2. Shaheer Ahmad IT INFORMATION) (TECHNOLOGYWe use the term information technology orIT to refer to an entire industry. In actuality,information technology is the use of computersand software to manage information. In somecompanies, this is referred to as ManagementInformation Services (or MIS) or simply asInformation Services (or IS). The informationtechnology department of a large companywould be responsible for storing information,protecting information, processing the
3. information, transmitting the information asnecessary, and later retrieving information asnecessary.
4. Communication Methods
5. Oral Communication:Oral communication could be said to be themost used form of communication. Whether it isto present some important data to yourcolleagues or lead a boardroom meeting, theseskills are vital.We are constantly using words verbally toinform our subordinates of a decision, provideinformation, and so on. This is done either byphone or face-to-face.The person on the receiving end would alsoneed to exercise much caution to ensure thathe/she clearly understands what is being said.This shows therefore, that you would need tocultivate both your listening and speaking skills,as you would have to carry out both roles in theworkplace, with different people.
6. Written Communication:Writing is used when you have to providedetailed information such as figures and facts,even while giving a presentation.It is also generally used to send documents andother important material to stakeholders, whichcould then be stored for later use as it can bereferred to easily as it is recorded. Otherimportant documents such as contracts,memos, and minutes of meetings are also inwritten form for this purpose.It can be seen in recent years however, thatverbal communication has been replaced to agreat extent by a faster form of writtencommunication, and that is email.You could also use videoconferencing andmultiple way phone calls with severalindividuals simultaneously. Apart from a fewglitches that could occur, these methods ofcommunication have helped organizationscome a long way.
7. Body Language:Although the most common methods ofcommunication are carried out orally or inwriting, when it comes to managementtechniques, the power of non-verbalcommunication must never be underestimated.Your smile, your gestures and several otherbody movements send out a message to thepeople around you. You need to be mindful ofthis while dealing with your employees andcustomers.Always remember to maintain eye contact. Thiswould show that you are serious and confidentabout what is being said.
8. DevicesUsed forHandlingInformation As the end of the second millennium A.D. approached, major new technologies began to appear.One of the biggest innovations of the 19th centurywas the telegraph. Later, Alexander Graham Bell.would create the first working telephone
9. TV and Radio  In the early 1900s, researchers discovered how to use the radio waves that pervaded the planet. They eventually learned how to broadcast using these radio waves, so that audio could be delivered directly into peoples homes. In the 1950s, television was invented, and in addition to audio broadcasts, people could now view actual visual broadcasts of people and places .
10. The Internet Personalcomputers first became truly popular in the early1980s. Not long after that, computers began to benetworked with each other, and in the 1990s, theInternet as we know it today was effectively born.The Internet arguably ranks among the greatestinventions ever made, as it has madecommunication relatively instant even for peopleon opposite sides of the planet, and has providedaccess to even remote parts of the Earth.
11. What are Storage devicesStorage Devices are the data storage devices that are used in thecomputers to store the data. The computer has many types of data storagedevices. Some of them can be classified as the removable data StorageDevices and the others as the non-removable data Storage Devices.The memory is of two types; one is the primary memory and the other oneis the secondary memory.The primary memory is the volatile memory and the secondary memory isthe nonvolatile memory. The volatile memory is the kind of the memory thatis erasable and the nonvolatile memory is the one where in the contentscannot be erased. Basically when we talk about the data storage devices itis generally assumed to be the secondary memory.The secondary memory is used to store the data permanently in thecomputer. The secondary storage devices are usually as follows: hard diskdrives – this is the most common type of storage device that is used inalmost all the computer systems. The other ones include the floppy diskdrives, the CD ROM, and the DVD ROM. The flash memory, the USB datacard etc.Floppy discsA floppy disk is a data storage medium that is composed of a disk of thin,flexible floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in squarer rectangularplastic shell. Floppy disks are read and written by a floppy disk drive. Application Any use where small files such as wordprocessing, small spreadsheets and databases need to be moved from onecomputer to another. Useful to backup small data files.
12. Fixed hard discsA hard disk drive is the device used to store large amounts of digitalinformation in computers and related equipment like iPods and gamesconsoles such as the Xbox 360 and PS3.Hard disk drives are used to store operating systems, software and workingdata.These are suitable for any application which requires very fast access todata for both reading and writing to. However, Hard disk drives may not besuitable for applications which need portability.Almost all computers used a fixed hard disc. Used for on-line and real timeprocesses requiring direct access. Used in file servers for computernetworks to store large amount of data.Portable hard discsPortable hard discs are good fun because you can carry data about all overthe place and transfer information, programs, pictures, etc betweencomputers.
13. Advantages:• Greatly improved data cargo carrying capacity (relative to the 1.44 Mb floppy disc).• You dont need to worry about the other person having the same type of special cartridge drive as yourself. Disadvantages:• Hard drives have to be handled quite carefully, and when being transported should be wrapped in something soft and put in a padded bag.• More expensive than other forms of removable media. Application Portable disc discs are used to store very large files which need transporting from one computer to another and price is not an issue. Magnetic tapes Magnetic tape has been used for data storage for over 50 years. When storing large amounts of data, tape can be substantially less expensive than disk or other data storage options. Tape storage has always been used with large computer systems. Modern usage is primarily as a high capacity medium for backups and archives. Drawbacks Writing and retrieving data is slow. It uses serial access for reading and writing.
14. ApplicationMagnetic tapes are used for application which requires extremely largestorage capacity where speed of access is not an issue.It is commonly used for backups of file servers for computer networks, in avariety of batch processing applications such as reading of bank cheques,payroll processing and general stock control.Optical backing storage media such as CDsandDVDs
15. • CDs tend to be used for large files (but smaller than 1Gb) which are too big for a floppy disc to hold such as music and general animation.• DVDs are used to hold very large files (several Gb) such as movie films. Both CDs and DVDs are portable i.e. they can be transported from one computer to another. Both can be used to store computer data.• CD ROM/DVD ROM Applications which require the prevention of deletion of data, accidental or otherwise. CDs used by software companies for distributing software programs and data; by Music companies for distributing music albums and by book publishers for distributing encyclopaedias, reference books etc. DVDs used by film distributors.• CD R/DVD R Applications which require a single ‘burning’ of data, e.g. CDs - recording of music downloads from the Internet, recording of music from MP3 format, recording of data for archiving or backup purposes. DVDs – recording of film movies and television programs.• CD RW/DVD RW Applications which require the updating of information and ability to record over old data. Not suitable for music recording but is very useful for keeping generations of files. DVDs have between five and ten times the capacity of CDs. Solid state backing storage These are the smallest form of memory available in the market today.• Widely used as removable storage.• They are more robust than other forms of storage.• Though expensive than other forms they can be easily written to and updated. Memory sticks/Pen drives USB flash drives are typically removable and rewritable, much smaller than a floppy disk. Storage capacities typically range from 64 MB to 64 GB. USB
16. flash drives offer potential advantages over other portable storage devices,particularly the floppy disk.They have a more compact shape, operate faster, hold much more data,have a more durable design, and operate more reliably due to their lack ofmoving parts. Flash drives are widely used to transport files and backupdata from computer to computer.Flash memory cardsA memory card or flash memory card is a solid-state electronic flashmemory data storage device used with digital cameras, handheld andMobile computers, telephones, music players, video game consoles, andother electronics.Nowadays, most new PCs have built-in slots for a variety of memory cards;Memory Stick, CompactFlash, SD, etc. Some digital gadgets support morethan one memory card to ensure compatibility.