08 segmentation

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  • 1. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensChapter 8Chapter 8MarketMarketSegmentation,Segmentation,Targeting, andTargeting, andPositioningPositioning
  • 2. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensKey TermsKey Terms• Behavioral segmentation• Benefit segmentation• Competitive advantage• Competitors’ strategies• Confused positioning• Customized marketing• Degree of product homogeneity• Demographic segmentation©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 3. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensKey Terms• Existing competitor• Gender segmentation• Geographic segmentation• Income segmentation©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 4. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensKey Terms• Market• Market homogeneity• Market positioning• Market segmentation• Market targeting©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 5. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensKey Terms• Micromarketing• Overpositioning• Psychographic segmentation• Specific product attributes• Underpositioning©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 6. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens““The mythological, homogeneousThe mythological, homogeneousAmerica is gone. We are a mosaic ofAmerica is gone. We are a mosaic ofminorities.”minorities.”-Joel Weiner©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 7. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensChapter Objectives• Explain market segmentation andidentify several possible bases forsegmenting markets• List and distinguish among therequirements for effective segmentation©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 8. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensChapter Objectives• Outline the process of evaluatingmarket segments• Illustrate the concept of positioning forcompetitive advantage• Discuss choosing and implementing apositioning strategy©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 9. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensMarketsMarkets• AA marketmarket is all actual andis all actual andpotential buyers of a product orpotential buyers of a product orserviceservice©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 10. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensStages of MarketingStages of Marketing• Mass marketingMass marketing• Product-variety marketingProduct-variety marketing• Target marketingTarget marketing• MicromarketingMicromarketing• Customized marketingCustomized marketing©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 11. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensMarket SegmentationMarket Segmentation• Geographic SegmentationGeographic Segmentation• Demographic SegmentationDemographic Segmentation• Psychographic SegmentationPsychographic Segmentation• Behavior SegmentationBehavior Segmentation©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 12. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensGeographic SegmentationGeographic Segmentation• Dividing the market into differentDividing the market into differentgeographic unitsgeographic units– NationsNations– StatesStates– RegionsRegions– CountiesCounties– CitiesCities– NeighborhoodsNeighborhoods©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 13. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensDemographic SegmentationDemographic Segmentation• Dividing the market into groupsDividing the market into groupsbased on demographic variablesbased on demographic variables– AgeAge– GenderGender– IncomeIncome– OccupationOccupation©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 14. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensPsychographic SegmentationPsychographic Segmentation• Dividing buyers into differentgroups based on social class,lifestyle, and personalitycharacteristics©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 15. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensBehavior SegmentationBehavior Segmentation• Buyers are divided into groups based on theirBuyers are divided into groups based on theirknowledgeknowledge,, attitudeattitude, and, and useuse oror responseresponse to ato aproductproduct• The best starting point for building market segmentsThe best starting point for building market segments• TypesTypes– Special occasion segmentation– Benefits sought– User status– Usage rate– Loyalty status– Buyer readiness stage©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 16. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensRequirements for Effective SegmentationRequirements for Effective Segmentation• Measurability• Accessibility• Substantiality• Actionability©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 17. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens• Size, purchasing power, profilesof segments can be measured.• Segments can be effectivelyreached and served.• Segments are large or profitableenough to serve.MeasurableMeasurableAccessibleAccessibleSubstantialSubstantialActionableActionable• Effective programs can bedesigned to attract and servethe segments.Requirements for Effective SegmentationRequirements for Effective Segmentation©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 18. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensMarket TargetingMarket Targeting• Evaluating Market SegmentsEvaluating Market Segments• Selecting Market SegmentsSelecting Market Segments• Choosing a Market-CoverageChoosing a Market-CoverageStrategyStrategy©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 19. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensEvaluating Market SegmentsEvaluating Market Segments• Segment Size and GrowthSegment Size and Growth• Segment Structural AttractivenessSegment Structural Attractiveness• Company Objectives andCompany Objectives andResourcesResources©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 20. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensSelecting Market SegmentsSelecting Market Segments• Undifferentiated MarketingUndifferentiated Marketing• Bifurcated MarketingBifurcated Marketing (dual)(dual)• Differentiated MarketingDifferentiated Marketing• Concentrated MarketingConcentrated Marketing©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 21. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensChoosing a Market – Coverage StrategyChoosing a Market – Coverage Strategy• Company resourcesCompany resources• Degree of product homogeneityDegree of product homogeneity• Market homogeneityMarket homogeneity• Competitors’ strategiesCompetitors’ strategies©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 22. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensPositioning StrategiesPositioning Strategies• Products can be positioned on specificProducts can be positioned on specificattributes or against another productattributes or against another productclassclass©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 23. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensChoosing and Implementing a PositioningChoosing and Implementing a PositioningStrategyStrategy1.1. Identifying a set of possibleIdentifying a set of possible competitivecompetitiveadvantagesadvantages upon which to build aupon which to build apositionposition2.2. Selecting the right competitiveSelecting the right competitiveadvantagesadvantages3.3. Effectively communicating andEffectively communicating anddelivering the chosen position to adelivering the chosen position to acarefully selected target marketcarefully selected target market©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 24. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensProduct DifferentiationProduct Differentiation• Physical Attribute Differentiation• Service Differentiation• Personnel Differentiation• Location Differentiation• Image Differentiation©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 25. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensSelecting the Right Competitive AdvantagesSelecting the Right Competitive Advantages• Avoid:–Underpositioning - failing ever toposition the company at all–Overpositioning - giving buyers toonarrow a picture of the company–Confused positioning - leavingbuyers with a confused image of acompany©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 26. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensSelecting the Right Competitive Advantages• Brand differences should meet thefollowing criteria prior to marketing:– Important– Distinctive– Superior– Communicable– Preemptive (priority)– Affordable– Profitable©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 27. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensPositioning MeasurementPositioning Measurement• Perceptual mapping is a research toolused to measure a brand’s position©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 28. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensPositioning map of service level versus pricePositioning map of service level versus price..Perceptual MapPerceptual Map©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 29. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensBest PracticesBest Practices• Carnival Cruise lines• Southwest Airlines©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and Makens
  • 30. ©2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4th editionUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Kotler, Bowen, and MakensSlayt SonuSlayt Sonu