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The cold war
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  • 1. The Cold War 1945 - 1991 IGCSE History
  • 2. The Cold WarThe Cold War, often dated from 1947–1991, was a sustained state of political and military tension between the powers of the Western world, led by the United States and its NATO allies, and the communist world, led by the Soviet Union, its satellite states and allies.
  • 3. The Long Term Caused of the CW1. In 1917 the Russian Revolution took place and Russian embraced Soviet Communism.2. The USA was the richest and most powerful country in the world and as big as the USSR.3. The leaders of the USSR have very different beliefs about society, economics and politics.4. USSR was based on the idea of Soviet Communism while the USA is based on Democracy and Capitalism.5. Both countries strongly believe that the other is evil and dangerous for the whole world.6. Both countries tried their best to influence other countries to their beliefs and ideologies.
  • 4. Different Beliefs and Ideology
  • 5. A history of aggressionIn 1918 the USA joined Britain, France and Japan to destroy Soviet communism by force. They invaded the Soviet Union in support of the “White Russians” in civil war with the Bolsheviks. They failed but the hostility and tensions remained. American troops in Vladivostok parading before the building occupied by the staff of the Czech- Slovaks. Japanese marines are standing to attention as they march on 1 August 1918.
  • 6. United against Hitler In 1941, Hitler invaded Soviet Russia. For a brief period until 1945 Russia united with the USA to defeat Hitler.IN WORLD WAR II THE FAR LEFTAND THE RIGHT TEAMED UP TODESTROY FASCISM The Great Alliance of WW II
  • 7. End of World War II (1945–47)In 1945, as the destruction of Germany was inevitable. The Leaders of the winning countries though to settle what should become of Germany and countries invaded by Hitler. They started to talk and they first met at Yalta. It came to be known as the Yalta Conference.
  • 8. The Yalta MeetingThe Yalta Conference, sometimes called the CrimeaConference and codenamed the Argonaut Conferencewas held February 4–11 in the Livadia Palace near Yalta,in the Crimea.
  • 9. The Yalta ConferenceThe heads of government of the United States, the UnitedKingdom, and the Soviet Union, representedby President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister ,and General Secretary Joseph Stalin, respectively, for thepurpose of discussing Europes post-war reorganization.
  • 10. The Yalta ConferenceTerms of the agreement: Liberated countries will be given their own emergency government; free election to be held soon to set up democratic governments. Soviet take land from Poland and Poland given German lands. The Lublin government shall share power with the London Poles. Free elections to be held soon. Russian POWs forced to join the German Army shall be sent back to the USSR. The Soviets executed about 10,000 of them. Germany would be divided into occupied zones: French, British, American and Soviet zones. USSR agreed to help fight the Japanese for territories north of Japan but they don’t have to do much fighting. The UN shall be set up and all countries must have veto power on the decisions of the Security Council.
  • 11. The Yalta Conference
  • 12. The Yalta ConferencePeoples Republic of Poland 1945–1989 (Communist Poland)
  • 13. The Yalta Conference The Occupied Zones
  • 14. The Yalta Conference
  • 15. The Yalta Conference
  • 16. The Potsdam Conference
  • 17. The Potsdam ConferenceLater on in 1947 Truman wouldintroduce the Truman Doctrine whichwas based on the idea ofcontainment – the USA will doeverything within its power andinfluence to stop the spread ofcommunism.
  • 18. The Potsdam Conference Antlee, Truman and Stalin
  • 19. The Potsdam Conference
  • 20. The Iron Curtainsymbolized the ideologicalconflict and physicalboundarydividing Europe into twoseparate areas from theend of World War II in 1945until the end of the ColdWar in 1991. On eitherside of the Iron Curtain,states developed their owninternational economic andmilitary alliances.
  • 21. The Iron CurtainPhysically, the IronCurtain took the formof border defensesbetween the countriesof Europe in the middleof the continent. Themost notable borderwas marked bythe Berlin Wall, whichserved as a symbol ofthe Curtain as a whole