design theory.
      3
meaning
Human is a species driven by a desire to make meanings:
                         above all, Designers are surely
 ...
perception
Why do some "beautiful" objects quickly lose their appeal, while others
                                  seem ...
perception
                                                 Aesthetic perception
                 We can however distingui...
perception
                                               Aesthetic perception
  A methodology resulting in an analysis of...
gestalt theory
Takete

Maluma
gestalt
                                           Aesthetic perception
In 1890 the Viennese philosopher, Christian von Er...
gestalt
  The word Gestalt is used in modern German to mean the way a thing has
                            been “gestellt...
gestalt
One of the most important theories of perception is the Gestalt Theory.
    It was developed about 1910 by Max Wer...
gestalt
A form is something else and something more than the sum of her parts.
     A part in a whole is something else th...
gestalt
     Every form is a function of some variable and not the sum of
                                                ...
gestalt
 Gestalt means when parts identified individually have different
characteristics to the whole (Gestalt means "organ...
gestalt
In other term, Gestalt Psychology proposes the idea that nothing is
                               fully comprehen...
gestalt


The whole is different from the sum of his parts.
gestalt


The whole is different from the sum of his parts.
gestalt


A part in a whole is different from this part in another whole.
gestalt


A part in a whole is different from this part in another whole.
gestalt
the law of the relation
       figure / ground
gestalt
    This figure appears to the eye as a square
inside a circle, or as donut shaped circle with
                    ...
gestalt
    In the terms of gestalt psychology, figure refers to an active,
      positive form revealed against a passive...
gestalt

             The white cross appears on a concentric
    ground of circles, after one moment the image change and...
gestalt

Stabilization of the image by a horizontal/vertical organization
gestalt

Stabilization of the image by the size
gestalt
the law of symmetry
gestalt
Regions bound by by symmetrical boarders tend to be perceived as
                                                c...
gestalt
the law of proximity
gestalt
  Elements are close together will be perceive as a coherent object




On the left there appears to be four horiz...
gestalt

Six columns    Three groups of two columns
gestalt
Two groups of                   Two groups of
   spots                           spots




           One group of...
gestalt
the law of similarity
gestalt
Elements that look similar will be perceived as a part of the same form




          There seems to be a triangle...
gestalt

There seems to be two white columns alternate with two yellow columns
gestalt
the law of good
   continuation
gestalt
Humans tend to continue contours whenever
   the elements of the pattern establish an
                          im...
gestalt
the law of closure
gestalt


Humans tend to enclose a space by completing a contour and ignoring
                                            ...
gestalt


Humans tend to enclose a space by completing a contour and ignoring
                                            ...
gestalt


Humans tend to enclose a space by completing a contour and ignoring
                                            ...
gestalt
the law of Prägnanz
gestalt
 A stimulus will be organized into a good figure as possible. Here, good
                                 means sym...
gestalt


The above figure appears to the eye as a black triangle on three white
                                          ...
gestalt

The above figure appears to the eye as combination of simples shapes,
                   not a combination of seve...
gestalt


But the reality show us many different combinations.
gestalt
A word is a form; a disconnected suite of letter is not one of it.

A melody is more than the sum the various soun...
gestalt
gestalt
   the gestalt laws
gestalt
                 the gestalt laws

law of the relation figure / ground
gestalt
                 the gestalt laws

law of the relation figure / ground
                  law of symmetry
gestalt
                  the gestalt laws

law of the relation figure / ground
                  law of symmetry
         ...
gestalt
                  the gestalt laws

law of the relation figure / ground
                  law of symmetry
         ...
gestalt
                  the gestalt laws

law of the relation figure / ground
                  law of symmetry
         ...
gestalt
                  the gestalt laws

law of the relation figure / ground
                  law of symmetry
         ...
gestalt
                  the gestalt laws

law of the relation figure / ground
                  law of symmetry
         ...
gestalt
                  the gestalt laws

law of the relation figure / ground
                  law of symmetry
         ...
audio 300
Symmetry
Similarity & proximity
Similarity & proximity
Symmetry & good continuation
Symmetry & good continuation
Symmetry & good continuation
calculator
Symmetry
Similarity
Similarity
Similarity
Similarity
Prägnanz
Prägnanz
gestalt
Gestalt means...
     Organized
          Order
     Coherence
     Structured
gestalt
     Create form means...
Organize, structure, create
    Order and Coherence
gestalt
the opposite
   of design
    is chaos
Gestalt Theory
Gestalt Theory
Gestalt Theory
Gestalt Theory
Gestalt Theory
Gestalt Theory
Gestalt Theory
Gestalt Theory
Gestalt Theory
Gestalt Theory
Gestalt Theory
Gestalt Theory
Gestalt Theory
Gestalt Theory
Gestalt Theory
Gestalt Theory
Gestalt Theory
Gestalt Theory
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Gestalt Theory

  1. 1. design theory. 3
  2. 2. meaning Human is a species driven by a desire to make meanings: above all, Designers are surely Homo significans - meaning-makers.
  3. 3. perception Why do some "beautiful" objects quickly lose their appeal, while others seem to have a more lasting allure? Do lasting truths guide our perception of what is beautiful? Mankind has been fascinated by the notion of beauty since before recorded history.
  4. 4. perception Aesthetic perception We can however distinguish two types of meaning criteria. Constant criteria in all the groups of individuals: these ones are essentially connected to psycho physiological mechanisms of the perception. Variable criteria according to the groups of individuals: these ores are connected to the psychological mechanisms of the perception with the influence of cultural, sociological and environment factors.
  5. 5. perception Aesthetic perception A methodology resulting in an analysis of the aesthetic perception must take account in first, the formal qualities of the object (Gestalt psychology or psychology of the form), in connection with the mechanisms of the perception (theory of the information), secondly the value of the object as sign (semiotics) in connection with the mechanisms of social evolution.
  6. 6. gestalt theory
  7. 7. Takete Maluma
  8. 8. gestalt Aesthetic perception In 1890 the Viennese philosopher, Christian von Errenfels, published a book on " the qualities of the form ". This work was first attempt towards the elaboration of a new theory of the form. "All the components taken together form a Gestalt, or whole structure. He extended the same principle to logic and number theory:
  9. 9. gestalt The word Gestalt is used in modern German to mean the way a thing has been “gestellt”; i.e, "placed," or "put together." There is no exact equivalent in English. "Form" is the usual translations; in psychology the word is often rendered "pattern" or "configuration."
  10. 10. gestalt One of the most important theories of perception is the Gestalt Theory. It was developed about 1910 by Max Wertheimer and carried on by Wolfgang Köhler and Kurt Koffka at Frankfurt University. Psychology of form - Wolfgang Köhler
  11. 11. gestalt A form is something else and something more than the sum of her parts. A part in a whole is something else that this part isolated in another whole. Psychic facts are forms, that is to say organic unities, which become more individual and limit themselves in the spatial field of perception and representation. Psychology of form - Wolfgang Köhler
  12. 12. gestalt Every form is a function of some variable and not the sum of several elements. Forms are transposable it should to say that some properties are preserved in the changes which affect in some way all their parts.. Psychology of form - Wolfgang Köhler
  13. 13. gestalt Gestalt means when parts identified individually have different characteristics to the whole (Gestalt means "organized whole") e.g. describing a tree - it's parts are trunk, branches, leaves, perhaps blossoms or fruit But when you look at an entire tree, you are not conscious of the parts, you are aware of the overall object: the tree. Parts are of secondary importance even though they can be clearly seen.
  14. 14. gestalt In other term, Gestalt Psychology proposes the idea that nothing is fully comprehensible out of context. The essential point of gestalt is that in perception the whole is different from the sum of his parts. Psychology of form - Wolfgang Köhler
  15. 15. gestalt The whole is different from the sum of his parts.
  16. 16. gestalt The whole is different from the sum of his parts.
  17. 17. gestalt A part in a whole is different from this part in another whole.
  18. 18. gestalt A part in a whole is different from this part in another whole.
  19. 19. gestalt the law of the relation figure / ground
  20. 20. gestalt This figure appears to the eye as a square inside a circle, or as donut shaped circle with a square hole. Figure/ground reversals create a delightful "surprise" in the viewer's eye. Many of the best logos designed will use figure/ground reversal to their advantage.
  21. 21. gestalt In the terms of gestalt psychology, figure refers to an active, positive form revealed against a passive, negative ground. The figure can only be identified because of its background, and the background only because of its figure.
  22. 22. gestalt The white cross appears on a concentric ground of circles, after one moment the image change and another cross appears with strips on its surface on an white ground.
  23. 23. gestalt Stabilization of the image by a horizontal/vertical organization
  24. 24. gestalt Stabilization of the image by the size
  25. 25. gestalt the law of symmetry
  26. 26. gestalt Regions bound by by symmetrical boarders tend to be perceived as coherent figures Symmetric stimuli are grouped together
  27. 27. gestalt the law of proximity
  28. 28. gestalt Elements are close together will be perceive as a coherent object On the left there appears to be four horizontal columns, while on the right, the grouping appears to be rows
  29. 29. gestalt Six columns Three groups of two columns
  30. 30. gestalt Two groups of Two groups of spots spots One group of spots
  31. 31. gestalt the law of similarity
  32. 32. gestalt Elements that look similar will be perceived as a part of the same form There seems to be a triangle in the square
  33. 33. gestalt There seems to be two white columns alternate with two yellow columns
  34. 34. gestalt the law of good continuation
  35. 35. gestalt Humans tend to continue contours whenever the elements of the pattern establish an implied direction People tend to draw a good continuous line
  36. 36. gestalt the law of closure
  37. 37. gestalt Humans tend to enclose a space by completing a contour and ignoring gaps in the figure
  38. 38. gestalt Humans tend to enclose a space by completing a contour and ignoring gaps in the figure
  39. 39. gestalt Humans tend to enclose a space by completing a contour and ignoring gaps in the figure
  40. 40. gestalt the law of Prägnanz
  41. 41. gestalt A stimulus will be organized into a good figure as possible. Here, good means symmetrical, simple and regular The left figure appears to the eye as a square overlapping triangle, not a combination of several complicated shapes. The right figure appears to the eye as square inside a circle.
  42. 42. gestalt The above figure appears to the eye as a black triangle on three white circles
  43. 43. gestalt The above figure appears to the eye as combination of simples shapes, not a combination of several complicated shapes.
  44. 44. gestalt But the reality show us many different combinations.
  45. 45. gestalt A word is a form; a disconnected suite of letter is not one of it. A melody is more than the sum the various sounds. The concrete is perceived as an entity, not as assembly of sand, water and cement.
  46. 46. gestalt
  47. 47. gestalt the gestalt laws
  48. 48. gestalt the gestalt laws law of the relation figure / ground
  49. 49. gestalt the gestalt laws law of the relation figure / ground law of symmetry
  50. 50. gestalt the gestalt laws law of the relation figure / ground law of symmetry law of Proximity
  51. 51. gestalt the gestalt laws law of the relation figure / ground law of symmetry law of Proximity law of Similarity
  52. 52. gestalt the gestalt laws law of the relation figure / ground law of symmetry law of Proximity law of Similarity law of good continuation
  53. 53. gestalt the gestalt laws law of the relation figure / ground law of symmetry law of Proximity law of Similarity law of good continuation law of closure
  54. 54. gestalt the gestalt laws law of the relation figure / ground law of symmetry law of Proximity law of Similarity law of good continuation law of closure law of Prägnanz
  55. 55. gestalt the gestalt laws law of the relation figure / ground law of symmetry law of Proximity law of Similarity law of good continuation law of closure law of Prägnanz law of simplicity
  56. 56. audio 300
  57. 57. Symmetry
  58. 58. Similarity & proximity
  59. 59. Similarity & proximity
  60. 60. Symmetry & good continuation
  61. 61. Symmetry & good continuation
  62. 62. Symmetry & good continuation
  63. 63. calculator
  64. 64. Symmetry
  65. 65. Similarity
  66. 66. Similarity
  67. 67. Similarity
  68. 68. Similarity
  69. 69. Prägnanz
  70. 70. Prägnanz
  71. 71. gestalt Gestalt means... Organized Order Coherence Structured
  72. 72. gestalt Create form means... Organize, structure, create Order and Coherence
  73. 73. gestalt the opposite of design is chaos

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