuels.
    • Fossil Fuels will soon be Exhausted
    • BUT • If we had replenish fuel sources, what direction should we go in? • Electric cars • Solar power • Wind power OR
    • Biofuels
    • What are biofuels? • Any hydrocarbon fuel that is produced from organic matter (living or once living material) in a short period of time (days, weeks, or even months) is considered a Biofuel.
    • Biofuel versus Fossil Fuel • Fossil fuels are not renewable, which means they will run out at some point. As our ability to pump fossil fuels from the ground diminishes, the available supply will decrease, which will inevitably lead to an increase in price. • Biofuels can be looked upon as a way of energy security which stands as an alternative of fossil fuels that are limited in availability. Today, the use of biofuels has expanded throughout the globe.
    • Positives of Biofuels • The energy content of biodiesel is about 90% that of petroleum diesel. • The energy content of ethanol is about 50% that of gasoline. • The energy content of butanol is about 80% that of gasoline. • Biofuels burn cleaner than fossil fuels, resulting in fewer emissions of greenhouse gases, particulate emissions, and substances that cause acid rain such as sulfur. • Biodiesel is sulfur free. • Biodiesel has fewer polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which have been linked to cancer. • Additionally, biofuels are biodegradable, so if they do spill, less harm is done compared to when fossil fuels spill
    • Types of Biofuels • Biofuels are often broken into two generations. – 1st generation biofuels are also called conventional biofuels. They are made from things like sugar, starch, or vegetable oil. Note that these are all food products. Any biofuel made from a feedstock that can also be consumed as a human food is considered a first generation biofuel. – 2nd generation biofuels are produced from sustainable feedstock. No second generation biofuel is also a food crop, though certain food products can become second generation fuels when they are no longer useful for consumption. Second generation biofuels are often called “advanced biofuels.”
    • Say No to Crude Oil Fuels • They are Nonrenewable (in the sense that once used it is no longer available) and take millions of years to form • burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide: the gas that causes global warming • mining of such fuels leads to irreversible damage to the adjoining environment; (narrow shafts for oil, caverns for coal) • Some speculate that it might run out this century • Prices for fossil fuels are rising. • Mining coal is a very dangerous job to do and it involves deforestation • Power stations, which make/use coal, need lots of fuel. they regularly get this supply through truck or train, to operate/generate electricity. This means that they also need a large area for the reservation of coal. • The using of natural gases causes horrible smells, especially during transportation. Crude oil is very hazardous. It causes environmental pollution • They release a poisonous gas called carbon monoxide, this gas is very toxic for humans and animals.
    • Can you imagine life without fuel? NO!
    • Petrol/Diesel Price Rising • Petrol/Diesel price = cost price (procuring + refining + marketing) + tax (central + state) • + Cost price = f(international crude price) International Crude Price = f(Supply, Demand, Government policies, Financial Institutions, Geopolitics) • International crude price is rising, therefore cost price is rising thus increasing the petrol price.
    • CLASSIFICATION OF BIO-FUEL - FIRST GENERATION BIO-FUELS - SECOND GENERATION - BIO FUELS.
    • There are 4 chief Biofuels categories: The 1st generation of biofuels comes from sugar, starch & vegetable fats that are solely dependent on food-crops. It also can be sourced through animal fats. e.g;biofuels are bio-diesel, Bioethanol & biogas.
    • BIO-DIESEL PUMP
    • 21 •Biodiesel reduces carbon dioxide exhaust emissions by up to 80%. •Biodiesel produces 100% less SOx than petroleum. •Biodiesel reduces exhaust smoke (particulates) emissions by up to 75% so the usual black cloud associated with a diesel engine can be eliminated. •The smell of the biodiesel exhaust is far more pleasant. Why biodiesel?
    • 22 •Biodiesel is much easier to handle and does not cause cracking or redness. •Biodiesel is much less dangerous to put in vehicle fuel tank as its flash point is ± 150°C (300°F) as opposed to petroleum diesel ± 70°C (150°F). • Biodiesel provides significant lubricity improvement over petroleum diesel fuel so engines last longer, with the right additives engine performance can also be enhanced
    • JATROPHA TREE
    •  Jatropha can be cultivated anywhere along canals,roads,railway tracks, on border of farm and even an alkaline soils.  Grown in high as well as low rainfall.  In high rainfall yield is more.  Occurs mainly at lower altitude(0-500Cm) with average annual temperature above 200C, and rainfall of 300-1000mm.
    • JATROPHA PROVIDES:  Prevention of soil erosion.  Soil improvement.  Poverty reduction.  Renewable energy.  Promotion to labours.
    • BIO-DIESEL PLANT
    • ECONOMICS OF BIODIESEL FROM JATROPHA
    • BIODIESEL : FIRST TRIAL RUN ON TRAIN  First successful trial run of a superfast passenger train was conducted on Dec 31, 2009  Delhi - Amritsar Shatabdi Express used 5% of biodiesel fuel.  Railway annual fuel bill = Rs 3400 crores (for Diesel)  10% mixture with Diesel = reduced (Rs.300-400 crores / annum)  5% substitution is accepted.
    • Indian Initiatives National Mission on Biodiesel has been launched by GOI State Governments designated special authorities/bodies to manage Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas notified biodiesel purchase policy Government Institutes are working on technology and promotion Public and private sectors are working on processing and end use
    • Some more practicalities • The former President of India, Dr. Abdul Kalam, is one of the strong advocaters of Jatropha cultivation for production of bio-diesel. • The State Bank of India provided a boost to the cultivation of Jatropha in India by signing a MoU with D1 Mohan, a joint venture of D1 Oils plc, to give loans to the tune of 1.3 billion rupees to local farmers in India. 10/10/2013 33 Older diesel Mercedes are popular for running on biodiesel
    • Jatropha curcas plantations at Rashtrapati Bhawan (2004)
    • Farmers meet on Biodiesel at Rashtrapati Bhawan
    • CONCLUSION:  Biodiesel is eco-friendly.  Biodiesel is clean burning alternative fuel.  Biodiesel contain no petroleum, but can be blended with conventional diesel fuel.  These fuel can be used in any diesel engine without any modification.  Biodiesel is degradable , non toxic and free from sulphur and lead.
    •  Brazil stands 1st in terms of Biofuel consumption.  According to UNCTAD report, Brazil uses pure ethanol in 20% of their vehicles and a 22 to 26 % ethanol-petrol blend in the rest of their vehicles.  CO emission from automobiles decreased from 50g/km in 1980 to 5.8g/km in 1995  The USA and Australia use a 10% ethanol blend.  India is 4th largest producer and the government mandated the use of a 5% ethanol blend in petrol sold in nine sugarcane producing states.
    • Feeling Confortable with biofuel?
    • Biogas • What is a BIOGAS? • Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. • It is a renewable energy source, like solar and wind energy. Furthermore, biogas can be produced from regionally available raw materials such as recycled waste.
    • • What are The Compositions? • Biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion with anaerobic bacteria of biodegradable materials such as manure, sewage, municipal waste, green waste, plant material, and crops. Biogas comprises primarily of methane (CH 4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), moisture. • The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity and heat.
    • Typical composition of biogas Compound Molecular formula % Methane CH4 50–75 Carbon dioxide CO2 25–50 Nitrogen N2 0–10 Hydrogen H2 0–1 Hydrogen sulphide H2S 0–3 Oxygen O2 0–0
    • • Benefits • When biogas is used, many advantages arise. • Biogas could potentially help reduce global climate change. Normally, manure that is left to decompose releases two main gases that cause global climate change: • Nitrogen dioxide and methane • Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) warms the atmosphere 310 times more than carbon dioxide and methane 21 times more than carbon dioxide • By converting cow manure into methane biogas via anaerobic digestion, the millions of cows in the United States would be able to produce one hundred billion kilowatt hours of electricity, enough to power millions of homes across the United States.
    • Biogas in India • In India, Nepal, Pakistan and Bangladesh biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion of manure in small-scale digestion facilities is called gobar gas; it is estimated that such facilities exist in over two million households in India, fifty thousands in Bangladesh and thousands in Pakistan, particularly North Punjab, due to the thriving population of livestock. • The digester is an airtight circular pit made of concrete with a pipe connection. The manure is directed to the pit, usually directly from the cattle shed. • The pit is then filled with a required quantity of wastewater. The gas pipe is connected to the kitchen fireplace through control valves. The combustion of this biogas has very little odour or smoke. • Owing to simplicity in implementation and use of cheap raw materials in villages, it is one of the most environmentally sound energy sources for rural needs.
    • What is BIOMASS • Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. In the context of biomass for energy this is often used to mean plant based material, but biomass can equally apply to both animal and vegetable derived material.
    • Benefits of using Biomass • Many biomass fuels generate lower levels of such atmospheric pollutants as sulphur dioxide, that contributes to 'acid rain'. • The use of biomass fuel provides an economic incentive to manage woodland which improves biodiversity. • Biomass residues, arising, co-products and waste not used for energy, This will generate CO2 in any case, and may also produce methane (CH4), a greenhouse gas 21 times more potent that CO2.
    • Biofuels by Region  There are international organization such as IEA Bioenergy.  IEA (international energy AGENCY.)  It is established in 1978 with the aim of improving cooperation and information exchange between countries that have national programs in bioenergy research, Development and deployment  The UN national biofuels forum is formed by Brazil, China, India, Pakistan, South Africa, the united states and European Commission.  The word leaders in biofuel development and use are brazil, the united states France, Sweden and Germany.  Russia also has 22% of word's forest, and is a big biomass supplier.  In 2010 Russian pulp and paper maker said they would be producing pellets than can be used in heat and electricity generation forms its plant in Vyborg by the end of the year.
    •  The plant will eventually produce about 900,000 tons of pellets per year, making in the largest in the world once operational.  Biofuels currently make up 3.1% of the total road transport fuel in the UK or 1,440 million liters  By 2020,10% of the energy used in UK road and rail transport must come from renewable source-this is the equivalent of replacing 4.3 million tones of fossil oil each year.  Conventional biofuels are likely to produces between 3.7 and 6.6% of the energy needed in road and rail transport, while advanced biofuels could meet up to 4.3% of the UK's renewable transport fuel target by 2020.
    • Current Research • Research is on going into finding more suitable biofuel crops and improving the oil yields of these crops. Using the current yields, vast amounts of land and fresh water would be needed to produce enough oil to completely replace fossil fuel usage. It would require twice the land area of the US to be devoted to soybean production, or two-thirds to be devoted to rapeseed production, to meet current US heating and transportation needs. • Specially bred mustard varieties can produce reasonably high oil yields and are very useful in crop rotation with cereals, and have the added benefit that the meal left over after the oil has been pressed out can act as an effective and biodegradable pesticide. • The NFESC, with Santa Barbara-based Biodiesel Industries, is working to develop biofuels technologies for the US navy and military, one of the largest diesel fuel users in the world. A group of Spanish developers working for a company called Ecofasa announced a new biofuel made from trash. The fuel is created from general urban waste which is treated by bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make biofuels.[61]
    • Ethanol biofuels  As the primary source of biofuels in North America, many organizations are conducting research in the area of ethanol production.  The National Corn-to-Ethanol Research Center (NCERC) is a research division of Southern Illinois University Edwardsville dedicated solely to ethanol-based biofuel research projects.  On the federal level, the USDA conducts a large amount of research regarding ethanol production in the United States. Much of this research is targeted toward the effect of ethanol production on domestic food markets.  A division of the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has also conducted various ethanol research projects, mainly in the area of cellulosic ethanol.
    • Algae biofuels • From 1978 to 1996, the US NREL experimented with using algae as a biofuels source in the "Aquatic Species Program". • A self-published article by Michael Briggs, at the UNH Biofuels Group, offers estimates for the realistic replacement of all vehicular fuel with biofuels by using algae that have a natural oil content greater than 50%, which Briggs suggests can be grown on algae ponds at wastewater treatment plants. • This oil-rich algae can then be extracted from the system and processed into biofuels, with the dried remainder further reprocessed to create ethanol. The production of algae to harvest oil for biofuels has not yet been undertaken on a commercial scale, but feasibility studies have been conducted to arrive at the above yield estimate. • In addition to its projected high yield, alga culture — unlike crop-based biofuels — does not entail a decrease in food production, since it requires neither farmland nor fresh water. Many companies are pursuing algae bioreactors for various purposes, including scaling up biofuels production to commercial levels. • Prof. Rodrigo E. Teixeira from the University of Alabama in Huntsville demonstrated the extraction of biofuels lipids from wet algae using a simple and economical reaction in ionic liquids. • Research is going on to use Algae as a source for biodiesel.
    • 10/10/2013 54