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Manual testing Concepts

Manual testing Concepts

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    Manual testing Documents Manual testing Documents Document Transcript

    • Basic Questions and Answers 1. What is meant by Priority and severity? Severity: 1. This is assigned by the Test Engineer 2. This is to say how badly the deviation that is occurring is affecting the other modules of the build or release. Priority: 1. This is assigned by the Developer. 2. This is to say how soon the bug as to be fixed in the main code, so that it pass the basic requirement. Egg. The code is to generate some values with some valid input conditions. The priority will be assigned so based on the following conditions: a> It is not accepting any value b> It is accepting value but output is in non-defined format (say Unicode Characters). A good example I used some Unicode characters to generate a left defined arrow, it displayed correctly but after saving changes it gave some address value from the Stack of this server. For more information mail me I will let you know. 2. Give me some example for Low severity and High priority defect? If suppose the title of the particular concern is not spelled correctly, it would give a negative impacted ICICC is spelled as a title for the project of the concern ICICI. Then it is a high severity, low priority defect. 3. What is basis for test case review? The main basis for the test case review is 1. Testing techniques oriented review 2. Requirements oriented review 3. Defects oriented review. 4. What are the contents of SRS documents? Software requirements specifications and Functional requirements specifications. 5. What is difference between the Web application testing and Client Server testing? Testing the application in intranet (without browser) is an example for client -server. (The company firewalls for the server are not open to outside world. Outside people cannot access the application.)So there will be limited number of people using that application. Testing an application in internet (using browser) is called web testing. The application which is accessible by numerous numbers around the world (World Wide Web.) So testing web application, apart from the above said two testing there are many other testing to be done depending on the type of web application we are testing. If it is a secured application (like banking site- we go for security testing etc.) If it is an e-commerce testing application we go for Usability etc…Testing. 6. Explain your web application architecture? Web application is tested in 3 phases 1. Web tier testing –> browser compatibility 2. Middle tier testing –> functionality, security 3. Data base tier testing –> database integrity, contents 7.suppose the product/application has to deliver to client at 5.00PM,At that time you or your
    • team member caught a high severity defect at 3PM.(Remember defect is high severity)But the client is cannot wait for long time. You should deliver the product at 5.00Pm exactly. Then what is the procedure you follow? The bug is high severity only so we send the application to the client and find out the severity is priority or not. If its priority then we ask him to wait. Here we found defects/bugs in the last minute of the delivery or release date Then we have two options 1. Explain the situation to client and ask some more time to fix the bug. 2. If the client is not ready to give some time then analyze the impact of defect/bug and try to find workarounds for the defect and mention these issues in the release notes as known issues or known limitations or known bugs. Here the workaround means remedy process to be followed to overcome the defect effect. 3. Normally this known issues or known limitations (defects) will be fixed in next version or next release of the software 8. Give me examples for high priority and low severity defects? Suppose in one banking application there is one module ATM Facility. In that ATM facility whenever we are depositing/withdrawing money it is not showing any conformation message but actually at the back end it is happening properly without any mistake means only missing of message. In this case as it is happening properly so there is nothing wrong with the application but as end user is not getting any conformation message so he/she will be Confuse for this. So we can consider this issue as HIGH Priority but LOW Severity defects… 9. Explain about Bug life cycle? 1) Tester-> 2) Open defect-> 3) Send to developer 4) ->if accepted moves to step5 else sends the bug to tester gain 5) Fixed by developer -> 6) Regression testing-> 7) No problem inbuilt and sign off ->if problem in built reopen the issue send to step3 10. How can you report the defect using excel sheet? To report the defect using excel sheet Mention: The Future that been effected. Mention: Test Case ID (Which fail you can even mention any other which are dependency on this bug) Mention : Actual Behavior Mention : Expected Behavior as mentioned in Test Case or EFS or EBS or SRS document with section Mention : Your Test Setup used during Testing Mention : Steps to Re-Produce the bug Mention : Additional Info Mention : Attach a Screen Shot if it is a GUI bug Mention : Which other features it is blocking because of this bug that you are unable to Execute the test cases. Mention: How much time you took to execute that test case or follow that specific TC Which leaded to bug? Software Testing Glossary
    • Acceptance Testing: Testing conducted to enable a user/customer to determine whether to accept a software product. Normally performed to validate the software meets a set of agreed acceptance criteria. Accessibility Testing: Verifying a product is accessible to the people having disabilities (deaf, blind, mentally disabled etc.). Ad Hoc Testing: A testing phase where the tester tries to 'break' the system by randomly trying the system's functionality. Can include negative testing as well. See also Monkey Testing. Agile Testing: Testing practice for projects using agile methodologies, treating development as the customer of testing and emphasizing a test-first design paradigm. See also Test Driven Development. Application Binary Interface (ABI): A specification defining requirements for portability of applications in binary forms across deferent system platforms and environments. Application Programming Interface (API): A formalized set of software calls and routines that can be referenced by an application program in order to access supporting system or network services. Automated Software Quality (ASQ): The use of software tools, such as automated testing tools, to improve software quality. Automated Testing:  Testing employing software tools which execute tests without manual intervention. Can be applied in GUI, performance, API, etc. testing.  The use of software to control the execution of tests, the comparison of actual outcomes to predicted outcomes, the setting up of test preconditions, and other test control and test reporting functions. Backus-Naur Form: A met language used to formally describe the syntax of a language. Basic Block: A sequence of one or more consecutive, executable statements containing no branches. Basis Path Testing: A white box test case design technique that uses the algorithmic flow of the program to design tests. Basis Set: The set of tests derived using basis path testing. Baseline: The point at which some deliverable produced during the software engineering process is put under formal change control. Benchmark Testing: Tests that use representative sets of programs and data designed to evaluate the performance of computer hardware and software in a given configuration. Beta Testing: Testing of a rerelease of a software product conducted by customers. Binary Portability Testing: Testing an executable application for portability across system platforms and environments, usually for conformation to an ABI specification.
    • Black Box Testing: Testing based on an analysis of the specification of a piece of software without reference to its internal workings. The goal is to test how well the component conforms to the published requirements for the component. Bottom Up Testing: An approach to integration testing where the lowest level components are tested first, then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested. Boundary Testing: Test which focus on the boundary or limit conditions of the software being tested. (Some of these tests are stress tests). Boundary Value Analysis: In boundary value analysis, test cases are generated using the extremes of the input domain, e.g. maximum, minimum, just inside/outside boundaries, typical values, and error values. BVA is similar to Equivalence Partitioning but focuses on "corner cases". Branch Testing: Testing in which all branches in the program source code are tested at least once. Breadth Testing: A test suite that exercises the full functionality of a product but does not test features in detail. Bug: A fault in a program which causes the program to perform in an unintended or unanticipated manner. CAST: Computer Aided Software Testing. Capture/Replay Tool: A test tool that records test input as it is sent to the software under test. The input cases stored can then be used to reproduce the test at a later time. Most commonly applied to GUI test tools. CMM: The Capability Maturity Model for Software (CMM or SW-CMM) is a model for judging the maturity of the software processes of an organization and for identifying the key practices that are required to increase the maturity of these processes. Cause Effect Graph: A graphical representation of inputs and the associated outputs effects which can be used to design test cases. Code Complete: Phase of development where functionality is implemented in entirety; bug fixes are all that are left. All functions found in the Functional Specifications have been implemented. Code Coverage: An analysis method that determines which parts of the software have been executed (covered) by the test case suite and which parts have not been executed and therefore may require additional attention. Code Inspection: A formal testing technique where the programmer reviews source code with a group who ask questions analyzing the program logic, analyzing the code with respect to a checklist of historically common programming errors, and analyzing its compliance with coding standards. Code Walkthrough: A formal testing technique where source code is traced by a group with a
    • small set of test cases, while the state of program variables is manually monitored, to analyze the programmer's logic and assumptions. Coding: The generation of source code. Compatibility Testing: Testing whether software is compatible with other elements of a system with which it should operate, e.g. browsers, Operating Systems, or hardware. Component: A minimal software item for which a separate specification is available. Concurrency Testing: Multi-user testing geared towards determining the effects of accessing the same application code, module or database records. Identifies and measures the level of locking, deadlocking and use of single-threaded code and locking semaphores. Conformance Testing: The process of testing that an implementation conforms to the specification on which it is based. Usually applied to testing conformance to a formal standard. Context Driven Testing: The context-driven school of software testing is flavor of Agile Testing that advocates continuous and creative evaluation of testing opportunities in light of the potential information revealed and the value of that information to the organization right now. Conversion Testing: Testing of programs or procedures used to convert data from existing systems for use in replacement systems. Cyclomatic Complexity: A measure of the logical complexity of an algorithm, used in white- box testing. Data Dictionary: A database that contains definitions of all data items defined during analysis. Data Flow Diagram: A modeling notation that represents a functional decomposition of a system. Data Driven Testing: Testing in which the action of a test case is parameterized by externally defined data values, maintained as a file or spreadsheet. A common technique in Automated Testing. Debugging: The process of finding and removing the causes of software failures. Defect: Nonconformance to requirements or functional / program specification Dependency Testing: Examines an application's requirements for pre-existing software, initial states and configuration in order to maintain proper functionality. Depth Testing: A test that exercises a feature of a product in full detail. Dynamic Testing: Testing software through executing it. See also Static Testing. Emulator: A device, computer program, or system that accepts the same inputs and produces the same outputs as a given system.
    • Endurance Testing: Checks for memory leaks or other problems that may occur with prolonged execution. End-to-End testing: Testing a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use, such as interacting with a database, using network communications, or interacting with other hardware, applications, or systems if appropriate. Equivalence Class: A portion of a component's input or output domains for which the component's behaviour is assumed to be the same from the component's specification. Equivalence Partitioning: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence classes. Exhaustive Testing: Testing which covers all combinations of input values and preconditions for an element of the software under test. Functional Decomposition: A technique used during planning, analysis and design; creates a functional hierarchy for the software. Functional Specification: A document that describes in detail the characteristics of the product with regard to its intended features. Functional Testing:  Testing the features and operational behavior of a product to ensure they correspond to its specifications.  Testing that ignores the internal mechanism of a system or component and focuses solely on the outputs generated in response to selected inputs and execution conditions. Glass Box Testing: A synonym for White Box Testing. Gorilla Testing: Testing one particular module,functionality heavily. Gray Box Testing: A combination of Black Box and White Box testing methodologies: testing a piece of software against its specification but using some knowledge of its internal workings. High Order Tests: Black-box tests conducted once the software has been integrated. Independent Test Group (ITG): A group of people whose primary responsibility is software testing, Inspection: A group review quality improvement process for written material. It consists of two aspects; product (document itself) improvement and process improvement (of both document production and inspection).
    • Integration Testing: Testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. Usually performed after unit and functional testing. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. Installation Testing: Confirms that the application under test recovers from expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions. Load testing: "It is the process of subjecting a computer, peripheral, server, network or application to a work level approaching the limits of its specifications. Load testing can be done under controlled lab conditions to compare the capabilities of different systems or to accurately measure the capabilities of a single system. Load testing can also be done in the field to obtain a qualitative idea of how well a system functions in the "real world." Localization Testing: This term refers to making software specifically designed for a specific locality. Loop Testing: A white box testing technique that exercises program loops. Metric: A standard of measurement. Software metrics are the statistics describing the structure or content of a program. A metric should be a real objective measurement of something such as number of bugs per lines of code. Monkey Testing: Testing a system or an Application on the fly, i.e just few tests here and there to ensure the system or an application does not crash out. Mutation Testing: Testing done on the application where bugs are purposely added to it. Negative Testing: Testing aimed at showing software does not work. Also known as "test to fail". See also Positive Testing. N+1 Testing: A variation of Regression Testing. Testing conducted with multiple cycles in which errors found in test cycle N are resolved and the solution is retested in test cycle N+1. The cycles are typically repeated until the solution reaches a steady state and there are no errors. See also Regression Testing. Path Testing: Testing in which all paths in the program source code are tested at least once. Performance Testing: Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or component with specified performance requirements. Often this is performed using an automated test tool to simulate large number of users. Also know as "Load Testing". Positive Testing: Testing aimed at showing software works. Also known as "test to pass". See also Negative Testing. Quality Assurance: All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service is of the type and quality needed and expected by the customer. Quality Audit: A systematic and independent examination to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve objectives.
    • Quality Circle: A group of individuals with related interests that meet at regular intervals to consider problems or other matters related to the quality of outputs of a process and to the correction of problems or to the improvement of quality. Quality Control: The operational techniques and the activities used to fulfill and verify requirements of quality. Quality Management: That aspect of the overall management function that determines and implements the quality policy. Quality Policy: The overall intentions and direction of an organization as regards quality as formally expressed by top management. Quality System: The organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes, and resources for implementing quality management. Race Condition: A cause of concurrency problems. Multiple accesses to a shared resource, at least one of which is a write, with no mechanism used by either to moderate simultaneous access. Ramp Testing: Continuously raising an input signal until the system breaks down. Recovery Testing: Confirms that the program recovers from expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions. <>Regression Testing: Retesting a previously tested program following modification to ensure that faults have not been introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes made. Release Candidate: A pre-release version, which contains the desired functionality of the final version, but which needs to be tested for bugs (which ideally should be removed before the final version is released). Sanity Testing: Brief test of major functional elements of a piece of software to determine if its basically operational. See also Smoke Testing. Scalability Testing: Performance testing focused on ensuring the application under test gracefully handles increases in work load. Security Testing: Testing which confirms that the program can restrict access to authorized personnel and that the authorized personnel can access the functions available to their security level. <>Smoke Testing: A quick-and-dirty test that the major functions of a piece of software work. Originated in the hardware testing practice of turning on a new piece of hardware for the first time and considering it a success if it does not catch on fire. Soak Testing: Running a system at high load for a prolonged period of time. For example, running several times more transactions in an entire day (or night) than would be expected in
    • a busy day, to identify and performance problems that appear after a large number of transactions have been executed. Software Requirements Specification: A deliverable that describes all data, functional and behavioral requirements, all constraints, and all validation requirements for software/ Software Testing: A set of activities conducted with the intent of finding errors in software. Static Analysis: Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program. Static Analyzer: A tool that carries out static analysis. Static Testing: Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program. Storage Testing: Testing that verifies the program under test stores data files in the correct directories and that it reserves sufficient space to prevent unexpected termination resulting from lack of space. This is external storage as opposed to internal storage. Stress Testing: Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements to determine the load under which it fails and how. Often this is performance testingusing a very high level of simulated load. Structural Testing: Testing based on an analysis of internal workings and structure of a piece of software. See also White Box Testing. System Testing: Testing that attempts to discover defects that are properties of the entire system rather than of its individual components. Testability: The degree to which a system or component facilitates the establishment of test criteria and the performance of tests to determine whether those criteria have been met. Testing:  The process of exercising software to verify that it satisfies specified requirements and to detect errors.  The process of analyzing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions (that is, bugs), and to evaluate the features of the software item (Ref. IEEE Std 829).  The process of operating a system or component under specified conditions, observing or recording the results, and making an evaluation of some aspect of the system or component. Test Bed: An execution environment configured for testing. May consist of specific hardware, OS, network topology, configuration of the product under test, other application or system software, etc. The Test Plan for a project should enumerated the test beds(s) to be used. Test Case:
    •  Test Case is a commonly used term for a specific test. This is usually the smallest unit of testing. A Test Case will consist of information such as requirements testing, test steps, verification steps, prerequisites, outputs, test environment, etc.  A set of inputs, execution preconditions, and expected outcomes developed for a particular objective, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement. Test Driven Development: Testing methodology associated with Agile Programming in which every chunk of code is covered by unit tests, which must all pass all the time, in an effort to eliminate unit-level and regression bugs during development. Practitioners of TDD write a lot of tests, i.e. an equal number of lines of test code to the size of the production code. Test Driver: A program or test tool used to execute a tests. Also known as a Test Harness. Test Environment: The hardware and software environment in which tests will be run, and any other software with which the software under test interacts when under test including stubs and test drivers. Test First Design: Test-first design is one of the mandatory practices of Extreme Programming (XP).It requires that programmers do not write any production code until they have first written a unit test. Test Harness: A program or test tool used to execute a tests. Also known as a Test Driver. Test Plan: A document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of intended testing activities. It identifies test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks, who will do each task, and any risks requiring contingency planning. Ref IEEE Std 829. Test Procedure: A document providing detailed instructions for the execution of one or more test cases. Test Scenario: Definition of a set of test cases or test scripts and the sequence in which they are to be executed. Test Script: Commonly used to refer to the instructions for a particular test that will be carried out by an automated test tool. Test Specification: A document specifying the test approach for a software feature or combination or features and the inputs, predicted results and execution conditions for the associated tests. Test Suite: A collection of tests used to validate the behavior of a product. The scope of a Test Suite varies from organization to organization. There may be several Test Suites for a particular product for example. In most cases however a Test Suite is a high level concept, grouping together hundreds or thousands of tests related by what they are intended to test. Test Tools: Computer programs used in the testing of a system, a component of the system, or its documentation. Thread Testing: A variation of top-down testing where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels.
    • Top Down Testing: An approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first, with lower level components being simulated by stubs. Tested components are then used to test lower level components. The process is repeated until the lowest level components have been tested. Total Quality Management: A company commitment to develop a process that achieves high quality product and customer satisfaction. Traceability Matrix: A document showing the relationship between Test Requirements and Test Cases. Usability Testing: Testing the ease with which users can learn and use a product. Use Case: The specification of tests that are conducted from the end-user perspective. Use cases tend to focus on operating software as an end-user would conduct their day-to-day activities. User Acceptance Testing: A formal product evaluation performed by a customer as a condition of purchase. Unit Testing: Testing of individual software components. Validation: The process of evaluating software at the end of the software development process to ensure compliance with software requirements. The techniques for validation is testing, inspection and reviewing. Verification: The process of determining whether of not the products of a given phase of the software development cycle meet the implementation steps and can be traced to the incoming objectives established during the previous phase. The techniques for verification are testing, inspection and reviewing. Volume Testing: Testing which confirms that any values that may become large over time (such as accumulated counts, logs, and data files), can be accommodated by the program and will not cause the program to stop working or degrade its operation in any manner. Walkthrough: A review of requirements, designs or code characterized by the author of the material under review guiding the progression of the review. White Box Testing: Testing based on an analysis of internal workings and structure of a piece of software. Includes techniques such as Branch Testing and Path Testing. Also known as Structural Testing andGlass Box Testing. Contrast with Black Box Testing. Workflow Testing: Scripted end-to-end testing which duplicates specific workflows which are expected to be utilized by the end-user. 1) What is the difference between the QA and software testing? The role of QA (Quality Assurance) is to monitor the quality of the process to produce a quality of a product. While the software testing, is the process of ensuring the final product and check the functionality of final product and to see whether the final product meets the user’s requirement.
    • 2) What is Testware? Testware is the subset of software, which helps in performing the testing of application. It is a term given to the combination of software application and utilities which is required for testing a software package. 3) What is the difference between build and release? Build: It is a number given to Installable software that is given to testing team by the development team. Release: It is a number given to Installable software that is handed over to customer by the tester or developer. 4) What are the automation challenges that QA team faces while testing?  Exploitation of automation tool  Frequency of use of test case  Reusability of Automation script  Adaptability of test case for automation 5) What is bug leakage and bug release? Bug release is when software or an application is handed over to the testing team knowing that the defect is present in a release. During this the priority and severity of bug is low, as bug can be removed before the final handover. Bug leakage is something, when the bug is discovered by the end users or customer, and missed by the testing team to detect, while testing the software. QA Interview Questions 6) What is data driven testing? Data driven testing is an automation testing part, which tests the output or input values. These values are read directly from the data files. The data files may include csv files, excel files, data pools and many more. It is performed when the values are changing by the time. 7) Explain the steps for Bug Cycle?  Once the bug is identified by the tester, it is assigned to the development manager in open status
    •  If the bug is a valid defect the development team will fix it and if it is not a valid defect, the defect will be ignored and marked as rejected  The next step will be to check whether it is in scope, if it is happen so that, the bug is not the part of the current release then the defects are postponed  If the defect or bug is raised earlier then the tester will assigned a DUPLICATE status  When bug is assigned to developer to fix, it will be given a IN-PROGRESS status  Once the defect is repaired, the status will changed to FIXED at the end the tester will give CLOSED status if it passes the final test. 8) What does the test strategy include? The test strategy includes introduction, resource, scope and schedule for test activities, test tools, test priorities, test planning and the types of test that has to be performed. 9) Mention the different types of software testing?  Unit testing  Integration testing and regression testing  Shakeout testing  Smoke testing  Functional testing  Performance testing  White box and Black box testing  Alpha and Beta testing  Load testing and stress testing  System testing 10) What is branch testing and what is boundary testing? The testing of all the branches of the application, which is tested once, is known as branch testing. While the testing, which is focused on the limit conditions of the software is known as boundary testing. 11) What are the contents in test plans and test cases?  Testing objectives  Testing scope  Testing the frame
    •  The environment  Reason for testing  The criteria for entrance and exit  Deliverables  Risk factors 12) What is Agile testing and what is the importance of Agile testing? Agile testing is software testing, which involves the testing of the software from the customer point of view. The importance of this testing is that, unlike normal testing process, this testing does not wait for development team to complete the coding first and then doing testing. The coding and testing both goes simultaneously. It requires continuous customer interaction. It works on SDLC ( Systems Development Life Cycle) methodologies, it means that the task is divided into different segments and compiled at the end of the task. 13) What is Test case? Test case is a specific term that is used to test a specific element. It has information of test steps, prerequisites, test environment and outputs. 14) What is the strategy for Automation Test Plan?  The strategy for Automation Test Plan  Preparation of Automation Test Plan  Recording the scenario  Error handler incorporation  Script enhancement by inserting check points and looping constructs  Debugging the script and fixing the issues  Rerunning the script  Reporting the result 15) What is quality audit? The systematic and independent examination for determining the quality of activities is known as quality audit. It allows the cross check for the planned arrangements, whether they are properly implemented or not. 16) How does a server or client environment affect software testing? As the dependencies on the clients are more, the client or server applications are complex. The testing needs are extensive as servers, communications and hardware are
    • interdependent. Integration and system testing is also for a limited period of time. 17) What are the tools used by a tester while testing?  Selenium  Firebug  OpenSTA  WinSCP  YSlow for FireBug  Web Developer toolbar for firebox 18) Explain stress testing, load testing and volume testing?  Load Testing: Testing an application under heavy but expected load is known as Load Testing. Here, the load refers to the large volume of users, messages, requests, data, etc.  Stress Testing: When the load placed on the system is raised or accelerated beyond the normal range then it is known as Stress Testing.  Volume Testing: The process of checking the system, whether the system can handle the required amounts of data, user requests, etc. is known as Volume Testing. 19) What are the five common solutions for software developments problems?  Setting up the requirements criteria, the requirements of a software should be complete, clear and agreed by all  The next thing is the realistic schedule like time for planning , designing, testing, fixing bugs and re-testing  Adequate testing, start the testing immediately after one or more modules development.  Use rapid prototype during design phase so that it can be easy for customers to find what to expect  Use of group communication tools 20) What is a ‘USE’ case and what does it include?
    • The document that describes, the user action and system response, for a particular functionality is known as USE case. It includes revision history, table of contents, flow of events, cover page, special requirements, pre-conditions and post-conditions. 21) What is CRUD testing and how to test CRUD? CRUD testing is another name for Black Box testing. CRUD stands for Create, Read, Update and Delete. 22) What is validation and verification in software testing? In verification, all the key aspects of software developments are taken in concern like code, specifications, requirements and document plans. Verification is done on the basis of four things list of issues, checklist, walkthroughs and inspection meetings. Following verification, validation is done, it involves actual testing, and all the verification aspects are checked thoroughly in validation. 23) What is thread testing? A thread testing is a top-down testing, where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels. 24) What is configuration management? It is a process to control and document any changes made during the life of a project. Release control, Change control and Revision control are the important aspects of configuration management. 25) What is Ad Hoc testing? It is a testing phase where the tester tries to break the system by randomly trying the system’s functionality. It can include negative testing as well. ) What is data-base testing? Data base testing is segmented into four different categories.  Testing of Data Integrity  Testing of Data Validity  Data base related performance  Testing of functions, procedure and triggers 2) In database testing, what do we need to check normally? Normally, the things that we check in database testing are:  Constraint Check
    •  Validation of a Field size  Stored procedure  Matching application field size to database  Indexes for performance based issues 3) Explain what is data driven test? In a data-table, to test the multi numbers of data, data-driven test is used. By using this it can easily replace the parameters at the same time from different locations. 4) What are joins and mention different types of joins? Join is used to display two or more than two table and the types of joins are:  Natural Join  Inner Join  Outer Join  Cross Join The outer join is divided again in two:  Left outer join  Right outer join 5) What are indexes and mention different types of indexes? Indexes are database objects and they are created on columns. To fetch data quickly they are frequently accessed. Different types of indexes are:  B-Tree index  Bitmap index  Clustered index  Covering index  Non-unique index  Unique index Database Testing
    • 6) While testing stored procedures what are the steps does a tester takes? The tester will check the standard format of the stored procedures and also it checks the fields are correct like updates, joins, indexes, deletions as mentioned in the stored procedure. 7) How would you know for database testing, whether trigger is fired or not? On querying the common audit log you would know, whether, a trigger is fired or not. It is in audit log where you can see the triggers fired. 8) In data base testing, what are the steps to test data loading? Following steps need to follow to test data loading  Source data should be known  Target data should be known  Compatibility of source and target should be checked  In SQL Enterprise manager, run the DTS package after opening the corresponding DTS package  You have to compare the columns of target and data source  Number of rows of target and source should be checked  After updating data in the source, check whether the changes appears in the target or not.  Check NULLs and junk characters 9) Without using Database Checkpoints, how you test a SQL Query in QTP? By writing scripting procedure in VBScript, we can connect to database and can test the queries and database. 10) Explain how to use SQL queries in QTP ? In QTP using output database check point and database check, you have to select the SQL manual queries option. After selecting the manual queries option, enter the “select” queries to fetch the data in the database and then compare the expected and actual. 11) What is the way of writing testcases for database testing? Writing a testcases is like functional testing. First you have to know the functional requirement of the application. Then you have to decide the parameters for writing testcases like
    •  Objective: Write the objective that you would like to test  Input method: Write the method of action or input you want to execute  Expected: how it should appear in the database 12) To manage and manipulate the test table what are the SQL statements that you have used in Database testing? The statements like SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE are used to manipulate the table, while ALTER TABLE, CREATE TABLE and DELETE TABLE are used to manage table. 13) How to test database procedures and triggers? To test database procedures and triggers, input and output parameters must be known. EXEC statement can be used to run the procedure and examine the behaviour of the tables.  Open the database project in solution explorer  Now in View menu, click the database schema  Open the project folder from schema View menu  Right click on the object that has to be tested, and then click on the dialog box that says Create Unit Tests  After that create a new language test project  Select either a) Insert the unit test or b) Create a new test and then click OK  Project that has to be configured will be done by clicking on the Project Configuration dialog box.  Once it configured click on OK 14) How you can write testcases from requirements and do the requirements represents exact functionality of AUT (Application Under Test)? To write a testcases from requirements, you need to analyse the requirements thoroughly in terms of functionality. Thereafter you think about the appropriate testcases design techniques like Equivalence partitioning, Black box design, Cause effect graphing etc. for writing the testcases. Yes, the requirements represent exact functionality of AUT. 15) What is DBMS? DBMS stand for Database management system, there are different types of DBMS  Network Model  Hierarchical Model
    •  Relational Model 16) What is DML? DML stands for Data Manipulation Language, It is used to manage data with schema objects. It is a subset of SQL. 17) What are DCL commands? What are the two types of commands used by DCL? DCL stands for Data Control Language, it is used to control data. The two types of DCL Commands are: Grant: By using this command user can access privilege to database Revoke: By using this command user cannot access the database 18) What is white box testing and black box testing? Black box testing means testing the software for the outputs on giving particular inputs. This testing is usually performed to see if the software meets the user’s requirements. There is no specific functional output expected for running this test. The white box testing is done to check the accuracy of code and logic of the program. This testing is done by the programmer who knows the logical flow of the system. 19) How does QTP evaluate test results? Once the testing is done, QTP will generate a report. This report will show the checkpoints, system message and error that were detected while testing. The test results window will show any mismatches encountered at the checkpoints. 20) Explain the QTP testing process?  QTP testing process is based on following steps:  Creating GUI (Graphical User Interface) Map files : Identifies the GUI object which has to be tested  Creating test scripts: Test scripts are recorded  Debug tests: Test should be debugged  Run tests: Testcases should be run.  View results: The results reflects the success or failure of the tests  Report detects: If the test is failed, the reasons will be recorded in the report detect file
    • 21) What is load testing and give some examples of it? To measure the system response, load testing is done. If the load exceeds the users pattern it is known as stress testing. Examples of load testing are downloading the set of large files, executing multiple applications on a single computer, subjecting a server to large number of e-mails and allotting many tasks to a printer one after another. 22) How to test database manually? Testing the database manually involves checking the data at the back end and to see whether the addition of data in front end is affecting the back end or not, and same for delete, update, insert etc. 23) What RDBMS stands for and what are the important RDMBS that SQL use? RDBMS stands for Relational Database Management Systems that use SQL, and the important RDBMS that SQL uses are Sybase, Oracle, Access ,Ingres, Microsoft SQL server etc. 24) What is performance testing and what are the bottlenecks of performance testing? Performance testing determines the speed of the computer system performance. It includes the quantitative tests like response time measurement. The problem in performance testing is that you always need a well-trained and experienced man power also the tools you use are expensive. 25) What is DDL and what are their commands? To define database structure, DDL is used. DDL stands for Data Definition Language. The various DDL commands include Create, Truncate, Drop, Alter, Comment and Rename. What is the difference between Functional and Non-functional testing? Functional Testing covers: • Unit Testing • Smoke testing / Sanity testing • Integration Testing (Top Down, Bottom up Testing) • Interface & Usability Testing • System Testing • Regression Testing • Pre User Acceptance Testing(Alpha & Beta) • User Acceptance Testing • White Box & Black Box Testing • Globalization & Localization Testing
    • Non-Functional Testing covers: • Load and Performance Testing • Ergonomics Testing • Stress & Volume Testing • Compatibility & Migration Testing • Data Conversion Testing • Security / Penetration Testing • Operational Readiness Testing • Installation Testing • Security Testing (Application Security, Network Security, System Security) Hi All, According to me Functional Testing:Functional testing is what a system is supposed to do? e.g. interoperability Non-Functional Testing means How a system is supposed to do? e.g. Eficiency,accuracy. I will give an example regarding both functional and non-functional testing.Suppose you send an email to an user .Here the functional testing is to check the email is going to the proper email tht you have specified or not.But the non-functional testing is to how the system send the email to the specified address,what are the protocols used to send an email.. I think you will get a fair idea about functional and non-functional testing. Software testing Phases: Software testing has various different phases such as 1) Test plan 2) Testing Requirement 3) Testing Design 4) Test Execution 5) Test Reporting 6)Maintenance testing he Testing phases are as follows: 1. Requirements Analysis 2. Test Designing 3. Test Planing 4. Test Development 5. Test Execution 6. Test Reporting 7. Test Result Analysis 8. Defect Retesting
    • 9. Regression Testing 10. Test Closure The Testing phases are as follows: 1. Requirements Analysis 2. Test Case Designing 3. Test Planing 4. Test Development 5. Test Execution 6. Test Reporting 7. Test Result Analysis 8. Defect clustering 9. Regression Testing 10.Re-testing 11. Test Closure Activities Testing is a process that involves many activities. These activities can be grouped into following step: Test planing and control. Analysis and design. Implementation and Execution Evaluating Exit Criteria and Reporting. Test Closure. Tips on Localization Testing Do you know: A little care at pre release stage of a localized Software product can save precious dollars !! Software Localization Services is as important as software development. We at QA InfoTech understand that Testing software in a particular language necessarily entails providing all inputs in that language. By entering data in localized characters, a tester cleanses the process to a great extent and ensures the end user doesn’t waste time over possible errors. At QA InfoTech, we have ample experience of localized testing of software. We have a partnership with universities and experienced linguists who help us understand the subtle differences in the languages and cultures. - Our Globalization experts analyze the product code to establish its existing internationalization level and validated by our testing experts who run manual or script based tests as well. - Our aim is to validate products so that they offer proper functionality across different languages. Proper functionality ensures that the internal design of the product is such that it performs the same functions regardless of international environment settings or cultures/locales and the correct representation of data.
    • - Expertise on Localization Testing of bi-directional languages. Our functional and cosmetic checks ensure that the product is validated and verified in the local language and issues if any are successfully regressed. For more info, please visit: Localization is the process of adapting a globalized application to a particular culture/locale. Localizing an application requires a basic understanding of the character sets typically used in modern software development and an understanding of the issues associated with them. Localization includes the translation of the application user interface and adapting graphics for a specific culture/locale. The localization process can also include translating any help content associated with the application. Localization of business solutions requires that you implement the correct business processes and practices for a culture/locale. Differences in how cultures/locales conduct business are heavily shaped by governmental and regulatory requirements. Therefore, localization of business logic can be a massive task. Localization testing checks how well the build has been translated into a particular target language. This test is based on the results of globalized testing where the functional support for that particular locale has already been verified. If the product is not globalized enough to support a given language, you probably will not try to localize it into that language in the first place. Localization Testing in the software testing process for checking the localized version of a product (e.g., Japanese product for Japanese user). Localization Testing checks the quality of a localized version for a particular that culture/locale setting. Localization Testing is based on the results of Globalization Testing which verifies the functional support for that particular culture/locale setting. We should invite the local staff to help our localization testing by checking the quality of translation as well