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Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
Thesis Presentation   P2 P Vo D On Internet   Rodrigo Godoi
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Thesis Presentation P2 P Vo D On Internet Rodrigo Godoi

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  • You can find english and spanish pdf versions of my work on:

    http://www.bookess.com/read/15537-p2p-vod-on-internet-fault-tolerance-and-control-architecture/

    http://www.bookess.com/read/15548-analisis-de-la-gestion-de-fallos-en-sistemas-de-video-bajo-demanda-a-gran-escala/
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  • 1. UniversitatAutònoma de Barcelona
    Computer Architecture & Operating Systems Department
    P2P-VoD on Internet: Fault Tolerance and Control Architecture
    Rodrigo Godoi
    Advisor: Dr. Porfidio Hernández Budé
    Barcelona, July 2009.
  • 2. Contents
  • 3. Contents
  • 4. Video on Demand - VoD
    • Multimedia service
    • 5. Asynchronous requests
    • 6. Every client enjoys entire content
    • 7. Long sessions (> 60 min.)
  • VoD - requirements and constraints
    Scalability
    Large scale Video on Demand - LVoD
    • Clients: thousands and disperse
    • 8. Multimedia contents: huge catalogue
    Multicast
    Peer-to-Peer
    Internet
    Soft real-time
    • Time limit on handling data
    • 9. Quality of Service (QoS)
    Control Architecture
    Fault Tolerance
  • 10. Multicast
    - implementations
    IP Multicast:
    • Source tree (e.g. PIM-DM)
    • 11. Shared tree (e.g. PIM-SM)
    Application Layer Multicast ALM
    (e.g. NICE, ALMI)
    Overlay Multicast
    (e.g. OMNI)
  • 12. Multicast- Patching
    Patching: multicast technique for multimedia data delivery
    Base stream
    t= 0
    t = 6
    Multicast
    Unicast
    Patchstream
  • 13. Peer-to-Peer
    Free cooperation of equals in view of the performance of a common task.
    • Takes advantage of resources (storage, cycles, content, human presence) available at the edges of the Internet.
    • 14. Usage: file sharing, distributed multimedia systems, high performance computing.
    Synchronised usage of peers resources: Collaboration Groups
  • 15. Tracker
    Peers
    Peers
    Peers
    Supernodes
    Peer-to-Peer - classification
    Peers
    Location mechanism
  • 16. Peer-to-Peer - classification
    Overlay topology
    Chain
    Mesh
    Tree
  • 17. Internet environment
    • Worldwide scale
    • 18. Heterogeneous environment
    • 19. Best-effort service
    • 20. Exponential growth rate
    Organisation:
    • Autonomous Systems (AS): collection of connected IP routing prefixes under the control of one or more network operators (ISPs, universities, companies)
    • 21. Network arranged by dimension and purpose (LAN, WAN, MAN)
    • 22. Modeled by complex network theory
    Clustering coefficient
    Average path length
  • 23. Problem
    Large scale
    system
    Failures
    Network
    Server
    Peers
    Frequent arrivals/departures
  • 24. Problem
    Failures/Errors treatment
    Input rate fluctuation
    Source crash
    Cushion buffer
    QoS
    Start-up delay
    VoD service must…
    • respect deadlines
    • 25. provide low start-up delay
    • 26. have a clever buffer usage
    • 27. enforce low control overhead
    Control Architecture
    Fault Tolerance
  • 28. Control relevance
    P2P and Multicast
    Heterogeneity: Internet, peers capabilities, lifetimes
    Resources sharing
    Delivery Architecture
    Control Architecture
  • 29. FaultTolerance
    Consequence of a failure
    System defect
    Do not solve the fault
  • 30. State of the art
  • 31. Contents
  • 32. Goal of the Thesis
    To assess Control impact and propose a Fault Tolerance Scheme for P2P-VoD service on the Internet.
    QoS
  • 37. Contents
  • 38. System architecture
    Clients overlay topology
    Distributed proxy servers
    Distributed video servers
    Internet
    Clients
    P2P Collaborations
    Servers overlaytopology
    IP Multicast zone
    Internet Autonomous System
  • 39. The Failure Management Process
    Basis of Fault Tolerance Mechanisms
    • Income stream monitoring
    • 40. Heartbeat messages
    • 41. Centralised
    • 42. Subsequent queries
    Detection
    Recovery
    Maintenance
    • Network infrastructure
    • 43. Peer status
  • Load and Time metrics
    Load cost
    Volume of control messages that flows through the system on failure management processes
    Control overhead - congestion, bandwidth consumption
    Time cost
    Time consumed by solving peer failures
    Control efficiency - start-up delay, buffer usage
  • 44. Background: VoD service schemes
    Gather different aspects of P2P-VoD services
  • 45. PCM/MCDB
    PCM
    MCDB
    PCM: Patch Collaboration Manager
    MCDB: Multicast Channel Distributed Branching
    Bypass
  • 46. FaultTolerance - PCM/MCDB
    MCDB
    Maintenance messages
    Ch.M0
    Ch.M1
    Recovery messages
    Ch.M2
    • Centralised recovery.
    • 47. IP Multicast tree rearrangement
    Detection messages
  • 48. P2Cast
    Base Stream
    Patch Stream
    • Clients are divided into sessions according to the arrival time in the system (session threshold parameter - T)
    • 49. Best-fit algorithm: Peer with great amount of available bandwidth is selected as parent
    VoD Server
    Session 4
    Session 3
    31.0
    20.0
    34.0
    35.0
    24.0
    21.0
    37.0
    35.8
    39.9
    35.5
    27.0
    40.0
    T
  • 50. FaultTolerance - P2Cast
    • Source peers (Parents) failures provoke stream disruption
    • 51. Subsequent recovery queries
    Detection messages
    VoD Server
    Recovery messages
    Session 4
    Session 3
    31.0
    20.0
    34.0
    35.0
    24.0
    21.0
    37.0
    35.8
    39.9
    35.5
    27.0
    40.0
  • 52. Load cost
    Control messages
    PCM/MCDB
    P2Cast
    Heartbeats
    Heartbeats
    Detection
    IP multicast rearrangement
    Recovery request
    Subsequent queries
    Recovery
    Peers status
    Routers status
    Routers status
    Maintenance
  • 53. Time cost
    Time consumption
    Recovery messages
    Detection
    Path (network theory): small-world effect
    latency
    PCM/MCDB
    Subsequent queries
    Recovery messages
    Detection
    Path (network theory): small-world effect
    latency
    P2Cast
  • 54. Contents
  • 55. TheFaultToleranceScheme (FTS)
    Cushion
    Delivery
    Collaboration
    Altruist
    FTS stands on peers capabilities:
    • Input / Output bandwidth
    • 56. Buffer size
    bwo
    bwi
    buffer
    8
    9
    10
    11
    12
    L
    6
    7
    13
    Fault Tolerance Groups
    Buffer In
    Buffer Out
  • 57. TheFaultToleranceScheme (FTS)
    MN
    C1
    C2
    Cushion
    Delivery
    Gen. purpose
    Altruist
    MN
    Fault Tolerance Groups
    MN
    MN
    L
    1
    2
    3
    1
    2
    3
    t = 0
    L
    4
    5
    1
    2
    3
    7
    8
    9
    4
    5
    6
    1
    2
    3
    10
    7
    MN
    13
    14
    L
    15
    10
    11
    12
    8
    9
    4
    5
    1
    2
    3
    t = 0
    t = 0
    C1
    7
    L
    4
    5
    6
    1
    2
    3
    6
    7
    C1
    10
    11
    L
    12
    7
    8
    9
    4
    5
    6
    9
    10
    6
    7
    8
    13
    14
    Video
    8
    9
    10
    6
    7
    13
    14
    15
    11
    12
    3
    4
    5
    1
    2
    Manager Node
    MN
    C2
    7
    L
    4
    5
    6
    1
    2
    3
    14
    15
    11
    12
    13
    t = 3
    t = 3
    t = 10
    C1
    Video
    8
    9
    10
    6
    7
    13
    14
    15
    11
    12
    3
    4
    5
    1
    2
    7
    Video
    8
    9
    10
    6
    13
    14
    15
    11
    12
    3
    4
    5
    1
    2
    FTS Collaborators
    [t = 17]
  • 58. Load and Time costswiththe FTS
    The proposed Fault Tolerance Scheme…
    • distributes the control through Manager Nodes
    • 59. removes subsequent queries during recovery
    • 60. eliminates messages for peers status maintenance
    • 61. can detect failures through heartbeats (FTS I) and income stream monitoring (FTS II)
  • Contents
  • 62. Simulation tool: VoDSim
    Computational simulations provide a more dynamic and scalable analysis
    • Discrete event-driven model
    • 63. More than 50 classes in C++
    • 64. Over 46.000 lines
    • 65. Peer arrival rate: Poisson
    • 66. Content popularity: Zipf
  • VoDSim extensions
    • Implementation of ALM service scheme: P2Cast
    • 67. Peers disruptions: Weibull
    • 68. FMP instrumentation:
    Load and Time costs measurement
    Fault probability
    Lifetime
  • 69. Contents
  • 70. Experimental Results
  • 71. Failure Management Process validation
  • 72. Control vs. Multimedia traffic
    Analytical results (PCM/MCDB and P2Cast)
    ∆w = 13%-39%
    ∆w =13%- 37%
    ∆w = 10%-28%
    Simulated results (P2Cast)
  • 73. Load cost analysis
  • 74. Load cost analysis
  • 75. Time cost analysis
    High latency
    Time cost increment
    Recovery control messages
  • 76. Time cost analysis
    Download rate: 1500 kb/s (750+750)
    Cushion buffer
    56MB
    11MB
    1 min.
    5 min.
    Start-up delay
  • 77. Experimental Results
  • 78. Load cost analysis
    Cost increment
    Cost reduction
    FTS I - heartbeat detection
    FTS II - buffer monitoring detection
  • 79. Load cost analysis
    • Overhead reduction
    • 80. Scalability
  • Time cost analysis
    High latency
    Time cost increment
    Volume of communication
    FTS
    • Efficiency
    Cushion buffer
    56MB
    11MB
    Start-up delay
    5 min.
    1 min.
    τ = 1/(2·fHB)
    FTS I - heartbeat detection
    FTS II - buffer monitoring detection
  • 81. Fault Tolerance service performance
    • Reliability
    • 82. Flexibility
    Altruist buffer 338MB
    Altruist buffer 102MB
  • 83. Contents
  • 84. Conclusions
    Control mechanism plays a crucial role on designing P2P-VoD systems
    Load cost
    Control overhead: network congestion, bandwidth resources
    Time cost
    Efficiency: buffer usage, start-up delay
    Load and Time costs trade-off
    Reduction of Load and Time costs
    Quality of Service
  • 85. Conclusions
    The Fault Tolerance Scheme…
    • is flexible for Internet use
    • 86. presents hierarchical control structure
    • 87. has scalable backup mechanism
    • 88. do not demand extra data communication and dedicated resources
    • 89. is able to guarantee system reliability
    • 90. reduces Load and Time costs
  • Contents
  • 91. Future Work
    • Application and assessment of the FTS in a wide range of VoD architectures and service policies
    • 92. Implementation of the FTS in a simulation environment
    • 93. FTS improvement: storing parts of non-visualized contents; using non-volatile storage devices (e.g. Solid State Disk drives)
    • 94. Addition of VCR / DVD-like operations
    • 95. Usage of clients behaviour information to improve system performance
  • P2P-VoD on Internet: Fault Tolerance and Control Architecture
    Rodrigo Godoi
    Thankyou
    Gracias
    Obrigado
    Barcelona, July 2009.
  • 96. TheFaultToleranceScheme (FTS)
    Server
    Fault Tolerance Group
    Control comm.
    Manager Node
    Clients
    FTG members
    Architecture elements
    • Server: content seed
    • 97. Peer: multimedia client / source
    • 98. FTG member: collaborator in the FTS
    • 99. Distributed backup: flexibility and reliability.
    • 100. Built on the fly: backup do not need retransmission.
    • 101. P2P based: mechanism uses own system available resources.
    • 102. Hierarchical control: scalability and deployment.
    • 103. Manager Node: organize and monitor FTG
  • The FTS formationlaw
    While
    If
    then
    Add Collaborator to FTG
    If
    Peers’ bandwidth greater than playback rate (bw≥Vpr)
    then
    New FTG.
    Input parameters
    FTG size
    Distributed backup
    Service conditions
  • 104. The FTS formationlaw
    While
    MN
    C1
    C2
    C3
    A · 2
    A · 3
    A · 5
    A · 5
    15
    15
    15
    15
    If
    then
    Add Collaborator to FTG.
    If
    if:
    Peers’ bandwidth lower than playback rate (bw<Vpr)
    then
    New FTG.
    if:
    A
    Video
    C
    B
    D
    E
    H
    G
    F

    Collaboration Capacity
    A
    Buffer and Bandwidth constraints

    C1
    A*
    B*

    A*
    B*
    C2
    FTG size
    MN [500kb/s]
    C1 [200kb/s]
    C2 [300kb/s]
    C3 [500kb/s]
    Vpr [1500kb/s]

    A*
    B*
    C3
    MN
    A*

    B*
  • 105. TheFaultToleranceScheme (FTS)
    MN
    C1
    C2
    Client
    MN
    I
    II
    III
    IV
    Creation of Fault Tolerance Groups
    Local Server
    Collab. availability
    FTS ack.
    Join to FTG
    Start new FTG and become Manager Node
    Standby status
  • 106. TheFaultToleranceScheme (FTS)
    Standby Peer
    I
    II
    FTG: complexity and maintenance
    O(NCFTG)
    MN
    MN
    failure
    Local Server
    Member failure
    C1
    C1
    C2
    Designation of new MN
    Restoring the FTG
    Restoring the FTG
  • 107. Evaluation environment
    Underlying network: GT-ITM topology generator
    Transit-stub model
    • 1Transit domain (3 routers)
    • 108. 6 Stub domain (54 routers)
    Service schemes
    • ALM / tree-based P2P (P2Cast)
    • 109. IP Multicast / mesh-based P2P (PCM/MCDB)
    Network protocols
    • Unicast: OSPF
    • 110. IP Multicast: IGMP and PIM-SM
  • Evaluation environment
    Network Protocols
  • 111. Conclusions - publications

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