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  • Roger WhitsonMy work focuses on how literary studies is impacted by new technologiesUnit on Digital Humanities <br /> New/Old Field in English. <br /> Stresses Intersection b/t Literature and Digital Technology <br /> Very Open Field. Many People Disagree w/ What It May Mean. <br /> What are some ideas you have about English from the earlier portions of the course <br />
  • Visualization of different definitions of DH by Elijah MeeksDay of DH in the Spring, asks people to define the digital humanities. Meeks took a selection of these just to show the diversity. <br /> Data form of distant reading called Topic Modeling. <br /> Talk about that later on in the unit. <br /> Now, see how DH is less a “field” in the traditional sense than a loose cluster of practices. <br /> Practices are related, but not in a systematic way. <br />
  • This is roughly how our unit will work. <br /> Today, short discussion of the history of computing. <br /> Next week, we’ll look at how DH specifically effects English and Literature. <br /> Final week, we will look at some applications before playing around with some distant reading applications. <br /> DH is not just distant reading, but it is the most visible part of the discipline right now. <br />
  • Today, talk about the early history of computing, starting with the 19th century. <br /> Kirk told me that you looked at Thoreau as nature writing and examined how his work went against industrial modes of clock time. <br /> Much about computation that is about efficiency. Thoreau might not like it. <br /> Engineers and programmers are notoriously lazy. They create programs to solve problems and make stuff easier. <br /> The question of how or why literary scholars would use computational methodologies, we’ll leave for next week. <br /> How many of you know either coding or programming? What’s the difference? <br /> Coding is markup. Marking up a text (see html). Coding is getting a computer to run a calculation based upon an input and an output. We start with programming. <br />
  • Three figures are important here: <br /> 1. Joseph Marie Jacquard (1752-1834): French weaver and merchant. Created the Jacquard loom, programmable form of textile manufacturing. <br /> 2. Charles Babbage (1791-1871): British mathematician. Considered “father of the computer,” first person to create a diagram for a computational device. Babbage’s video game store. <br /> 3. Ada Lovelace (1815-1852): First computer programmer, worked w/ Babbage. Called herself “poetical scientist.” Translated article from Italian military engineer Luigi Menbrea - including a set of notes that went beyond the original article, considered to be the first computer program and conceptualized the very idea of software. Babbage always considered the computer a number-cruncher. Ada thought computers could execute actions, not just solve equations. <br />
  • Difference Engine schematic for difference engine <br /> mechanically computes astronomical and mathematical tables more efficiently and correctly than most people. <br /> 1823, British government gave Babbage 17,000 pounds to finish the project. <br /> no one had yet built a device to such exacting standards beforethe machine was much more expensive than Babbage originally predicted. <br /> Britian scuttled the project before it was completedDifference engine was never completed in Babbage’s lifetime. <br /> Replica created in 1991 to celebrate Babbage’s 200th anniversary. <br /> Difference engine’s work w/ tables helped to conceptually create the idea common to computation now of the database (i.e. tabular data that could be computed simultaneously). <br />
  • Flash forward to 1945. This is when Vannevar Bush (1890-1974) w/ a number of other scientists: <br /> Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, Niels Bohr, RIchard Feynman, John von Neumann. <br /> Picture of Fat Man (detonated over Nagasaki on 9 August 1945). <br /> Second wave of computational work was the mathematical modeling of atomic and hydrogen bomb <br /> explosions in places like Los Alamos. <br /> So-called ENIAC computer, short for (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). <br /> After the explosions in Japan and end of WW II, question became what people would do now? <br /> Large amount of resources devoted to Manhattan Project were redirected to developing so-called “stored-memory computer.” <br />
  • Bush’s article as it appeared in the September 1945 issue of The Atlantic. <br /> What were some themes Bush expresses about technology in the essay? <br /> How can a collective memory machine help solve these problems? Worried that technology will only be used for war. Emergence (as Eisenhower said) of military-industrial complex - anyone know what that means? connection b/t war and private enterprise. <br /> Yes, early version of conceptual hypertext. What were your favorite of his projections? <br /> Ideas: storing texts by using photography, <br /> speech recording w/ stenography, <br /> mechanization of repetitive thought processes makes it easier to do more complicated problems, machines can be used anywhere we can create systematic logic, <br />
  • diagram of the memexcurrent indexing is alphabetical or numerical instead of associative (like the brain), <br /> memex as device that could store and retrieve information based upon association (way we do that today?) <br /> also pass items to another memex. <br /> trails of thought processes can also be published, like an encyclopedia. Making retrieval of information smarter. <br />
  • Going further, another big figure in history of computation is Alan Turing. <br /> 1912-1954 <br /> cryptoanalysist during WWII. Worked for British intelligence. Anyone know what that is? <br /> father of artificial intelligence <br /> 1952: acknowledged to police that he was homosexual, which was a crime in Britian. <br /> Was given the choice of imprisonment or hormone therapy (synthetic oestrigen to reduce libido). <br /> lead to impotence and enlargement of breast glands. <br /> After treatment in 1954, found dead w/ a half-eaten apple filled w/ cyanide. <br /> Suicide was ruled the cause. <br />
  • Turing Test: test of a machine’s ability to exhibit intelligence indistinguishable from human int. <br /> can machines think? <br /> Not an answerable question, in the final analysis. <br /> Foundational to the field of artificial intelligence and (later) to natural language processing (i.e. teaching computers to process human language). <br /> Acc to Turing, machine intelligence could be understood merely lesser in degree (not kind) from human intelligence. <br />
  • Women providing input to an ENIAC (1946). 150 feet long. <br /> Personal computers won’t come until the 1970s. Women often worked on them b/c computations were considered menial labor. <br /> Human operators of these machines were called “computers.” <br /> See N. Katherine Hayles’s book My Mother Was A Computer. <br />
  • Outputs were presented on punch-cards. <br /> More sophisticated form here. Can anyone point out what this might be? <br /> Scantron! Where you fill in your name. Make sure there aren’t any stray marks. <br /> You’d feed this into a machine, the machine would count where you filled in the correct oval, and this would be your grade. <br /> Punch-cards worked similarly. People would do their computations manually, feed their programs via punch cards into a teletype machine, that would communicate w/ a mainframe, which would send back the output on a punch card. You’d then interpret that information and formulate your theory. <br />
  • What’s this? <br /> DOS! <br /> Known as computation on a command line. You can find the command line by typing “terminal” on your MacBook. Some people still want to use this instead of Windows or iOS b/c they argue it gives them closer access to the computer. <br /> DOS is pre-Windows. This is what’s shown when you type: dir/w, which shows a list of files w/in the directory. <br />
  • early, early, EARLY form of a modem. Probably 1980s. <br /> I used a 2400 baud modem to connect to BBS’s when I was in high school. <br /> Took up a landline. Couldn’t use the phone when you used the internet. <br /> Why did you have to put the receiver on the modem? <br /> Uses the phoneline to convert electric signals to sound, then back to electric signals again. <br /> Which is what you see translated into characters on the screen. <br /> Notice what’s happening here and how it approximates what Bush said about the Memex machine. <br />
  • finally, early EARLY version of Xerox’s GUI from 1983. <br /> what’s a GUI? (Graphical User Interface). Yes. <br /> Xerox was the first company to design a GUI. <br /> Apple actually stole the idea from them, and used their superior marketshare to make it seem like they invented it. <br /> See Walter Issacson’s biography of Steve Jobs (great book on Apple’s early days). <br />

Dh lecture1 copy Dh lecture1 copy Presentation Transcript

  • Unit 4: The Digital Humanities
  • Today: History of Computing •Major Assignment #3 Due •Vannevar Bush, “As We May Think.” 10/31: No Class •Ignore the Video Assignment for This Day. 11/5: Digital Humanities and Literary Studies •Matt Kirschenbaum, “What’s DH and What’s It Doing in English Depts?” •Stephen Ramsay, “High Performance Computing for English Majors.” 11/7: Digital Humanities Applications •Lauren Klein, “‘A Report Has Come Here’: Social Network Analysis in Thomas Jefferson.” •Ted Underwood, “We Don’t Already Know the Broad Outlines of Literary History.” 11/12: Distant Reading or Macroanalysis •Franco Moretti, “Conjectures on World Literature.” •Matthew Jockers, “On Distant Reading and Macroanalysis.” 11/14: Voyant •My Voyant Tutorials and Play with Digital Applications!
  • The Early Years of Computation