Evolution of Telecommunication Rohan Sripad Prasanna Raghavan P
<ul><li>0G </li></ul><ul><li>1G technologies </li></ul><ul><li>2G technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Circuit and Packet Switch...
<ul><li>0G </li></ul><ul><li>1G technologies </li></ul><ul><li>2G technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Circuit and Packet Switch...
<ul><li>0G </li></ul><ul><li>1G technologies </li></ul><ul><li>2G technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Circuit and Packet Switch...
ORIGIN   of Wireless Communication <ul><li>1895-1901 </li></ul><ul><li>Guglielmo  Marconi </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates w...
0G 1924
1G AMPS TACS NMT 1980s Analog Voice Typical 2.4 Kbps
1G <ul><li>Advanced Mobile Phone Services (AMPS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deployed in US , Japan : 1983 </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
2G GSM CDMA TDMA 1990s Digital Voice 9.6 - 14.4 Kbps (circuit data)
2G – GSM <ul><li>Global system for Mobile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on TDMA ; Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>900 Mhz,...
2G - CDMA <ul><li>Code Division Multiple Access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cdmaOne or IS-95 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All user...
 
Circuit Switching A private road all for yourself Dedicated end to end connection
Packet Switching Divided packets can take different paths and times  A shared highway
3GPP GPRS EDGE LTE WCDMA HSPA 1.92 Mbps 14 Mbps 384 Kbps 114 Kbps 100 Mbps
3GPP2 1xRTT EV-DO UMB (abandoned 2008 Nov & favoring LTE) 114 Kbps 2.4 Mbps 288 Mbps
<ul><li>0G </li></ul><ul><li>1G technologies </li></ul><ul><li>2G technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Circuit and Packet Switch...
2.5G GPRS 2001 Packet Data
2.5G - GPRS <ul><li>General Packet Radio Service - An Overlay technology on top of  the existing GSM systems. </li></ul><u...
HSCSD <ul><li>High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data. </li></ul><ul><li>An enhancement to CSD – Multiple timeslots used. </li></...
2.75G EDGE 2003 Packet Data CDMA 1xRTT
EDGE <ul><li>EDGE (Enhanced Data rate for GSM) </li></ul><ul><li>Superset of GPRS. </li></ul><ul><li>Data rate = 4 times G...
Evolved EDGE <ul><li>Data rate = 1Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding technique – 32QAM and 16QAM. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires ...
CDMA 1xRTT <ul><li>1x is an abbreviation of 1xRTT (1x Radio Transmission Technology).1x refers to the no. of duplex radio ...
3G IMT2000 W-CDMA (UMTS) CDMA2000
UMTS <ul><li>UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. Also known as W-CDMA. </li></ul><ul><li>W-CDMA uses the DS...
CDMA2000 <ul><li>EVDO Rel 0 (Evolution-Data Optimized or Evolution-Data only Release 0) </li></ul><ul><li>Data rates: </li...
3.5G EVDO-Rev A HSDPA HSUPA EVDO-Rev B
HSPA <ul><li>High Speed Packet Access is a collection of two mobile telephony protocols HSDPA and HSUPA. </li></ul><ul><li...
HSPA+ <ul><li>Evolved High Speed Packet Access (HSPA+) </li></ul><ul><li>Data rates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward link - ...
EVDO Rev A <ul><li>EVDO Rev A (Revision A) </li></ul><ul><li>Also called as EV-DV (Evolution Data/Voice) </li></ul><ul><li...
EVDO Rev B <ul><li>Combine up to fifteen 1.25MHz carriers (20MHz) in forward and/or reverse link. Carriers not physically ...
<ul><li>0G </li></ul><ul><li>1G technologies </li></ul><ul><li>2G technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Circuit and Packet Switch...
Multi Player Gaming Location Based Services Video Services Instant Messaging
 
 
PROBLEMS DEPLOYMENT
Argentina  Estonia  Kyrgyzstan  Slovenia  Australia  Finland  Malaysia  South Korea  Austria  France  Mauritius  South Afr...
3G  INDIA in
Where are we ? Out in Market…
4G
Summary G Technology Data Rates 1 Analog Typical 2.4 Kbps;  max 22 Kbps 2 Digital – TDMA, CDMA 9.6 - 14.4 Kbps (circuit da...
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Evolution Of Telecommunication

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The presentation gives you a brief about when the telecommunication started, how it started, where is it now, and where is it heading ?

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Evolution Of Telecommunication

  1. 1. Evolution of Telecommunication Rohan Sripad Prasanna Raghavan P
  2. 2. <ul><li>0G </li></ul><ul><li>1G technologies </li></ul><ul><li>2G technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Circuit and Packet Switching. </li></ul><ul><li>3GPP & 3GPP2 </li></ul><ul><li>Services offered by 3G </li></ul><ul><li>Deployment Problems </li></ul><ul><li>3G in India & its delay </li></ul><ul><li>4G </li></ul>Transition 2.5G technologies 2.75G technologies 3G technologies An interim 3.5G
  3. 3. <ul><li>0G </li></ul><ul><li>1G technologies </li></ul><ul><li>2G technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Circuit and Packet Switching. </li></ul><ul><li>3GPP & 3GPP2 </li></ul><ul><li>Services offered by 3G </li></ul><ul><li>Deployment Problems </li></ul><ul><li>3G in India & its delay </li></ul><ul><li>4G </li></ul>Transition 2.5G technologies 2.75G technologies 3G technologies An interim 3.5G
  4. 4. <ul><li>0G </li></ul><ul><li>1G technologies </li></ul><ul><li>2G technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Circuit and Packet Switching. </li></ul><ul><li>3GPP & 3GPP2 </li></ul><ul><li>Services offered by 3G </li></ul><ul><li>Deployment Problems </li></ul><ul><li>3G in India & its delay </li></ul><ul><li>4G </li></ul>Transition 2.5G technologies 2.75G technologies 3G technologies An interim 3.5G
  5. 5. ORIGIN of Wireless Communication <ul><li>1895-1901 </li></ul><ul><li>Guglielmo Marconi </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates wireless communications over increasing distances </li></ul>1864 James Maxwell Predicts existence of radio waves. 1886 Rudolph Hertz Demonstrates radio waves.
  6. 6. 0G 1924
  7. 7. 1G AMPS TACS NMT 1980s Analog Voice Typical 2.4 Kbps
  8. 8. 1G <ul><li>Advanced Mobile Phone Services (AMPS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deployed in US , Japan : 1983 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland : 1981 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total Access Communication System (TACS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British System, similar to AMPS : 1985 </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 2G GSM CDMA TDMA 1990s Digital Voice 9.6 - 14.4 Kbps (circuit data)
  10. 10. 2G – GSM <ul><li>Global system for Mobile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on TDMA ; Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>900 Mhz, 1800 Mhz. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later 850 Mhz and 1900 Mhz in Americas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quad Band ; World Phones </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 2G - CDMA <ul><li>Code Division Multiple Access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cdmaOne or IS-95 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All users use same freq band ; 800 Mhz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major success in Korea, Used by Verizon and Sprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy Migration to 3G </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Circuit Switching A private road all for yourself Dedicated end to end connection
  13. 14. Packet Switching Divided packets can take different paths and times A shared highway
  14. 15. 3GPP GPRS EDGE LTE WCDMA HSPA 1.92 Mbps 14 Mbps 384 Kbps 114 Kbps 100 Mbps
  15. 16. 3GPP2 1xRTT EV-DO UMB (abandoned 2008 Nov & favoring LTE) 114 Kbps 2.4 Mbps 288 Mbps
  16. 17. <ul><li>0G </li></ul><ul><li>1G technologies </li></ul><ul><li>2G technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Circuit and Packet Switching. </li></ul><ul><li>3GPP & 3GPP2 </li></ul><ul><li>Services offered by 3G </li></ul><ul><li>Deployment Problems </li></ul><ul><li>3G in India & its delay </li></ul><ul><li>4G </li></ul>Transition 2.5G technologies 2.75G technologies 3G technologies An interim 3.5G
  17. 18. 2.5G GPRS 2001 Packet Data
  18. 19. 2.5G - GPRS <ul><li>General Packet Radio Service - An Overlay technology on top of the existing GSM systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Data rate = 56 – 114Kbps. </li></ul><ul><li>4 MCS (Modulation and coding schemes) used. </li></ul><ul><li>Factors affecting downlink/uplink speed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TDMA slots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-slot class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Channel Encoding used. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. HSCSD <ul><li>High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data. </li></ul><ul><li>An enhancement to CSD – Multiple timeslots used. </li></ul><ul><li>Data rates up to 38.4 Kbps (4 times CSD). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In reality supports 14.4Kbps . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expensive than CSD. </li></ul><ul><li>Latency less that GPRS. </li></ul>
  20. 21. 2.75G EDGE 2003 Packet Data CDMA 1xRTT
  21. 22. EDGE <ul><li>EDGE (Enhanced Data rate for GSM) </li></ul><ul><li>Superset of GPRS. </li></ul><ul><li>Data rate = 4 times GPRS. </li></ul><ul><li>9 MCS (Modulation and coding schemes) used – Gaussian min shift keying and 8PSK. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Evolved EDGE <ul><li>Data rate = 1Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding technique – 32QAM and 16QAM. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires simple network enhancements with software update. </li></ul>
  23. 24. CDMA 1xRTT <ul><li>1x is an abbreviation of 1xRTT (1x Radio Transmission Technology).1x refers to the no. of duplex radio channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Supports 33-35 simultaneous voice calls per 1.25MHz.(cdmaOne = 20 voice calls) </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding technique: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BPSK for forward and reverse link. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Rate = 153 Kbps/153 Kbps. </li></ul><ul><li>Software and minimum hardware update. </li></ul>
  24. 25. 3G IMT2000 W-CDMA (UMTS) CDMA2000
  25. 26. UMTS <ul><li>UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. Also known as W-CDMA. </li></ul><ul><li>W-CDMA uses the DS-CDMA and TDD channel access method with a pair of 5 MHz channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires new cell towers & frequency allocations. </li></ul><ul><li>Data rate = 1Mbps(theoritical) </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency bands: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uplink 1885-2025 MHz (mobile-to-base ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downlink 2110-2200 MHz (base-to-mobile). </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. CDMA2000 <ul><li>EVDO Rel 0 (Evolution-Data Optimized or Evolution-Data only Release 0) </li></ul><ul><li>Data rates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward link - 2.4Mbps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse link - 153kbps. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encoding technique: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward link – 16QAM. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse link - BPSK. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. 3.5G EVDO-Rev A HSDPA HSUPA EVDO-Rev B
  28. 29. HSPA <ul><li>High Speed Packet Access is a collection of two mobile telephony protocols HSDPA and HSUPA. </li></ul><ul><li>High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data rates for Forward link - 14.4Mbps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoding technique – QPSK and 16QAM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) or EUL(Enhanced Uplink) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data rates for Reverse link - 5.76Mbps. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Just a software update for most WCDMA networks. </li></ul>
  29. 30. HSPA+ <ul><li>Evolved High Speed Packet Access (HSPA+) </li></ul><ul><li>Data rates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward link - 42Mbps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse link - 22Mbps. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encoding technique 64QAM . </li></ul>
  30. 31. EVDO Rev A <ul><li>EVDO Rev A (Revision A) </li></ul><ul><li>Also called as EV-DV (Evolution Data/Voice) </li></ul><ul><li>Data rates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward link - 3.1Mbps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse link - 1.8Mbps. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encoding technique: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward link – 16QAM. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse link - QPSK and 8PSK. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. EVDO Rev B <ul><li>Combine up to fifteen 1.25MHz carriers (20MHz) in forward and/or reverse link. Carriers not physically combined and not adjacent to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Data rate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward link = 3.1Mbps*15channels = 47Mbps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse link = 1.8Mbps*15channels = 27Mbps. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encoding technique 64QAM. Uplink data rate increases from 3.1Mbps to 4.9Mbps per channel. Thus, Data rate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward link = 4.9Mbps*15channels = 74Mbps. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only software updation required. </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>0G </li></ul><ul><li>1G technologies </li></ul><ul><li>2G technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Circuit and Packet Switching. </li></ul><ul><li>3GPP & 3GPP2 </li></ul><ul><li>Services offered by 3G </li></ul><ul><li>Deployment Problems </li></ul><ul><li>3G in India & its delay </li></ul><ul><li>4G </li></ul>Transition 2.5G technologies 2.75G technologies 3G technologies An interim 3.5G of 4G
  33. 34. Multi Player Gaming Location Based Services Video Services Instant Messaging
  34. 37. PROBLEMS DEPLOYMENT
  35. 38. Argentina Estonia Kyrgyzstan Slovenia Australia Finland Malaysia South Korea Austria France Mauritius South Africa Azerbaijan Georgia Mexico Spain Bahrain Germany Moldova Sri Lanka Belarus Greece Netherlands Sweden Belgium Guatemala New Zealand Taiwan Bermuda Hong Kong Nicaragua Tajikistan Brazil Hungary Nigeria Thailand Canada Iceland Norway Ukraine Chile India Pakistan U A E China Indonesia Panama United Kingdom Colombia Ireland Peru United States Cyprus Israel Poland Uzbekistan Czech Republic Italy Portugal Venezuela Denmark Jamaica Romania Vietnam Dominican Japan Russia Venezuela Ecuador Kazakhstan Singapore Vietnam
  36. 39. 3G INDIA in
  37. 40. Where are we ? Out in Market…
  38. 41. 4G
  39. 42. Summary G Technology Data Rates 1 Analog Typical 2.4 Kbps; max 22 Kbps 2 Digital – TDMA, CDMA 9.6 - 14.4 Kbps (circuit data) 2.5 GPRS – mux packets in voice timeslots 15 - 40 Kbps 3 Improved modulation, using CDMA variants 50 – 144 Kbps (1xRTT); 200 – 384 Kbps (UMTS); 500 Kbps – 2.4 Mbps (EVDO) 3.5 More modulation tweaks 2–14 Mbps (HSPA) 4 New modulation (OFDMA); Multi-path (MIMO); All IP LTE: >10 Mbps; eventual potential >100 Mbps
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